Digital Image Processing

Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

Image Transforms
Digital Image Processing Fundamentals of Digital Image  Processing, A. K. Jain
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E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• 2D Orthogonal and Unitary Transform:
– Orthogonal Series Expansion:

– {ak,l(m,n)}: a set of complete orthonormal basis: – Orthonormality: – Completeness:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• 2D Orthogonal and Unitary Transform:
– v (m,n): Transformed coefficients – V={v (m,n)}: Transformed Image – Orthonormality requires:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Separable Unitary Transform:
– Computational Complexity of former: O(N4) – With Separable Transform: O(N3)

– Orthonormality and Completeness:
• A={a(k,m)} and B={b(l,n)} are unitary:

– Usually B is selected same as A (A=B): – Unitary Transform!
E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Separable Unitary Transform:

– Basis Images:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Properties of Unitary Transform:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Two Dimensional Fourier Transform:

• Matrix Notation:
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E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• DFT Properties:
– – – – – – Symmetric Unitary Periodic Extension Sampled Fourier Fast Conjugate Symmetry Circular Convolution

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Basis of DFT (Real and Imaginary):

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Basis of DFT (Real and Imaginary):

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT):
– 1D Cases:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Properties of DCT:
– – – – Real and Orthogonal: C=C* → C-1=CT Not! Real part of DFT Fast Transform Excellent Energy compaction (Highly Correlated Data)

• Two Dimensional Cases: – A=A*=C

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• DCT Basis:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• DCT Basis:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Discrete Sine Transform (DST):
– 1D Cases:

– 2D Case: A=A*=AT=Ψ
E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Properties of DST:
– – – – Real, Symmetric and Orthogonal: Ψ = Ψ*= ΨT=Ψ-1 Forward and Inverse are identical Not! Imaginary part of DFT Fast Transform

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Welsh‐Hadamard Transform (WHT): N=2n
– 1D Cases:

Walsh Function

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Welsh‐Hadamard Transform (WHT): N=2n

– 2D Cases: A=A*=AT=H
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E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Welsh‐Hadamard Transform Properties: – Real, Symmetric, and orthogonal: H=H*=HT= H-1
– Ultra Fast Transform (±1) – Good‐Very Good energy compactness

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Welsh‐Hadamard Basis:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Welsh‐Hadamard Basis

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Welsh‐Hadamard Basis

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Haar Transform  N=2n
– 1D Cases:

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Haar Transform  N=2n
– 1D Cases:

– 2D Cases: Hr*A*HrT
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E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Haar Basis Function

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Haar Transform  Properties – Real and Orthogonal: Hr=Hr* , Hr-1=HrT
– Fast Transform – Poor energy compactness

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Slant Transform (N=2n)

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

29 29

Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Slant Transform (N=2n)

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Slant Basis Function

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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Digital Image Processing
Image Transforms

ee.sharif.edu/~dip

• Slant Transform Properties: – Real and Orthogonal S=S* S-1=ST
– Fast – Very Good Compactness

E. Fatemizadeh, Sharif University of Technology, 2011

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