Introduction 2 Utopia: Decline and Fall? 9 After the Millennium 32 Crisis of the Object: Predicament of Texture 50 Collision City and the Politics of 'Bncolage' 86 Collage City and the Reconquest of Time 118 Excursus 151
otes 182 J 84 185 Index to text

Index to illustrations

Collage City


Corbustcr: Ville Contemporatne.



Man has a prejudice against himself; anything which is a product him to be unreal or comparatively insignificant. We are satisfied ourselves surrounded by objects and laws independent But what is nature? Why is custom not natural? only a first custom as custom is a second nature, of our nature,

of his mind seems to only when we fancy

[ greatly

fear that this nature

is itself


With these two statements-one a commentary upon inhibition and the other a question as to the eternal source of all authority-it might be possibleto construct a theory of society and even a theory of architecture; but. if modesty restrains the attempt. there are also pragmatic reasons which make the same insistence. The city of modem architecture (it may also be called the modern city) has not yet been built. In spite ofall the good will and good intentions of its protagonists. It has remained either a project or an abortion: and. more and morc. there no longer appears to be any convincing reason to suppose that matters will ever be otherwise, For the constellation of attitudes and emouons which are gmhered together under the general notion of

modem architecture and which then overflow. in one fonn or another. into the inseparably related Heldof planning. begln-In the end-to seem altogether too contradictory. too confused and too feebly unsophisticated to allow for any but the most minor productive results. By one interpretation. modem architecture is a hard-headed and hardnosed undertaking. There is a problem. a specificproblem. and there is an obligation. an obligation to science. to solve it in all its particularity; and so. while without bias and embarrassment we proceed to scrutinize the facts. then. as we accept them. we simultaneously allow these hard empirical facts to dictate the solution. But. if such is one important and academically enshrined thesis. then. alongside it. there is to be recognized a DO less respectable one; the proposition that modem architecture is the instrument of philanthropy. liberalism. the 'larger hope' and the 'greater good', In other words. and right at the beginning. one is confronted with the simultaneous profession of two standards of value whose compatibility is not evident. On the one hand. there is an expression of allegiance to the criteria of what-though disguised as science-is. after all. simply management: on the other. a devotion to the ideals of what was a few years ago often spoken of as the counter culture-life. people. community and aUthe rest: and that this curious dualism causes so little surprise can only be attributed to a determination not to observe the obvious. But. if presumably the ultimate conflict which presents itself is that between a retarded conception of science and a reluctant recognition of poetics. this being said. it is apparent that modem architecture. in its great phase. was the great idea that it undoubtedly was precisely because it compounded and paraded to extravagance the two myths which it still



if h mbination of fantasies about science most publicly advertises. F~r t ~ cOabout rreedom~\-vith its humantty-wlth its objectivity-and antasles " g and pathetic of late nineteenth rised one of the most appeal In . comp h d . ive twentieth century embodiment of century doca:nes. then t feb:~;~g could not faiJ to stimulate: and. the these themes III the a tl the more the conception of a scientific, more it ~XCited th~ ~:ria;~~a ~~~~vant architecture could only serve as a progressive and his Y tration of fantasy. The new architecture f us for a still further concen . 'all oc _ d . ble: the new architecture was historic y was rationally eterrnmWa t'ure represented the overcoming of history: t redesnned: the new arc ec ~he Dew ar~hitecture was responsive to the spirit the age; the new architecture was socially therapeutic; the new ~rchltec~ was young d b lng self-renewing. it was never to be weaned by age. but-perhaps :o~e :ll-the new architecture meant the end to deception, dissimulation.




Corbusler: Plan Voisin. 1925

vanity. subterfuge and imposition. Such were some of the subliminal

." suggestions



modem architecture and were. in turn, stimulated by it: and, as we look back on a doctrine so extraordinary and a message so bizarre. since we are speaking of a period now fifty years ago, we might also allow to come to mind Woodrow Wilson's hopes for democracy and diplomacy. We might briefly contemplate the American president's 'open contracts openly arrived at', For from Woodrow Wilson's hopes for international politics to the ville ramellse is but the merest of steps. The crystal city and the dream of absolutely unconcealed negotiation (no playing of poker) both, alike. represented the total expulsion of evil after the purgation of war. The ex-president of Princeton's dream. the pathetic by-product of a liberal Presbyterian faith which was both too good for this world and not good enough. which was only to be honoured in the breach. created its own portentous vacuum and devastation. By the exponents of Realpolitik he and what he represented were simply ignored or, at most. received a ritual deference which was worse than nothing; and. though the vision of the crystal city has enjoyed greater longevity, today its fate hardly seems to have been Significantly more prosperous. For this was a city in which all authority was to be dissolved. all convention superseded: in which change was to be continuous and order. Simultaneously. complete; in which the public realm. become superfluous, was to disappear and where the private realm. without further reason to excuse itself. was

to emerge undisguised by the protection of facade. And now. even though
the weight of the idea persists. it ls a city which has shrunk to very little-to

the impoverished banalities of public housing which stand the undernourished symbols of a new world which, refused

around like be born.

Sum has been the disintegration of an important frame of reference: and, .Iike the idea of World War I as a war to end war. the city of modern
New York. pubhc housing In Lower

architecture. both as psychological construct and as physical model. has been rendered tragically ridiculous. But, if so much is generally felt and if the urban model which achieved its decisive formulation give or take a



few -ears r. 1930 is now everywhere under attack, it ~.D.ot very clear that either unorganized sentiment or self-conscioUS crtucrsm has, so far, achieved any significant or comprehensive repla~ement. I.D fact. rath~r the reverse seems to have taken place ". For. while the City of Ludwig Hilberseimer and Le Corbusier, the City celebrate~ by ClA.M and advertised by the Athens Charter, the former city Of.deliverance. IS ~very day found increasingly inadequate, apparently Its very expedlenc! guarantees its adulterated and aU-devouring growth. So much so. that It might be believed that what here presents itse~ is a spectacle of SPODtaneous generation, a never-to-be-imagined nightmare and a wholly mindless version of Daniel Burnham's 'a noble diagram which once registered will never-die'. -And accordingly, the present situation is knotted and almost insoluble, For the two increasingly desperate 'obligations' of the architect-on the one hand to 'science' and on the other to 'people'-continue to persist: and. as their old working symbiosis of the twenties becomes ever more shaky, these divergent drives acquire a literalness and a vehemence which begin to cancel out the usefulness of either. So modern architecture, professing to be SCientific, displayed a wholly naive idealism. So let this situation be corrected; and. from now on let us increasingly consult technology. behaviourist research and the computer. Or. alternatively, modern architecture, professing to be humane. displayed a wholly unacceptable and sterile scientific rtgour. Therefore, from now on. let us desist from intellectualist vanity and let us be content to replicate things as they are. to observe a world unreconstructed by the arrogance of would-be philosophers but as the mass of humanity densely familiar. prefers it to be-useful real and

Now. which of these two prospective programmes for the future-the despotism of 'science' or the tyranny of the 'majority'-is the more completely repulsive is difficult

to say: but that taken separately

or together,

they can only extinguish all initiative should not require inordinate emphasis. Nor should it be necessary to say that these alternatives-Let

science build the town and Let people build the town-are both of them profoundly neurotic. Por. up to a point. SCience will and should build the town and, up to a point so will and should collective opinion; but the
~ever ~ll{ling insistence on the incompetence of the architect. which IDcre~mgIY becomes more true and which is a continuous insistence on

fLJ! Paris. La Defense fOp right Paris. Bobigny

the evil o~ self-conscious psychological manoeuvre locus of responsibility. eff Bu~ if the. arc~te~'s

activity. should at least be recognized for the that it is-as a guilt-ridden attempt to shift the social guilt and the means he has employed to

below St Louis. demolition of Prult-Igoe hOusing.19il

dis~ Its S~bthJjmation~ a whole story which has resulted in the complete nay 0 . e professIOn more import t i th in the presence ofSantay'ana's 't an 15 , at we are here once more itself' and. alongstde hi d he human mind has a prejudice against corresponding d t I . t 15 eep-seatcd prejudice, we confront the e ermtnation to pretend that human artifacts can be

, • And. cf course. given the unxlcty vlhcr UI~m \\,~hll they ar:. mL.'Chl.lnism wUI never be Jacking.


induce such For there ts,

illusion. t~c 'IPpr?p~~:~c': lind some concept of nature will always be efter all, ,llwuy5 n_ tile word-In order LO appease the pangs InvcnlCd-dISCovcrcd ls the opera \ or conscience. h wid un Initiatory argument Is almost complete. For. With so mue I'm century architect has been entirely unwilling on the whole. the (WI nlrep, 'cars question: and the Idea that. nature and c w consider the Iron cs 0 as be I ICfconncctoo Is or COUr5C, entirely subversive or his custom mNay • "p Ire custom cdrrupt; and the obligation to transcend poslUon. aturu l • custom Is not 10 be evaded. Now. In IL'iday. this was an Important concept: and. as a conviction tluu only the new Is fully authentic. onc may still fccl lis ,?gcncy. HewI.. f,;lI

ever. wtunever may be the authenticity of the new. alongside novelty of artlfacts onc might Just possibly recognize novelty of Ideas: and the twentieth century architect's working Ideas have. for a very long time rumalncd conspicuously without overhaul There perslsts an eighteenth century belief In the veruclty of science (Bacon, Newtcn P] and an equally eighteenth century belief In the veracity of the collective will {Rousseau. Burken: and. if both of these can be conceived to be furnished with persuasive Hegelian, Darwinian. Marxian overtones. then there the situation rests. almost as It rested nearly one hundred years ago. Which Is. very largely. a notion of the architect as a sort of human outlu-board or plunchcne. as a sensmvc antenna who receives and transmutes the logjcal messages of destiny. 'It hi the murk of on educated man to look for preclslon In each class of things Just 115 fur as the nature of the subject admits. It Is hard to disagree: but. In the endeavour to provide architecture and urbanism with a precision thnt. of their nature, they can scarcely possess. the

Utopia: Decline and Fall?
For unto you is paradise opened. the tree of life Is planted. the time to come IS prepared. plenteousness Is made ready. a city Is buJlded. and rest Is allowed. yca perfect goodness and wisdom. The root of evU Is sealed up from you. weakness and the moth Is hid from you. and corruption Is fled into hell to be forgotten. Sorrows are passed. and In the end Is shewed the treasure of Immortality.



8: 52-4

guldnnce of eighteenth century 'nature' has been all too well consulted: and. meanwhile (with the architect absorbed with visions of super'science' or 'unconsclcus' sclfwfcgulaUon, with a make- believe uuprecedentcd for absence of effecuvcncss) In a kind of resurgence of Social Darwlnlsm-mlLuml selection and the survival the grelll cures or the world proceeds. of the fittest-the rape of

Where we do not reflect on myth but truly live In It there Is no clen between the actual reality of perception and the world of mythical fantasy. ERNSTCASSIRER

There remnlns the old and enticing advice thut. if rape is Inevitable. then get with It uud enloy: but, If thls central creed of Futurlsm-Ict us celebrate /Qrrr tnll/t!lIrt'-is unuccepteble to the moral consciousness. thcn we nrc Obliged to think ngaln. Which is what the present essay Is all about.' A proposnl for constructive dis-Hluslnn, lt is Simultaneously an appeal (or order und disorder. for the Simple nnd the complex, for the Joint existence pcnnuncnt reference und random happenmg. of the private and the public. nf lnnovauon lind trndltlon, of both the rctrospectlve and the ~ophetlc gesture. '1'0 us the occnsloflul virtues the modern Chy'seem to



. Ptltcn~ und the problem rerrmlns how. while allowing for the need of u modern dc.'Clunmtlon. tn render these virtues responsive to circumstance.


ilre hllc(_tuw 1\ ~u"'ly ('Ogt'"''''Y10 tk' tnln'tf(l1td ~ f9 gJ~ quill: lilt-wily, $I 'm_"CI~J~ of gt)l'Jd f1f'W.t! &/fd hMit.t' iI~ tmtrd"1 "("_ whetr 1111the \fIj(,kt d,'''''' ~w&y. itA hrWMf Inay be V"" a. h;ftfllt"_.! ~,.,; IhUt til do wfU, ClthtTI'-'- "'It,Ntll'l'/'k"flf ltffll1V&:W"Il'"If)l~ ~Jf",#J tlflUt",,hl~~. 'lId/cd th~ V&JUt 1.1 Ulf"tf' f'f1UkJ liM/a have bar, v) m(Kh wJiHt- Itil'y ;C:flW to he, "t W~"'1 It",y t;lgtJlfl" .. 'n1M( &tJPf::ftrdrJ(:; WM if thlll',. d , isgut~ 1,lIt,,; ~",d. ~fltl$tlly. Iht.'j' WHt: dKJtJ(:11(. ,ffu~r ..Utm~, fll bfJpprCbCNdcd fI'll cw, UJurh '!wrn!:clvt\'li fmt ~ dJf: IrIlJJt..t:t (A ;, bf1tJIT world, IJ a WflTk! wtrMf' HIIII11f"J fli/Jt)lJWUflfI woold prt1f'~ll find w11",(:' .tli the: visible IN~titIJUtm:\ II the Pfni1lut1 mdt1 would have bt:r.rJ ~:.vt'Pftoto thf' irrck'Vil/ll Ilrnbt, lithe ~uper~F:d .md the (J"WJUoI.. And hrtK" rmli.ll'11'l ~r(;h)t«1ufe', "lfrrier hcrtrlc:: and C%alttd lnne, Itt aim wM lJCt,rT t.o pr(rtlldc & Vlt:ll--cu~ht(mcd aWJrtilflfJd'awm ff1r f!Jtht:r ",'!t!lte' Of pub1j( bDurgt;(,h t-"Uphorl(j Instead. ib idCilI, whkh w&c; U"JOjth, V1 te 'bf tWIf,. lfllp!Jrt~H1t, W(I\ to txhlb1t the Vlrtu~ fA (t" !fpt~l"'~ pttllmy. f~ d r'Jllll~~ Jlr'.,"el~~Jf1 e~l~ttnz minImum. 'flor II V. (:~kf~.K a £.tJ1Nd !lJ 'tllthfuudf jj rJ(AA.lft:''1 eye. than fur f' rlch m(tn Ifl enid blln tht- ktrig.d.rlJ'tll~ (~,orJ, 11M, wfth thll1i belflgcrt:llt ~md semewhat !:IJmllf(lJ dtaum if! mInd, the ~lnttT·t1,.





or the tWCOllet" ",ntury

ercbneet mu.t be abuml<on"y .. lie ..... helplng to f3wbll9h iJnd til alcbr(liw en CIlUghtem:d ftlld if JU~ ""-lt1y a rn.I one dt:1inltlort of modl'!'N flrchlwa.urg tbtglll be: lh&t h w". ~II ifUll.udt' tow. rd. buildlnz w", dlvulynz In ,he 1"""'''" ,"". m<lf. ~ order which 'he future' Wtt, abuut 11.1 i,dtM d



IJc Ith e a r.hlWctI will build h,. rampart wt "hhe 1'1"1 fie .. "I C""<)O<r the amtnpt'lal ,p;rll> of the .Jr. ,lrctdl .nd <lirirr~ 'lVer the <lher ",;mlle which ,,"vciop, him lilcc •• kln. med loyer ,Ill:< layer and cf,mb h,iUw:r

or nak"" _I,. lhw .. nd> or '- "",I> and dlrmmu"", .... 10aw-.d "'" go'dl whIch ,h",,1d gape In f,oo' Ii lhem. the bngdtlJll fA beev "" on earth,'
Wllh Lh wurdo Ii Hermann I'l~m. esc pIoctd in !J•• ethos rI C..t'rrniJlI Expr~Jlmbm. onc if crnpqwtfeO to ~ Itt ~tk mcnvatten•• nd thfJIostlc: drive: buL .hough m;;y ",loll ~. r<W1<t on InWrpr.wllon of wha. 10h.... read. 11to also '" be doubtaf .. hdhtr thlll " pmglblc. Por. whl'" ""lrtnIC In alf III ""Iced ''''It'd.ailiOn<¢. lhl.. <latem.nt "I", ",lIVid .. an hy,,,,",,,,1 c:ondemallUn of much Ii.. .... hat sa Id with more clrcurr'-'J!C<ll"" el>t:wlmt:. AllI:< the form " w,wdo ""Iy • IIttlt and one b admlutd 10 tit< m'JOd " H.n"", '.Ioy .... nd waneGroplU!l. AIlI:< It ooly • little m"r e a nd .it< """"" " Le .nd Lewb "'umford will begin to <merge. Saotth the ... rt.a fA "".dtm archnectur •• matter of factnO». "mply lor • flIIJfDCIlI dwbc ,I> ldealo ,A obJectivity. and .Imoot Invartably. tulKumcd bene>th the ._ fA ratfunallsm •• h.... Is 10 be fQUfld th.1 highly vola.nk: _ " po),""" loglcal lava which. In the end. Is the .uboualun1 n( the mod<m CIty N 'he cc>t>ll< <ompuncrtl " nwdern .r<hll«tUTc .... rcce...aI 0 ow be W ., ""mplctcly In.uflldtm. aU<ntloo. Sur ,hould " vcry -ry ..






"'IU' ...".



w~ ..~,-JfII

CLET~(.. ft . ClAS









Alpine Architektur, 1919


why. A~ apparently rational justilication has been taken. for the most part, at Its face value; but if the architect and his apologist have been preeminentl! concerned with 'facts', It should still be evident that no SCientific expl~nati,on of the moder:" movement wlll ever be possible so long a') the architect s overt and entire reasonableness continues to remain an Issue which Is felt t~ require establishment Prank Lloyd Wright's 'In this way I saw the architect as the saviour of the culture of modem American society, saviour now as for all civilisations heretofore" and Le Corbusler's 'On the day when contemporary SOCiety,at present so sick, has become properly aware that only architecture and city planning can provide the exact prescription for its ills, then the day will have come for the great machine to be put in monon" for all of what now seems to be their utter grotesqueness. these are statements of far more explanatory power than the whole still-prevalent apparatus of exegesis, More explanatory because they disclose something of the architect's state of mind and make evident a quality of messianic passion, an anxiety both to end the world and begin it anew, which must surely have acted as some sort of intellectual distorting lens, enlarging or diminishing whatever material-whether formal or technological-it made visible and was, therefore. able to make useful, We are speaking of a psychological condition of the greatest significance, of one of those elemental and eruptive occasions when the Impossible re-directs the real. or when tbe expectation of the millennial kingdom subverts all reasonable probability: and if. in writing about late mediaeval chillasm. Karl Mannheim bas insisted on exactly these qualities, on a radical fusion of 'spiritual fermentation and physical excitement'." we wish only to call attention to the one-time elevation of tbe architect's fantasy. to notice some of its causes and, later, to comment upon the subsequent devolution. For which purpose. and particularly since we are speaking of cities. there are two stories: the first that of 'the classical utopia. the orittcial utopia inspired by universal rational morality and ideas of justice, the Spartan and ascetic utopia which was already dead before the French Revolution'": and the second that of the activist utopia of the postEnlightenment. The story of the classical utopia of c. 1500 scarcely requires inordinate explanation. A city of the mind. ultimately compounded of Hebraic apocalyptic and platonic cosmology. its ingredients are never far to seek; and, whatever other pre-disposing causes ooe might choose to find. fundamentally. ODe will still be left with either Plato heated up via the Christian message or the Christian message cooled down via Plato, Whatever qualifications may be added, it will still be Revt!/nl/on plus Tile Republic or the Timueus plus a vision or the New Jerusalem. Now, even five hundred years ago, this was scarcely a highly Origi~al conflatlon: aod therefore it should not be surprising that the classical utopia never displayed that explosive component. that sense of an

Francesco dI Glorg10 Martini: studies for Ideal ctnes

Irrlpt-tkJJ'lIJ .,d .D UlIm/ufTflUtg 1K1' .Ifl.itf" "hkh bduog" w lk UI<>ptiin 4l" 1I " .. tn:c1Hod b) Itr c.rl) I"mttt'th l,.*t'JuW) And. IniZQd. d one chOt""" In In'\pt'I.' II the diJ'H' el uhtplll "III otIC'r Il.:~·lfla.rlu"h Ill' an tlbjt<t u(wnlt'mr'dllUn Itt. mode of rti$l('fkc ~IIJ be qUIt1 lind ma,l1Ir' ",,"1 It hn" Imnk"J II ",0 brhrnt' iIS d dctdchrd reference M en Inform· hlg pt'''CT d. rulh('f 1Ik1ft"~ en hC'Ufl)U( ck'IU" than dO) Ieem (~dJrl'rth

.."phulhlr,tk".dIn\trumC'nl ""awn,..(lhe-,(ltlidWJCkl)- thrtt'1TCSlrillmadowoCanidrd. tl)rcianlCilJ ul'1pl. "1;1 nC'lC"wnly. iJddrf"\M."d (1)8 C(ln~pICUIJu.sJ) small audrence: and Ib ""hUnluneJ wro'~f).ttxtde..l lit) no les an emblem u(unl\~J linDI ,oud b: to be Imbglntd 11' an tnsrrumenr tJl educauon ad~ 'll nu C'quillh· IImlttd ,'k'nltlc. tU \\-lIh lhr od\kr 0( \fac-hfa,('UL thr kk .. 1 (II), oIlh .. 'knlli 'iotlOct \\d'i rr1mnr1'Y a \chlck! (or the pr0\1~,," of IlIf"rrn,IIWfI III the pnnee: and, ot5 nlenston (If thts, U Wi1..~abo an .lgC::1II (I... Ihr mlilhllrno1nC(' and d"":(lrou.', rcpr("<O('oludnn eli the- "ldte' SucI.tI It.,ldVl\ It , .. ' duutu \\;.1\ but II ..UII otrt"ll."'d not so much Q fuwfl:' Ideal., hn,uthrtind one TIle icon \\ 1.1 ttl be adMcd lind wus up 10 1I polnl In tit used: l1ul (~~ Imuge" nllhrr Ihun PfT.S(TiPljol1. And. 111.."CO'itittljol1t:') Irnull(' til the cnurtler. the Ideal en) 'h\UJ~'5 ollo\\ed Il't"1f \.mpl) 10 br nb\t·n·a.I end c:n)tl}"oo ({If Ito.\ ewn ~k('



\\ II re(rl't'ntT Rnd nu mort" Ihon 1111(, both utopta und the ,drol ('".1\ 'he r.',nblnflilun IU1\\C'\(T hdntt'd flf Ftltlrt'lC and Co'Otlgllnn(".. of 'ton'" nnd \h~lhlo\('tlJ. n(nUI1lIl('1""C; und ml,ntl\. produced ~uh~ II "U'i ,I cornbhlitlllln "hldl t,;fl(IIIS4.lmJ n rnuventten: lind then tI C;dml"nIH'U \\hkh. \\hll(' II mJl 'IThtu'ih nlle\ lute 01(' svctnl order. became ft'"<o,pon.\lble ((If thr rUf'm dllC"'l \\h!th IIIl' <1111ludl1\' adrntrrd. To be \"(~I') brief II \\ liS a wn\blnnttun I\hld, U((('ti lu \ub\lltUIC' (he ((lrmuLI of S(orllo', TrlJjth,; vccne (t"lf thol (l( hl~ romir. 0 ('4)11\('111100 \\hkh In~,"u8Icd Ilqif Inld

o~ ,.r

to the eXHmlnatlon of 'natural' man. Indeed, In order that society be subjected to successful analysts. it was csscnllOl' that fl primary model otman be adequately isolated and IdcnlHicd. Man must be stripped his cultural contaminations and social corruptions. He must be Imagined In his aboriginal condition. placed at point zero. before Temptation. before the FaU. And II is against such a backdrop. an InextinguIshable drive for reason and Innocence. that the eighteenth century delivered Its most earth-shaking fabrication-the myth of the


'Jl)(' Natural Man: (rom te Corbusi6. Otllvrt Ccmpliu. 1910-1929

noble savage. In one (arm or another the myth of the noble savage had. of course. already enjoyed an extended history. For the innocent natural man Is first of aU the decorative Inhabitant of the Idealized pastoral arcadia: and If as such he had been very well-known to Antiquity. after his Renaissance re-entry upon the stage of culture he could only become an Increasingly useful moral accessory. But, though an Intrusion into the mechanical system of things. the natural man (an abstraction which was fell to be real) was almost too completely made to order for the Enlightenment. Made to order not only because he could be presented as that unlversally valid spccrmcn mankind which science so badly required: but. more Importantly. because n slightly tuned up and modified version of the noble savage could very well serve as a much needed component in the putting together of a reasonably elevated conception of common man. There was common man. a worth-while object of responsible conSideration.






MIn frultu"


(rom F O. C. Darity 1844 .

but a neglected. OaL anonymous and distinctly unheoe character There was bis deplorable and genutne plight; there was the question ofhls promotJon which badly required both pcdlgree and colour: and. hence, there was a function for the noble savage w ho was able to provide mort' than sufficient amounts both,


Once admitted to d\rJllJed sodet)' as scmethlng other than a literary convention. It was lnevhable that the Doble savage should be desttncd to a brilliant career. An abstraction he might be: but he was also nothing if not protean and dynamic. And rcrtafnly he turns out to have been a superlative role player-a classical shepherd. a Red tndlan. someone discovered by Captain Cook. a sans rUIOfI.f of 1i9.2. a partrcrpant m me July Revolution. a denlzen of Merrie England (or any other Gothk !IOOd}'), a Marx-Ian proletarian. a Mycenaean Greek. a modem American. any old peasant. a liberated hippy. a scientist. an engtnce- and. in the end. a computer. As critic of culture and society. a useful presampnon for conservatives and radicals altke. in the last two hundred years the noble savage has surrendered himsclfto the widest variety of performances: and In each performance. while It lasted. hIS activity has never been less man convincing. But. considering the noble savage as a purveyor of innocence. It is obvious that. in bringing together the utopian and the arcadlan myths, the Enlightenment was responsible ror 8 dcctstve and fertile act d mlsce-

genation. For the two myths simultaneously corroborate and contradict eaC~l o,ther. Th: one relates to an end of history and the other to a begmnlng: U~O~1a celebrates the triumphs ofconstraint-c\'cnof repression -whllc arcadia involves the pre-civilizcd blessings of freedom : in Freudian language the one. is all super-ego the ether aU Id: but. nevertheless. the two myths experienced each other's fatal attraction: and if. after their linkage. n~tbing could ever be quite the same again. it 15 towards this typicallY,elghteenth century liaison that we might look for ntleasr some explanatIOn of what was now to be the ongoing change in utopla's morale, As a protagonist of a myth related to the beginning of time. the more the noble savage could be felt to be a real and an historic figure. then the more it became possible to imagine him as reproducible: and the more it thereby became reasonable to envisage the good society as n prospective rather than an hypothetical condition. the more utopia was encouraged to abandon platonic reserve for political passion. However. while Enlightenment criticism clearly modified the content' of utopia it exercised conspicuously little influence upon the form: and. whatever the activities of the noble savage may have been. utopia's continuing preoccupation with classical figure and decorum Is one of the more notable characteristics of its early activist phase. The agreed and recognized utopian convention persisted: and thus. for instance. the ideal city or Andre c. 1870 {an Influence or Fourierist speculettont)" is no mort" dramatically deviant from qllrlurocfnlo prototype than Is Ledoux's project of 1776 for his industrial settlement at Chaux. Nevertheless-and even at Chaux-there is a breach which has been made. For. whatever its unlikely format. La Saline de Chaux is a proposal dedicated to the service of production; and. lf its circular configuration may be construed as a tribute to the mythic potency of the classical utopia, it is still a distinctly subversive tribute. Simply the manager has pre-empted the place of the prince: and. if it is now not the law-giver but Ie directeur who is the lnforrning power of the city. it is just possible that we are here, very incipiently. presented with a new idea for the constitution of the state. But. obviously. this is not the only way in which Chaux is to be read as a criticism of the traditional image: and. if we can have no doubt that the noble savage (supplied by Rousseau) lurks in the naturalistic environs. we can also be fairly certain that the circular dispensation is intended to evoke not so much the ancient authority or Plato as the present eminence of Newton. For this was a tlrue when monuments to Newton were about to abound: and to move from Ledoux's Chaux to Saint Simon's proposal of 1803 for a Grand Council of ewton is merely to follow a tendency. Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) may be thought to have aspired to become a Newton of the political realm and his proposal was for a universal ruling body. Existing authority was condemned by its idiosyncrasies and. in its place. there was to be established a world govern-

Itft alxn't Andre: a mid-19th cenlUJ')' prOJect for an Ideal ccmmunny

Itfl bt:lo",
Claude-Ntcoies Ledoux: Chaux. proJect for





Etiennc-Louis Cenotaph


project c.1784


to Newton.

rnent of scientists. mathematicians. scholars. MtJsL~. who were to propaate the cause of Newton-and rca son-and everywhere erect tc~pJcs to ~hc cult. The proposal. published In iettres ,(/'1m habitant lie Gcnpve a ses cOflumporail1S, r was madly academic If not a httlcdementcd: but. whatever may have been its extravagance. in Its irrational exaltatl~n of reason it prepared the way for momentous happenings. Por. wtth the SaintSimonian motto that 'the golden age Is not behind U5 but In :'8°01 of us and that (II) will be realized by the perfection of the social order, It Is evident that the whole moral stance of the classical utopia has become effectively superseded. In other words. we are here at the point of turnover: and the activist utopia. utopia as '8 blueprint for the future' has finally made its decisive appearance. In a world of what was unprecedented scientific growth. the logical organization of society is felt to be imminent and therefore an ideal ofposftive social purpose must now be stipulated Which. inspired by the triumphs of science. must be directed towards placing the 'science of man' on a basis absolutely beyond conjecture. The need is evident and hence the attempt must be made to establish science as the foundation of morals. to turn politics into a branch of physics and. ultimately. to enjoin the replacement of arbitrary government by the rule of rational administration. Such were some of the Sainl-Simonian ideas as they became developed over the next twenty or so years-a well-intentioned attempt to 'replace the government of man by the administration of things'. In spite of SaintSimon's authoritarianism. his ideas arc equipped with obviously gratifying social overtones-and. not least. for the arts. In the rational SOciety production wiU prosper and, with this diffused prosperity, the arts will converge both

sponsor and to corroborate between

the new establishment.


was the prospect. The alliance


art and progressive

his disciples,

society (aIJ knowledge acting in concert) appears to have been one of the central lntultlcns of Salnt-Simon's creed: and as being so was reflected by

~rt. the expr~gJon of soCict~, ?lanifests, in lts highest soaring,
SOCial tendencies:

the forerunner

and the revealer,

the most There-

a%fs~ ~of wr~her art fulfils its proper mission as Initiator, whether the U0 cavantgurde, one must know know IS h at ythe t destiny of the Human race Is.? where Humanity is going ' w
another equally m .CT?' proposltlcn of SOme twenty years earlier. Driven by comparable convicuons the poet Leon HaM f hl h 'th vy con esse. IS belief that the time Is close w,thenth c artist wiIJ possess the POwer to please and to move (the masses' WI e same certainty as th h problem or the che '. e mat ematlclan solves a geometrical continues 'will th .emls~ a~alyscs Some substance'; and then only, he ..ut, If such declarations utopian Inflammation

Influence of Saint -Slm , ad Ion.

