CDMA 101

Scott Baxter

CDMA 101 Outline
❖ CDMA

Basics

N Multiple

Access Technology Survey N CDMA coding principles N Spread Spectrum principles N Forward and Reverse Channel Structure
❖ Nortel
N MTX

CDMA System Architecture
BSC BSM BTS

❖ CDMA

Details and Operation

N Power

Control N Handoff mechanics N Optimization concepts

CDMA Basics

Multiple Access Technologies

FDMA
Power

FDMA (example: AMPS)
Frequency Division Multiple Access N each user has a private frequency

Tim

e

Fr

e

e qu

nc

y

TDMA
Power
Tim

TDMA (examples: IS-54/136, GSM)
Time Division Multiple Access N each user has a private time on a private frequency

e

Fre

q

n ue

cy

CDMA (IS-95, J-Std. 008)
Code Division Multiple Access N users co-mingle in time and frequency but each user has a private code

CDMA
Power
Tim

e

Fr

eq

n ue

cy

Other Technologies: Avoiding Interference
❖ AMPS,

TDMA and GSM depend on physical distance separation to keep interference at low levels ❖ Co-channel users are kept at a safe distance by careful frequency planning ❖ Nearby users and cells must use different frequencies to avoid interference

AMPS-TDMA-GSM
1 4 7 6 1 4 2 3 6 1 5 1 7 3 5 1 4 2 3 6 5 1 2 7 1

(carrier/interference ratio)

Figure of Merit: C/I

AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to 17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB.

CDMA: Using A New Dimension
❖ All

CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Time and frequency are not used as discriminators ❖ CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users ❖ CDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users ❖ Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -- but with a uniquely recoverable code

CDMA

AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to +17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB. CDMA: -10 to -17 dB. CDMA: Eb/No ~+6 dB.

(carrier/interference ratio)

Figure of Merit: C/I

CDMA Uses Code Channels
❖A

CDMA signal uses many chips to convey just one bit of information ❖ Each user has a unique chip pattern, in effect a code channel ❖ To recover a bit, integrate a large number of chips interpreted by the user’s known code pattern ❖ Other users’ code patterns appear random and integrate toward low values, hence don’t disturb the bit decoding decision

Building a CDMA Signal
from User’s Vocoder
Forward Error Correction

Bits

Symbols
Coding and Spreading

Chips

CDMA is a Spread-Spectrum System
❖ Traditional
TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Narrowband
Slow Information Sent TX Signal RX Slow Information Recovered

technologies try to squeeze signal into minimum required bandwidth ❖ CDMA uses larger bandwidth but uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity

SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM
Wideband Signal

Slow Information Sent TX Fast Spreading Sequence

Slow Information Recovered RX

Fast Spreading Sequence

Spread Spectrum Payoff:
Processing Gain

Spreading: What we do, we can undo
ORIGINATING SITE
Spread Data Stream Input Data Recovered Data

DESTINATION

Spreading Sequence

Spreading Sequence

❖ Sender

combines data with a fast spreading sequence, transmits spread data stream ❖ Receiver intercepts the stream, uses same spreading sequence to extract original data

“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMA
Shipping
Data

Receiving FedEx FedEx
Data

Mailer

Mailer

❖ Whether

in shipping and receiving, or in CDMA, packaging is extremely important! ❖ Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers for protection and to allow addressing ❖ The shipper packs in a certain order, and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order ❖ CDMA “containers” are spreading codes

CDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences
ORIGINATING SITE
X+A Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B

DESTINATION
X+A

Input Data

X

Recovered Data

X

Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence

A

B

C

Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence

C

B

A

❖ CDMA

combines three different spreading sequences to create unique, robust channels ❖ The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link ❖ “What we do, we can undo”

The Three CDMA Spreading Sequences
❖ Walsh
N 64

Codes: 64 are available

chips long -- lasts 1/19200 sec N mutually orthogonal
❖ PN

Short Code: one pair is used (I & Q)

N 32K

long -- lasts 26-2/3 mS, repeats 75x in 2 sec. Ð generated in 15-bit tapped shift register N Nearly self-orthogonal if compared out-of-sync
❖ PN

Long Code: only one is used

N 242-1

chips long -- lasts 40+ days! Ð generated in 42-bit tapped shift register N Any short sample is nearly orthogonal with any other short sample

Code Channels in the Forward Direction
MTX BSC
Pilot Sync Paging Vocoder Vocoder Vocoder Vocoder more more

BTS (1 sector)
Walsh #0 FEC Walsh #32 FEC Walsh #1 FEC Walsh #12 FEC Walsh #23 FEC Walsh #27 FEC Walsh #44 FEC more

Short PN Code PN Offset 246 I Q Transmitter, Sector X

Σ

A Forward Channel is identified by: ❖ its CDMA RF carrier Frequency ❖ the unique Short Code PN Offset of the sector ❖ the unique Walsh Code of the user

Code Channels in the Reverse Direction
MTX BSC BTS (1 sector)
Long Code Gen Access Channels Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder more more Channel Element more Long Code Receiver, Sector X