. And. if a statement

of this kind is impossible

th en we may (;1180introduce

to imagine



one is ~iU obliged to contemplate the relative sterility or French Positivism as. an I.ofluence isolated by itself. Por. whatever might be said about Sa tnt-Simon, about the subsequent developments of Auguste Comte. about the parallel contributions or Charles Fourier and the rest. it can only be recognize that by and in themselves. these persons represented something ~f a~ historical cul-de-sac. to full nineteenth century they were cperattng 10 a version of the Enlightenment tradition: and eecessarily, for better or worse. this tradition bad begun to wear thin. the one hand, in a world where expanding markets could ooly JOette the banker and the industrialist to enthusiasm. the purelyinteUectoal optimism of the eighteenth century began to seem gratuitous: and on the other. at least in England and Gennany. it bad long been apparent that society could scarcely be the mechanical construct which French rationalism. apart from Rousseau. bad wished to suppose. Instead. in both England and Germany, Rousseau's noble savage had long been regarded oot so much as an abstraction which might facilitate rationalist argument: but rather as some sort of atavistic race memory. the very existence of which was a commentary upon the inadequacy of French pattern making. For. in both countries. under Romantic and Sturm und Drang influences. it was not so much an idea of mankind in the abstract as of society or the state in all their histortcal spedficlty which had begun to prevail: and. in both cases, the bias of this argument was to presume the notion of society as organic growth rather than French mechanism. The ultimate contributions to the argument were. of course. Gennan and were to culminate in the Hegellan conception of historical dialectic: but the spectacular pofemlcs of its important English phase can scarcely be overlooked. And the reference here is to Edmund Burke and his Reflections on the Revolution in France." Now Burke's reputation bas always been ambiguous. Aesthetic theorist-political philosopher: which is he? But. if Burke possesses further notoriety as a founder of modern conservatism. it also cannot be difficult to see how elements of his thought were able to embed themselves in the English socialist tradition. Such a utopia as William Morris's N~1A'S from Nowhere,ll wholly lacking in elements of classical format rnlght. for instance. be considered as finally derivative from Burkean Influence: and. in any case. as with Morris at a later. date, Burke's lack of in the


. ?n

potential of either science or industrial growth consld~ one of the negative distinctions of his position. He recoils from any Ideas of simple utility-one imagines an older Burke and a youog~ as antitheses-and. like SO many of his German contem~ranes. against the tradition of the Enlightenment. imponderable and the not-to-be analysed.

Benth~ reacting

he mak~ 'to what


his appeal to the so much out of



e moral SIde of society be firmly established' sec to b ' "
em nng us Immensely



whkh characterly,,", the early twentieth


to the century,

fashion in Paris, I mean to experience: .' . Lo tcally. one might feel that Burke should have been highly ~PlIed b th~ French Revolution. For. if back in 1757, there h~ was-in full pursuit of the Sublime,14 then. by 1792 there he was--certainly presented

, ttlon of the Sublime in action. But instead. of course, Burke with an exhl'~~st his earlier Intuitions. 'A strange. nameless. wild. reac(~ a~althin . such was the Revolution. A case of abstract and enthusl3stiC . g.' ding the prerogatives of established prescription tyrannical re~so~ Hwao; Rousseau's 'general wiJl', then Burke-who if this w,as a~ IUS ance n with Rousseau-had very little use for it: and, for his opinlOl~SJU com~~eed a contract, thls was no imaginary legal docuhim. if was I~ to have gotten lost. Rather it was the accumulated men,t ,whle f lap~e:n society at a given time, traditions which should


Marx found them to be. for all their virtues. these arc prosaic and unevocative statements: and In an age or evolutlonary aspiration and democratic upsurge, they were lacking In tbe comprehensiveness to convince. At this stage an illustration might be allowed to Infiltrate a commentary. Oclacrolx's superb allegory of July 1830, hls Uberty Ltadfny the


rradttlcns °h a g'~ific exercise of liberty, but which should be understood e guarantee td speprl'vate and individual exercise of reason. to rranscen any In such ways the appeal to experience became an appeal to the state as instrument of Providence and to history as concrete spectacle of social evolution. 'Without ... civil society man could not by any possibilities arrive at the perfection of which his nature is capable' ;15 hut. if with these remarks the Doble savage is encouraged to leave the drawing-room. his memory persists as that of an ancestor who can only be respected, For civil society is: 'a partnership in all science:,., in all art; .. in every virtue, above Charles Fourier: Phalanstery. below Versailles. air view and in all perfection ... a partnership not only between those who are living. but between those who are living, those who are dead. and those who are to be born.'!" In other words. civil society is a continuum which can barely be interrupted. These were some of the very anti-utopian partly libertarian. of which- Burke delivered certainly double-edged. For in throwing activist face of French rationalism sentiments. partly coercive, himself. and their effect was of history in the it may he argued, doctrines




his own version utopia

Burke was contributing.

quite as much to the developed

as did those

which he was at so much effort to condemn. For we should now consider the organicist conception of society as becoming diffused throughout Romantic criticism; we should imagine the Saint-Simonian of their leader's disciples cause; we the The order

gradually deserting the less pragmatic should notice their propensity and we should then recognize


to become Second Empire industrialists;
how. by the mid-nineteenth century, constricted, a politicaJ will'

Positivist utopia must have come upon 'scientific demonstrations in spite of this programme. drenched

to seem elaborately
with erecting century

Positivists might well have been concerned as the nineteenth

totally independent development Marx chose

of human became any simple


increasingly ideas as to Utopian compromised.

with notions of historical

the 'wilful' and the 'scientific' were to become Increasingly In fact. by the mid-century, what

to designate

SOCialism may be felt to have disclosed itself in its characteristic architectural propositions. Fourier's Pbalanstery of 1829, in which a simulacrum of Versailles is to be a prototype for the proletarian future, is only ~oo symptomatic of the condition: and it should not be necessary to Intrude Anglo~American and Owenite instances of roughly comparable proposals

to make the point. 'Pocket editions

of the New Jerusalem'


of the revolution. 20 June 1789. when tbe Third Estate resolved never to disband until it had obtained Its purpose. The setting. the jtU de paume at versailles. is appropriately Spartan: and the personalities are Significantly privileged. There can be no doubt about their habitual and everyday decorum: and. if the wind of change causes the curtains to billow in sympathetic response to group excitement. then. whatever the imminent drama may be. one is disposed to believe It can only involve the educated. Thomas Jefferson. one imagines. could have been present bere: and. indeed. it is not very hard to suppose the whole scene as shifted to Philadelphia during the time of the Continental Congress. Concerned with the declaration of eternal troths. of self-evident doctrine. of principles valid in all times and in all places. this assembly of excited lawyers is about to indulge in everything which Burke chose to criticize: and. if there is that ominous movement of the curtains. then it is to be doubted whether these individuals would ever ascribe tbe cause to any impending historical storm. The comparison. although it may speak for itself. is perhaps a little banal: but, if it might help to locate the Positivists in a cautious Restoration-Biedermayer milieu. then Delacroix's image of Liberty and the People might stiU be brought into confrontation with yet another image. And, in this case, there can be no people involved. Upsurge. movement the celebration of the irresistible. simple dynamic. a recognition of the predestined. all of these qualities arc to be found represented Davtd: The Oath of the Tennis Court. 1791 in the city of Sant'Ella. Delacroix's dramatis personae of excited proletarians and infatuated students bas an .assemblage of equally excited buildings. and. if we contemplate this genuinely first of

reo(lle, not only In its rhetoric but also in its size, may be considered indicative of that newly liberated sweep of emotions and ideas which Burke had recognfzed with alarm but which the Positivists had failed to accommodate. For this is politics gone beyond politics. It is the crowd Inflamed by the dynamic of movement and destiny; the noble savage dispossessed of his proper heritage and consumed by that vision of emancipation which the eighteenth century had rendered substantial. But. whatever else It may be. this heroic tumult of the barricades is totally remote from the ethos of Positivism which-since we are dealing with illustrations-Is morcobvlously to be represented by a picture of forty years
earlier. Davld's study for his never painted Oath of the l'elll'lis Court is an ultogether different conception of heroics. The occasion Is the opening act

be concer~ed with how this transformauon

was Delacrolx. David. Saru'Blia effected. obliged to behave as dtsp , brought Into sum close proximity and of the cinematic method uta:~ to a history of ideas should be tndlcatlve allowed to indicate its bt w tC : here pursued: but they may also be d the route from Delac ' las an , lrecnon. because, as here constructed, certainly via a co:a~: Safn~dElla.if It docs not lle vta Marx. lies almost deployed. In other rds- 0 t eas comparable LO those which Marx the route probabl ~: vi and \\:heLber ~ant"Elia was aware oOt or notSimon and Y. a some interecucn of the relatlve statics of SaintCornte With the explicit dynamics of the Hegelian world vtew But the approach to Hegel. whose ideas are surely an lndlspensable component, of the earl)' twentieth century utopia. is' attended with the ~~st ~aSSlve difficulty-with pain, IS Historical inevltablllty. historical dialectic. the progressive revelation of the Absolute in mstcrv. the SPIrit of the age or the race or the people: we are dimly aware or' how much these are the cutcropplngs of a theory of society as growth and, also, of how much less visible is their influence than that of theories of purely classical or French provenance. For. like Burke, Hegel was also concer~ed \:'ith the ~nalySls of material which scarcely yields ltself tc existing rationalist technique or terminates in any tangible image. However, central to his position, there would seem to be the concept that reason itself possesses no accessible stability, BUL if thls is the idea of an aggressively mobile and energetic reason. It is also equipped with the proviso that such reason is not SO much a human product 015 it is the activtty of a spiritual essence, 'Reason is the Sovereign of the World': and, apparently. an absolute sovereign who infleXibly insists on tbe relatedness of all phenomena. But 'the term world includes both physical and psychical nature: There is the 'natural material universe' and the 'historical spiritual universe': and since 'the world is not abandoned to chance and external contingent causes ... [but] a providence controls if. it follows that this Providence manifests itself not only in external nature but. even more significantly in Universal HIstory. In other words, a divine and therefore rational creation is stlll in process: and, lf 'the spiritual is the substantial world and the physical remains subordinate to if-and if, simultaneously, history must be rational-then human passions, volitions, constructs are to be valued as the 'instruments and means of the World-Spirit So much the fundamental for attaining its object'. doctrine would seem to

be: and it is In

111('dlY of Saru' Ella·\tarlo OIlIlLtone: unUJI~dOrthenewdly,1914

such ways that nature, seen as history, is made to yield the spectacle of a divinely inspired and necessary drama, It is a fundamentally selfpropelling performance activist utoplan Icons and b been transformed to \ h 0. :rve to what degree Delacrclxs rhetoric has become power to'the; at egrce the liberal 'power to the people' has namo may recognize Sant'EU: and power to the piston, then while we s general descent from Saint-Simon we may still drama proceeding towards a happy cnding: but it is also a and proceeding via the ceaseless interaction of affrrmation

contradiction and, since we are immersed in its action, then the best we can do is to understand it. In fact freedom, which is an aspect of splrlt. imposes historical the enterprise: consciousness and, if it is only through the acuvtty of the thai we, as captives of this fre<..>dom, an know c

the substance of things. then it must also be in tern:s ~r thts consciouc., ness that liberty defines itself. Though. whatever this liberty may be. it is still faced with yielding-even when achicved~to the endless prospect of emerging and self-developing constellations 01 particulars. all of them equipped with 'reason' and 'spirit' and all of them insisting on accornmodation. But. if the mere contemplation of Hegel may oblige agreement with one of his first English admirers that his was 'a scrutiny of thought so profound that it was for the most pari unintelligible'. it is not 50 much his opacity that concerns us as his influence. 'Architecture is the will of an epoch translated into space: living. changing. new;' 'the new architecture is the inevitable logical product", of our age:' the archiof his Robe. tect's task consists in coming into agreement epoch .... ;'19 these statements, respectively with the orientation of Mies Van der

examined the real ruther than the JJI cognition of society's ultimate mi1ter~:lor~, ~ne would arrive at a true essential uaked 'stru t' . base. One would perceive the C 'superstructure' i'hat .ure U~dlstorted by the manipulmors of the politics and art.' IS. y t c representatives of religion and law.


Or at least something ltk thl and German historicism s r e . IS ~ombination

of French


Gropius and Le Corbusier. are perfectly illustrative of the manner in which Hegelian categories and modes came gradually to saturate all thought: and. if they seem never to have been interpreted in this context. they are only cited here to indicate the relevance of Hegel as a continuing presence in tbe early twentieth century utopia, For, in all three cases. an irresistible. coercive and logical 'history' quite as real as anything texture. equipped with seems to have become weight. colour.

what was widely attempte~e:::c~lni:cl::~ Or o.the~~\'ise-1.0 have been stand somethtn a of Mm-v' .' IS area. t at one may under.. g 0 Marx s belated centrality. Invert Hegel's hierarch ~f sptrttual and physrcet: or delete Hegel's 'spirit' and substitute mcchal: Ism: retain Hegel's prophetic component but give it more am I~ ~rchestration by appeal to the French precedent of world-wide rcvo~lItton: then. while the French system will subvert Hegel's metaphysic the German will contribute to the French a sense or destiny and depth: an assurance of the superiority of becoming to being. and a knowledge of the forces of unconquerClblc motion. thesis is in no way original: but. with or without Marx's the bringing into proximity or Hegelian and Salnt-Sfmonlan propositions could only be to endow them both with an urgency that. understood separately. they could not possess. An almost equivalent composition could be put together via the influence of Darwin-fer French physics substitute English biology: fold in equal quantity of German Geist: add freshly ground crumbs of theosophy to taste and warm thoroughly in a moderate oven-but. though thls combination was much resorted to in Germany. Holland. Wisconsin and elsewhere. though its contributions to architectural cuisine are not be be disputed. and even though Marx's favourite image of himself was the Darwin



However. this is to parenthesize. One is immediately body of ideas relating to measurement and mechanism body of ideas relating to change and organism.

faced with and another there

On the one hand.

are to be found notions of society as potentially logical-in terms of physics-and. on the otber. as inherently logical-in terms of history, There are statem~nts as

the possibility of a scientific

politics-indepenas to the certainty

dent of .human wtll: and there are further statements

of a ratio~aJ history-also independent of human intervention. There is an older IIlteUectualist mode and a newer historicist mode and which of these attitudes is th . be . e more conservative or the more radical has now come very difficult to say Such as It i H r and a little unctuous-ve . . I IS. ege s progressivism is sombre science and secularts . ry f~ indeed from Saint-Simon's complex of conception of histc . ~'d~~t. ': one were to subscribe to Hegel's own what there could ben~a ~a ectlc. one might presumably recognize that to interact. ere IS a presentation of thesis and antithesis about Which. to be very brier. is surel h by Marx: and the Marxian di .Y. o~ both systems structure' could onJy make a :~~:ahon were envisaged and 'super-

of sociology. this was apparently too partfcularlzed a strategy 10 lend itself to public establishment. Nevertheless, Social Darwinism made Its central contributions: and. as it dissipated something of the austerity of a physics-based world. corroborated Hegel's historicism. scarcely lnfrtngcd his ldeallsm. sustained his optimism, introduced the interesting ideas of natural selcctlcn and the survival of the fittest. and appeared to condone simply power. then we must recognize its contributions as being. in no way. to be despised. And. at this stage. it is a temptation to say: And. hence the rlty of Sant'Elia-thatcity where static conceptions have vanished. where freedom has become the recognition of necessity. where machine has become splrlt or spirit machine. and where the momentum of history has become the index to destiny. But. if it may be argued that there has here. in very impacted form. been presented it genealogy for the Futurist city. this is nol a stage at which a halt can be called, For. as fill the world know ... the Futurist city was no monument (0 the brotherhood of man: and thu c. although we have cited it CIS the fir..t of genuine nctlvlsr utopian I,cons. it is also necessary to insert a qualification, There Is the Futurist city a..

.of '~tructure'

synthesis. For. if after 1848 th di c~ntributlon to his prospective rapidly turned from 'id " e ISilIUSlOned mid-nineteenth century rfI eas and optimism to 'f . supe IlOUS to the bask (one thinks of ac~ and force. from the QmI Sons). then if one stripped aWa th ~a~a~~v In Turgenev's Fathers and the pseudo-profundities of G Y e t~vlalJtJes of French rationalism erman Involvement with Geist. if one

himself to have shed his cuJtural wardrobe: but, to repeat the words of Plnsterlin. he was even about to shed that constraining 'ether mantle' which. hitherto, had enveloped him 'like a skin', For present purposes, we see no reason to make between the ville radieuse and Zeilenbau city, between a differentiation Plan Voisin and

Karlsruhe.Damrnarstock: but, as we look back at the intellectual pedigree we have constructed for these, though convinced of its general correctness, we are also perturbed by its inadequacy. There is an abundance of ideas that arc in themselves volatile: but one might still be obliged to recognize that. without the threat of all-consuming crisis {the equivalent of the threat much less than complete. of revolution}, their mythical potency is

The utopia of the nineteen-twenties was born under a strange estrological combination: on the one band Oswald Spengler. on the other, 1£ Corbusier: Paris, Plan Voisin. 1925 H. C. Wells; on the one side, eschatological prediction, the irreversible decline of the West. on the other the mlllennialistic future; and it is here

proto-trnodern': there is the Futurist
the routine conviction that. because the pervasive dogma of modern important delivery,

city as





it may be the one, it cannot immaculate


that one may be concerned scarcely conscious habit, If we have anlc discriminate secularized to recognize suggested then kingdom-and

not so much an Hebraic its Christian

with ideas as with ingrained, promise of the messitried to

be the other: but if there is here a problem which can only be related to
architecture's conception, of but. sentithe spirit and of the the after as then the time has now come to confront Futurism one might sec if the celebration the immaculata

thing-the version,

if we have

at the moment

this virulent thing, platonized in the Renaissance and in the eighteenth century, then one could also be disposed the nineteenth century career of this secular residuum

as a sort of romantic
its more

front edge of Hegel: sustaining frame. type bears more

of force is among

important how much women,

ments, this also allows us to insert it into an historical 'The human being who has become who bas become dreamed of other resemblance beautiful 1914-]8, democrats: free-spits


Which, as it lost little of its virulence, now emerged from the political sphere to enter the aesthetic, It is a case of a metaphor of the good society thought of, quite literally, as becoming the thing itself, of myth become prescription and of prescription endorsed by the threat of Either:Or. A choice of utopia or else, the urbanistic vision of the nineteen-twenties is propounded and building in terms of the moral or biological holds the key, 'The machinery an amelioration, backdrop problem of salvation: out and of society, of historical profoundly importance.


on the Christians,


of well-being an uncanny

by shopkeepers,
to Marinetti's which

Englishmen, only hygiene of anarchy, and, posture could violent

the free man 'We will patriotism,

is a warrior.'lO

glorify war-the

world-militarism, ideas

the destructive that such


of gear, osci.llates between

kill, and the scorn


a catasrropheP''
Such was the essential and it is against

it was impossible

sentiments 'After

this blinding light

avant garde. as other than

eruption,' for an Futurist

~ays Walter Gropius, 'every thinking man felt the necessity intellectual change of front'22: but, if after World War I. the prlogra~me

that there ultimately might be placed the whole extraordinary orchestration of German 'history' and French 'science'. of spiritual explosiveness and mechanical coolness, of inevitability and observation. of people and progress, It was a light which generated energy and which, as it became compounded with the gentler forces of a liberal tradition and the romantic directives of a fledgling avant gardism. contributed to modern architecture the velocity of a projectile, enabling it to enter the twentieth century like some apocalyptic discharge of a newly invented shot gun: and, even though faded, this continues to be the light which still conditions any 'serious' endeavour connected with the 'structure or the well being of society, But, however once vivid, it must finally be recognized that this is also a light which permits only a restrictive and monocular vision and it is therefore recognize from the bias of normal optics than we must and can speak of utopia's decline and fall.

rapidly demonstrated its intrinsic atavism, then, as the VIle radieuse came to b ul d die rorm ate -except for the absence of nationalism ann hrethatedphallic fantasies-the basic components seem to ha ve been r uc e same.

L'esprit nouveau and th d . romantic r .d e ynat111Sme des temps modernes are again the Saint~S' r~~t e, g~ of a de-spiritualizcd Hegel: and. via an appeal to will') ~:onlan sClcnce' ('dcmonstrations independent of the human , en. as the most pell ld : utopia developed intensi . UCI mo~ent' of the twentieth cen~ury
to feci himself an undCfi7: It b~came ed creature. l~dced possible for the architect For. not only could he suppose

After the Millennium
Whenever the utopia disappears. history ceases to be II process leadin.g to an ultim~te end, The frame of reference according to which we evaluate facts vanJsh~s and we are left with 1I series of events nil equal as fur us their Inner significance IS concerned.

things ulso: and when. In the late nlnete became established and inslltullona!tzcd en-fortlcs. modern architecture necessarily suffered. Moder 'hi the Image of the modem city New Jerusalem W'IS n narc tccture had ccrtalnly arrived but the appear that somc'thln~l ~:~C~:n: going concern: Ipso facto. resulted in a better world :~e~n 8"rChltcc lure had not. l IngJ t d . . pan rantas es correspondy. con ructe . so. from the blurring of crltlcal target. there ensued a ~crtmn nlmlcssncss which it Is probably true to say hns affilctcd the urchltect ever since. Could he any longer conceive himself to be the protagonlsr of a ncw lntegranon of culture} Must he so conceive himself? And. If so. how? Now the extent to whlch these questions were consciously asked was probably never large: but. all the same. their Implicit presence could only create a divergence of Interest revolving around the evaluation of the urban models of the twenties. Thus. on the one hand. the ville mdlwse could be secn us a frightening false promise: but. on the other. It was sUU posstble for a somewhat 100 assertive optimism to surviveand this by lnterpretlng the Corbustan city as no more than a launching pad for the elaborutlon and perfection of the technccrattcally and sdentlflcally inspired City of the future. Thus. on the one hand. an overtly backward look and. on the other. an ostensible look forward: and thus the cult of townscnpe and the cult of Science fiction. Townscapc, a cult of English villages. Italian hill towns and North African cusbahs. was. above all else, a matter of felicitous happenings and anonymous architecture: and. of course It made Its first appearance well before the Issues lust suggested rose to the surface. Indeed. in the pages of Tile ArchlreclIIral Review. even In the early nineteen-thirties. one can detect the uncoordinated presence of all Its later ingredients. A perhaps wholly English taste for topography: a surely Bauhaus-Insplred taste for the pregnant object of mass production-the hitherto unnoticed Victorian manhole. etc; II feeling for paint. the texture of decay. eighteenth century folly and nineteenth century graphics: representative titles of these early clays Include: Tile St!r11!9 Ene or HOl\! fO /.ike Evrry1hin9: Eyes (//1(/ Bars ill I~llst An!Jlia-(I sl'Iwolbo!J's IlOlitll1]/ lour b!J Archibald Angus agel/ 14 ~: The Ntulve Style: Wllrfllrl1 in rhe WI'Sl: A Cubist I:olk Art: and. most slgnlflcnntly, two apparently crucial articles by Amedee Oaenjnnt who. in Colour In tile Tow'l (1937). states with obvious reference: Leiwe It to thc H. G. Wells of nrchltecture to trace the outline of Ideal towns, to sketch a hypothetical Purls or London of the .ycur 3~OO. Let us accept the present. the actual condition of the English capital I Her past. hcr present nnd her lmmedlate future. 1 would speak of what Is tmmedtutely realizable. At IIrst startling. on reflection, the presence of Oecnfaru In thls collection ceases to be so. For this was the period of his brief domicile In London: and It would seem that. during this tlme. he was led to resume-though with less pusslonnte Intensity-that process of bringing


and. s!owly It began to

Come to our well run desert Where anguish arrives by cable And the deadly sins may be bought in tins With Instructions on the label. W. H. AUIlEN

The purouslu of modern erchtrccturc. A bundle of cschutnlogjcnl funtnslcs .. bout lmmlnent und npoculypuc catastrophe combined with stili ilIbrr1> «bnu II1Sliml mlllcnnlum. Crisis: the throat of dumnauon. the hope of snlvetlon. lrrcslstlble change which slill requires hUIlHlI1 co. opcratlon. The new architecture and urbunlsm ns emblems cf the New Icrusulem. The corruptions of high culture. The bonfire of vunltlcs. Sclfrrunsccndence towards II form (If collccuvfzod r~ccd()rn. The architect repossessed of vtrruc and fortltled by the cqulvulcnt of religious ex pertcure. may now revert to his prlmul Innocence. This Is to carlcuture. though not seriously La distort II complex of scmlments cnen lying Just beneath the threshold of consciousness, which have been cruclal In forming the conscience of the modern movement. Muke me II cottage In the vale. she said. 'Yhcre I muy mourn lind pruy. ~el pull not down Illy palnce towers. that urc So Ilghtly. beautifully bullt: Perchance I may return with ethers there When I have purged my guilt. The scntlments which Tennyson In TIll' Pa/m'l' Al'l 11832-42) i ~lIlcd to ~lIssuul were sU11. more or less, representative of Ih~ mol:I~~"~ drchllcci Ind1he twemles and 11Is often dlfllcult to dispute their ubsteml ousness an rnorul dignity R t If' ' nud b) b U. II cottngc ln rhe vale' ( it cotltlr/I' orne(' ou I elm c sharply devalued us II symbol oflnnoccncc. so CUll other
t •

Hobert I.. gar: double coungc. 1805. u clevutlon find plan


GardoQ CoDen: "",-nscape







bdow SalisbwY-

pouJtry Cross

far right bdo'W Looe. a proposal

Into prominence hitherto undiscriminated aspects of vernacular or folk culture or mass production which he and Le Corbusier had practised some fifteen years earlier. Involving attitudes derived from the repertory of Synthetic Cubism and a Surrealist notion of the object trouve. what Ozenfant might be felt to have provided was a criticism of London from the point of view of specifics. a criticism somewhat analogous to Le Corbusler's involvement with a specific rather than au ideal Paris-with a Paris of studio windows. the foyers of Metro stations, random rubble party walls and generally emotive accidents. an empirical Paris which Le Corbusier so often quoted in his buildings but never in his urbanistic proposals. Ozenfant's two articles belong to the incunabula of townscape and are of far more than Simply period interest. But. if it would seem that for a time the possibility was open of seeing the towuscape idea as affiliated to Cubist and post-Cubist tradition, this was an opening which World War 0, involving a devaluation of things French. tended to minimize. Fer there was always available the attractive and more comprehensible alternative of proclaiming the enduring significance of an indigenous style of vision. In other words, townscape could readily be interpreted as a derivative of the late eighteenth century Picturesque: and. as it implicated all that love of disorder, cultivation of the individual. distaste for the rational. passion for the various. pleasure in the idiosyncratic and SUspicion of the generalized which may, sometimes, be supposed to distinguish the architectural tradition of the United Kingdom. so (almost

"blu ..

like Edmund Burke's political polemic of the]

7905) it was enabled


Von.llFrfctiman the spal/III city. 196J

rUlJuhlko i\a)cu/lma and GJ\US: KlboguoJcu Youlh CUJte/, c. 19i1

thrive. But, in application, tcwnscape was surely less defensible tban it was us an Ideu. It lnvclved a highly Interesting theory or the 'accident'cfilS model was surely scruc's popular and Comic Scene rather than the aristocratic and Tragic Scene which utopia had consistently employed) but In pracrlce. townscapc seems to have lacked any ideal referent for the always engaging 'accidents' which it sought to promote: and. as a result. lts tendency bus been to provide sensation without plan, to appeal to the eye and not La the mind and. while usefully sponsoring a perceptual world. to devalue a world of concepts. It may be argued that these limitations arc not intrinsic to the approach, that townscape can be detached from what too early became an undue preoccupation with beer and yachting: but. meanwhile. it should be enough to stipulate Its lmportn nee as a doctrine. Scarcelv dependent upon Camillo Sltte. as Is sometimes erroneously supposed. much or present-day actlvlty is Incomprehensible unless we are prepared to recognize the ramifications or townscape's influence. Beyond Its basic visuals townscape lUIS become the point of reference for a number of related arguments. TItus. it has been given a sociological and economic credibility by Jane Jacobs: It has been given rational gloss by the allegedly Scientific notational systems of Kevin Lynch: and, if advocacy planning and do-lt-ycurseff are inconceivable witbour the influence of townscape, so equally are Pop-inspired appraisals of the

NHIt {;roup, USSR ~ dly MollCOw. 196i


Araro Isczakl ; space dty project.
collage. 19()O

Strip at Las Vegas and enthusiasm for the phenomenon of Disney World, Llke tnwnscape. what we have chosen to call science fiction else antedates the collapse of modem architecture's mlllcnnialisti~ Idcai!~~ if it Is to be related to Futurist and Expresslonls" precedent. 1I,Is a _ be seen as, in some sense, a revival. Sdcnce flcnon ldcnli.fiCS 11Sc~rr~~h mega-buildings. Ughtweight throwaways. plug-in variablliry. me Y rids-irorung-boarrl ever Stockholm. warne·lron over OU'..._~ldOlfgll'near cities integration of buildings with transport. rnov c:~ent Isys'Ucm. . ~ and hyper-ratlOna i7..8 on. and lubes. It displays a preference or Prot:: th lrtt of the: times. ILs for crude facts as found. an obsession \\'1 e sp . and vocabulary displays a conversance with computcr technology,. •










centre. model


H the rtl(II~ltst' rnrrled with It the Impliclltlun of LI future. S<-"l(,II('(' hls cOllvkllon even furl her. liction Pl:S~CS,t ;Isof course. sci£'I1("c tlcthm I, modern architccture. with To one exton r~.sllrnptlons us 10 the runcnul deterrulnatlon of bulldlng ull its old SlY'.'" P even though it llttlc hystcrlcully over sttpuluted. Thul g sur.vlvln In[~%ClhOdology. systems unulysls and parametric design nrc is: In so far:~ 1m ortuut pursuits, sdClln' tlctton Ini.JY present itself us clevu~oo.tO lzed ~crslon of whut modern urchftccture was, anciently. nn ncudellllc, B t «fence Hell an. like old-fashlnned modern nrchltecsupposed to x. less I r us more poetlc face. This is the famlllur ture has also a ess r go u 't h Illvo'lvemcn[ with tillages eoncctvcd 10 Illustrate sClenc~ u?d then I elr udvcrtlsemcnt us proofs of the designer's ull-relevnnt obleL'LJ~ity. But science fiction. which I1lUY thus be either pu~e or lop, In spite of all Its prophetic gestures. may also be thought 01 us the rev~n:c of rmythlug revolutionary. The search for system. after all. I~ l'c:Y like t~H' old ucndemlc thlng platonlc ccrtaluty In brave new disguise: whtle even elaborate concern for the future may also be seen as regressive OIH.! Sltllll.'i (Illo-ist. In ract. science fiction. In some of Its more free forms. suffers from some of the same defects as the Futurism of which if Is the uneousclously lronlca! revival. Which Is 10 say: that for all its ucuondirected posture. Inherently, It Is almost unbelievably passive: that ruther than protest. It hugely Involves endorsement of what is supposed
10 be endemic: that. rather thnn being conscious of morn Is. U is apt to be success-cnentcd: and that. like the original Futurists. some of its devotees are perfectly willing. If useful (because such Is cultural relatlvIsm). to describe black as being while.


An attitude to Futurism hus already here been divulged. the celebration oflarte muieure. II nationalist And csscnrfully pre-1914 manffes, lotion; and. 1,0 this we mlght add Kenneth Burke's observation that the futurist propensity was 1'0 make (Jf iU1 abuse II virtue. To the protest: the streets are noisy. there was the characteristic reply. we prefer It that way: the drains smell, there was the entirely predictable response. well we like stink. I BUI. all this upurt. in Futurism. there still remains the Mnrinctti-Mussollnl (li!{frl"{1o/mil,:l and, without wishing obsessively to illslst upon this. It can only be conceded that it docs qualify pn .. ssent Iudgcments, Cumbcmuuld. fcsldcnlflllort'tI In any casco the results of science fiction, whether systemic Puturtst, usually suffer from the same conditions which plague rnditllsc-dlsrcgard for context. distrust of the social continuum. of symbolic utopian models for lttcrul purposes. the assumption exlsUng city will be made Lo go nwny: and. If the vlJle r(ulil'lIse or the the that Is nco\,i/I"

undo to the proposition:

the now

supposed to be evil. productive of trauma and disorientation. it is 110t easy to Sec how science fiction. which would seem Lo compound the Ills. Is In any position to alleviate the problem. Neverlheless. clulmed: an Indebtedness to science fiction may 81llJ be prowe Ore now provided with two models which Francoise




Anything might here happen; the death of architecture. non-bulldlng, Andy Warhol bug-eyed monsters, immediacy of feeling for life. instant ncmudtsrn. the wished-for end of all repression. We are presented WIth townscupe In a space-suit: but whereas the Idiosyncrasies of the townscepc Images arc supposedly attributable to the pressures of context. the Archlgram Images arc generally presented in an Ideal void which. for ull Intents and purposes is the same void as that In which the urban model of c. 1930 is located. But. If Archigram might represent an engaglngly Incidental and accidental fusion of the retrospective and the prospective models. Team X. by reason of its loose organlzaUon and diversity of manifestations. Is less easy to chaructertze. Team X found the ideality and the taste for gencrallry of classlc modem architecture to be largely without meaning; but. if it denounced the Athens Charter and the related pronouncements of ClAM as having become Irrelevant. it would seem that Iperhaps by Intention). it has failed to develop any body of theory of equivalent coherence. For Team X bears the weight of what it supposes to be the apostolic succession: and. though it often endeavours to compensate for this elevated predicament by insubstantial graphics and verbal Infantilism. though its members have been careful not to trap themselves in a web of tX cathedra statements. one senses In their Invariably cautious performance the consciousness of almost ecclesiastical responsibility. It has been stated tBakerna) that Team X would replace the isolated building and bulldiug programme with the ~\'erlapping of buildings and programmes. that it would replace functional organization with 'human association" and. a more recent move. that for imposition it would substitute partjctpauon:" but. admirabl~ though all these proposals are land who would wish to disagree with such

below Alison and Peter Smithson: layout for n provincial market town with establlsbed local market. 19&7
Anbigrun, .......

"'r. J 9&1

lit/ow rl0lU Candllls. Josle and Woods: prclect for 'poulcuse-le-Mtrutl. 1961

Chaar rrtig.htdeslgnate culLufalisJ and progresslvlst.J we might reasonably anticipa te their cross-breeding-a process which both parties may be at pains to deny. But. possible denials apart. the offspring are evident: and in such an example as CumbemauJd. for Instance. a great clash of

tcwnscape and nee-Futurism is. perhaps inadvertently, the prevailing idea. We live in tewnscape and. after a trek. we shop In Puturlsm: and. as we migrate between the 'relative' and the 'ratlonal', between fantasies of what was and whet lesson in philosophy be edified.



be. then. receiving as we do an elementary
no doubt we can scarcely fall but

and us variants.

T< And of Interest In the same respect lithe work of ArchlgriJm find A X. Judging by the bulk of lis proposals tor urban apphcatton, arch,gram would SCCm to be maklng plcturelil/Ut ''''(10(6 0/ rht' [uusrr, Per, ,J 0( the unplanned rendomness, the happy Jerkiness, the obviously ~Igh-pitched tonality. the aggressive syncopillfon. 811 or the famous Ingredients of Engll6hnc:M in (JeUon are now given U HPUCC-ilgc glos!'l.



AFTeR rue




other results In its fatal devaluation. they are. of course. both alike in insisting on the possibilities of apparently immediate grantlcauon. And to insist on the ideal shared. For Superstudlo: You can be where you like taking with you the tribe or Iarnlly. There's no need for shelters, since the climatic conditions and the body mech .. tsrns of thermo-regulation have been modified to guarantee total m comfort. At the most we can play at making shelter. or rather at the home. at architecture. All you have to do is ta stop and connect a plug: the desired microclimate Is immediately created (temperature. humidity. etc.I: you plug in to the network of information. you switch on the food and water blender" ... 8 And thus. with certain qualifications. also for Disney World. But, when Superstudio continues that. in the ideal SOCiety: There will be no further need for cities or castles. No further nee~ for roads or squares. Every point ~vill be t~e same. as ,any o~er (~cludtng a few deserts or mountains which are tn no wise Inhabltablel. Ithaca. New York. Stale Street. 1869 it is then. evidently. that the two visions again part company. For freedom in Florence and freedom in Dubuque, apparently. bear different faces: and it is precisely such a situation as Superstudic pr~iects th~t Disney World grew up to alleviate. It is not a question that. In fact. m Iowa there are no castles O[ squares; but it is a matter that the absence of these items may (sometimes) be felt as deprivation. a matter th~l. where the 'ideal" Cartesian grid has long been a fact of life. some relief may (occasionally) be sought which has guaranteed the popular success of Disney World. d ffi t d . e they are linked in a chain of cause an e ec . So, to a egree. sine S r tudlo in the interests of the two visions are still ~o~plementary. upe s. all ' eradicate all exista non-oppressive egalitarianism. would systematic. ~ b bl lied a lng variety in favour of an ideally .~orm st~g~~~~: plateau) for spontaneous happenmg. and, If y

Disney World. Florida. Main Street Superstudto: landscape with figures.





the product

is not.



And thus Team X alternates between systems building and simulated villages. between growth fantasies and townscape tune Up.6 Now. evidently. the various uneasy fusions of science fiction and townscape-aI1 claiming to be libertarian and non-repressive-must signify a considerable investment of emotional capital: but, before proposing the question: Is it worth it? it now becomes necessary to recognise the latest representatives (the ultimate logical derivatives?) of the two models. At which stage the utopia of Superstudio and the 'symbolic American utopia' which Robert Venturi has p~ofessed to discover in Disney world" may conveniently exhibit the extremes to which the two critiques of the ville radieuse have (for the moment?) reduced themselves . . Notoriously, the exigencies of freedom


of authority)

The mid-western


Will support the most contradictory positions; and, ostensibly. this is what we here find. The utopia of Superstudio-the world as abstract Ca.rtesian grid-demands a final emancipation from the tyranny of ~b!e~, and the alleged utopia of Disney World-an essentially naturalrsuc Situation-suggests that. rather than any problem. objects are a relief: but. if the One proposes the supersession of the object while the



, • ,101lu1l011 of the needs of Just such a stage, ,:I1£:n, from u cornmcrcful cXI JJ' difference concerns the quullry 01 the perhnps. the only Quf,slnn( ng ucrlon or lis SOl,JrCC (Jr.o:II~;n'OllISlandlng dtffcrcncc relates to Cl conccp.

In OIlier words, IIJ:~ ev~n here, relutloushlps fire closer than might lion of society, thot g nd thus. while Supcrstudto envisions the wither_ (II first be supposed. A World Is the product of a social situUtion lng ilWUY of the state. DISncybli. realm WlIS never very highly assertive, where [he evidence of the pu 'the elimination of the formal structures Simply, ncvWcrkl of power';SuperstudioDisney while 0 is an ,attempt , to furnish the resultant

V·~:;l~"~roblem mny. therefore. uilimotely

reduce Itself to one of style;

or what Is ucccptnble furniture; to the question, may [0 t./ Q. . II ked lind surrounded by minimum noparatus. human bodies. ~1:e~cr.fI: ~;:llrurl1ilurc, or arc we obliged to assume that be construed us <IceelPdil Which is also the question as to whether We utnue morcls rcqufrc 1 " . ,. ' nruke our furniture ourselves or order It from Grand Rapids. [OJ, 111 both cases, the furniture is something which s~I11P~Y flO<lt8, above an operative Infrn-srrucrure and presents itself as 'real ~r. ~!I~sory aCcO~'din~ to taste. In both cases we are in dream worlds exhlbitlng dt~crent styles of sopbtsucanon-wnh the implicit proviso that. for SuperstudJo, there is somehow an Intrinsic connection between the infra-structure and what is dependent upon It, Given the 'correct' Infru-structura: We'll keep silence to llsten to our bodies, We'll watch ourselves llvlng. The mind will fall back on itself to read its own history. We'll play wonderful games of ability and love. We'll talk a lot. to ourselves and to everd'body, Life will be the only environmental art. r Now the oblectlves of Walt Disney to be formulated in exactly this manner. Enterprises are, 'Buy homemade surely, never cookies from Purls, n visit to the sewers, from Ie MaUl/sill Ptuoresque


who fuel the varlnus theatres of 1IIusi00 above: and It should be evident that the correct analogy Is that of the New York skyscraper: on the 65th floor Is the Rainbow Room where the consumption of Tronsccndcnwllst cocktails is the order of the day and then. way. way beneath (out of slght but not out of mind) is the pragmatic sub-basement which faCilitates both the upstairs afflatus and public euphoria. In both cu ses the two worlds of illusion and fact. of publicity and privacy are Insulated, Inter-dependent but separate. they may possibly be equal. but. In no way, arc they to be integrated: and, if the example of Second Empire Purls may here be quoted. what we have In each case Is the underworld of Haussrnann's sewers and the superworld of Garnjer's Opera. '1'0 the strict moralist-though there may not be many left-there Is In these conditions apparent schism something which must be very profoundly wrong: but, If u wlll seem to him that here technology and art arc simultaneously abused, It might still be deslruble for this notoriously Intolerant personage to suppress his Initial reactions. For, if it Is almost certain that the strict moralist. whose temperament is after all a little early Christian, will wish to assign primary value only to the technological catacombs. then. although his point of vlcw IS. to be understood. this attribution or authenticity only to the props of dl.uslon must. in the end, be considered self-defeating. For, given the rtltlng of 'reality' and 'fantasy'. it is a Question of what sponsors what: Do ~e sewers validate the Opera or does the Opera validate the sewers: which has priority, the servant or the served?


Porls, grand srelrcnse or the Opera

a turn of the century mercenary grandma on Main Street; visit the air conditioned Cinderella's Castle by elevator' (who needs Charnbord z): In Adventurcland 'come face to face with "I gigantic python, be menaced by trumpeling African elephants;." pass under the plunging, thundering Albert Palls .'!' 111Tomorrowland, In seven minutes, ride fin earthbound rocket to the moon; and, eventually, exercise the exotic emotions ellclted by cheap air trovel-Isfahan, hotels corresponding to these themes. Bangkok, Tahiti-in the

Modern architecture. and Superstudlo following Its general. lead. has always wished to abolish this gross distinction, or :ven to Oblrlcrat: the Question; but ir, in seeking to do so, it ha~, perhaps ,madv~rtentIY, to. much accepted the Marxian distinction of structure and superstruc ture' assigning importance and Significance only to the first. t~en dthe results of a total failure to consider the problem are not too tar to describe. 'Disney architects World is nearer th II 1 than what to what people rea ~ wan ... ,12 The judgement 15 Robert Ventun s. b h really knows?). It must

have ever given It is correct


and, whether

or not ~mec:r~:~tWha~r truth. So Disney World

be allowed at least to el~b~y ~~dg~ It for what it is, this should surely is justifiably popular; an derivative of townscape has been annexed by be enough '. But wh~n add Is then polemically represented as a the cntertam~eI~t md~stry :~ican utopia' then wholly different critical utopia and as a symb~hc A~ and if the Inter-dependence kitsch and standards bc~ome a.ctlvate~, the~ surely (and however Fauve-Dada we government IS nothing nev , 'I 11 for the inversion of all rnuy wish to be) this does not necessan y ca

So much is a composite picture of the above~ground delights of Disney World Where several hundred acres or mostly fibre glass fantasy rest upon an unseen technological substructure without earthly parallel. whcre, with easy access and accommodating all the vast priorities of change, are contained all the required services-vacuum garbage systems, electrical clrcllitry. sewage lines, complel.e supply tractor traffic routes and total behind (or below) the scenes access for the COstumed employees


serious judgements of value, d d the obvious' and this is both Disney World deals with t,he cru e an I complex: and. thus, Disney its virtue and limitation, Its images are no





World's Main Street is not so much an Idealization of the real thing iJS it is a filtering and packaging operation. involving the elimination of unpleasantness. ofuagedy. oftirne and ofble~ish. But the real Main Street. the authentic nineteenth century thing is neither so facile nor so fclicirous. It registers. instead. an optimistic desperation, The Greek temple. the false Victorian facade. the Palladian portico. the unused Opera·House. the courthouse sanctioned by the glamour of Napoleon In's Paris, the conspicuous monument to the CilliJ War or 10 the gearless Pireman.1J these arc the evidence of almost frenzied effort. \rJ3 the movingly ingenuous reconstitution of stable cultural images. to provide stability in an unstable scene, to convert frontier flux into established community. Main Street was never very pretty nor. probably. ever vel}' prosperous: but it was a posture towards the world Involving both independence and enterprise and it was never lacking in a rawness of pathetic dignity, Its clumsy. would-be metropolitan veneers are the tndrcanons of a certain stoicism of mood. of a sort of embittered Hamboyance. which acquires its final dignity from its essential lack of success. That is. while Main Street was an often grand attempt to dissimulate real hardship and deprivation-an attempt which could only fail. ODe may still sometimes. even in its physical inadequacy, discern the impllctt grandeur of its moral impulse. In other words. the real Main Street. about which be something a little sardonic. there may often proceeds to synthesize different realities by syncretism, •• Thus designing coincides more and mOTC with existence; no longer existence under the protection of design objects. but existence as deslgn'." And what tc say about thist That such poetry may seduce but can seldom convincer that tnslstence upon total freedom is to deny the small approximate freedoms which are a1l that. historically. have been available and are probably all that we am ever anticipate?I' Perhaps: and certainly. ir Superstudio seems to envisage the future 'city' as a continuous Wood~ stock festival for the benefit of 'all' (meaning a highly restricted elite), a Woodstock without garbage. then as we examine Supemudlo's images. we cannot exactly rid ourselves of an impression. For are we not to suppose-indeed can we do other-that these are: the products of an enlightened gesture on the part of the ednor of P18yboy megeztne! Certainly there is here no 'oppression'; and if the libido rides unchecked. we might even imagine that these are among the results of an invitation ID Herbert Marcuse ID prepare a spedal Issue of Hugh Reiner', publlcation ... so far as we can see a kitsch not unequlva)ent Disney World. BUL if a pun may be admitted

is an exhibition of a reserved and scarcely a~eeabJe reallty, of a reality which engages speculative curiosity. which stimulates the imagination and which. for its understanding. insists upon the expenditure inevitably. of mental energy. In the real MaiD Street there is



York, Slate Street. I g6'}

but. the Disney World version

a two-way commerce between the observer and the observed: can scarcely allow for any such risk;


Th,c. Disney World version cannot seriously emulate its emgmauc on~naJ, .A ~achjne for the production of euphoria. it can onlY,leave the imagmauon unprovoked and the capacity for speculation unstimulated: and. while it might be argued that the nausea produced by ::~








smiles might
response. then


a certain genuine

and unpleasant


some qU~jon (sado--masocbism notwithstanding) as to . a traumatic experience is really necessary But if. implicitly, we have a . ed . . Archbishop of Canterb (I SS1go to Billy Graham the role of then we are stiD const~:rn~ could ~ever ~ Pope, of Disney World.

studio which moves upon ftali:n,a5k. How about Superstudio: Superand which from a b . of bo ate levels of cosmopolitan Intelligence . . aslS urgeois neo-Ms ' believe correctly, the unavOidabJ. . arxism, propounds twe what to reply f To say lh' t. C denouement of science fiction? And of the beIJafinurasyndrrnr:e·:;;' uperstudio. we discern a little too much


kitsch of


and w e might believe mat. Super-

nee-Pasctstcontent? We d~ n:::e are not unobservant of an fnsldtcusly Par SU_dio writes of: 'Dcsi ppose these to be adequate responses,
go, become perfect and rational.

studio and Disney World are only alternative ver5iOfl5 the kitsch of death. then. if one is to be relegated to the status of the reader da 'heavy' skin magazine or obUged ID flnd hope only in false pieU"" the time bas surely come 10 recognize that any argument (and particularly a parusa.n argument) if pumJed ID us loglcal termination can ooly be sell-dcstnu:-



have cited Disney World and the images ~f Supers~dio. uve. Thus we lnstc virtues and vices, but rather as the logical extensions not for their scf view which. in themselves. may both be valuable; but of tWO urmntlon here Inrerr~d that only the middle ground of an arguthe p~esum:Se, that Its extremities arc likely always to be a.bsurd. is now me~~ IS of introduced. not from any passion for compromise, but ~s an POSitively . I . ht sstst some kind of alert and workable detente. Intuition whic I ~JlIgch~ncterized modern architecture as, first. a bout J Thus r~r we d'UtlVCa: ~ morning-after nausea which, for relief, made n with dcstUlyan Ie . . usc of at least two time-tested recipes: an analgesic pam fe,mover. or more of the same: but. lf'we have further suggested that s.omctl.mes these remedies were administered simultaneously and sometimes ~n excess. the question as to whether all this activity was really worth-while cannot any longer be postponed. We have surveyed a scene which, fundamentally. endorses retro-

spective attitudes. exploiting known and, perhaps. popular references; we have also witnessed an extension of the prospective and futureoriented resources aspects and. of modern In the end, architecture. the involving and techno-scientific oppression-free dematerialized

utopian state: but then one is also compelled to recognize that in neither of these two traditions has there emerged an urbanlstlc statement capable of offsetting that of early modern architecture. Nor have from attempts to reconcile this duality of approach ful; and, because any such attempts effective usage or too hesitant and interpretation. the problem presented the fantasy of the comprehensive poetry and read as prescription. been. so far. very success-

have been too far removed

various to admit of coherent by early modern architecturepropounded as in grotesque and cutto ignore, in the

city of deliverance, institutionalized

rate form-still remains. to become every day more impossible And the problem remains what to do? Given the recognition cultural relativism which. that utopian models will founder for better or worse, immerses

acted as Scholastic classroom aids. it becomes possible to refer to them as having been theatres oJ memory. And the designation is a useful one. because. if today we are only to? apt to think of buildings as necessarily prophetic. such an alternative mode of thinking may serve to correct our unduly prejudiced naivete. The building as a theatrt oJ prophecy. the bulldlng as a iheatre oJ memory-if we are able to conceive of the building as the one. we must. inherently. be able also to conce1veof lt as the othe.r; and. while recognizing that. without benefit of academic theory. this is the way in which we habitually do interpret buildings. we might further observe that this memory-prophecy theatre distinction could well be carried over Into the urbanistic field. or course. having saki Just so much and no more. it goes almost without saying that exponents of the city as prophecy theatre would be likely to be thought of as radicals while exponents of the city as memory theatre would. almost certainly be described as conservatives: but. if there might be some degree of truth In such assumption. it must also be cstablished that block notions of this kind arc not really very useful. The mass of mankind is likely to be. at. anyone time. both conservative and radical. to be preoccupied with the famiUar and diverted by the unexpected; and. if we all of us both live in the past and hope for the future (the present being no more than an episode in time), It would seem reasonable that we shouJd accept this condition. Par. if without prophecy there is no hope. then. without memory there can be no communication. Obvious. trite and senten.tious though this may be. it was-happily or unhappily-an aspect of the human mind which the early proponents of modern architecture were able to overlook-happily for them. unhappily for us. But. if without such distinctly perfunctory psychology. 'the Dew wav of building' cou1d never have come into being. there cannot any longer be excuse for the failure to recognize the complementary relatlonshtp which is fundamental to the processes of anticipation and retrospection. For these are Inter-dependent activities: and since. quite literally. we cannot perform without exercising them both. no attempt to suppress either in the interests of the other can ever be protractedly successful. We may receive strength from the noveh! of prophetic declamation; but the degree of this potenc~ must be strictly related to the known. perhaps mundane and. necessarily. memory-laden context from which it emerges. Which almost completes a phase of argument: . .. and. since .It
IS. an

us. it would

seem only reasonable to approach such models with the greatest circumspection; given the inherent dangers and debilitations of any institutionalized

status quo-and particularly


staWs quo ante (more of Levittown,

more of Wimbledon. even more of Urbina and Chipping Camden)It would also seem that neither simple 'give them what they want' nor unmodified townscape are equipped with sufficient conviction to provide more than partial answers; and. such being the case. it becomes

necessary to conceive of a strategy which might, one hopes, and without disaster. accommodate the ideal and which might plausibly. and without devaluation. respond to what we believe the real to be. n lb darelccnt book. The Art of Memory. If, Prances Yates speaks of Gothic ca t e ra S as mnemonic de . Th blb both the illiterate and th v~ces... C I les ~nd the encyclopedias of articulate thou ht b . e literate. these buildings were intended to g y aSSisting recollection: and. to the degree that they

argument which here must be left open. for present ~~scs It might conveniently be terminated in the form of three questions: Why should we be obliged to prefer a nostalgia for the future to that for the past? _ II f Could not the model city which we carry in our minds a 0\\ or our

constitution? . _. Could not this ideal city. at one and the same time, behave. qutte explicitly. as both a theatre of prophecy

known psychological

and a theatre of memory?


.' aif the Qb,iect·Predicament of Texture
J • n talkative and entertaining

. The projected modern city, in thts way. may be seen as a transitional Piece., a proposal which eventually. it is hoped. may lead to the reestablishment of an unadulterated natural setting.

;~.:r£~d~,~~~£~ :;;::rt~~~; :~~t~:i~I~~~~~~~~\~: ~d~~~~~;;
entered into the lease:

Cities force growth an d m ak e me

but they make men artificial.

ey arc

e in

the screen of trees. Nature Is

r think

that our govemmen

ts will remain virtuous as long as they are chiefly agricultural.


But ... how can man withdraw himself from the fields IWhere will be go: since the eartb is one huge unbounded field? Qnite simple; he will mark off a portion of thiS. field by means of walls. which set up an enclosed finite space over against amorpbous. lirrutless space ... For in truth the most accurate definition of the urbs and the polis is very like the comic definition ofa cannon. You take a hole. wrap some steel wire tightly around it. and that's your cannon. So the urbs or polis starts by being an empty space and all the rest is just a means of fixing that empty space. of limiting its outlines The square ... This lesser rebellious field which secedes from the limitless one, and keeps to itself. is a space sui yelleris of the most novel kind in which man frees himself from the community of the plant and the animal ... and creates an enclosure apart which is purely human, a civil space. Jost ORTEGA

Such was the vision of an ever-evolving return to nature. a return that was (and is) evidently felt to be so important that. whenever possible, demonstrations of this vision have insisted on their absolute detachment symbolic and physical. from any aspects of existing context which bas been. typically. envisaged as a contaminant, as something both morally and hygienically leprous. And thus Lewis Mumford OD an illustration in his Culture oj Crues: Rear of a hand~ome. fa~ade in Edinburgh: barracks architecture facing a ~atwalk: typical Indifference to rear views characteristic of scene painting. An ~rchitecture of fronts, Beautiful silks. costly perfumes. Elegance of mind and small pox. Out of sight. out of mind. Modern functional planning distinguishes itself from this purely visual conception of the plan. by dealing honestly and competently with every side. abolishing the gross distinction between front and rear. seen and obscene. and creating structures that are harmonious in every dimension.'


Paris, Place des Vosges (Place Royale). the Plan 'Iurgot. 1739


Corbustet: VUleRadleuse. 1930


In intention the modern city was to he a fitting home for the noble savage. A bei~g so aboriginally pure necessitated a domicile of equivalent purity; if his a~d, if way back the noble savage had emerged mtact. I

from the trees. then,

~vlil.tra~scending innocence was to be preserved. his virtues maintained



~as back into the trees that he must be returned.

ml~ht imagine that such an argument was the ultimate psychoration~le ~fthe ville radieuse or Zeifcllbau city, a city which. in its

exlste ete projecnon, was almost literally imagined as becoming nonex tent. Immediately neces build' delicate and unassertiv' sa~y , ,mgs appear, so far as possible, as raised above the rou~~ntrusl~ns Into,the natural continuum: buildings potentially reclal g bl provlde as little contact as possible with the arth releasing qUalifi~~i~n e : and, while there ensues a freedomrecogni7.e a comme t 0 gravity, we are perhaps also encouraged to any conspicuous ar~r:;~ upon the dangers of prolonged exposure to






t " .....