A Reverse Channel is identified by: ❖ its CDMA RF carrier Frequency ❖ the unique Long Code PN Offset of the individual handset
Long Code Long Code

Long Code

Long Code Long Code

CDMA System Architecture

NORTEL CDMA System Architecture
MTX
SLM CM

GPS
GPSR TFU1 CDSU CDSU

BSC-BSM
BSM CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 CDSU CDSU CDSU
Ch. Card

BTS
GPS
GPSR CDSU DISCO
ACC

TFU

DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP

Σα Σβ Σχ

DTCs IOC

CDSU

Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C

RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C

SBS
Vocoders Selectors

PSTN & Billing Other MTXs

Signal Flow: Two-Stage Metamorphosis
MTX
SLM CM

GPS
GPSR TFU1 CDSU CDSU

BSC-BSM
BSM CDSU CDSU

BTS
GPS
GPSR CDSU DISCO
Ch. Card ACC

TFU

DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP

Packets
DISCO 1 DISCO 2 CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU

DS0 in T1
DTCs IOC

Chips
Σβ Σχ

Σα

Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C

RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C

SBS
Vocoders Selectors

Vocoder

Channel Element

RF

PSTN

Architecture: The MTX
MTX
SLM CM

❖ Primary
N Call

functions

DMS-BUS LPP ENET LPP

Unch. T1

CDMA BSC

DTCs

Ch.T1 CDMA

SBS

IOC

CCS7

Ch T1 Billing

MAP, VDUs

Processing N Mobility Management Ð HLR-VLR access Ð Intersystem call delivery (IS-41C) Ð Inter-MTX handover (IS-41C) N Billing Data Capture N Calling Features & Services N Collecting System OMs, Pegs

❖ High

reliability, redundancy

PSTN & Other MTXs

Architecture: The BSC
GPS GPSR TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2

BSC
BSM

❖ Primary
N soft BTSs

functions

N vocoding
CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU

MTX LPP

handoff management N FER-based power control N routing of all traffic and control packets

MTX (voice trunks)

SBS
Vocoders Selectors

❖ Scaleable
N expand

architecture

T1 channelized (24 DS0) T1 unchannelized BCN link (HDLC)

SBS to keep pace with traffic growth N expandable DISCO

Architecture: The BTS
❖ Primary

function: Air link

BTS
GPS
GPSR CDSU DISCO
Ch. Card ACC

N generate,

BSC

TFU

radiate, receive CDMA RF signal IS-95/J.Std. 8 N high-efficiency T1 backhaul N test capabilities
❖ Configurations
N 1,

Σα Σβ Σχ

Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C

RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C

2, or 3 sectors N 800 MHz.: indoor N 1900 MHz.: self-contained outdoor, remotable RFFEs N future: 1900 MHz. indoor, 800 & 1900 multi-carrier options

Architecture: The BSM
NORTEL CDMA BSM

BSM
Ethernet LAN

❖ Primary

functions: OA&M for CDMA components
N Configuration

X-Windows terminals

GNP TELCO WORKSERVER SHELF --------HIGH AVAILABILITY

BSM Workstation

BCN Links
GPS
GPSR CDSU TFU1 CDSU CDSU DISCO 1 DISCO 2 CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU CDSU
Ch. Card ACC

BSC

BTS
CDSU DISCO TFU

GPS
GPSR

Σα Σβ Σχ

Txcvr A Txcvr B Txcvr C

RFFE A RFFE B RFFE C

SBS
Vocoders Selectors

management Ð BSC, BTS configuration and parameters N Fault management Ð Alarm Reporting N Performance management Ð interface for CDMA statistics and peg counts collection N Security management N Unix-based

CDMA Details and Operation

Variable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexing
DSP QCELP VOCODER

❖ Vocoders

compress speech, reduce bit rate ❖ CDMA uses a superior Variable Rate Vocoder
N full

20ms Sample Pitch Filter Codebook Coded Result Feedback Formant Filter

rate during speech N low rates in speech pauses N increased capacity N more natural sound
❖ Voice,

bits 288

Frame Sizes Full Rate Frame

144 1/2 Rate Frame 72 1/4 Rt. 36 1/8

signaling, and user secondary data may be mixed in CDMA frames

Frame Contents: can be a mixture of Voice Signaling Secondary

Forward Power Control
BSC BTS (1 sector)
Pilot Sync Paging User 1 Vocoder/ Selector User 2 User 3 more Transmitter, Sector X I Q Short PN

Help!
Forward RF

Σ

❖ The

BTS continually reduces the strength of each user’s forward baseband chip stream ❖ When a particular handset sees errors on the forward link, it requests more energy ❖ The complainer’s chip stream gets a quick boost; afterward, continues to diminish

Reverse Power Control
800 bits per second

BSC
Bad FER? Raise Setpoint

BTS
Stronger than setpoint? Setpoint

Reverse RF

RX RF Digital Open Loop Closed Loop

TX RF Digital

❖ Three

methods work in tandem to equalize all handset signal levels at the BTS
N Reverse