~ •• -

Which, allowing for a chanlCleristicaJly, 1\1umfordia~ rhetOric. is aJJ assicelb' representati\'e of the bias of the ml~r-war penod,. The promt, clas .•. honesty and hygiene, the City of vested Interest and nent c-:ena ~.~tiODis 10 'disappear; and. in place of traditional subterfuge im~cr ~oclathere ;s to be lntroduced a visible and rational equality of and Imposincn. . . . parts-an equality which insists upon openness and IS readily to be tnter., pre-ted as both cause and effect of any condition vow. of course. the equation of the backyard

~f humane well-being. moral and physical


. safubrtrv. which become-s the opposition of closure and openness and iQ\'~tment with negative and positive Qualities (,E1egance of mind though the one automatically followed the other). of other sources: and. in terms of vision of the darlst.' macabre. the courtyard. this style of aguwith

and small pox--as

could be illustrated from an abundance thar distinctively nineteenth century human scarecrow

in the cholera-infected

menr should scarcely require reinforcement.
and planners. preoccupied the representation but. worse than most part. shamefully world

Visually oriented

arc.hitects had. for the Possibilities

with the rrophles and triumphs

of culture.

of the public realm and its public facades. compromised not only the pleasurable

this. the essential sanitary bases of that more intimate within which 'real' people. people as deserving aspects of concern. actually do exist. And. if this statement were to be augmented to say
something about pragmatically substance would not be radically callous capitalists transformed. then its general

But if such was the one-time negative and necessary criticism of traditional metropolis. then if an overview of nineteenth century Paris can be allowed to represent the evil. an overview of Amsterdam S~utb may also

be introduced to exhibit the initial conceptions of an alternative: and both illustrations derive from the accessible pages of Siegfried Gredlon." The Hausmannesque situation. as witnessed by a bird or from a
balloon. is so suffidentJy comparable to the air photo of Berlagtan

A.msterdam as to need the m..i..nimumof comment, Both are subservient to the aesthetic of the French seventeenth ceunn-e hunting forest with its
rOllds~ints ~ pal~-d'oil': and. in being so. the~ both of them. by means of major arteries converging at a. hopefully, significant place describe a ~angul~ territory as subject for developm~nt or infill. But then it is here with the inflli, that r bl . b .. ese.m ance ceases. For. if among the grandeurs and ~talities of Second Empire Pans. logical infiIl could be disreoarded if it cLeO N'. be redthenUC~ to the abstract \'olumetric status of trees in : garde'D bv 1 otre, m cOnscienti 1 ~ high] a1' ous ear Y twentieth century Holland such a y casu UD]Ver:saJ matrix 0 't • available And beca r exture was. emphatically. Dot em~en~ In tide a more tolerable th


aFrench prototype. ~enwne attempt

the result

is a Dutch to pro-

bas been made

have aU been made av~::~ b:XlSt~n~e. Air. light. prospect. open space the threshold of th u t, whlle one may sense that ODe is here e weuare state . a~omaJy. The two big avenues, for ~ ODe ~ay s~ be overcome by the diffident and residual Tb I' II thelr ambitious protestation. are and self-COn6dence o'r tb e! ~e .a~king in the vulgar or the boring swagger err anslan prototypes. They are among the~last


~C~lUrt.'p lei

nJllCt'!'I.'iIUIIS /IIell!.

to Ik


,11(' /lolltlll 01' lilt' NII"t'cl; IIl1d Iltt.'ll' l'III'ull,11 "'fiJI W' In I~KIW(_'~:-;I!!ItI/oI11I 111)1 "(HlCl'llI flJul1' Y l'tI/I!.:!! dll h('('wllt: 1111 lIlurl' Ihllll 11Il' f'OIl,'it'rVUllvdy 11I~;r('dh.'"_

props 111/1<I.Y/IIS Idcn. Por, 111lilt' IIrUIIIIU'111 OfH/Jl!d Vl'n-lIl,"I void II' "It;.Jlt('d
hCl'IJfltl' IIIIVI'




Ie) II vlsl,",






10 IWY,

SllIIply Ilw"l'

IIV(,IIIH!S /II'l' <Hl'lPf)Sllhlc,

I,] 11{)/1 snow

I/J{'/r f"~'Jldcs dl'.'ilwlHtc lilly cOCl'IJvl' J"'f"Jllel'/l('IWt'C'1I puhllc LllJd 1~;fY do 'I'hcy 1/1'('t.'VUIi/Vl'.I\lld 1II11dl 1'11"'(' 1111111lito f'1t('udus fIr erg/tlet.'111 h ,It Vlrlc,



Hldlm't/-J.(,,.ClJr, (',I I,Hr I

I H() I


/I('lm" Anldrf(/,U/I SUlIlh,



IrrlllW AmNlcl'tlUJlI SUlltll.

b come \V a res fr~m continuoUs solid to continuous


burgh, they ineffectively conce~l. For th~ important reality has 1]0 , h t I' behind. The matrix of the crty has become trans' " 'Ollned


Theo Van Doesburg: Counterconstruction. matson partlculiare. 1921

It goes without saying that both the failure and success of Amsterdalll South. and of many comparable projects, could only activate the con, science: but. whatever always more activated may have been the d~ubts (the conscience is

by failure than success): It proba~IY remains true to say tbar logical scepticism was not ab,le to digest. the ISsue for at least
some ten years, Which is to say that. until the late mneteen-twenties, the culturally obligatory street still dominated the scene and that. as a result. certain conclusions remained unapproachable. In this sequence. and where the questions of who did what irrelevant. and precisely The City When are, for present purposes, of Three

Million Inhabitants, miscellaneous Russian projects. Karlsruhe-Darn,mar_ stock. etc., all have their dates: and the assignment of priority or praise Or blame Is not here an issue. Simply the issue is that, by 1930, the disintegra.
tion of the street and of all highly organized become public space seemed to hal"

~ ._-.__._._- - - - -'. u.L...a......__.__~~-r
.J • '.'

inevitable: and for two major reasons: the new and rationalized form of housing and the new dictates of vehicular activity. For. if the configuration of housing now evolved from the inside out, from the logical needs of the individual residential unit. then it could no longer be subservient to external pressures: and. if external public space had become so functionally chaotic as to be without effective Significance. then-in any case-there were no valid pressures which it could any longer exert.
Such were the apparently the unFaultabie deductions which underlay

£' •..


".,'1 ...,








establishment of the city of modern architecture: but. around these primary arguments. there was evidently the opportunity for a whole miscellany of secondary rationalizations to proliferate. And thus the new city could achieve further justification in terms of sport or of science, in terms of democracy or equality. in terms of history and absence of traditional parti pris. in terms of private automobiles and public transport. In terms of technology and SOCia-political crisis; and. like the idea of the city of modern architecture itself. in some form or another. almost all of these arguments are still with us. . And. of course. they are reinforced (thougb whether reinforcement ~ ~~ co;;,ect word may be doubted) by others. 'A building is like a soap
u Ie. IS bubble is perfect and harmonious if the breath has been even y distributed ~ the Jnet Inte' .'" Th rom e inSIde. The exterior is the result of an ~_rbnuorl', Is debilitating half truth has proved to be one of Le UJ sersmorcpersu' b . do with pr ti h asrvs a servations. That it never had very much to oracademi:CLhC~Sauld ~ Obvious: but. if it is an impeccable statement dictum which eO~d~:ng to domed and vaulted structures. it is also a preFerably a ,--- t d Y lend support to the notion of the building as uee s an lug oble t i th as much: but, iffo Tb c 10 e round. Lewis Mumford intimates eo that ·the Dew ar;hite Van ~burg and many others it was axiomatic cture Will develop in an aU sided plastic way."

::::s-:_;·"tl-: -1-: -;J
.=i ~==l • ..' .... i __ --II .Li 1:.;:.'
• •


Ludwig HiJberselmer: project for central Berlin. J 927


~'~i61~I~Ej ~'e-JldBI "
Walter Gropius: diagrams showing the development of a recrangmar site with parallel rows of apartment blocks of different heights. 1929

this placing of immensely high premia, upon

the ~uilding

as 'interesting'

and detached object (which still continues} I1~ust now be brought into conjunction with the simultaneously entertal,ned proposition that the building (object ?) must be made to go away ( Great blocks of dwellings run through the town. What does it matter? T~e~ are ~ehind the Screen of trees'). And, if we have here. p:esented th,lS sltu.atlOn in terms of a typicaUy Corbusian self_con~adlctlOn. there, IS reason to recognize that one IS confronted ~lth any. and every. day. Indeed. in modern and the wish to dissimulate revealed, is something compassionate comment. But modern architecture's an object) is our present concern so extraordinary object pride in this as pride.



this same contradiction
the pride in objects which is everywhere


to defeat

all possibility
which is





only in so far as it involves

the city. the

For. in its present and unevapm-, ated form. the city of modern architecture become a congeries of concity which was to become evaporated. spicuously disparate objects is quite as problematical theoretical with the as the traditional that the to that to city which it has sought to replace. Let us. first of all, consider the place this proposition buildings, as man-made in conjunction artefacts,

desideratum evident

rational building is obliged to be an object

and. then.

let us attempt
suspicion status, attempt

Le Corbusier: project for city centre of Saint-Die. 1945. perspective

enjoy a meretricious release, materialization alongside than matter. nature

in some and tbis

way. detrimental to an ultimate spiritual place this demand for the rational parallel need for its disintegration space is. in some way, more sublime can only facilitate the demands

Let us further of the object that. while

yet another prevalent supposition: that. if space is sublime. then limitless naturalistic space must be far more so than any abstracted and structured space: and, finally. let us upstage this whole implicit argument by introducing the notion that. in any case. space is far less important than time and that too much insistence-particularly upon delimited space-is likely to inhibit the unrolling of the future and the natural becoming of the 'universal society,' Such are some of the ambivalences and fantasies which were. and

the very

obvious feeling that
the affirmcontinuum And then with

ation of matter is inevitably gross. the affirmation of freedom, let us qualify what became a widespread tendency

of a spatial and spirit,

to space worship

still are, embedded in the city of modern architecture: but. though these could seem to add up to a cheerful and exhilarating prescription. as already noticed. even when realizations of this city. though pure, were only partial. doubts about it began very early to be entertained, Perhaps these were scarcely articulated doubts and whether they concerned the necessities of perception or the predicament of the public realm is difficult to determine: but. if. in the Athens Congress of 19336 ClAM had spelled out the ground rules for the Dew city. then by the mid-forties there could be no such dogmatic certainty. For neither the state nor the object had vanished away: and, in QAi\ol's Heart of tile Cityi conference of 19-1- . 7 lurking reservations as to their continuing validity began. indeclstvely. to surface. Indeed. a consideration of the 'city core'. in itself. already indicates a certain hedging of bets and. possibly. the beginnings of a recognition that the ideal of indiscriminate neutrality or inconspicuous equality was hardly attainable or even desirable. But. if a renewed interest in the possibilities of focus and hence of confluence seems, by this time. to have been developing. while the interest was there, the equipment to service it was lacking: and the problem presented by the revisionism of the late forties might best be typified and illustrated by Le Corbusier's plan for St. Die. where modified

te Corh,us\er: project for city centre of Saint-Die, 1945, plan

success reverse f the froe standlng building. the space OCCUPier have • ssiblc, the dilemma ,0 definer? Par, if it is to be doubted whether thls :::'tempting to act a' space nfluence. then. regardless or the desirability 'centre' would facilitate CtOwhat we arc here provided With IS a kind of hi , a f tIS. effect. it seemS tha hrcllia-an acrop olls of sorts which is attempting to
. bee 11 the 10

hens Churter spccllicatlon are looscl~ arranged So d lelllcnts of At f trallty and htcrurchy. to SlI11ulatcsolllc "nndn'. l:nte sOllie notlol]s 0 ce~ured receptacle. And might It be said as to \11$\1 r ·town centre" or sn u~ thor a built St. Die would. probably 1U "ersl~n o,pite of the name of II::; 'r I'tl1l:~t t. Die illustrates. S us clearly H~ that. of u. ,

lnslde It, then, as curiosity becomes aroused, even this llluslon quickly disappcurs, For on overview or quick dash behind the Immedhstely vlalble set piece rupldly discloses the Information that what one has been Subjected to Is little more than U stage set. That Is. the spacc orthe square. professing to be an ullcviaUon of density. the relief of an Impacted context. quickly lends Itself'tc be read as nothing of the kind. It exists wlthoutcsscnllal back up or Support. without pressure, In built or human form. to give credibility or vitality to Its existence; and. with the space thus fundamentally 'unexplained,' It becomes apparent that, far from being any outcropping of an historical Or spatial context (which It would seem to be), the Harlow town square Is. In effect a foreign body Interjected Into a garden suburb Without benefit of quotation marks.
Harlow New Town, 1950s, air view

unfulfilling perform


of an agora


as some ~'erslo~e anomaly of the undertaking',the re-affirmation Howe\'er. in spite of was not readily to be relinquished: and, if the of centralizin~ ~emesmeut might easily be interpreted, as a seepage of 'core of the city ~r~~nto the ClAM city diagram, a P~lnt m~~ now be townscape stra~egle e st. Die city centre into comparison :'lth that of made by bringtng th Harlow new town Which, though ' I contemporary . . the approXi1l1ate Y b uite so implausible as, sometimes, has eVidently 'impure,' may not e q appeared to be the casehe[e is absolutely no by-play with met~phors of At Harlow, where t . th can be no dou bt th a.t what one is being offered IS a 'rea!' . acropolis. ere r and cordingly. the discrete aspects of the and literal market-place. a°ed·dac the buildings themselves amaIgam_ "din are play own. individual bull gs th asually haphazard defining wrapper, aslittlemore aoac . ,, ated,. to appear , wn s uare. supposed to be the authentic t~g Itself, But, uthe Harlow .t~ . des of time and all the rest, may be a little avera product V~CISSltu I if one might be just a little fatigued with ingratiating ID Itsaillusor~ ap~ea a'r. stant 'history' and overt 'modernity.' . tiel comblnatiou m quite so en Ion of me di al space may still appear believable as one stands ifits simulation a lev

Murkct Square,

But. in the Issue ofHar!ow versus St. Ole. one Is stili obliged to recognize a COincidence of Intention. In both cases the object Is the production of II significant urban foyer; and, given this aim, It seems perfectly fair to say

Harlow New Town, Market Square, 1950s, view

II utcver Its merits as architectur~. the Harl~\: town prOVI that. \\ 1 " ration to the Imnglned condition than ever S des loser approxlIl t. Die a ,c .hnve done. Which is neither to endorse Harlow nor condemn might , tl er to allow them both. as attempts to simulate St, Die' but IS rn 1 " ld.' lhe ' f' I'd' city with the elements 01 val , to emerge as camp qualities 0 so 1 . arable g

asrures of interrogation. .. Now. as to the relevance of the ques~ons .whlch th~y propOund, this might be best examined by onc~ m~re directlng a~tentlOn to the typical
city which.

format or the traditional of the city of modern

every way.


so much

the inverse might,


that the two of th~m


sometimes. almost present themselves as th~ alternative

re~ding of sanle

Gestalt diagram illustrating the fluctua.tions of the figure-ground phenomenon. Thus, the one is .<liu:ostall white. the. oth~r alm~st all black; the one an accunmlation ofsohds 10 largely u~mampulat~d votd, the other an accumulation of voids in largely unrnanlpulated solid; and, in both cases, the fundamental ground promotes an entirely different category of figure-ill the one object in the other space. However not to comment upon this somewhat ironical coudition;

It' Corbusier: project for Saint-Die. figure-~round plan

and simply. in spite ofits obvious defects, to notice very briefly the apparent virtues of the traditional city: the solid and continuous matrix or texture giving energy to its reciprocal condition. the specific space; the

ensuing square and street acting as some kind of public relief valve and providing some condition of legible Structure: and. just as important. the very great versatility of the supporting texture or ground. For, as a condition of virtually continuous building of incidental make up and assignment. this is not under any great pressure for seli-completton or overt expression of function: and. given the stabilizing effects of public facade. it remains relatively free to act according to local impulse or the requirements of immediate necessity. Perhaps these are virtues which scarcely require to be proclaimed: but. if they are. everyday. more loudly asserted. the situation so described is still not quite tolerable. U it offers a debate between solid and void. public stability and private unpredictability. public figure and private ground which has not failed to stimulate. and if the object building, the soap bubble of sincere internal expression. when taken as a universal proposition. represents nothing short of a demolition of public life and decorum. if it reduces the public realm. the traditional world of visible civics to an amorphic remainder. one is still largely impelled to say: so what? And it is the logical. defensible presuppositions of modem architecture-light. air. hygiene. aspect, prospect. recreation. movement. Panna. figure-ground plan openness-which inspire this reply. So. if the sparse, anticipatory city of isolated objects and continuous

. alle ed city of freedom and '~nlv~r~al' society will not be made VOids,tI:e au~ if. perhaps, in its essentlals',lt IS I~ore valuable than its dis_ Y allow. if. while it is felt to be good. nobody seems to like it, to g~ 8\\ a an credlto~:01 remains: what to try to do with it? , . the~;:re !f s~ple are vartcus possibilities. To adopt an Ir~nlcal posture


-o ound social revolution

are two or them:

but. ~mce the possibiJjUcs a,nd since revolution tends

irony are almost totally pre-empted

(0 turn into its opposite. tben. in spite of th~ persistent devotees of absolute freedom, it is to be doubted whether either or these are very useful

legible in terms of proximity, identity, common structure. density. etc .. there arc still questions as to how much such objects can be agglomerated and of how plausible. In reality, It is to assume the possibility of their exact multiplication. Or. alternatively. these arc questions relative to optica1 mechanics. of how much can be supported before the trade breaks down and the introduction of closure. screening. segregation of information. becomes an experiential imperative. Presumably this point has not. as yet. quite been reached. For the modern city in Its cut-price versions (the city in the park become the city in the parking tot). for the most part still exists within the closed fields which the traditional city supplies. But. if. in this way-not only perceptually but also sociologically parasitic. it continues to feed off the organism which it proposes to supplant. then the time is now not very far remote when this sustaining background may finally disappear. Such is the incipient crisis of more than perception. The traditional city goes away: but even the parody of the city of modem architecture refuses to become established. The public realm has shrunk to an apologetic ghost but the private realm has not been significantly enriched: there are no references-either historical or ideal; and. in this atomized society. except for what is electronically supplied or is reluctantly sought in print. communication has either collapsed or reduced itself to impoverished interchange of ever more banal verbal formulae. EVidently, it is Dot necessary that the dictionary. whether Webster or OED, need retain its present volume. It is redundant: its bulk is inflated: the indiscriminate use of its contents lends itself to specious rhetoric: its sophistications have very little to do with the values of 'jus' plain folks'; its semantic processes categories very little correspondence savage, with of the nee-noble But. if the appeal. in and. certainly.

strategies. To propose that more of t~e sam~. or mo~e of approximately the same. will-like old-rashioned Imssez !mre-provlde self-correction? This is just as much to be doub~ed as is the myth of th~ ,u.n,impaired capacities of self-regulating capitalism: but. all or thes~ POSSibilities apart, it would seem. first of all. to be reasonable threatened or promised city of object fixation possibility of its perception. It is a matter of how much the mind and plausible to examine the from the point or view or the absorb or cornp.

and eye can

rehend: and it is a problem which bas been around. ful solution. since the later years of the eighteenth that of quantification.

without century.

any successThe issue is

Pancras is like Maryfebone. Marylebone is like Paddlngton : all the streets resemble each other, .. your Gloucester Places, and Baker Streets, and Harley Streets. and Wimpole Streets ... all of those flat. dull. spiritless streets. resembling each other like a large family of plain children. with Portland Place and Portman Square for their respectable parents." The time is 1847 and the judgement. if the multiplication which is Disraeli's. produced may be taken as by repetition. disgust, of objects? But. then that a

a not so early reaction to the disorientations of spaces long ago began

the intellectual

to elicit such

what is there now to be said about the proliferation words. whatever may be said about the traditional the city of modem architecture surely apparent identification that. while can sustain limited an perceptual base? And the obvious answer and understanding. boundaries would anything

In other

the name of innocence, seriously to abbreviate the dictionary might find only a minimum of support, even though built forms are not quite the same as words. we have here sketched a programme strictly analogous to that which was launched by modern architecture. Let us eliminate the gratuitous: let us concern rather than wants: let us not be too preoccupied tinctions: temporary instead let us build [rom fundamentals which led to the present this was the message happenings

city. is it possible

like so adequate may facilitate

seem to be not. For it is spaces naturalistic void all


ourselves with needs with framing the dis... Something impasse: very like itself) ~o be and, if con-


without any recognizable comprehension.

will at least be likely to defeat

are believed (like modern architecture

Certainly. in considering the modern city from the point of view of perceptual performance b G aJ ..• For if the a ..' y est t criteria It can only be condemned, ". th pprecreuon or perception of object or figure is assumed to require e presence of Some sort fh some sort of ground or field, if the recognition of ence and ~f owe.vcr closed field is a prerequisite or all perceptual expertwhen fig~eC~nSclousness of field precedes consciousness of figure, then. IS unsUPPorted by. . can only beco fb any recogmzable frame of reference. It imagine-and e~ led and self-destructive. For. while it is possible to Imagme being delighted by-a field of objects which are

inevitable. of course. they will become so, But. on the other hand. if we do not suppose ourselves to be in the Hegelian grip of Irreversible fate. it is just possible that there are alternatives to be found. In any case the question at this point is not so much .whether t~e

traditional city. in absolute terms, is good or bad, relevant or Irrelevant. I~ tune with the Zeitgeist or otherwise. Nor is it a question of modern archltecture's common surrender obvious interest. neither. defects. Rather it is a question of common We have two models of the city. Ultimately. s~ns~ and wishing to of


we wish to Qualify both. For in an age. allegedly.





o donal latitUde and pluralist intention. it. should be ~sible at least to some kind of strategy of accommodation. and CoeXIStence. p But. if in this way we now ask for deJjv~ran~ from the city of


delif'erance. then in order to secure any 3ppr~Xlmaoo~ to this condition of freedom. there are certain cherished fanta~Jes. ~ot without final value, which the architect must be caUed u~n t~ tmagrne as modlfied and redirected. The notion of himself as messiah IS one of these: and. while the notion of himself as eternal proponent of avant gardelsm is another. even more important is the strangely desperate idea of architecture as oppressive and coercive." Indeed. particuJa~'y. this curious relic of neo-Regclianism will require to be temporanJy suppressed: and this in the interests of a recognition that 'oppression' is always with us as the insuperable condition of enstence-' oppression' of birth place and time, of language and education. of memory being aU of them components superseded. And so to proceed and death. of and numbers.

of a condition


as yet. is not

to be

from diagnosis=usually


nosis-generally even more casual-firstly overthrow of one of modem architecture's

there might be suggested the least avowed but most visible

tenets. This is the proposition that all outdoor space must be in public ownership and accessible to everybody: and. if there is no doubt that this was a central working idea and. has. long since. become a bureaucratic cliche. there is still the obligation to notice that. among the repertory of possible ideas. the inordinate importance of this one is very odd indeed. And thus. while its iconographic a coJJcctivized and emancipated substance may be recognized-it meant barriers-. ever have it is New a ceiling. society which knew no artificial

one may stiU marvel that such an offbeat proposition could become so established. One walks through the city-whether York. Rome. London or Paris who cares: one sees lights upstairs.

shadows. some objects; but. as one mentally fills in the rest and imagines a SOCietyof unexampled brilliance from which one is fatally excluded. one I.e Corbusler: Parts, Plan Voisin. 1925. aerial axonomelrh:: does not feel exactly deprived. Par. in this curious commerce between the visible and the undisclosed, we arc well aware that we too can erect our own private proscenium and. by turning on our own lights. augment the ge~craI h~lIuCi[]ation which. however absurd it may be. is never other than sUmulatmg. T~ is to specify. in a particularly exclusion may gratify the imagination. extreme form. a way in which One is caUed upon to complete of which one is made

ap~are~tl~ mysterious but really normal situations

on YldP':.."~lalJy aw~re: and. if literally to penetrate all these situations wou destructive of sp I' I analogyofthe'IJ' ecu alive p easure. one might now apply the is qulte simply to umm~ted room to the fabric of the city as a whole. Which and its more recc~~~ t .at ~e absolute spatial freedoms of the ville radiellse being empowered t env~~I:cs are without interest: and that, rather than same-almost CCrtaln~ ~a everywhere-evcrwhere y I would be marc satisfying being always the to be presented with

Togs the exc!uslons-wa II, rtu I However.




a reaSonably a dimly

constructed ~rollnd plane. eh is only to articulate

what is already

If to say ,so~n: it is usually provided with sociological justiti~ pcrceived.tend~llcy. ;;11tive 'turf etc.). there are more important seen,
cation (Identity. co ~aditiOn W~ich are surely required: the object which allegedly and we speak nobody Wants to flees o~ c~ntemp~ra~~consider

of a willi~gn~SS't :ot so much as figure but as ground.

m~erslon is most immediately and succinctly to be e~plamed b~ the, companso~ of a void and a solid of almost identical proportions. And, if to Illustrate prune soUd nothing will serve better than Le Corb~~ier's Dnit~: then,. as an
of such instance of the opposite scarcely be more adequate. and reciprocal condition, Vasan

and to ev UBI e 'I Ich 'or practical purposes. A proposa W II ,I' imagine the present dispensation as inverted.


= Idea

a willingness


Uffizt could hut.

The parallel is, of course,


if a sixteenth century office building become a museum may, with certain reservations, be brought into critical proximity with a twentieth century apartment house. then an obvious point can be made. For, if the Uffizi is Marseilles turned outside in, or if it is a jelly mould for the Unite, it is also void become figurative. active and positively charged: and, while the effect of Marseilles bias the comparison: is to endorse while a private a 'collective' caters and atomized And. clientele, VOid-figure. an irregular society, the Florence, ljffizi. plan

Uffizi is much more completely building which. unambiguously,


to further Vasari's stable back up

Le Corbusier presents a private and insulated
to a limited A central

Corbusier: Marseilles, Unite d'Habtratton. ]946, site plan

model is sufficiently two-faced to more, Urbanistically

be able to accommodate

a good deal

it is far more active.

and obviously planned. with, by way of entourage,

which may be loose and responsive to close context. A stipulation of an and an engagement of empirical circumstance, the Uffizi may be seen as reconciling themes of self-conscious order and spontaneous randomness: and, while it accepts the existing, by then proclaiming the new the Uffizi confers value upon both new and old, Again. a comparison of a Le Corbusicr product, this time with one by Auguste Perret. may be used to expand or to reinforce the preceding: ~nd, since ~e comparison, originally made by Peter Collins, involves two ~terpretations of the same programme. it may, to that extent. be constdered the more legitimate. Le Corbusler and Perret's projects for the Palace of the Soviets Which, the PA'Otogether, might have been designed

to confound the proposition that form follows function, could almost be allowed to speak for themselves, Perret gestures to immediate context and Ie Corbusier scarcely so W·th th . I· . the Kre-eu .I elf exp tctt spatial connections with e ~emlin and towards the river Perret s buildings the inflection , of their courtyard ter i ' i te d d en r mto an Idea of Moscow which they are evidently nne to elaborate' but Le C b . , proclaim thei dertvae or usrer S buildings, which are apt to much [eSPO:ivee~v~~on. from internal necess~ty, are certainly not so e site as they are symbolic constructs supposedly





to an assumed

newly liberated cultural

milieu. And if in each

Corbusier: Moscow. project for the Palace of the SOviets. 1931

case. the use of site is iconographically representative of an attitude to tradition. then. in these two evaluations of tradition. it may be entirely fair to read the effects of a twenty year generation gap. But in one further parallel along these lines there is no such gap mat can be interposed. Gunnar Asplund and Le Corbusier were entirely of the same generation: and, if one is here not dealing with comparable programmes or proposals of equivalent size. the dates of Asplund's Royal Chancellery project (1921) and Le Corbusler's Plan Voisin (1915) may still facilitate their joint examination. The Plan Voisin is an outgrowth of Le Corbuster's Ville Contemporame of 1912. It is [he rille Ccntemporaine injected into a specific Panslan site: and.however unvtslonary if was professed to be-Indeed however 'rear it has become-it evidently

Auguste Perret: Moscow. project for the Palace of the Soviets. 1931 far Ir/l below Le Corbusier. plan
lrfl belQW