Occasionally, as needed

Handset

Open Loop: handset adjusts power up or down based on received BTS signal (AGC) N Reverse Closed Loop: Is handset too strong? BTS tells up or down 1 db 800 times/second N Reverse Outer Loop: BSC has FER trouble hearing handset? BSC adjusts BTS setpoint

What’s In a Handset?
Digital Rake Receiver Symbols Chips Traffic Correlator
PN xxx Walsh xx Walsh xx Walsh xx Messages

Receiver RF Section IF, Detector
AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop

Traffic Correlator
PN xxx PN xxx

Σ

Symbols Viterbi Dec., Conv. Dec., DEMUX Packets Audio Vocoder Audio Messages

Traffic Correlator

Pilot Searcher
PN xxx Walsh 0

CPU

Transmit Gain Adjust

Transmitter RF Section

Transmitter Digital Section
Long Code Gen.

The Rake Receiver
Handset
RF
BTS BTS

Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh

Voice, Data, Messages Pilot Ec/Io

Searcher PN W=0

❖ Every

frame, handset uses combined outputs of the three traffic correlators (“rake fingers”) ❖ Each finger can independently recover a particular PN offset and Walsh code ❖ Fingers can be targeted on delayed multipath reflections, or even on different BTSs ❖ Searcher continuously checks pilots

CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics
MTX BSC
Sel.
BTS BTS

Handset RF

Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh

Voice, Data, Messages Pilot Ec/Io

Searcher PN W=0

❖ CDMA

soft handoff is driven by the handset

N Handset

continuously checks available pilots N Handset tells system pilots it currently sees N System assigns sectors (up to 6 max.), tells handset N Handset assigns its fingers accordingly N All messages sent by dim-and-burst, no muting!
❖ Each

end of the link chooses what works best, on a frame-by-frame basis!
N Users

are totally unaware of handoff

Softer Handoff
MTX BSC
Sel.
BTS

Handset RF

Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh

Voice, Data, Messages Pilot Ec/Io

Searcher PN W=0

❖ Each

BTS sector has unique PN offset & pilot ❖ Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wants ❖ If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset, this is called Softer Handoff ❖ Handset is unaware, but softer handoff occurs in BTS in a single channel element ❖ Handset can even use combination soft-softer handoff on multiple BTS & sectors

Pilot Sets and Soft Handoff Parameters
❖ Handset

views pilots in sets ❖ Handset sends message to system whenever:
N It

notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining set exceeds T_ADD N An active set pilot drops below T_DROP for T_TDROP time N A candidate pilot exceeds an active by T_COMP
❖ Handoff

PILOT SETS Active 6 Candidate 5 Neighbor 20 Remaining HANDOFF PARAMETERS
T_ADD T_TDROP

setup processing time usually <<1 second

T_DROP T_COMP

Max. Members

Overall Handoff Perspective
❖ Soft

& Softer Handoffs are the best

N but

a handset can receive BTS/sectors simultaneously only on one frequency N all involved BTS/sectors must connect to a single BSC (the BSC must choose packets each frame) N frame timing must be same on all BTS/sectors
❖ If

above not possible, handoff still can occur but will be “hard” like AMPS/TDMA/GSM
N intersystem

handoff: hard N change-of-frequency handoff: hard N CDMA-to-AMPS handoff: hard, no handback Ð auxiliary trigger mechanisms available

CDMA Performance Optimization
❖ Key

Performance Indicators and Objectives

N Dropped

Calls, Access Failures, system FER N Soft Handoff Percentage N Capacity
❖ Success

comes from managing resources

N Handoff:

keep dynamics fast, delays short Ð Neighbor lists well-optimized N RF Coverage: holes vs. excessive overlap N PN Planning, optimum Search Window sizes N Per-Cell anomalies: watch parameters for clues

CDMA Mobile Analysis Tools
❖ Handset

Mode ❖ Real-Time Data Collection Tools
N Qualcomm

Maintenance

D

318 2 94 X A 7F
❖ ❖ ❖

MDM N Grayson WMI, Surveyor N Grayson Invex3G N Agilent Nitro, Viper N Comarco

❖ ❖ ❖ ❖

Pilot Ec/Io Finger Information RX Level, TX Power output, TX Gain Adjust, Forward FER Temporal Analyzer Markov Call Statistics Messaging Activity Pilot Set Activity

CDMA Network Analysis Tools

❖ Post-Processing

Tools

N Actix

Analyzer N Grayson Interpreter N Agilent OPAS N Nortel RFOptimizer
❖ OM

Analysis Tools
Kingfisher
❖ ❖

N Metrica

Map Plots ❖ Best Ec/Io, PN, FER, handset RX & TX Powers, Transmit Gain Adjust, Number of active pilots Charts, Tables & Graphs ❖ Handoff statistics (perneighbor tables), parameter distributions ❖ Access, Drop Call rates Message Search/Analysis Analysis of Anomalies ❖ Pre-drop parameters

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