Perret. plan

~~~~und:Chancellery, site plan

~~:;~nd: Chancellery,





Corbusier: Paris. Plan Voisin. 191).

proposes a completely different working model ~f re.ality fr~m that employed by Asplund. The one is a statement of historical destiny, the other of historical continuity: the one is a celebration of generalities. as ican the other of specifics: and. in both cases. the ative of these different evaluations.


Gunnar Asplund: Stockholm. roject p far the Royal Chancellery. 1911. elevation

site functions


Thus, as almost always in his urbanistic
largely responds to the idea of a reconstructed concerned with local spatial minutiae. Martin may be incorporated

proposals. society

Le Corbusier
unand SaintLe Corbusier and, in his

and is largely

If the Portes Saint-Dents aim is manifesto. symbol;

in the city centre so far so good: iftbe Marais

is to be destroyed no matter: the principal concern

primarily involved with the building of a Phoenix

to illustrate a new world rising above the ashes of the old. one may detect a reason for his highly perfunctory approach to major monuments-on1y to be inspected after cultural inoculation. And thus,
by contrast. Asplund for whom. one might suppose. ideas of soda I as right Le Corbusler: Paris. Plan Voisin, site plan continuity become represented in his attempt to make of his buildings, much as possible. a part of the urban continuum.

But if Le Corbusier simulates a future and Asplund a past. if one is almost all prophecy theatre and the other almost all memory. and if it is the present contention that both of these ways of looking at the well as sentimentally_are valuable. the immediate concern is with theIr spatial implications. We have identified suggested that it would be less than sane to abandon two models' either' and we have we are.

COnseq~~ntly. concerned with their reconciliation with at' one level a recogflltlon of the s ecif d ,. . statement B Ut b ~ c an , at another, the possibilities of general predominan' t tdere IS also the problem of one model which is active and an another who h' hi h correct thjs lack f uili . IC IS g Iy recessive: and it is in order to Vasari. Perret a~ ~ I fhrtum that we have been obliged to Introduce there is no doubt ab s~ ~n~ as purveyors of useful information, And. maybe. Vasari the mo tit t at. of the three. Perret Is the most banal and,


to Illustrate the most 'I 'buggestive. then. probably. Asplund may be felt a tancously the emPlriCI:t ora~e Use of multiple design strategies, SlmulreactlOg to site and the idealist concerned with






PRl!D ICAMeN1' 011 'l'eXTURE



OF 1'H£ OBleCT~



norman v e cond~tion, in one work be responds, adjusts. translates, asserts ro be-and all at once-passive recipient and active revcrberator However, ,A,splund's play with assumed contingencies and ~umed ab~olutcs, brllllant though it may be, does seem to involve mostly strategies of response: and, in considering problems of the object. it may be u.seful to consi~er the admittedly ancient technique of deliberately dlstorttng what IS also presented as the ideal type. And to take a Renaissance-Baroque example: if Santa Maria della Consolanone at Tom may, in spite of certain provincial details, be allowed to represent the 'perfect' building in all its pristine integrity. then how is this building to be 'compromised' for use in a less than 'perfect' site? This is a problem which a functionalist theory could neither envisage nor admit. Par though, in practice. functionalism could often become compounded with a theory of types. intrinsically it was scarcely able to comprehend the notion of already synthesized and pre-cxistent models being shifted around from place to place. But. if functionalism proposed an end to typologies in favour of a logical induction Imm concrete facts, it is precisely because it was unwilling to consider iconic significance as a concrete fact in itself, un willing to imagine particular physical configurations as instruments of communication. that functionalism can have very little to say with reference to the deformation of ideal models. So Tom we know to be a sign and an advertisement: and, as we concede the freedom to use the advertisement wherever conditions may require it. we also infer the possibilities of sustaining. or salvaging the meaning while manlpularing the form according to the exigencies of circumstance. And. in such terms. it may be possible to see Sent' Agnese in Piazza Navona as a Tadi which is simultaneously 'compromised' and intact. The constricted site propounds its pressures: the piazza and the dome are the irreducible protagonists in a debate: the piazza has something to say about Rome. the dome about cosmic fantasy: and. finally. via a process of response and challenge. both of them make their point So the reading of Sanr' Agnese continuously fluctuates between an interpretation of the building as object and its reinterpretation as t~l{ture: but, if the church may be sometimes an ideal object and someumes a function of the piazza wall, yet another Roman instance of s~ch fig~eground alternation-of both meanings and forms-might still be CIted. Obviously not so elaborate a construct as Agnese ". the Palazzo Borghese located upon its highly idiosyncratic SIte, contrives both to respond to this site and to behave as a representative palace of.the Famese type The Palazzo Famese provides its reference and meamng. It (bon. fall bility both of facade and plan: ut. tributes certain factors 0 centr sa.. I f hi hi}' 'imperfect' with the 'perfect" corlile now embedded in a vo ume 0 g .. r Ith th building predicated on a recogmnon 0 and elastic perimeter, \~'I e fill cs from this duplicity of evaluboth archetype and aC~ldent. there. 0 0\ ud freedom.

far le.fLahove Rome, Palazzo Pernese. view and plan left above Home, Palazw Borghesc, view and plan
far lefl bi!/olV


'i'od!,Santa Marlo della Consolnzfone lelLbelow !tome, Sant' Agnese In Piazza Navona

arion an internal situation greaht. ~h::b;nes n Now this type of strategy w IC c


local concessions with

a declaration of independence from anything l~ca.1 and s~ific. could be indefiniteh' illustrated: but. perhaps. one more Instance of It. WIU suffice. Le pautre'~ Hotel de Beauvais. with its ground floor of.shops. IS externally something of a minor Roman palaz.:o brought t~ P~IS: and '. as an even more elaborate version of a category of free plan. It might possibly prompt comparison with the great master and advocate o.f the free ~Ian himself. But Le Corbusier's technique is. of course, the logical opposite to that of I.e Pautre: and. if the 'freedoms' of the Villa Sa voye depend on the stability are of its indestructible perimeter, the 'freedoms' of the Hotel?e Beauvais derived from the equivalent stability of its central cour d 11Ollneur. In other words. one might almost Hotel de Beauvais: Villa Savoye: uatioo is of completely write an equation: and. as a simple convenience, insistence requires upon

pochi is also a matter of context and that. d a building itself may become a type or POChi~

00 perreptna]

assisting the legibility of adjace~t spaces. buildings as the PaliIZ2D Borghese may be tak", ': 0< poe"e Which articulate the transitioo of external I'oids. ITI>e>

A: ~ ~

field. a solid


So, thus. far. implidtly. we have been ccncerued with an appeal for ur.b~ pochi ~d the argument has been primarily buttressed be cntena: but. iftbe same argumem mighL. just as well ~pport (~d we would prefer to see the two findings \\ e must still face a very brief question of how to do it. as inIerrelated).


Uffizi: Unite= this at.the the comminor divulges role. to act

crucial importance.

For on the one hand of the building

itlIa Savoye, as at the Unite. there

is an absolute scarcely

It seems that the general usefulness of pochi in a revtved and crerba_wed sense. comes by its ability. as a solid. to engage or be engaged bv adjacent voids. to act as roth figure and ground as necessitT or ~_ stance might require: but with the city of modern arrhlrecrure. of course. no such reciprocity is either possible or intended. But. thouzh the employment of ambiguous resources might foul the cleanliness o(~ drr's mission. since we are involved in this process anyway, it "-ill beoppcrmne again to produce the Unite and.. this time. to bring it intoconfrontaneu with the Quirinale. In plan configuration. in its nimble relationship \\ith the ground and in the equality of its two major faces the ensures its own emphatic isolation. A housing block which. more or less. satisfies desired requirements in terms of exposure. renttlation, erc.. its limitations with

virtues of primary solid. upon the isolation Hotel de Beauvais, plan the urbanistic mentary; Bcrghese. significance. corollary of this insistence and. on the other.

as object and further

in the Hotel de Beauvais. to assume

as at the Palazzo

the built solid is allowed

comparatively the directive is enabled

Indeed, in these last cases. the built solid scarcely space (courtyard) assumes idea. the building' s perimeter to adjacency.

itself; and. while unbuilt becomes the predominant


as no more than a 'free' response of identifiable space reduces empirical-though preoccupations Rote! de Beauvais. elevation resentational

On the one side of the on the other the isolation to infill. passive and

equation building becomes prime and insulated, (or elevates) But building as infill! The idea neither

the status of building

can seem to be deplorably

such need not be the case. For. in spite of their spatial the Hotel de Beauvais or the Palazzo Borghese (solid) to by way of rep-

regard to collectivity and context hare already been noted: and it is in order to examine possible alleviation of these shortcomings that the Palazzo del Quirinale is now introduced.ln its extension. the improbably attenuated Manica Lunga {which might be several t'ni.tes put end rceedi. the Quirinale carries within its general format all the possibilities of positive twentieth century living standards [access, light. air. aspect. prospect. etr.): but. while the uire continues to enforce its isolation and object quality. the Quirinale extension arts in quite a different way. Thus. with respect

are. finally, flaccid. They. both of them. assert themselves facade, by way of progression

from facade-figure

courtyard-figure (void): and. in this context. although the Villa Savcye is by no means the simplistic construct which we have here made it appear (although it too, to some extent. operates purposes its arguments are not central. as its opposite) for present and the

the street on the one side and its gardens on the

other. the Manica Lunga acts as both space

and spare dtforcr· as

For. far more clearly than at Savoye, at the Hotel de Beauvais

Palazzo Borghese the Gestalt condition of ambivalence-double value and double meanlng-cresnlts in interest and provocation. However. though speculation may thus be incited by the fluctuations of the figure-ground phenomenon (which may be volatile or may be sluggish). the possibilities

positive figure and passive ground. permitting both street: and ~~ to exert their distinct and independent personalities. To me street ~tprojects a hard. 'outside' presence which acts as a kind ofdatum to sernce a condition oflrrezulariry and circumstance (Sam' Andrea. ere.I across the way: b rhile l - this manner it establishes the public realm. it is also able to


fa; :e

garden side a wholly contrary, softer. private and. perenr-


Villa Sal'"oye at Poissy

of any such activity-especially at an urban scale-would seem very largely to depend upon the presence of what used to be called POcllf.. Frankly. we had forgotten the term. or relegated it to a catalogue of by of of of of obsolete categories: and were only recently reminded of its usefuJness Robert Venturi.' t But if poche. understood as the imprint upon the plan the traditional heavv stru I . th " c life, acts to disengage the principal spaces e.building from each other. if it is a solid matrix which frames a series major spatial events. it is net hard to acknowledge that the recognition

tally. more adaptable condition. ration. all done with so The elegance and the economy of the ope little and all so ob\"iOlls.. may stand as a criticism of ront~~PO~::: but, if a consideration of perhaps more th~n one libttlui1di~J,., To _ n may be earned a e IW Utero US10 been illlPtieti: such an e.\.l>3rd or Palals Royal. admired but not consider. for tnstance. the cour~'3. cl dilfa-entiatioo between an cedures:


'used' by Le Corbusier. ~ pro.\~gal:d internal condition of relative pm ae)



VIlla Savcye. plan


the Louvre. Tulleries, and Palau Royal.c.178Q, figure-ground plan

paris. courtyard or the Palais Royal


Rome. the Qu1rinale end its vtdntry. 1 i4S. Iroru the plan NolII



Paris. the Louvre, 'Iullenes. aod Palais Royal. [rom the Plan Turgot. 1739

Rome. the QUirinale. air view

Rome. the Qulrinale and Manica Lunga

a means Df collective orlentatlon. The combination provides 11 condition of mutual reference. complete reciprocity. relative freedom. In nddtuon. being essentially foolproof. It might almost 'make the evil difficult and the good easy."? That all this Is of no consequence ... ? That between architecture and human 'acnvtty' there Is no relationship ... ? Such one knows to be the continuing prejudice of the 'Let us evaporate the object. let us Interact' school: but. If existing political structure-whatever one might wish-seems scarcely to be upon the threshold of lmpendlng dlssolul\on and if the object seems equally Intractable to Important physlco-chemlcnl decomposition, then, by way of reply, It mlghl be arguable that II could be Justifiable stances, to make at least

some concessions

to these clrcum-

To summarize: it Is here proposed that, rather than hoping and waiting for the withering away of the object (while. slmuhancously manufacturing judicious, digested versions of It In profusion texture or matrix, unparalleled), It Is further It might suggested be that in most cases. to allow and encourage in a prevalent the object to become

neither object nor space fixation are. In themselves. any longer reprcsensative of valuable attitudes. The one may, Indeed. characterize the 'new' should city and the other the old: but, If these are situations rather than emulated. the situation both buildings be recognized as one In which which must for be transcended to be hoped

and spaces exist

in an equality of sustained debate. A debate In which victory consists in each component emerging undefeated. the Imagined condition is a type of solid-void the overtly the accident. dialectic which might allow for the joint existence unplanned, of the set-plcce or and planned and the genuinely

of the public and the private, of the Slate and the Individual.

It Is a condition of alerted equilibrium which is envisaged: and It Is In order to illuminate the potential of such a contest that we have Introduced a rudimentary variety of possible strategies. Cross-breeding. distortion, challenge. response,lmposltion, superimposition. these might be given any number of names and, surely. nor should discussion Inanimate. Wiesbadeo, c.1900, figure-ground plan excluded. for attention: morphological world: to consider it not ani h bl perhaps one of man. d y as a itable poche but as an urban room, Y, an to consider th b specification-smooth, bum ', . ~n anum er of towers, current located as urban furnitu PY,hWith or Without entrails, whatever-to be re side, The order of the f , some inside the 'room' and some outUrnlture IS no tt b becomes an instrument of field r ~.a er : ,ut the Palals Royal thus ecognltlon, an Identifiable stabilizer and be too closely specified; neither Indeed, 'people' both nor but If the burden arc assumed are. assimilation. conciliation: neither can of the present to have been

has rested upon the city's morphology, 'politics' 'politics' and 'people'

upon the physical and

by now. clamouring

but. if their scrutiny

can barely be deferred. yet one more

stipulation may still be in order, Ultimately. ami ill terms of figurt+groulIll. lilt debate whlrh Is nere postufaled betweerl solid and void is a debate between two modtls ami, slIcclm:t.1y, tlrese may be typified as acropolis andjorulPl.


Athens. the acropolis Rome. the Imperial (oro

emanation from fundamentals. was still considered not merely a plausible but also a desirable possibility; and. no doubt. it Is here, when such notions become expressed In the gentle voice of 'concerned' liberalism. thut we may be encouraged to discern something of the stili shining afterglow of a unitary and holistic utopian faith. We have earlier attempted to specify two versions of the utopian Idea: utopia as an, Implicit. object of contemplation and utopia as an. explicit. instrument of social change; and it Is. at this stage. that we must re-affirm how much the conceptions of 'total architecture' and 'total design' arc present. of necessity. In all utopian projections. Utopia bas never offered options. The citizens of Thomas More's Utopia 'could not fait to be happy because they could not choose but be good" and the Idea of dwelling in 'goodness', without capacity for moral choice. has been prone to attend most fantasies. whether metaphorical or literal. of the Ideal society. l'or the architect. of course. the ethical content of the good society has. maybe, always becn something which bulldlng was to make evident. Indeed It has. probably, always been his primary reference: for. whatever other controlling fantasies huve emerged-antiquity. tradition. technology-these have invariably been conceived of as aiding and abetting an In some way benign or decorous social order.
ImperIal Rome, model at the Musco

Collision City and the Politics of 'Bricolage'
last wish is that a nigher and indestructible bond of tbe iff have suceeeded .,. my Ii I . beautiful and the true may have been tied which will keep us forever rm y united.

... there exists a great chasm between those, on one side, who relate everything to a sin Ie central system less or more coherent or articulate, in terms of which the~ understand, think and feel-a single, universal. organizing principle in terms of which all that they are and say has significance-and, on the other side, those who pursue many ends, often unrelated and even contradictory, connected, if at all, only in some de facto way. for some psychologicalor physiological cause, related by no moral or aesthetic principle; these last lead lives, perform acts, and entertain ideas that are centrifugal rather than centripetal, their thought is scattered or diffused, moving on many levels,seizingupon the essence of a vast variety of experiences and objects, for what they are in themselves,without consciously or unconsciously seeking to fit them into or exclude them from anyone unchanging ... at times fanatical, unitary inner vision. [SAIAH BERLIN

della Clvllta Homann

Thus, not to retreat backwards all the way to Plato and. Instead. to find u much more recent qlUlUrocef!to springboard. Plluretc's Sforzlnda

Scope oj Tow' ilrchil£cture: such was the title whlch Walter Groplus affixed to a highly miscellaneous collection of, mostly. Insubstantial essays. It was published in J 9S5: and, apparently. at that date, insistence on 'total archltccture'c-an obvious version of the Wagnerian Gesamt~u"stwer~with all Its promises of cultural integration-did not appear ther unjustified or bizarre. Presumably, In 1955. a 'total architecture', ~n all controlling system which Is yet not a system because It Is a growthafnew growth COming right from the roots up'l-a cOmbl~ation probably.
o both Hegelian freedom and Hcgelhm necessity, In ~n; case





contains all the premonitions of a situation .a~sumed.t~ be entirely SUs. ceptible to rule. There is a hierarchy of r.ehgJOlls~dlhces. the princely regia. the aristocratic palace. the mercanti.le estabhshu~ent. the private residence:and it is in terms of such a gradation-an ordering of status and [unction-that the well-conducted city became conceivable. But it still remained an idea and there was. to be no question of its literal and immediate application. For the medieval city represented an intractable nucleus of habit and interest which could. in no way. be directly breached; and. accordingly. the problem of the new became one of subversive interjection (Palazzo Massimo. Campidoglio. etc.) Or of polemical demonstrations outside the city-the garden which discloseswhat the city ought to be. The garden as criticism of the city-a criticism which the city later abundantly acknowledged-has not. as yet. received sufficient attention' but if. outside Florence. for instance, this theme is profusely represented: its most extreme affirmation can only be at Versailles. that seventeenth century criticismof medieval Paris which Haussmann and Napoleon m later so elaborately took to heart. Clearly the gardens of Versailles. an aristocratic Disney World though they may have been. must. in the end. be construed as a Baroque attempt to put over ouanrocenia ideas: and it is when presented with this

Versailles. plan

scene-sUII, occnslonnlly,


we are obliged to


how completely the Hncnments of u Fllurete style utopia could be repl;. cntcd wid, trees. But. If versutltcs might be. Interpreted us fI utoplH or renctlon. we may still be amazed thnt the platonic. metnphorlcill utoplfl_ generally regarded In ltaly as such-could here be taken to such IIterul Now. for present purposes. the obvious construct to mount nlon _ side Versailles is the vtlln Adr-iana at Tivoli. POI', lf the one is ccrtainT


exhibition of total architecture and total design, the other attempts t~ dissimulate all reference to any controlling Idea; and, If here there Is absolute power under two impersonations. then one might even feel Can. strained to digress und to ask which is the more useful model-for us. There is unambiguous, unabashed Versailles. The moral is declared

to the world and the advertisement,

llke so many




scarcely be refused. This is total control nnd the glaring illuminatIon of It. It is the triumph of generality. the prevalence of the overwhelm in idea and the refusal of the exception, And then. compared with this single-minded performance of Louis XIV, we have the curioslt.y of Hadrian-of Hadrian who Is. apparently. so disorganized and casual.
who proposes the reverse of any 'totality', accumulation of disparate ideal Imperial Rome (contigurationally endorsement But. if than any protest. fragments who seems to need only an criticism is rather f and whose his own house)

much like


Versailles is the complete unitary model and the Villa Adriana

TIvoli. Hadrian's villa. view of model

Hadrian's villa. plan after Luigi Canina the apparently uncoordinated amalgam of discrete enthusiasms and,


the shattering ideality of Versailles is to be compared with the relativistically produced 'bits' of Tivoli. then what opportune interpretations can be placed upon this comparison? The obvious ones no doubt: that Versailles is the ultimate paradigm of autocracy: that it assumes a complete political power. undeviating in its objectives and long sustained ; that. fundamentally. Hadrian was no less autocratic than Louis XIV but that. perhaps. he was not under the same compulsion to make so consistent a display of his autocracy .... But. if there is no doubt that aU this might be said and if it is. alter all. not very illuminating. it is at this stage that we feel obliged to call to our assistance Isaiah Berlin. 'The fox knows many things but the bedgehog This. in the area of our concern, is the statement. knows one big thing.'

otherwise uninteresting.

which. in Tile HedgeJlog and the Fox. Isaiah Berlin chose to gloss and to elaborate.' Taken figuratively but not pressed too far. what one is sup-








------ -

that Tolstoy was by nature a fox. but believed In being a hedgehog: that his gifts and achievements are one thing. and his beliefs. and consequently his interpretation of his O wm achievement. another: and that consequently his ideals have ted him. and those whom his genius for persuasion has taken in. Into a systematic misinterpretation of what he and others were doing or should be dolng.s Like so much other literary critlclsm shifted Into a context or architectural Iocus. the formula seems to fit: and. if it should not be pushed too far. it can stiIJ crrcr partial explanation. There Is Le Corbusler the architect with what William Jordy has called 'his witty and cclllstve intelligence'." This is the person who sets up elaborately pretended platonic structures only to riddle them with an equally elaborate pretence of empirical detail, the Le Ccrbusler of multiple asides, cerebral references and complicated scherzi: and then there is Le Corbusier the urbanist. the deadpan protagonist of completely different strategies who. on a large and public scale. bas the minimum of use for aU the dialectical tricks and spatial involutions which. invariably. he considered the appropriate adornment of a more private situation. The public world is simple. the private world is elaborate: and. if the private world affects a concern for contingency, the would be public personality long maintained an almost too heroic disdain for any taint of the specific. But. if the situation of complex house-Simple city seems strange (when one might have thought that the reverse was applicable) and if to explain the discrepancy between Le Corbuslers architecture and his urbanism one might propose that he was. yet again. another case of a fox assuming hedgehog disguise for the purposes of public appearance. this is to build a digression into a digression. So we have noticed a relative absence of faxes at the present day: and. though this second digression may later. it is hoped. be put to use. the whole fox-hedgehog diversion was initiated for ostensibly other purposes-to establish Hadrian and Lou~ XlV as. more or less. free acting representatives of these two psychologlcal ~ who were autocratically equipped to indulge their inherent propensIties: and then to ask which of their two products might be felt to ~ffer t~e more useful example for today-the accumulation of set-pieces In collision or the total co-ormnated display. Which is in no way to doubt the pathological


posed to have here are the types of two psychological temperaments. the one, the hedgehog, concerned with

orientations the primacy

and of

te Corbuslcr: VUln Stein at Gurclies.
1927. plan

rl.qlll Le Corbusler: cltv for three million Inhabitants. I 92i. Quadront of plan

the single idea and the other, the fox. preoccupied with multiplicity of stimulus; and the great ones of the earth divide fairly equally: Plato, Dante, Dostoevsky, Proust. are, needless to say, hedgehogs; Aristotle, Shakespeare, Pushkin. Joyce are foxes. This is the rough discrimination; but, if it is the representatives of literature and philosophy who are Berlin's critical concern, the game may be played in other areas also, Picasso, a fox. Mondrian, a hedgehog, the figures begin to leap into place; and, as we tum to architecture, tbe answers are almost entirely predictable. Palladia Soane, is a hedgehog, foxes: Ciullo Romano to the a fox: Wren, present Hawksmoor, Norman while a fox. day. Philip Webb are probably and. a hedgehog. hedgehogs, closer Lutyens Nash.

Shaw almost certainly Wright is unequivocally

is just as obviously

But. to elaborate the results of. temporarily. thinking gories. it is as we approach the area of modern architecture to recognize the impossibility of arriving For.

in such catethat we begin a balance. are clearly into

aspects of both Tlvo I

at any so symmetrical Buckminster Fuller

if Gropius, Mies. Hannes


and Versailles but which is simply to assert their exagge~. su tions of any everyday norm. For. iftbese are laboratory specune: ; y no more. it is as two instances might still address themselves of the normal written very I~ge . ~t to us to propound two questions. teo ~~

eminent hedgehogs,

then where are the faxes whom

we can enter

the same league? The preference is obviously one way. The 'single central vision' prevails. One notices a predominance of hedgehogs; but. if one ~ght sometimes feel that fox propensities are less than moral and. e:ef~re, Dot to be disclosed. of COurse there still remains the job of assigrung to Le Corbusicr his own particular slot. 'whether he is a monist or ~ pluralist. whether his vlsion is of one or of many, whether a sl?gle substance or compounded of heterogeneous elements'," he is of

of taste. the other of politics. d haps never-a serious or Taste is. of course. no I~nge~-an -~v~:·.spe~most·certain that the unsubstantial matter; but. this being SaJ . I I t ( iven two conditions of inhibited aesthetic preference of ~~ p~ntru!ural discontinuities and almost equal size and endlessness) ~ or nts Swhich Tlvoli presents. And. the multiplicity of syncopated exclt:;;e t mporary and conscientiouS in the same way, whate\ler may~. ~ c~~ :ould concern for 'the single central VlSlOD • l S be apparent that the

1 hose are the questions which Berlin asks with reference to Toistoyquesti?ns which (he says) may not be wholly relevant: and then, very tentatively, he produces his hypothesis;

manifold disjunctions of Hadrlm~'s villa. ,the s~stained inlerence that it was built by several people at different tunes, Its see~ing combination of the schizoid and the inevitable. might recommend It to the attention of politica! societies in which political pow~r frequently-and mercifulJ -changes hands. Per Hadrian's villa, as the simulated product of differe~ regimes. all 'adds up': and it adds up in s~ convincing and usefuj a fashion than one can only believe in its promotion. However, thls is to anticipate the argument. here became inserted as a qualification and as a criticism of Louis XIV; and our initial surprise onJy concerned the fact that. at Versailles. even in the days of the platonic. metaphorical utopia. a genuinely determined hedgehog could come up with so literal a representation. Indeed one can only admire the will. Louis XIV was working against heavy odds: and, as soon as the classical utopia became superseded, there was patently involved a great liberation for people of his own particular personality type. Hadrian. with his reminiscences of famous buildings and places, provided, in his miniature 'Rome', a nostalgic and ecumenical illustration of the hybrid mix which the Empire presented. He was one 'culturallsts": but, for Louis XIV, the 'progressivist' of Francoise Choay's (assisted by Colbert),

it is the rationalizable present and the future which exhibit themselves as the exacting idea; and. it is when the rationalizations of Colbert become handed down via Turgot to Saint-Simon and Cornte that one begins to see something of Versailles's prophetic enormity. For certainly, there was here anticipated all the myth of the rationally ordered and 'scientific' society: and, if we might find here-in more ways than one-a cause of the revolution of 1789. then we have only to imagine a later. post-revolutionary version of Louis XIV becoming supremely responsive to the message of Hegel. For in the history the history of utopia, almost the same arguments as we are defeated in the area of the mechanically to the logic of organism. of despotism. seem to apply: rational. as in and.


Tivo!i. Hadrian's


::~rseimer: project for Central Berlin. 1927

so we move

But the combination of a mechanical model of rationality with an organic one could ooly be left to the later nineteenth century and to mod~rn architecture; and it is, again, when we find these two hedgehog requuernents conOated with the threat of damnation that we return to the a~tivist utopian myth as it was received between the two world wars. Th~ htany of the myth is by now familiar: a condition of violent and rapid change. unprecedented in the history of mankind. has produced a state of disOrientation. of suffering. of explottatton so profound a moral and poli~cal :ris!s of such dimension that catastrophe is surely i~rninent, perhaps mevltable; and, therefore, in order to ensure the orderly proghrcss.ionof human affairs. in order to guarantee universal mental and P ysical health in d socctv! der or er to avert the economic spoliations of working y, In or er to avoid im di d must be brought into a cl pen .ng com, :he enterprises of mankind forces of blissful destiny. oser alignment With the, equally inevitable. Such was the cult of crisis in th . . society must rid its If f e Inter-war period. Before it is too late e 0 outmoded sentiment, thought. technique: and.

if in order to prepare for its impending deliverance, it must be ready to make tabula rasa, the architect, as key figure in this transformation. must be prepared to assume the histcrtcal lead. For the built world of human habitation and venture is the very cradle of the new order and. in order properly to rock it. the architect must be willing to come forward. purged of prejudice, as a front-line combatant in the battle for humanity. Perhaps. while claiming to be scientific. the architect had never previously operated within quite so fantastic a psycho-'political' milieu: bu t. if this is to parenthesize. it was for such reasons-Pascalian reasons of the heart-that the city became hypothesized as a condition of complete holistic and novel continu1ty. the result of scientific findings and a completely glad, 'human', collaboration. Such became the activist utopian total design. Perhaps an impossible vision (the future to approximate to the condition of Wagnerian music?) and certainly an improbable thought: but the alternative. the disappearance of humanity. was obviously far worse. And it is against such a psycho-cultural backdrop that the message of modem architecture was marketed and sold. For those who. during the past fifty or sixty years (and many of them must be dead). have been anxiously awaiting the establishment of this new city. it must have become increasingly clear that the promise-such as it is-cannot be kept. Or so one might have thought: but, although the total design message has had a somewhat spotted career and has often elicited scepticism, it has remained, and possibly to this day. as the psychological substratum of urban theory and its ~ractical application. Such a combination of sclentlsm and moral enthusiasm was. ~rco~rse. long ago criticized by Karl popper-perha~ mo.s~po~;ntly ~ his LcgIC ~ Scientific Discovery and his Poverty of HJSlOTlClsm. and m ,our ~~v interpretation of the activist utopia our Indebtedness to Popper s. position should be evident. But if Popper, way back. was concerned \~~ wh,at he maybe felt to be a situation of potentially dangerous rhetoric. ID spite

of his easily available reservations. the total design message Was not to be repressed, Indeed it was so little to be repressed that. in the last few years, a newly Inspired ~I~d wholly ~iteraJ enabled to appear as renditions of the systems


~f the messag~ Was approach and a v<lnety of

other methodOlogical finds. Now in these areas. where the 'science' of early modern architecture is presumed to be painfully deficient it goes without saying that the methods involved are laborious and often extended. One bas only to contemplate the sCfupulousness of the operation in a text such as NOles all tile Synthesis of FormS to get tbe picture. Obviously a 'clean' process dealing with 'clean' information. atomized, cleaned and then cleaned again. everything is ostensibly wholesome and hygienic: but, resulting from the inhibiting characteristics of commitment. especially physical commitment. the product seems never to be quite so prominent as the process. And something comparable might be said about the related production of stems. webs, grids and honeycombs which, in the later sixties. became so conspicuous an industry, Both are attempts to avoid any imputation of prejudice: and if. in the first case. empirical facts ace presumed to be value- free and fina1Jy ascertainable. in the second. the co-ordinates of a grid are awarded an equal impartiality. For. like the lines of longitude and latitude. it seems to be hoped tbat these will. in some way, eliminate any bias-even responsibility-in a specification of the infilling detail. But. if the ideal1y neutral observer is surely a critical

of Ad Hoctsm. Decentraljsed SOCialism (on the model or the Swiss canton ?), the Pop version or lown$Capc and. rather more removed from the architect. versions of advocacy planning, with a whole body or affiliated and allegedly populist strategies-all of them Identifiable by a common thread along which they seem to be strung together. That is land relative to the various 'methodologlcs' which tbcy would supplant or modify). they. all of them. In one way or another, deal dlrectly with a far more intensive attachrnem to the elusive predilections of the people. And (again relative to the situation which they have come to find inadequate) these attitudes. by and large. would substitute occaston for space. action for artifact. mobility fur fixed meaning and self-generated choice for lmpcsluon. But to maintain this Simplification. While much has been done through these attitudes to break down an unmanageable monolith. as a result. there has also been introduced an equally untenable dilemma. For there is surely some question as to the ultimate viability of any wholly popular imperative. Gh>e 'em whm they want whether sociologically endorsed or otherwise. bas never been a. completely. tenable political dogma: and. to the degree in which they leave th1s issue unconsidered, these often genuinely modest and disarming revisionist propositions are likely to be found implicated with either or both of two very unpleasant doctrines: Whatever is is right-an evidently nauseous idea-and Vox populi vox dei-a supposition upon which one might have thought that twentieth century history had already cast a sufficient penumbra of doubt The architectural proponents of populism are all for democracy and all for freedom: but they are characteristically unwilling to speculate as to the necessary conflicts of democracy with law, of the necessary collisions of freedom with justice. They address themselves to what they believe to be (and to a large extent are) concrete evils-economic evils. stylistic evils. cultural and ethnic abuse: but they are so much (and often so properly) concerned with specifics as to be typically unable to place libertarian detail in what. for the want of a better world. must be its complementary context of legal and legalistic abstrartion. In other words. the populists (like some of the devotees of townscapel are apt to vitiate an entirely plausible argument by their unwillingness to consider the matter of ideal reference: and. because they are likely to be preoccupied with the problem of present minorities. the ~redicament of ~e future under-privileged is liable to evade their attention. Suff~ with generosity. they surrender to an abstract entity called 'th~ pe~ple ; and, while talking of pluralism (another abstract entity which IS US~~IlY honoured in the absence of any specific tolerance). they are unwilling to recognize how manifold 'the people' happens to be. and consequen~y. whatever 'its' will. how much in need of protection from each othe; Its components happen to stand. To date. Vox populi takes care 0 no

Caodllis. Josie and Woods: Free Ijnlversny of Berlin. 1964. plan



fiction, are

if among we inherently


the multiplicity

of phenomena






Al A2.A3

observe what we wish to observe.

if our judgements


83 B4

Cl C2

01 D2 D3

AI-w........,.._..u7.aJ.31.5II,1ICI,1'l,In,IH,11S. .u_......rcquiIaoIno .. ~I,:u, .. U.~,IiO,IH, .... JOiIIIl.aiooo~nllrt,:I8,~,ta,n.~I,IOl. BI__ ~ ... ,tO,CI.U,!I.lllJ,ln,131,1SS. B2-w.~Ia •• »'",Ci.II.91.".

selective because the quantity offactual information is finally indigestible. any literal usage of a 'neutral' grid labours under approximate problems. The grid is to be either all-encompassing-a is to be delimited-and hence not neutral: from both 'methodology' and 'systems' practical impossibility, or it and, therefore. what results to the contexts of facts

Christopher Alexander: diagram of a village. 1964


and space) can only be the reverse of what was intended-in the one case. process elevated to the level of icon and, in the other. the covert statement of a tendentious idea, Which is Dot to deny the usefulness of well-concerted nor the heuristic utility which fantasies of highly organized information reality may

often supply; but which is to notice that. by now. the literal extension of total design into total management and total print out. bas. as much among its ~roponents as its critics. begun. for some time. to appear as a rather dubious and fruitless enterprise. And it is perhaps as a result that there have emerged a series of counter-productions, a barrage of imperfectly defined rcacnons nt I would-be systemics but 'al 0 o~ y to the monolithic offensiveness of rain '" so to Its related lack of responsiveness to fine g assoctanon, Immediate circumstance. Vitality, Loosely arranged and somehow attached to this reaction are notions

minorities: and, as for Whatever js Is ~ifJltt (<l~d Isn't Just ~ntutored choice s ilendld l]. oDe can sometimes feel thls to b~ no more than a SOciological heat sink, an entirely monstrOus conservative plot Intended to draw 00' any 'possible ebullition of revolutio~a.ry steam. And 50, while we have no Wish to promote recurrent versions of the science liction-~ownscapc confrontation, ourselves confronted yet again With the extremes of two There is an absrract. would~be scientific ide~lism and ,a cODc~ete, populist empiricism. One discovers one attitude ~f mind which. it migbt profess. can scarcely deal With. spec.lfies: another which. whatever it might need, IS radl~ally dualities, we find POSitions, would~be Whatever

a~~ o~e diScovers dlsinclined to cape

with generalities. But. though one must. ~e disposed to wonder Why these divisions of humanity should be so. It IS also hard. not to reCognize that the populist revisionists. who arc fox.cs att~ckmg a hedgehog doctrine, precisely because they arc attacking this doctrine tend to become hedgehogs themselves, For it is an unfortunate fact that, in proclaiming the primacy of 'the people', there is likely to be constructed a monolith quite as intolerable as any which might result from an inSistence upon the method and the idea, But. if thus far we seem to have discriminated two alternative prisons

for the human spirit and, if one of them is a fortress with electronic controls while the other is an open gaol conducted on compassionate principles (and if we would emphatically prefer to be interned in the second), there are still certain details of imprisonment posturing as liberty which would seem to be common to both of these proposed of the future in regimes. And, primarily. these are to be found in an estimation the

future which is roughly shared by both parties alike, Apparently, and without much divergency of opinion. is typically envisaged as some exceptionally delicate embryo


the womb of the present; and, apparently. and unless we are all very careful. there is far worse than miscarriage which may impend. Indeed to ensure the natural delivery of tbe future, the present must be rid of all psychological and physiological blockages: and. if this might, frivolously, be called The Doctor Speck Theory of the Future. it is perhaps according

sort of Reader's Digesl version of Hegel which was abundantly taken in by the architectural and planning professions in the earlier years of this century. For certainly at no other time than the present could SO many architectural quast-academtcs have devoted so much SJujltisch to the completely extraordinary question: What shalJ we do so as to prt\'wt Ihe [uture from not C0ll11119 about? But. if in previous ages this question can seldom have ratsed Its head (the future being recognized as something which was going to take care of itself anyway). today it is evidently closely involved with even more ingrained presuppositions. with a notion of society as a not-to-beinterrupted vegetable continuum. as a biological or botanical entity. as an animal or plant requiring the most careful and assiduous nurturing, And. if the idea of society as organism is ultimately of classical derivation. and if its nineteenth century refurblshings have already been discussed. and if it may, sometimes. constitute a convenient metaphor. its literal interpretations still evidently Involve we and lhl'!J. For the animal is presumably to be fed and the plant is to be watered lor else why worry?): and, accordingly. society as a natural organism becomes. in practice. a somewhat domesticated and paternalistic scene. Bulldlugs will proliferate illustrations of growth (rather like specimens in some exotic arboretum): and 'people'. just by being 'people", expressing themselves simply in action and, it is hoped, avoiding cerebration. will also help to highlight me spectacle of prosperous vegetation: but it is a well-constructed garden (or zoo) which ensues and it contains no surprises. It is. sometimes. a little astonishing that the Hegelian conception of progressive dialectic could have reduced itself to anything so disastrously tame, to a situation where growth becomes simply growth in kind. and mere change in size is interpreted as real and intrinsic change. For growth and change, so often confused as one and the same. represent very ~iffer. ent aspects of mobility: and the notion of society and culture as Simply growth (and therefore change) is a distortion of their stat~s. as the products of ritual and debate. For ideas and those fu.ture Id~as which wlll make the future different from the present (and will. bence: ens~ change) simply do not 'grow'. Their mode of existence is nei~er biologlcal nor botanical. The condition of their being is that or conflict and chillment. of consciousness; but. if they emerge through the ~eat-o~ ~e c~l I of controversy and through the clash of minds. the residue 0 . lS~onca determinism which we inherit is unwilling to concede anything so obvious. And. of course. if e assumes that all ideas are correctly so. For, on .. r urable m implicit from the beginning of tid ;~~~e s~~~~t~:::~:~:' :ss:::es that moment to unfold as flowers) an "". r ' tbodology'). then , ibl {an apparent axiom 0 me all knowledge IS accesst e of future ideas will logically vanish away.

the prescriptions of this theory that the architect sociologist the role of cultural obstetrician.




This common myth is patently crisis- ridden: but, if it is the feminine inverse of a more virile stipulation of the same idea (the architect as an athlete in a race with time and technology, beloved of Hannes Meyer and Reyner Banham), in each case the future enters, whether a feeble possibility or a laugh growth, ~ber as an element to coerce the present. value: a serious In and, and words, the future reigns as a. presumably. absolute

, cause .its ~mergence either must or cannot be impeded, responsible behaviour becomes enjoined upon us.

Now such fantasies, it should not be necessary to demonstrate. are among the cruder outcroppings of a theory of historical determinism. a

the irrita~t and the prob~em than intuit them. there will be none:,~nd Simply, sl.nce we can now ;or~ 'laws' of societal and cultural moblbty, thus. equipped as we are \\ ith e

we shall be enabled smoothly to. c~trap~laH.· from the sllltus quo. Or sUch is half the story. But. though history and the future are dicl'IJtorial paradoxically and as already noticed. they are usually CnV1silged as requiring attention: and hence. clearly. th.e need .for the nurture of nature for a species of total design gel.lt1~1 but unintermlttently ~pplied. So. perhaps at this stage It IS t.h:lt we reach the final hut logical degradation of utopian and mlllennartan dogma: The. new order is to be insidiously and gradually introduced. The te~hmque IS to be Cultivation and not imposition. The path towards ultimate. rulfilm~nt is already disclosed: and, as all cultural markers become lIlcreasmgly declared oppressive and obsolete so. while we surrender any illusion of free will we may yet retain. we may still be consoled by the faith that such is the way to the rational coherence ofUbertarian perfection. Tbis is to exaggerate: but Dot very greatly. For anyone who chooses to scrutinize the accumulation of inference which contemporary architec_ ture and urbanism fairly readily supplies will. surely. be almost obliged to render some version of the picture we haw here painted. 'Growth' assumed to be uninterrupted by politics: total design and total nondesign. both equally 'total': the grid of freedom. assumed to be neutral and natural: the unchecked spontaneity of 'the people'. supposed to be equally healthy and independent: the strange collusions between 'science' and 'destiny'. between fantasies of authority and fantasies of independ_ enre: the choice of skipping around. preferably naked. among the Cartesian co-ordinates or getting gut reactions from the ghetto: inferences, for the most part. are rather few and very grotesque. But again, and at the risk of repetition.
The fantasy

Gro\vth as a product of conflict and argumentbelOII'



of Aostu

far beloll' Aceta in the early 19t11 century ~~I~t oman settlement R of 'Itmgud. Algeria. with later accretions


prognosis. The argument which follows Involves the. surrender or utleast, the temporary suspension of a prevalcm monocular vlslon, thc wtlltngness to recognize certain fantasies about history and sclenuilc method for the totems which they are. the concession that political process Is ttkely to be neither very smooth nor very predtctuble and. perhaps above all. the dissolution of a cherished prejudice that all buildings can be. and must become, works of architccturc-,n prejudice which Is. In no wny. cxuctly modified when its resultant proposition Is. effectively. turned Inside out i.c. all works of architecture should vanish away. For. the requirements of profcsstcnul empire building apart. the demand that all buildings should become works of architecture (or the reverse) Is strictly offensive to common sense. If It Is possible to define the existential predicament of the art-or whatever-of archttectnre (and there can be no simple formula implicating bicycle. sheds and Lincoln Cathedral). one might possibly stipulate that architecture Is a SOCialInstitution related to bullding in much the same. way thatltteruture is to speech. Its technical medium is public property and. if the notion that all speech should approximate to literature Is. ipso/CICIQ. absurd and would. in practice. be intolerable. much the same may be said about building and architecture. There is no need and no purpose served In insisting that they be identical. Like literature. architecture is a discriminatory concept which can. but need not. enjoy a lively commerce with Its vernacular: and. if it should be apparent that nobody is. in any way. seriously the loser by the existence of refined and passionate modes of concatenating words, the value of a parallel activity should scarcely require to be excused,

to proceed

from diagnOSis to

of organic


Candilis. Josic and Woods: project for Tculcuse-Ie-jnrajj. 1961

But the exigencies and, as the architect Newton,

of 'the single central



with the

sense of'Its own goodness, will not aUow for any det,ermmatlon
became both ,messiah an~ scientist, of this role playing were were to be brought and, equally, down the consequences not

so obVious:
be evaded,

both Moses and

BrlcoIU~~~a Dorlu.Pamphili, Rome, garden strUcture

The proofs of legitimacy

from an enCOunter

with 'history' on the mountain However. philosopher, the architect's the myth

an observation of no more, and no less, than
of the architect with all his little measurin~ less lustrous

,the~ were to be educed fact, century and bala~ces after


as eighteenth rods,

natural retorts (a

myth which became all the more Illdlcro~s
and less well-pedigreed with says rather must now be brought into proximity everything that 'bricolage! represents, 'There still exists among activity which on the technical ourselves.'

Its, annexation


the planner),

The Savage Mind and With
Claude than LeVi-Strauss, "primitive" is commonly 'an could called

plane gives us quite a good understanding This is what

of what a science we prefer to call "prior" have been on the plane of speculation. "brtcolage" in French:'?

and he then proceeds

to an extended

analYSis of roles of the maintain it with the remains of previous constructions or destructions. The set of the 'brtcoleur's' means cannot therefore be defined in terms of a project (which would presuppose besides, that. as ill the case of the engineer, there were. at least in theory, as many sets of tools and materials, or 'instrumental sets', as there are different kinds of projects, It is to be defined only by its potential use,., because the elements ~e collected or retained on the principle that 'they may always come 10 handy'. Such elements are specialized up to a point sufficiently for the 'brtcoleur' not to need the equipment and knowledge of all trades a~d professions, but not enough for each of them io have on1~ one de!inite. and determinate use, They represent a set of actual and possible relations: they are 'operators', but they can be used for any operations of the same type.'? For our purposes it is unfortunate that Levi-Strauss ?oes n~t lend himself to reasonably laconic quotation. For the 'bricoleur'. who certainly finds a representative in 'the odd job man', is also very much more than this, 'It is common knowledge that t~e ~s~ is bot~ so~e. thing of a scientist and of a 'briccleur' :'\3 but, if amsn.c creanon lies

the objectives of 'bricolage' and of science, 'bricoleur' and the engineer.

of the respective

Rome. vllla Dorte-Pamphjlt garden structure, window detail

In its old sense the verb 'bncoler' applied to ball games and billiards, to hunting, shooting and riding, It was however always used with reference to some extraneous movement: a ball rebounding, a dog straying or a horse swerving from its direct course to avoid an obstacle, And in our time the 'brtcoleur' is still someone who works with his hands and uses devious means compared to those of the craftsman.'? Now there is no intention to place the weight of the argument

which follows upon LCvi-Strauss's observations, Rather the intention is to promote an identification which may, up to a point, prove useful and, so much so, that if one may as a fox in hedgehog parallel attempt disguise, at camouflage:

be inclined to recognize
the 'bricoleur' disguised

Le Corbusier to envisage as engineer. a

one may also be willing

'Engineers fabricate the tools of their time" and, virile, active and useful, balanced

.Our engineers

are healthy
our calcu-

and happy

in their work",

engmeers produce architecture for they employ lation which derives from natural law."!

a mathematical

S~ch is an almost entirely representative statement of early modern architecture's most conspicuous prejudice, But then compare LeviStrauss: The 'bricoleur' is adept t rf ' but unlike the eo . pe ormmg a large number of diverse tasks: a\'ailability of raw do~ not Subordinate each of them to the purposeO[tbeproject an tool.s conceived and procured for the of his game are alwa '5 t universe of,lns~uments is closed and the rules say with a set of tools a~da~e d~ ~Ith .wh~tever is at hand', that is to be~rogelleous because wha~i:ltena ,WhiCb IS always finite and is also project, or indeed to an a I,t contams, bears no relation to the current of all the Occasions tbcie bartlcublar project, but is the contingent result ve een to renew or enrich the stock or to

mid-way between science and 'brtcolage'. this is Imply ~a[ 'bri leur' is 'backward', 'It might be said that the engineer ques[I~ns th nco "ddr himself to a collection of universe while the 'brtccleur a esses ,'I-l but it must also be insisted oddments I~ft over fro~ human, ende~~:~:. that ther: IS no q~es~o: of the inverse functions which they 'brlcoleur are to e s tures as means and ends. the scientist creating assign to event and structur d th 'bncoleur' creating structures events, "by means of strUctures an e

b g~:~,,~ HI; ..



'Simply, the scientist and the

by means or events.' I fr the sinoular notion of an exBut we are here, now, ~e~ f~r ~n(la speedb~at which architecture ponentlal increasingly precise SCIence







Luigi detail

Simulated brtcolegeMoretti: Rome. Casa del Gtrasole.

and urbanism are to follow like highly inexpert water-skiers);

and, instead,

we have not only a confrontation of the 'brlcoleur's' 'savage mind' with the 'domesticated' mind of the engineer, but also a useful indication that these two modes of thought are not representatives of a progressive serial (the engineer illustrating a perfection of the 'brtcoleur'. etc.) but that in fact they are necessarily coexistent and complementary conditions of the mind. 1n other words, we might be about to arrive at some apprcxlmatton of Uvi-Strauss's 'pensee logique au niveau du sensible'. There could, of Course, have been other routes followed. Karl Popper might have put us down in, very approximately, the same place. [urgen Habermas might have helped to somewhat equivalent conclusions; but we have preferred Levi-Strauss because. in his discussion, with its emphasis upon making, it is far more possible for the architect to recognize something of himself. Por. if we can divest ourselves of the deceptions of professional amOtir propre and accepted academic theory, the description of the 'briccleur' is far more of a 'real-life' specification of what the architect b. . h ' -ur ernst Is and does than any fantasy deriving from met odology and Systemics'. Indeed, one could fI h almost t .. ear t at the architect as 'brlcoleur' is, today. 00 enticing a programme-a programme which might guarantee

formalism. ad hocery. townscape pastiche. populism and almost whatever else one chooses to name. BUl ... The savage mind or the brtcoleur! The domesticated mind of the engineer/scientist! The interaction of these two conditions I The artist (architect) as both something of a briccleur and something of a scientist I These evident corollaries should alleviate such fears. However, if the mind of the bricoleur should not be expected to sponsor universal ad hocery .tt must still be insisted that the mind of the engineer need not be imagined as supporting the idea of architecture as part of a unified comprehensive science (ideally like physics). And, 1£ Levi-Strauss's conception of 'bricolage'. which patently includes science. may now be placed in some relationship with Popper's conception of science, which evidently excludes 'methodology', there is here the illustration of some more restrictive intention in the present argument. For the predicament of architecture - which, because it is always. In some way or other, concerned with ameltoratlon, by some standard, however dimly perceived. of making things better. with how things ought to be. is always hopelessly involved with value judgementscan never be scientifically resolved. least of all in terms of any simple empirical theory of 'facts', And, if this is the case with reference to architecture. then, in relation to urbanism (which is not even concerned in making things stand up) the question of any scientific resolution of its problems can only become more acute. For. if the notion of a 'final' solution through a definitive accumulation of all data is. evidently, an epistemological chimera. if certain aspects of information will inva~abl~ remain undlscrtminated or undisclosed. and if the inventory of facts can never be complete simply because of the rates of ,change and obsolescence. then, here and now, it surely might be possible to assert that tile prospects of Scientific city plmming should. in realit!}, be regflnleti as

equivalent to the prospects of scientific po/WCS.

I" I For, if planning can barely be more scientific t~an the l~~ti~:r society of which it forms an agency. in the case of neither pol , 1' can there be sufficient information acquired before action p annmg . erformance await an Ideal future becomes necessary. In neither case can p I d. d if this Is hi tt at last be reso ve • an . formulation of the pr~ ,~m as Ih;;~~e wh~re such formulation might because the very POSSibility of srf 'now [IIf1t [liis is onl!} once ct be made depends upon i~P~ , poljli~S nIlIl'h res~mblt's ami more to illUmale the role of bnco age

t a\:~~~ so

Citll pimlllill!] surelH shO!~I".. reco nize the methods of science and g Indeed., if we are \:1111n :~ ensi;es. if we are willing to recognize 'btlcclage as concomitant P :Odes of address to problems. if we ar~ that they ar~both of t~e~- 0 concede equality between the 'd~liliZ~d willing (and It may be h~rd t fl' I seriality) and the 'savage mlnd mind (with its presumptions on ~~l~~estnbIiShing 'brlcolagc' alongside (with its analogical leaps). t.1~e , ose that the way for a truly uscscience, it might even be possible to supp Iul future dialectic could be prepared.

A truly useful dialectic ?16 The idea is simply .t~e conflict of Contend. lng powers, the almost fundamental confll~t. ot Interest sharply stipu. lated. the legitimate suspicion about others Interests, from which the democratic process-such as it is-proc~cds; and tl~en the corollary to this idea is no more than banal: if such IS the c~s~. if democracy is cam. pounded of libertarian enthusias~ and legalistic doubt. and if it is, inherently. a collision of points of view and acceptable a.s .such. then why not allow a theory of contending powers (all of them visible} as likely to establish a more ideally comprehensive city of the mind than any Which has, as yet. been invented. And there is no more to it than this. In place of an ideal of universal management based upon what are presented as scientific certainties there is also a private. and a public. emancipatory interest (which. incidentally. includes emancipation from management): and. if this is the situation and. if the only outcome is to be sought in collision of interest. in a permanently maintained debate of opposites. then why should this dlalecncal predicament be not just as much accepted in theory as it is in practice? The reference is again to Popper and to the ideal of keeping the game straight; and it is because. from such a crilicist point of view. collision of interest is to be welcomed. not in terms of cheap ecumem. clstn which is only too abundantly available. but in terms of clarification (because. in the battlefield engendered by mutual suspicion. it is just possible that-as has been usual-the flowers of freedom may be forced from the blood of conflict) that. if sucb a condition of colllstve motives is recognizable and should be endorsable, we are disposed to say: why not try? The proposition leads us (like Pavlov's century Rome. dogs) to that automatically collision to the condition of seventeenth of palaces,

school of historians !POSitivists. no doubU) was, ill one time. strenuously dedicated to presenting the ancient Romans as Inherently nineteenth century engineers. precursors of Gustave EllTei,who had somehow. and unfortunately. lust their way. So Rome. whether imperial or papal, hard or soft. is here offered as some sort of model which might be cnvtsaged as altcmauve to the disastrous urbanism of social englneertng and total design. For. while it is recognized that what we have here are the products of a specific topography and two particular. though not wholly separable. cultures. it is also supposed that we are in the presence of a style of argument which is not lacking in universality. That Is: whlle the physique and the polities of Rome provide perhaps the most graphic example colhsivc fields and interstitial debris. there are calmer versions of equlvalent interests which are not hard to find. Rome. for instance. is-if one wishes to sec it so-an Imploded version of London. Provide a more bland topography. enlarge the set-pieces and dilute their impact {call the Forum ofTrajan. Belgravla and the Baths or Caracalla. Pimllco. for Villa Albani read Bloomsbury and for Via Glulia. Westbourne Terrace) and the works of imperial and papal 'bricolage' will begin to receive their nineteenth century and. more or less. bourgeois analogue-a compilation of rationally grtddcd fields. mostly corresponding to estate structure, with conditions of confusion and picturesque happening in between. mostly corresponding to stream beds. cow tracks. etc. and. originally serving as a series of inadvertent D.M.Z.'s which could only help to qualify the virtues of order with the


piazze and villas. to that inextricable

fusion of imposition and accommodation. that highly successful and resilient traffic jam of intentions.

an anthology of closed compositions and ad hoc stuff in between, which is Simultaneously a dialectic of ideal types plus a dialectic of ideal types with empirical context; and the consideration of seventeenth century Rome (the complete city with the assertive identity of its subdivisions: Trastevere. Sant'EustachiO. Borge. Campo Marzo. Campitelli ... ) leads to the equivalent interpretation of its predecessor where forum and thermae pieces lie around in a condition of Inter-dependence. independence and multiple interpretabllity. And imperial Rome is. of course, far ~~e more dramatic statement. Per. certainly with its more abrupt Collisions.. more acute disjunctions, its more expansive set pieces. its ~o~e :adl~ally discriminated matrix and general lack of 'sensitive' ~~hlbltlOn. Imperial Rome. far more than the city of the High Baroque. I ustrates something of the 'brl I • obelisk f h nco age mentality at its most lavish-an where else., ere. a column from there. a range of statues from somein this cO:t::nl;~
, IS

values of chaos. And the Rome-London model may. of course, perfectly well be expanded to provide a comparable interpretation of a Houston or a Los Angeles. It is simply a question of the frame of mind with which one visits a place. That is: if one hopes to find the bizarre it will. perhaps. not elude one's notice and if one hopes to find the way-out future one will. possibly. be equipped to discover it; but. also. IS looking for the influence of a model. then. within reason. one will probably be enabled to discern its traces. For. in Houston or Los Angeles. if the fields of internal coherence and the areas of lnterstitlal deb~s are. no doubt. ~or~ difficult to identify by explicit name and if their eXistence we onl~ know by personal exposure, perhaps more i~.porta~t.~s. th~ te~d~~~rc~n cities to revert to almost Roman condittcns 0 nco age. to assert that simply because a is Rdom: ~t.jU~~'i:~~:a~;':~


entertain no such fatuous obsesslon-~~t . ~us~ be valuable-again we simply because a thing is POP--·~o~an. I ~~uston to allude to Greenway disclaim the intention: but W~lCI?~' lD,hispanidzro shades of Th'oU!). Plaza. City Post Oak: Plaza ~ ol'er/en!


e1e~ to notice their equivalents:

the level of detail the mentality is fully exposed: and. amustng to recollect how the influence of a whole

Rome. views of model at the Museo della Clvtlta Romana

Brook Hollow. and, m ~ h Jthe}' were not fundamentally apt to be shopping centres. etc .. w .IC. . e neo-colonial. more dreams of more of the same {more modern, mor

of the same paradigm. it might. once more. be useful to return to the Cartesian co-ordinates of happiness. to the neutral grid o{ equality and freedom-and the reference must be to Manhattan. Some two thousand blocks were provided. each theoretically two hundred feet wide, no more, no less: and ever since. if a building Site was wanted, whether with a view to a church or a blast furnace. an opera house or a toy shop. there is. of intention, no better place in one of these blocks than in another." But. like all despairing observations, Frederick Law Olmsted's was never completely true. For if, in Manhattan. the unrolling of the blanket grid simultaneously extinguished local detail and illustrated the expertise of the land marketeer in action. it was impossible that the operation could ever be complete. For. while the grid remains belligerently 'neutral' and while its major qualifiers arc only to be found on the most general and crude levels (continuous waterfront. Central Park. lower Manhattan. the West Village. Broadway ... ), in spite of drcurnImpenal Rome, plan after Cantua. c.1834

The matrix of 17th century Rome-

plan after Bufalini. 1551

Cordoba) might already

be recognized

as the equivalent may

of the great

antique set-pieces. Admittedly. and to our taste. by the explosive patterns which


be lost by diffusion. has sttmulated-col-

the automobile

Iision is not so clearly explicit as one might wish; but. if we do not believe that the superimposition of rapid transit (after the petroleum is exhausted?) will. Significantly. improve the scene. while disposed to salute it as an instance of ongoing 'bricolage'. disposed to imagine that many of the recently enlisted Pop (the post-Marxist. post-technophlle Banham. Venturi) have. unconsciously. experienced we still feel we are also

connoisseurs of the post·elitist

the same imperative.

However this is to introduce conjecture; and, rather than dwell upon Rome. London, Houston and Los Angeles as differing versions






controlled by each Owner
Property boundaries ~Streams Piet Mondrian: Victory Boogie Woogie,

1943-4 a democratic New York would look like'18-demands for the political cantonization of unrealistically centralized government. demands which, interestingly, tend to align themselves with what might be the results of more purely morphological analysis. Somewhat irrationally the ongoing tradition of modern architecture would now tend to look with favour upon such proposals as these. Somewhat irrationally because. however democratic such cantonization can only appear, the bias which the architect has inherited from long indulgence of total design fantasies tends to make him incapable of following through to where such alternative propositions might lead. For. while there has emerged an awareness of the untenable prospects of total politics. there remains. or so it would seem. a large lack of interest or belief in the analogous prospects of any physical counterpart

Grahame Shane: field analySis
centrall.ondon, 1971


1 gnd provides are h " ~eptual and inteUectual order . per aps, principally of a conJust as it tends to def . The, apparently. infinitely extended field. eat presumably in an eft rt ~oli~cs. tends to defeat perception: and it is nee 0 to Institutional' h essary presence that th rze w at can only be a felt and a

and demand to be eXPlo;te~~y:cr~tic coa~u1at~on present themselves visible to MondJiaD-one of ~ot:r 15 the sltlla~IO~-whic~ was c1~arlY energetic scaffold f f1 I defeat. But if. m offering a highly might constitute thor b uctuating and casual event. New York City satisfactions which ~ts es~ of apologias for the all-prevailing grid, the

stance. the eVidences

of Idi

What would

a democratic look like,

Manhattan 1973


ere have emerged such propositions as 'what

to such H conclusion,

In ether

words. while In 1'01111('1'1 ,CXlt.uWlt:.tJ til' the

Wf1l111111'H 1111' I Kill'

rtnrtc Bclds {lnteructlng with euch other hui nl! protected rrnm I1111nl111u Infringement) Is once more 10 be consldcred prniltnhlo 1111(.1 dcslrnbfu, this message seems not, us yet. to huve been fully trnnsluwd tnto till' language of perception: eud til us the prnductlon of lilly tlpltliltl OJ" rempond cqulvnlcnt of the Ilultc lIeld Is, chuructertsucally. lluble to be recetvcd with mlstrust-uguln us H blockage of the future lind /IIi II dllllJ,tel'oIIR Impediment to the freedoms of open-cndedness. whatever survives of the prcsent argument Is now Inconsldcrnble and will carry no conviction whatever for those who, liN II busls or operation, arc stili obliged to conceive of a totally lntegruted world society. a combination of Innate goodness



l'I'{'Ultllltjlllll';l Ibn hl'Utill I' rug" hfllllg;'"IH II tun Illhtlllllj/llI, 1fI1f11'" /Iii ;111 hl"11 II,. I V :'IWI', ',"1'11 11111111' 1/'&1 II j~




, l'I'lIl)lIll1ll1f

I) 1 I S I I", }l!n "1$ In II#' /I 1(', ,llIll'tI Iff fill IIIUII)llIlIlllIg (IHIII ,uJrt'ly il, 'I'I/fm I' I" hllh II II~K/'I'''NIVI' (/1/11 orHII'('liVfl 11111111111'.' IIHlt WI' IIIIVI' "'11 411111j}4'HI'tl ;" 11 cllltil~lcill PI" hllPHOil' cllltlblu,l IIh'bil '1!l11f) "f II W'Il"filll)rt'(lh hlfWll1 I h,' "rKum~II', rillell lilt II Iii, HlUY I)lM Ill' Illfill/'WWI!. II "'"muly

o BCIIIJlIU' j'/TlIllldplIIlOII, nil'

II IlllJlt}IY Ilr '{ f/~11 t- I Utl/t flU 'I ' III/Ill j dOHI',i 111'111. will I" ., ,'/ljlllU, I, 'I I 11'4 I'IIIIII1hIllJ'11 ~I lllUl" 1'/'/"'/11 hll1ll// y 'f 1,1, t. 'I' I I






lIlt' fllf

and scterulllc mvotr Ja/n', III

uud, JUIi! II

1,IJI'lilu~IcIlJ "."""'11'1) III' pn',lplllhHlIlll1I VI'(!UIH ("1'" w111~ ('crtulnly, 1111'1 (!IIIIHf'rVIIIIVI' fllll1lllll1rdJIIlIit. In 1111drlVI' hmh

which all political structures, major or minor, wlll have become dlsaulved. We concede the values of this pcrsuastcn: but we arc also obliged 1.0 suggest that the Ideally open and emancipated society Is not. likely to he
made this way, that the open society depends upon the complexhy of its parts, upon competing group-centred Interest'! which need not: be

Ihul" IWYllnd " ()Ollll, prf)lrll('Ii'~1 V'Jlillcfll j'fmlllluiUt'ti IiJlf/IJ1d IIcltlu~r I)C plIJiI,ulllll;d IIlIr hIIJ)t:d fut IIwIIIJIII, I.'llIr":'IJlmllll/~ly, IllI' I!IIIl III1UIUcli of flYP'·f."j}Jj:wnt!/·d 'tI"ijl~'" iihlluhl IIJIltI b,· v1"wl'd wflh ,It,,II)!

logicaJ but which, collectively, may not only check each other but may, sometimes, also serve as a protective membrane between the Individual and the form of collective authority, For the problem should remain thIJLOJ' a tension between quasi-integrated whole and quasr-segrcgutcd parts:
and, lacking the segregated parts. one can only Imaglnc that 'open Impertal nome, c. JII34. detail plslll

Hilt It d()(,tI n()tfiIJrp'l}~ ihm, In 1111:IIhH"'W~ ," 1"11,1 d"IIIVI "".r~ly PiIl/hlll' prllCCthJrt.lfi he ""PI:cI1'1I to 1I'llJrit,iJ. IWjl~!lul, whlllJ'Vt'f mHy Iw IJW CUll clllplr1cJlI flJld wJuHcvc:r tllfly bl: 11/1'hll'ld (find 1)1)111 PIi6JUl/lits «'flf} I),. dlHlorlcd by Inl1::/lc(,'1~IIJI J)fllilthm Ij( Iwlf~'ml'rt'lit III "P1WM tht'lr 1)J)f}(ISfIJ'IiI. the (tIl"olnv; tlll,:jj!1i prelHIJlll!lIll/J' pOli!lllllllly "fill IIII' lit-rtf (11r iJ wm-wj'jy argument hetwccn '''e~ pol.., t:"'fI'JTll'b, 'ro Sf (Joint It I~ 11 ftl,"JIjJj~1 urgumcm: CunltHt, hut, then.

Ihe dewet·

lhlt! " ClJfI!uhJb fiirlll.IjIl~1


society' where, in despite of the theorems of liberty and equality, all the compulstons of fraternity-elective affinities. team sweatshirts, group dynamics, revolutionary communes providing the joys of pleasurable alienation. the Society of Jesus, Lambda Chi. annual conventions, regimental dinners-would break out yet again, But the issue may, and without extravagance, be equipped with a far more IitcraJlIJustration: and such words as integration and segregation (related to both politics and perception) Can scarcely lead us elsewhere than to the predicament of the American black community, There was, and is. the ideal of Integration and there was, and l8. the Ideal of segregutlon: but. If both ideals may be supported by a variety of arguments,
proper and improper, there remains the evidence that. when gros:; Injustice begins to be removed, the barriers which were formerly rnalntalnable from the outside arc just as reconatructable frum within, Por,

IsllcH, thl6 hi not without Inl.(!ntlml. 'Men Hvfng in democrJlUc 11VJ'1i ,10 /Jfll rrRdlJy utlllty <)(f"rm~: The dllte I. 'he early I~ III. and ,Il' ment Iii AlcKU3de '1'()c{!IJ~vlllt> who DllilhliJ~:

.","n(.A Olt ''''J'~


whatever fantasies of the idealJy open society are maintainable (and Popper'. 'open society' may be just a. much a Hcnon as the Ideally 'closed SOCiety' which he condemns). in spite of the abstract universal goals demanded by theoretical liberalism. there still remains the problem of identity. with its related problems of absorption and cxuncucn of speclfic type; and It Is yet to be proved that such problem .. bnuld be considered
temporary, Por the truly empirical order was never liberty. equality,

~ratemit:: but it was rather the reverse: a questton of the fraternal order . a grouplng of the equal and like-minded. which. collecuvely .... umes the power to negotiate Its Ireedcms, Such Is the history of ChrisUanlly.

Collage City and the Reconquest of Time

Man. in a \Vord. has


l1atltre; \Vhat he has is ...

history. Expressed



nature is to things. history, res gestae. is to man. The only radical difference between buman Wstory and 'natural' history is that the former can never begin again ... the chimpanzee and the orangutan are distinguished from man not by what is known strictly speaking as intelligence. but because they have far less memory. Every morning the poor beasts have to face almost total oblivion of what they lived througb the day before, and their intellect has to work with a minimum fund of experience. Similarly, the tiger of today is identical with that of six thousand years ago. each one having to begin his life as a tiger from the beginning as if none had existed before him .... Breaking the continuity with the past, is a lowering of man and a plagiarism of the orangutan. joss


Rome.the oculus of the Pantheon

below a mandala



This means that you pick up. and try to continue. a line of enquiry which has the whole background of tbe earlier development of science behind it; you fall in with the tradition of science. It is a very simple and decisive point. but nevertheless one that is not often sufficiently realised by rationalists-that we cannot start afresh; that we must make use of what people have done before us in science. If we start afresh, then, when we die, we shall be about asAdam and Eve were when they died (or, if you prefer, as far as Neanderthal man). In science we want to make progress, and this means that we must stand on the shoulders of our predecessors. We must carry on a certain traditio KARL POPPER n. . . .
To move now from the consideration of a collision of physical constructs

to the further consideration of collision. this time on a psychological and. to some degree. a temporal plane. The city of cclltstve intentions. however much it may be presentable in terms of pragmatics. is evidently also an icon. and a political icon signifying a range of attitudes. relating

historical process and social change. So much should be obVlOUS. ~ut..If Collision City. as so far discussed. has only incidentally betrayed an 1CO~IC intention. questions of symbolic purpose or function begin now mcreasingly to rise to the surface. For one mode of thought it is a psychological are what they are: for another something


that th~ngs true: things

like the reverse

are uever what they seem to be and the phenomenon always disgU.IS~SIts own essence. For the one state of mind facts fire rcudlly nscertntnuble. concrete and always susceptible to Inconlc description, For the other f:lcts are essentially fugitive and will never yield d1emselvc~ to, speclflcatlon. The one inteUectual party requires the supports of dehn~tion, th~ other the Hluminatlous of interpretation; but. if neither attltu~e enjoys H monopoly of empirical understanding or idealist fantasy, t~l~lr characterization need not be unduly prolonged. Both mental conditions are only too familiar: and, if it is all too simple (and not completely accurate) to speak of the one altitude as iconoclast and the other as lconophtle. it to of is just such an elementary distinction that is here proposed. Iconoclasm is and should be an obligation. It is the obligation expurgate myth and to break down intolerable conglomerates

SCi,cntifically determined pattern of • the other, as the evldenc f pe~ormance and efficiency: but. on o either Imminent Or alre:d a ~~mplete Integration of subject and content. emblematic role Their c Y a~leved, they could only be charged with an and indeed 50 m'uch so t~vte 'rpurpose was sententious; they preached: a. the ct . d ldacnc instrument, then the lone ofmust think of . e ctty as inherently a cit mo ' survive in the criticalliterat Yr b d~m architecture will surely long ure 0 ur amsm as a p . 'II irrepressible tendency to edify. . nme I ustration of an

The city as didactic Inst I. it should be so lt i . h rument, t IS not then a question as to whether . ,. . IS rat er a matter that it cannot be otherwise. And. this b~Lng so, ~t IS .therefore a question of the nature of the instructive inform~tlon which IS deliverable. of approximately how a desirable discourse ethical content.

t~ be formulated,

of what criteria are to determine the



meaning: but, if one may perfectly welI sympathize with the type of the Goth and the Vandal in his efforts to free the world from a stifling excess

of reference, one

also obliged to recognize the ultimate uselessness-in terms of original intentions-of any such endeavours, Temporarily they

Now this is an issue involving the highly uncertain roles of custom and innovation, of stability and dynamism, of-in the end-coercion and emancipation which it would

be happiness to evade: but the lines of the

may induce elation. self-gratification

and a whole release of hyper-thyroid

excitements: but permanently-and as one knows-such efforts can only contribute to yet another iconography. For. if one can agree with Ernst Casslrer and the many of his following' wholly free from symbolic content. that no human gesture can be that, this is only to acknowledge

much travelled escape routes-Let science build the town'. 'Let people build the town'c-haee already been delineated and dismissed. For. if an allegedly cool rationale of 'facts' and numbers may disclose an ethical tissue full of dubieties. may justify not only the city of deliverance bot also the moral catastrophes of an Auschwitz or a Vietnam. and if the lately resurrected 'power to the people' can only be preferred to this. this too cannot

while we go through all the public motions of expelling myth through the front door. then, even while (and because) we are doing so, myth is still effecting

be without massive qualification. Nor. in the context of a
be allowed to suppress questions relating to the style

an insidious re-entry via the kitchen. We may claim rationmore and totemic

model city. a city of the mind. can simply functional or simply formal preoccupations and substance of discourse. Which is to notice that in the arguments that.

ality. We may insist that reason is always Simply reasonable-no no less: but a certain stubborn

materiel will still refuse to go away.

For. to iterate Cassirer's primary intuition. however much we may aspire to logic. we are still confronted with the circumstance that language, the prime instrument of thought. inevitably antedates and casts a cloud over all elementary programmes of simple logical procedure. It has been the splendour and the tragic limitation of the revolutionary tradition to have disregarded (or to have affected to disregard) this predicament Revolutionary affairs light ution achieved human

which fellow it is supposed

in a final analysis. there are only two reservoirs of ethical content

available for our use. These are; tradition and utopia. or whatfver intimatiOns of sigrlijirance our nations of tradition and utopia may slill provide. These. whether separately or together. positive or negative. h~ve b~n th~ ultimate servicing agents of all the various cities of 'science and people. of 'nature' and 'history' already noticed: and. since there is no do~bt that practically. reaction they have acted as a very coherent litmus of action and (perhaps the most coherent of any) they are here cited as final.

will banish obscurity. With the revolwill become located in the full radiance of

enlightenment. Such, again and again. has been the revolutionary presumption: and. deriving from it. again and again there has ensued an almost predictable disillusion. For, whatever the abstract height of the rationa~ proje~t. the totemic ~g '~If Invariably

stuff has simply


to be expunged. it has

~er~ly It~as discovered for itself a new disguise;

and in this way, conceal-

the sophistications of freshly invented camouflage, been enabled to operate quite as effectively as ever.

~u~h has been the history of twentieth century architecture and ~banlSm: the overt expulsion of all deleterious cultural fantasy and the Simultaneous proliferation of (antasy not conceived to be such. On the one hand, the building and the city were to advertise no more than a

though far from absolute, references. -ed This is not entirely to proclaim paradox. We have alr~dy stat to stipulate reservaDons about reservations about utopia. We s hall go on I' . tho f . further to indulge specu anon to IS tradition: but it would be arettous "". t the still insufficientiv area without first directing some a~t~non ~e thennst of scientifi~ ded valuations or Karl Popper. upper. h regar e .. b' ive discernible truth is not available. w 0 method who believes that 0 I~U d the subsequent obligation toproposes the necessity of cO~lec~r~an the Viennese Uberallong domiwards every degree of refutatIOn. 1S so to be a Whingish rheorv of the oled in England and using what appears e•

state as criticism of Plato, Hegel and. not so in,cidentaJly,

of the Third

Reich, The IJhUosophe (mgage, dedicated via expenence,to attack upon all doctrines of historical determinism and all assumptions of the closed society: it is in terms of this background that p~~per. the ,apostle of scientific rtgcur. further presents himself as the crltl~ of .~topla and the exponent of tradition's usefulness: and it is in these Identical terJ~s, that he may also be seen to emerge as, by implicatio~, the gre,ates,t of C,rttlCSof modern architecl:ure and urbanism (though JI1 practice It might doubted whether he possesses the technical capacity. or the interest, criticize either), So Popper's theory unfaultable: of traditional value may seem, logically, be to

to be Tradis is the of any akin

and it may also seem, emotionally,

to be unpalatable, tradition: tradition is somewhat

s~ientifically '" they will at least differences, And there can b partly have the character of religious utopian religions ... the u~OPia~jsno to,lcr~nce between these different pet/tors, '., But he has to d t must WIn Over or else crush his comacti?" demands constancy ~f ~.orc~, , , (~orJ th.e rationality of his political 4, 1 ~e Suppression of com eti~n a?r a ong time ahead .... consider that the period ut .tms becom~ even more urgent if we SOCial change (f-or) in such a t?Pl~d construction is liable to be one of thus what m~y have appearedH~e I cas ~re Jja~le to change also. (And) ~Iue print was decided upon rna ama~y as dcsl~able when the utopian :' ff this is so, the whole appro~ctife~r desirable at ~ later date.", If we change our ultimate 01" s I~ ange~ of breaking down. Por towards them we may Soon diS~O~~~~~ ~I~S while ~tte,mp!ing to move It may easily turn out that the steps sa e arkemolvmg,m circles, .. land) the new alm.. .. 0 ar ta en ead In fact away from





ition is indispensable-communication related to a felt need for a structured critical vehicle for the betterment given society to myth, or-to say it in other

rests upon of society:


social environment: and tradition

the 'atmosphere' traditions

6, The only way to avoid such chan f . violence, which includes ro ges 0 our aJm~ seems to be to use the annihilation of aU oPtosi~~gand~hthe su~presSlO~ of criticism. and way become omniscient as wel~'~~'om~i~~~~~~} engmeers must in this

is connected with tradition:


are somehow of helping the conlt is perhaps between utopia results-of evidently practical unfortunate as metaphor with certain in all this that Popper makes no distinction and utopia the scrutiny-in as prescription: terms procedures but. if he is probable to and attitudes, compelled of their

incipient theories which have the value, however to explain society. But such statements also require

imperfectly, alongside

to be placed


ception of science from which

they derive:

the largely of hypotheses,

anti-empirical It is hypoequivalent of hypo-

largely unthinking

conception of science not so much as the accumulation criticism, in terms of their Don-performance, theses which discover facts and not vice versa: the argument runs-the role of traditions

of facts but as the

the intellectual situation which he has review is comparatively easy to exhibit. The creation announcement of the National by the White Goals Research

felt persistently

and, seen in this way-so

House on 13 luly 1968 Staff staled the following:

of the

in society is roughly

to that of hypotheses in science, That is: just as the formulation theses or theories results from the criticism of myth,

Simil.arly tradi~ons have the important double function of not only c:e?ting a certain order or something like a social structure, but also of grvmg us something on which we can operate: something that we can ~ntiClse and change, (A,nd) . .,just as the invention of myth or theories In the .6eId of natural scrence has a function-that of helping us to bring °firdlder ,the ivents of nature-so [Into has the creation of traditions in the e 0 SOCIety. ~n,d it

is, presumably,

for such reasons


a rational



tradition becomes contrasted by Popper with the rationalist attempt to transform SOciety by the a fb Sh gency a a stract and utopian formulations . ue attempts are 'dangerous and pernicious': and, if utopia is 'an attractive .. ,anaUtooattractive'd '~ p leads t 'I' I ca . or opper it is also 'self-defeating and it o VIOence ' But again to condense the argument: 1. It is impossible to determine d " . way of choosing between two e~~s ~,~~lentJfically, There is no SCientific 2. The problem of constructin a'' ~o~i~Y be solved by SCience a~ne~.t~PJan blue print (therefore) cannot , ce we cannot determine the ultimate ends of political actions

There are increasing numbers of forecasting efforts in both public and private institutions. which provide a growing body of information upon which to base judgements of probable future developments and of choices available. There is an urgent need to establish a more direct Link between the increasingly sophisticated forecasting now done and the decision making process. The practical importance of establishing such a link is emphasised by the fact that Virtually all the critical national problem,S of t~ay could have been anticipated well in advance of their reaching critical proportions, An extraordinary array of tools and techniques has been developed by which it becomes increasingly possible to project future trends-and thus to make the kind of informed choices which are necessary if we are to establish mastery over the process of change. " These tools and techniques are gaining widesp!cad use In .the SOCial and physical sciences, but they have not been applied syst:ma~cally and comprehensively to the science [sicJ of government. The time IS at hand when they should be used and when they must be used, ~

'The used',


of government'. forecasting',

'tools and techniques' 'the kind of informed

which choices





are necessary if we are to establish mastery over the precess of chan~e : rhis is Saint-Simon .and Hegel, the myths of potentially rational society

ud Inherently loglcul history instolled In ~he most unlikely of hi~h e . nd in Its nurvcly conservutlve but sImultaneously nco-Putunsj plnces: flu o ular rendition of what Is by now folk lore. It might almost 101lC. us PdP I I s a target for Popper's critical strategies. For. if have been es gnec ft" .' , 'mustery over the process of change may mde~d sound .her~I~' the strict lack of sense of this Idea can only be emphas'zc~l: and, If this IS the sltnpJc fact that 'mastery over the Droce,55 o~ chang~. ~~uld ~eccs~arlly

r~Otd .a~d evil. virihe and Vic~. justice and continence huam~sn feel?n~:~ Pit; :n~o~o~e~Uffused

and the judgement of all

with two of the tenderest

cllminnte all but the most minor and extrlnslc changes. then such
future depends upon future Ideas this form is n~t to b~ a~tJc,lpa.ted: that. therefore. the many future-oriented fusions 01 utcptantsm historicism (the ongoing course of history t.o management) can only operate to restrain any tiny genuine emancipation. And perhaps it may be at this point that quintessential Popper. the libertarian critic

and and

real burden of Popper's position. Simply that. in so far as tl~.e,form 01 the

But Popper. with his admirable condemnation of political excess. finding literal utopia to promise nothing more than SOCiological nightmare. seems deliberately to render himself obtuse to the promptings of that great body of manifestations which. particularly in the arts. the myth of the absolutely good society has engendered. He condemns utopian politics and seems unprepared to make any accommodation of utopian poetics. therefore utopia The open society is good. the closed society is bad: is bad and let us have no thought for its by-products.

be subject

to rational evolution. the

Such would seem to be a very crude digest of his position which we would wish to qualify in the following terms: utopia is embedded in a mesh of ambiguous political connotations and this is to be expected: but. since utopia is something perhaps by now ingrained (and certainly ingrained in the Hebreo-Cbristian tradition). it cannot. and should not. be something wholly made to go away. A political absurdity. it might remain a psychological necessity. Which. translated into architectural terms. could be a statement concerning the ideal City-for the most part physically insufferable. but often valuable to the degree that it may involve some kind of dimly perceived conceptual necessity. But. if Popper's rejection of utopia (while he seems surreptitiously to posit a tacit utopian rational century dialogue. architect's condition knowledge) in which might all citizens are involved in seem strange. of tradition the twentieth in which the accepted comparable rejection social ideal is that of a Kantian (while. not so sur-

one does distinguish of historical who surely

determinism more than of his-

and strictly Inductivlst views of scientific method anyone else has probed and discriminated

that crucial


torlco-sclentlHc fantasies which. for better or worse.

has been so active been suggested everywith (or

a component of twentieth century motivation.

here approach


who it has already

Is-Inferenllatly-the most completely devastating critic of almost thing which the overtly twentieth century city has represented. the anxiety to salvage at least sometlJlll!l from the results We approach him. that is. with some of the surviving from the traditional point of view) of what used to

of his analysis. prejudices

self-liberation through

be called the modern

movement: and our own disagreements with his position are comparatively easy to state. Brielly: his evaluations of utopia and tradition seem to present Irreconcilable styles of critical involvement: the one is heated. the other cool. and his distinctly abrupt denunciations of utopia are stJghtly less than pleasing when they arc brought into conjunction with the sophistications of his endorsement of tradition. Apparently much can be forgiven tradition: but. if nothing can be forgiven utopia. one may still feci disturbed by this evidence of special pleading. For the

reptitiously. he maintains a tacit affiliation to what is by now a distinctly traditional body of attitudes and procedures) is surely more explicable. For if. as Popper has surely demonstrated. tradition is unavoidable. then. among the definitions of the word. there is one to which traditionalists do not often refer. A tradition is 'a giving up. surrender. betrayal'. More particularly it is 'a surrender of sacred books in times of persecution': and this involvement of tradition with treachery is quite possibly some deeply rooted thing which is given in the origins of langu~ge. TraduHore-

abuses oftrudltlon are surely not any less great than the abuses of utopia;
undo If one may feel obliged to concede the accuracy of Popper's COIl¥ dcmnutlon of a prescriptive utopia. one may also ask: How is it tilllL. if ~;:1I0il(C"cc/ IrmlftJomr/ism IIW!I/}(' tiis[/IIfJllisiwdjrom bli,uf tradiUvlltllfst!a;tli. e ('oHeeJ't oj U/(Jpla etlllrlot UI' ('olllparnlJ/Uarticulated? l'or. If Popper Is able to It Ib to tmdtuo d lf I 'a rule H sort of proto-theoretical status (I conU n un I ie Is able to envlsugc social progress CiS ensuing from nuous criticism of tradition th t h modatlons with reference to '. II C cannot make these accornutopln can only be considered unhappy. Utopia has uchlcved great unlve . and sympathy with all men L1kr.s'lllt~ by ~vlnclng great understanding . e trugcdy It deals with the uhlmates of

traclitore. translator-traitor.

traileur-lraite. traitor-treaty: 111 these senses the traditionalist traitor is always that person who bas abandoned a purity of intention in order to negotiate meanings and principles. perhaps
ultimately to treat or to trade with hostile circumstances. An etymology which is eloquently indicative of social prejudice. By the sta~~ards. of aristocratic. military. or merely intellectual rationalism the tradltlonalist. in these terms. ranks very low. He corrupts and he accommodates: he
[J to

prefers survival to the intransigencc of ideas. the oas~ of the .fl~ the deserts of the spirit: and. if not criminally feeble. h~ capac~tles


the most part are at the level of the mercantile and the diplomatic. These are among the aspects of tradition WhiCh. explai~ the twentieth century architect's loudly paraded distaste for It: but. if much the




AND Tlili



same distaste may also be felt for utopia (though II has rarely been felt by the architect). these largely uncritical or all-encornpasslng reactions hare. in some way. to be overcome. For. in the end (or so it is here assumed). one is still obliged La struggle with the manifold emanations. legitimate and illegitimate. positive and negative. of both tradition alld utopia. But to introduce a concrete illustration of the problem (net wholly unlike the problem of today) which is presented by a utopia ill which one has ceased completely to believe and a tradition from which one is critically detached. Napoleon I entertained the project of turning Paris into a species of museum. The city was. to some degree. to become u sort of habitable exhibition. a collection of permanent reminders which were to edify both the resident and the visitor: and the substance of the instruction. one guesses right away. was to be some kind of historical panorama not only of the greatne-ss and continuity of the French nation but. also. of the comparable (though surely slightly less) contributions of a mostly subservient Europe.' So. instinctively one recoils from the idea: but. if it must for the present day command something less than enthusiasm (one is apt to think of Albert Speer and his unfortunate sponsor). one is still. with Napoleon's idea. presented with the fantasy of a great emancipator. still provided with the embryonic programme for what. in its day. could be regarded as a genuinely radical gesture. For this is perhaps one of the fi.rst. a~pearances of what was to be a recurrent, and maybe not a repressive. nineteenth century theme: the city as museum. The city as museum. the city as a positive concert of culture and educational purpose. the city as a benevolent source of random but car~fu1ly selected information. was perhaps to be most abundantly r~alized in the Munich of Ludwig I and Leo von Kleuze. in that Bledennayer MUnich with its supremely conscientious profusion of
The Munich of Ludwig I and Leo von Klenze, model by L Seitz

Leo von Klense: 1846-60

Munich. Prcnylaen,

references-Florentine. medieval. Byzantine. Roman. Greek-all of them looking like so many plates from Durand's Pricis di's Ierons. But. if the idea of this city. which seems to have found its time In the decade of the 1830s. is surely implicit in the cultural politics of [he early nineteenth century. its significance has remained un assessed. One observes the evidences of Von Klenze's Munich. one adds traces or Schinkelesque Potsdam and Berlin. maybe one provluclallzes the scene bv the notice of such a small Pledmontese city as Novara tscattered around" there might be several such). one then proceeds to incorporate Instances. a little lute, of the best French Quality (Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve. etc.) and gradually retarded aspects or the Napoleonil' dream begin to assume substance. Self-consciOUS beyond a doubt. the city as museum is distinguishable from the city of Nco-Cla~iclsm by its mulrt-formlty: and. in its greatest clarity. it scarcely survives beyond 1860. The Paris of Hnussmantl and the Vienna of the Rlngstrnsse urc

















\'OD Klense: MUruch. H811ptpoSt.
top Iff!

no more than the corruptions of this picture. For already by then-and particularly in Paris-the ideal of a conglomerate of independent parts has again become replaced by the far more 'total' vision of absolute continuity. But. if this is some attempt to identify the city as museum, the city


Munich. Odeonsplatz \\;th the Feldherm-Halle or Friedrich vcn

dtirdjromtop !rjt leo von Kleuse: 1o.'lunicb.Residenz. AlIerheiligenholl:irche. 1826-37. and

of precisely presented discrete objects/episodes. then what to say about it? That. in mediating the residue of classical decorum and the incipient optimism of the liberal impulse. it operates as interim strategy? That. though its instructive mission is paramount. it addresses itself to 'culture' rather than technology? That it still incorporates both Brunelleschi and the Crystal Palace? That neither Hegel. Prince Albert nor Auguste Ccmte were strangers to this city? These are all Questions which the equivocal of

and eclectic


Klem.e: Munich. Ludwigstrasse.

as museum (the first sketch for the city of a ruling


lDprighr teo ron KIenze: Munich. Allerbeiligenhofkirche.1826-37

may elicit: and they are probably all to be answered in the affirmative. For whatever our reservations (this city is a rattling of dead bones. a mere anthology of historical and picturesque high spots). it is difficult

prOJect for a monument to th army, 1818: to the right, his e

leJ. VOn K1enze: Munich. Odeonsplatz Sa :
varian ~tenberg-Palais. 1816-11: Idl. his obeUsn. 1826-8. A version or this , kwaslatertttttedlllthe Karo1inc:Jplal2. 18H

The Munich of Ludwig I and Leo Von KJenze. model by L. Seitz in the MUnich Nationalmuseu.m

Munich. c.1840, figure-ground plan

rig/If , P. Speetb: wuraburg. women s penitentiary, 1800 far righL Paris. Geleric d'Orleans. c.1830 far righLCemrr London. Circular englne·bouse. Camden Town depot. North Western Railway, 184; /arrlghr b.!/ow Redcrn. 1832
Karl Friedrich

Schinkel: Berlin. Pulals

not to concede its amiability and its hospitality. An open city and, to a degree. a critical one, receptive-in theory at least-to the most disparate Stimuli. hostile to neither utopia nor tradition, while by no means value free the city as museum discloses no intimations of urgent belief In the value of any aU.validating principle. The reverse of restrictive. Implying the entertainment rather than the exclusion of the manifold. by the standards of its day it surrounds itself with the minimum of customs barriers, of embargoes, of restraints upon trade: and. accordIngly, the idea of the city as museum, Ieltcttcus in spite of many valid objeCtions. may, today, be not so readily dismissible as one at first imagines. For, if the city of modern architecture, open though it has always professed to be, has displayed a lamentable lack of tolerance for uny Import foreign to itse[ (open field and closed mind), if its basic posture has been protectionlst and restriCtive (tight controls to stimulate

more of the same), and if this has resulted in a crisis ofint~rnal economy (increasing poverty of meaning and decline of tnventlon). then ~he presumptions of formerly unquestionable policy can no longer provide any plausible framework for exclusion, Which is scarcely to suggest that the Napoleonic city as museum offers an)' rapidly exploitable model for the solution of all the problems of the world: but which should be to imply that this particular city of nineteenth century wish fulfilment-an assemblage of Greek and Italian mementoes. of a few Nordic fragments, of a sporadic technophile enthusiasm, of maybe a brief flirtation with the Saracenic remains of Stelly-though to us it may seem a claustrophobic and dated little coll~ction. might be regarded as a miniature anticipation of problems not entirely unlike our own: disintegration of absolute conviction, random and 'Creely' operating susceptibility, inevitable multiplicity of reference and all tile rest As anticipation and as not wholly inadequate response: for the city as museum. like the museum itself, is a concept embedded in Enlightenment culture. in the information explosion of the later' eighteenth century: and, if this explosion has, to date. only increased in both range and impact. it is not very clear that twentieth century attempts to cope with the fall out have been any more successful that those of more than a hundred years ago. In Berlin a Marx-Engels Platz, in Chicago an Eisenhower Expressway, in Paris an Avenue General Leclerc. and outside London a Brunei University, all of them corroborate a memorial intention both blatant and indispensable: but. if aU of these-by inciting themes of routine recollection-belong to a version of the Napoleonic museum. at a more recondite level one is further confronted with the architect's own working collection-Mykonos. Cape Canaveral, Los Angeles. Le Ccrbusler. the Tokyo Cabinet. the Constructivist Room and the obligatory West African Gallery (to be finally ceded to us by the Museum of 'Natural' History)-which. in its way. is yet another anthology of commemorative gestures. Now. which of these aggressive public testimonials or which of ~ese private architectural fantasies is the more oppressive. or alternatively. the more representative, is hard to say. But. if all these tendencies p~ese~t an enduring problem. spatial and temporal, to the ideal of instltutlonali7~ neutrality, then this is the problem with which we arc concerned: the problem of neutrality. of that ultimately classical ideal

Ief' Leo von Klenze: Munich. Glaspalast, 1854 above Luigi Canlna: Rome, Villa Bcrghese. gates from the Ptazzale Plamtnto. 1825-8
riyht top Anon.: Florence, Palazzo 'Der Villa'. c.1850 ri!llil below Gustav Albert Wegmann: Zurich. Grossmunster School. 18S0~3

far rIg/It below Friedrich von Gartner: Munich, staircase of the Staatsbtbltothek. 1832


. been de rived of classical substance. and o~ its inC\:itable which ~as long. " Pb the. irrepressible and accelerating accidents infiltration by dlverslt). Y d tradition The city as a neutral and (.. td time preference an· I o space ar . th try as an ad hoc representation of cultura comprehensive statemen~.. ~:n made to identify the protagonists of relativism: an attempt as . . . b both these. more or less. exclusive positions: and. Ul trymg to gtv~ su stance to a city of I apoleonic imagination. some skeletal outl~e of what seems to have been a nineteenth century attempt to mediate a comparable though less aggravated condition bas been presented. As a public tnsnrunon the museum emerged consequent to the coUap5e_ of classical \IWOns of totality and in relation to the gr~~t cultural revolu_t1on which is most dramatically signified by the political events of ~ 189. It came into existence in order to protect and display a pJur~ty of physical manifestations representing a plurality of states of ~d-all assumed to be in some degree valuable: and, if its evident functions and pretensions were liberal, if the concept of museum therefore implied some lind of ethical ballast. hard to specify but inherent in the institution itself (again the emandpation of society through self-knowledge ?). repeat, it was a mediating concept. museum that one might postulate

of them might simulate utopia and the obligation-for those Who are r~

traditi~n, there remains the

dialectic-further to conceive a tw ' to envisage architecture as and object 'structure' and 'event' ~",ay comm~rce between scaffold its contents, a commerce in which' both ceo thefabnc of the museum and riched by intercourse. in which their ;ompo~ents retain an identity entransposed. in which the ~ "es~ve roles are continuously the axis of reality, ocus of llluslon 15 in constant Huctation with '[_have


never made trials nor experiments:


can hardly understand

the ,tmportance given the word research,' 'Art is a lie which makes us realize the truth. at least the truth it is given us to understand,' The artist ~~ ~ow the manner of convincing others of the truthfulness of his lies. wtth ~ch statements as these of Picasso's' one might be reminded of Colendge 5 definition of a successful work of an as that which encourages more 'a willing suspension political of disbelief lit might

also be the definition
mood may be

of a successful

achievement). product

The Coleridgean

English. more optimistic. less drenched with Spanish irony: but
of an apprehension of realirv as far much the same: and, of course. as soon as one begins


the drift of thought-the from tractable-is

then it is in terms analogous to the a possible solution for the more city, predicament. a predicament of

eminent problems of the contemporary It is suggested that the museum

to think of things in this way, everyone bot the most entrenched pragmatist gradually becomes very far removed from the advertised stale of mind and the happy certainties of what is sometimes described as modem
architecture's the architect selves. 'mainstream'. For one now enters a territory from which have. [or the most pan. excluded themtransformed. One is DO less self-righteousness of unitary of the and the urbanist century:

culture. is not readily to be overcome: it is further suggested that its oven presence is more readily to be tolerated than its surreptitious influence: museum' signation introduces and it is obviously recognized that the designation sensibility. whichever and, 'city as The decertainly can only be repulsive a more palatable versus to contemporary but.

The vital mood is now completely but the blinding alongside is at last placed

in the twentieth conviction

rity as scaffold for t'.dlibiriotl demonstration almost

a more tragic cognition

designation depending

is the more useful. both of them in the end are faced with the issue of museum-scaffold upon the working questions. exhibits-demonstrations: this can the exhibits? up of the show.

dazzling and the scarcely to be resolved multeity of experience. Which may be to recognize that, unobserved. mostly ignored by the architect. there have long been available two distinct but interrelated. formulations for the architect. H.G. Wells. the alternative Dames: are Picasso. aware Marinetti. of modernity. Walter There

first lead to two major
Or do the exhibits 'between internal strucand the social which any

the formulation. by the names:


ture and

Does the scaffold dominate the scaffold '? event. necessity and

which might be described Gropius. formulation Stravinsky.


zct a.


Meyer: and there is

This is a matter of Levi-Strauss's enernal-coostantly or the other according rondlttons standing threatened

precarious contingency,

balance: the

which could be indentified by the comparison of two traditions


Eliot. Joyce. possibly Proust. So far as we _has never

by forces modem


act in one resolved

direction its under-

this very obvtous

to fluctuation

in fashion.

style and general scaffold

r" and. in general
of these questions

architecture pre-empted take

been made; and. having produced it we are arrested by the I!DbaI~c~ of poverty on the one side and richness on the other, We would wish

in favour of an aU-pervasive

largely exhibited itself. a scaffold which inddentals. the opposite condition in which

and controlled

This being the case. one also knows.
the exhibits

or can imagine, the over, even to the


of the scaff~ld being driven underground or wished. away (Disney \\ orld. .the Amencan romantic suburb. etc.). But. apart from these alternatives

which both exclude the possibilities

of competition

if the


tends to simulate necessity and the exhibited object freedom. if one

to equip the companson with at least some degree of , uld prefer that these tWO fonnul.nODS be of equal pro r "0 .' rh th it must indeed be assumed therefore we ask, and with anDety. w e ~ 'deal in the architect's that the serious strivings of honest anonynuty tan l ed find .. much more important than the enlighten tradition) so ~ery . We ask if this is likely. if it can «en be fair: ings of sensitized Intuitionreallv t .clu be true hrasin Yeats, we also wonder whether y It IDJ_ , and. parap g t-rton whil the worst are [u11 of passionate that 'the best lack all conVlcoon wnue

~=: :=






OF '1'[10.,\11

, tntensity.

, .. sc we arc dlsturbcu. For till' comparison, although In f11~),;;>~<I··rcvcals, one of its parts, a prnviru-lullsm which. in

il may be eonmve l·.trilHblc (}hSl~rver. mlght SlintulHtc dtsrnuy. in even the 1110s1 cht . f lcrnlry which now clnburntc themIlS The two fonnulfillO Io 1;11:( ('terll':cd' but inlO this situation thoro ~ selves arc already n~orc ~ dCSl~ ,l~~:rXl'JI1'CO;1\1crSiOnof Hegel's C


must yet .aguin be l~l~~r~1l1bs;~n(,~~l < conversion ~ cit once valuable. essence 111("0 l11att.~ld dcrn archil.cdurc. Por It is surely thls and disastrouS and. crc~tivc t or ~:lOSillg111C1r conception of history. science, parallel contnbutldons. 0 «lhrWin' plus Marx, wagner and the society and pro ucnon ( . Gcsamtkunstwerk), a conception often sUPPoSin~ itself to. be value fl~ec and generally presuming its values to be self-eVldCl1t-whlcl~ s~ r~Hdll~ enters into alliance with the common-sense ta~ld .commonp~dccJ ~d~U~S of a matter of fact empiricism which, when ignited by l~!lIennml~st~c excitement. constitutes the archuect's tradltton of ~?dcrmty: and It IS against this very restrictive and indeed sliPershtl.oU~ approac.h to problems that there are now suggested the far less. prejudiced techniques of what is. after all. a highly visible and centra] attitude. The tradition of modern architecture. always professing for


has characteristically


of society method

and the city in highly but the alternahas. so Picasso: Still life with chair caning. 1911-12 is antique and what is 'of today': and it is because of an inability to make reply to this pleasing difficulty that one. finally. conscience, collage as technique


artistic terms-unity.



tive and apparently

far more 'art-prone

of procedure alignment tradition

far as one can see, never felt any need for such literal 'basic' principles. The alternative and predominant bas alwavs made a virtue of irony. obliquity and multiple

with We

of modernity reference.

half way adequate Collage collage and

think of Picasso's bicycle seat (Bull's Head) of 1944: You remember that hull's head I exhibited recently? Out of the handlebars and the bicycle seat I made a bull's head which everybody recognized as a bulls bead. Thus a metamorphosis was completed: and now I would like to see another metamorphosis take place in the opposite direction. Suppose my bull's head is thrown on the scrap heap. Perhaps some day a fellow will come along and say: 'Why there's something that would come in very handy for the handlebars ofmv bicycle ... · and so a double metamorphosis would have been achtcvcd.'? Remembrance shifting context: exploitation of reference: of former function an attitude and value (bicycles encourages the and

obliged to identify the problem of composite presence in terms of collage. the architect's of mind: and as state Levi-Strauss tells us that 'the intermittent

fashion for 'collages'. originating when craftsmanship was dying. could not ... be anything but the transposition of 'bricolage' into the realms of contemplation'" reverse that century one must and,

Picasso: Bull's bead. 1944

if the twentieth



bas been the

of Willing to think of himself as a 'brtcoleur also place his frigidity in relation discovery.

it is in this context to major twentieth to

an to

Collage has seemed to be lacking in sincerity.


composite: agglomeration

and re-cycling memory:

of meaning

(has there ever been enough the connectedness

represent a corruption of moral principles. an adult~ra~on. One thinks of Picasso's Slill life Willi clJair ((111;119 of 1911-12. his first collage. and begins to understand why. In analysing this, Alfred Barr speaks of: . hi h l ..Ither real nor painted but is ... the section of chair carung w. IC IS Ot;ln me canvas and then partly actually a piece of doth f?cslImlc. pasted.~ ales reality and abstraction painted ove:. Here In one p~ctllre Plca/sso ~r g;arios ... [And] if we stop [0 in two media and at four dl~eren,t levels selves moving from aesthetic to think which is the most ',:,eClI~\'e ~d o~~ems most real is most false and metaphysical contemplation. fOr,\\hdt reality is perhaps the most real what seems most :el~lOt~Irppl every ay since it is Jemil 1II1 ",/ltal/O" And the oil cloth . . facsimile of chair carung. an objfl rrou\'~ snatched

go around Pj: desuetude

of function anticipation:

with corresponding

of memory

and wit: the integrity of wit: this is a laundry list of reactions to Picasso'S proposition: and, since it is a proposition evidently addressed to people. it is in terms such as these. in terms of pleasures remembered and desired. of a dialectic between past and future. of an impacting of Iconographic content. ofa temporal as well as a spatial collision. that resuming a~ earlier argument. one might proceed to specify an ideal city of the mind. With Picasso's image one asks: what is false and whut is true. what




above reft Le Corbusier: Paris, terrace of the De Betstegul penthouse, 193()'} centre Le Corbusier: house at BordeauxPessac. 1925. interior below Corbusier: Nestle exhibition pavilion. 1928

from the underworld of 'low' culture and catapulted into world of 'high' art. might illustrate the architect's dilemma. simultaneously innocent and devious, Indeed sometimes among architects only that fox. great has straddler displayed hedgehog, sometimes any

the superCollage is

Le Corbusier. sympathy

lowards this kind of thing. His buildings. though not his city plans. are loaded with the results of a process which might be considered more or less equivalent to that of coil age, Objects and episodes are obtrusively imported and. while they retain the overtones of their source and origin. they gain also a wholly new impact from their changed context. lOp Le Corbuslcr: Paris. Ozenfunt studio.

In. for instance, the Ozenfant studio one Is confronted with a mass of allusions and references which It would seem arc all basically brought together by collage means. Disparate objects held together by various means. 'physical. optical, psychological.' 'the oil cloth with its sharp focussed facsimile detail and Its surface apparently so rough yet actually so smooth. ,. partly absorbed Into both the painted surface and the painted forms by letting both overlap It.'13 With very slight modifications (Ior oil cloth caning substtlute fake Industrial glazlng, for palnted surface substitute wall, etc.) Alfred Barr's observations could be dlrecUy carried over Into Interpreta-



SUlIllfe wllh chair tuning.





D TilE



OF TI\\£


and Tecten:



non of the Oeecfam studio, And further i . collagtste cannot he bard t fi d: er illustfa?ons bouse, the roofscapes-shl 0 a~ . the t~ ob\f10US.

random rubble at the port~ M mountains-of Potssy and Marseilles. from Bordeaux-Pessac and 0 l~or and [he Pavillon Suisse. an interior of 1928. . particularly. the Nestle exhibition pavilion .But. of course. beyond Le Corbusier th . mind are sparse and hare been e evidences of this state of scarce1y ~~tkin at Highpoint 0 with his ~\'eU received, One thinks of urutations of the bouse painter im.Er~thel~n caryatids and pretended at the Casa del Girasole--simul ed lta.ung \\ ood: one thinks of Morelli and thi at anUQue Irag . Ch Doe nks of Albini 31 the Palazzo men~ III the piano rusrfrn: t ~es Moore. The list is not extenslv R.osso., abo one may think of esttmony, It is a COmment' e but Its briefness makes admirable method f' iiI) upon exclusive F th . . 0 paying attention to the left ness. or collage, often a


of Le Corbuster as De Belsregul pent-


~I!~ ~Iort'tti; Rome. Casa del Slrasole.

resemblances in things apparently unlike'. Samuel Johnson'S remarks upon the poetry of John Donne. 14 which could also be remarks upon Stravinsky. Eliot. Joyce. upon much of the programme of gvnthenr Cubism. are tndicartve of the absolute reliance of collage upon a Juggling of norms and recollections. upon a backward look which. for those who think of history and the furure as e.wonentlal progression towards ever more perfect simplicity, can only prompt the judgement that collage. for all its psychological virtuosity [Anna Livia. all alluvial). is a wilfully interjected impediment to the strict route of t'Yolutlon. Such one knows to be the judgemenr of the architect's tradition of ruodemttv: the times are far too serious for play. the course is planed. the prol~ptil1gS of destiny not ro be dented." One may expand the objl"Ctions at will: but one must also construct the counter argument which presupposes seriousness. hopes for amelioration. but which still maintains a sceptical distance from big vtstons of social deli\'erance. And the argument is ob\'ious1v that between tWO conceptions of time. On the one~ hand time beCont~ the metronome or progress, its serial aspects are gfven cumulative and dynamic presence: while. on the other. though sequenCt' and chronology are recogniw:l for the facts which

MI\'r right

GUiSl!ppe Terragnt: Rome, project for :.Ieum. 1938. Terragui's Danteum . also be regarded as an influential :en of. college. The crystal os of Its Intertor presumably :I~ l~ ~e location of Terrngul's dtoI. ~ m~lary service in the Palazeo buildi ardino in Parma. In this del ng Bertcla's Irescoes of the Sala ~ct~(~S66-il) seem to prefigure


and equlpplng them ccrebrality.

COfl(Ors' ~

as a con\'enuo~


eors Idea.

the world. of preserving of compounding rnnrter


opera~es unexpectedly. A rou h ~n~ a bre~cb .of convention. combmation of dissimilar In~a tethod .. a kind of disrorciitJ ges, or discovery of occult

thev are. time. deprived of some of it's linear tmpemttves. Is Hllowed to rea;"'ange itself according to experiential schemata. In terms of the one argument the commission of anachronism is the ultimate of all Possible sins. In terms of the other the conception of date is of minor conse, quence. Marinetti's: When lives have to be sacri6ced we are not saddened if before OUf minds shines the magnificent harvest of a superior life which will arise from their deaths ... We are on the extreme promont~rr or~e centuries! What is the use of looking behind ... we arc already living ill the absolute. since we have already created eternal omnipresent speed. We ,sing of great crowds agitated by work: the multi-coloured and polyphonic surf of revolution. and his later: The victory of Vittorio Veneto and the coming to power of Fascism constitute the realisation of the minimal Futurist programme ... Futurism strictly artistic and ideological ... Prophets and forerunners of the great Italy of today. we Futurists are happy to salute in our not yet forty year old prime minister a marveUous Futurist temperamect."

crane or they can be 'fclklsh' . originate in l'ergamum or Dah~:ecad.emlc or. popular. Whether they their implications are of th ~' In Dctron or Dubrovnik. whether great matter SOCieties de twentieth or the fifteenth century. Is no their own ~terprctatio~n ;e~ons assemble themselves according to and. up to a point c U S 0 a solute reference and traditional value: requirements of scl'r dO' age, accommodates both hybrid display and the - e ermmation. th:nu:h~P c~~y aoi:~~~:r if the city of, collage may be more hospitable . .. architecture. It cannot more than any human lnstitutlon pretend to be completely hospitabl Th id 'II . like the ideal! '. . e. e I ea y open City, . y open SOCiety,is Just as much a figment of the imagination as Its, opposite. The open and the closed society. either envisaged as praC~lc~1 possibilities. are both of them the caricatures of contrary ideals: and It IS to the r~alms of caricature that one should choose to relegate all extreme fantasies ofbotb emancipation and control. The arguments of Popper and Habermas may be conceded; the desideratum of the open society and the emancipatory interest is evident; the need for the reconstruction of an operative critical theory after its long negation by sclentism. historicism. psychologism should be equally so; but one may still be concerned. in this Popperian area. with an Imbalance comparable to that tn his critiques of tradition and utopia. This can seem to be a too exclusive focus upon concrete evils and a corresponding reluctance to attempt any construction of abstract goods. Concrete evils are identifiable-there can be consensus about them. but abstract goods (apart from the highly abstract emancipatory interest) remain a difficult commodity-they evade agreement; and therefore. while the critieist pursuit and eradication of concrete evil becomes libertarian. all attempts to stipulate abstract good-because of their inevitable foundation in dogma-begin to be envisaged as coercive. So it is with the problems of dogma (hot dogma. cool dogma. mere dogma). all abundantly segregated by Popper. that the issue or Ideal type again emerges. The Popperian social philosophy is an affair of ~ttac~ and detente-of attack upon conditions and ideas not making for ditenu. and it is. up 10 a point, sympathetic. But this Intellectual position which Simultaneously envisages the existence of heavy Industry aD~ Wall Street (as traditions to be criticized) and then also postulates th~ exiSten: of an ideal theatre of argument (a Rousseau version

might be a

reductio ad absurdum of the one argument:



To me there is no past and no future in art ... The several manners which I have used in my art must not be considered as an evolution or as steps towards an unknown ideal of painting ... All I have ever made We present and with the hope that it will always remain


could be allowed to represent an extreme statement of the other. [0 theological terms the one argument is eschatological. the other Incarnational: but while they may both of them be necessary. the cooler and more comprehensive nature of the second argument might still excite attention. The second argument might include the first but the reverse can

never be .true:. and. with so much said. we might now re-approach as a serious instrument,


Presented. with Martnetti's chronolatry and Picasso's a-temporality; prese,nted with Popper's critique of historicism (which is also Futurism/ fO.turism); presented with the difficulties of both utopia and trad.ition. th~ problems of both violence and atrophy: presented with alleged libertarian Impulse and aUeged eed f h . with the sectarian ti n or t. e ~Curlty of order: presented ghtness of the architect 5 ethical corset and with more reasonable visions of cath li Ity: . expansion: k 0 cr ,presented With contraction and OUtside':' wed wh~t ~tber resolution of social problems is possible e. a nutted Linutations of U Li be obvious enough: but limitatio co. age,. 'mitati~ns which should Open territory. ns which still prescnbe and assure an



0: the SWISScant

It is suggested that a coli are COnscripted 0 sed ced age approach.

an approach

in which


day-the only wa; of ~Ii f.rom. out of their context. Is-at the present both. utopia and tradtn ng WIth the ultimate problems of. either or objects inb:oduced into the and the provenance of the architectural sequence. It relates to taste SOcial collage need not be of great conand conViction. The objects can be ertsto-

with its organiC Tagesalzung?) may al~ inspiresce:,~=ti3d very little The Rousseau version of the SWISScanton ( . . (white ble New England town meeung use for Rousseau). the compara House of Commons. paint and witch hunt i]. the elgb[eenthndcen~; to say about that?): the ideal academic faculty meeting (a \V a . ts kibbulZim and I ith miscellaneous SOVIC • undoubtedly these-a eng ~y bel t the few theatres oflogica1 and other references to tribal socierrong But if there should obviously equal discourse so far projected or a~ut their archltecwre. one be more of them. then. while onespecu a

eree: ~









is also compelled to ask whether these are simply traditional Constructs. whlch is first to intrude the ideal dimension of these various theatres: and which is then to ask whether specific traditions (awaiting criticism) arc in any way conceivable without that great body of anthropological tradition involving magic. ritual and the centrality of ideal type. and presuming utopia as an incipient presence. In other words. conceding the criticist argument and conceding the categorical imperative of emancipation. we return to the problems of scaffold and exhibit. the problems of the exhibit/demonstration/ critical act which will remain invisible (and unprovoked) so long as not supported by a Car from auxiliary apparatus of isolation, framing and light. For, just as utopia has traditionally been a mandala. a device for concentrating and protecting ideas. so-and equally-tradition has never been Without its utopian component. 'This is a government of laws not men', an important. a dogmatic and a highly American statement which is both absurd and eminently comprehensible-absurd in its utopian and classical protestation, comprehensible (in despite of 'people') in its appeal to a magical efficacy which, occasionally, may even serve pragmatic purpose, , And it is the notion of the law, the neutral background which ill~trates and Stimulates the particular ('the law entered that the offence might eboucd"), the notion of the law. inherently a matter of precedent but also ~nceiving itself to be an ideal formulation. either given in ~::::~r ,:~OSed up~n ~tby divine ~W~ln any case magically sanctioned b I made. It IS the constitution of this sometimes incredible ut ~ ways necessary fiction. which equips itself with both empirical an d Ideal. traditional and t ' double ethic. which evolve U ~pla~ overtones. which operates with a reference. it is this ve s. ~ h~to?, but which insists on platonic employed in commen~rPublic mstitutlon which must now be gainfully Renate Pogglcli spe~su~~n, the SC~ffold-exhibit relationship. modem marvelous (almost al;he fal~ure, .of .the attempt to realize a slvely urban in ambiance)' ;19 anadY~sctenuflc m co~tent. almost excJu,, In the concept of modern marvelous.

Tht' mandala




\:c can easlly recognize the presence '. limpid Social order by which the mod:f th~se ViSIOns or a permanently sustained, Visions of a SOcial order that w CIty was .to be animated and value by means of a wholly accurate as to den~e and maintain its nd perception of fact. a perception at o:c auto~mtically self-reuewtng could only assign to fact the role of mir~c~clcntif1: and poetic. which sctif/old of tile measurable which presents i ,Thls IS .the type of mfrac1t of neither laws 110r men). as a cathedral o~lr as hent.go .Ia gove~ment imagination (excluding the need fa b h' popular .falth m the scientific t edifice where all contingencies hav: be° takmaglnatlOn and faith). as an , en t en care of (where questions no more remain]. Bu~ it is also the type of miracle-marvel. the icon whose pres~nce speaks for Itself. which. presuming its legality. eradicates the requirements of both judgement and debate. which can neither accept ~or ~ accepted by any degree of reasonable scepticism. and which is infinitely m~re dreadful than any legal construct. Certainly the government ~r neither laws nor men: at this stage Hannah Ahrendt's 'most tyrannical government of ali ... the government of nobody, the totalitarianism of techntque" can only enter the picture. The overt proclamation of liberty and the surreptitious insistence that liberty (founded in fact) must exist apart from human volition. the determination to leave unconsidered such Structures of mediation as are obviously man made ("I do not like the ccuce'l," the nihilistic gesture which is rooted in misunderstood. and misinterpreted. abundance: it is in connection with all this that we have proposed a contemplation of the elementary and enlivening duplicities oflaw. 'natural' and traditional. of that conflict between an ethical and a 'scientific' ideal which. so long as maintained. at least facilitates interpretation. But all of this. proposing an order of release through the media of both utopia and tradition. through the city as museum. through collage as both exhibit and scaffold. througb the dubieties and duplicities of law. through the precariousness of fact and the eel-like slipperiness of meaning. through the complete absence of simple certainty. is also to propose a situation (which may seem utopian) in which the demands of activist utopia have receded. in which the time bomb of historical determinism is at last defused. in which the requirements of composite time have become finally established. and in which that srr:ng~ idea. the eternal present. becomes effectively reinstated alongside Its equally strange competitors. ed th Th open field and the closed field: we ba\'~ already suggest e value eof the one as a political necessity. of the other as an in.strume "b1 o~ < • b [ if the conceptual functions 0 f ot negotiation. identity. percepnon: ut. . ed' . ht still be noticed of them sholl.ld not require to be ernp~~s~z Id' that the predlcamcn~ of th~ o~~:!a~: th:t of Its opposite, u was the Held must. of necessity. be as. I h' torical depths and profundlavish perspectives of cUlturullttnle. presumed to be located) itles of Europe (or wherever esc ell rure •


closed temporal

tIe ::'85

as against the exotic insignificance of 'the rest', which most ~urn..ished the architeclure of previous ages; and it has been lh~ ~pPoslte condition which has distinguished that of our own day~a. wllllngness to abolish almost all the taboos of physical distance. the barriers of space, and then. alongside this, a corresponding determination to erect .the ~l1ost releru, less of temporal frontiers. One thinks of that chronological Iron curtaJn which. in the minds of the devout. quarantines modern architecture from all the infections of free-wheeling temporal association; but. while we recognise its former justification (identity. incubation, the hot house). the reasons for artificially maintaining such a temperature of enthuSiasm can now only begin to seem very remote, for when one recognizes that restriction of free trade, whether in space or time. cannot. for ever. be profitably sustained, that without free trade the diet becomes restricted aod provinclallzed. the survival of the imagination endangered. and that. ultimately. there must ensue some kind of insurrection of the senses, this is ooly to identify one aspect of the situation which may be conceived. Like the open society as a fact. the ideal of unrestricted free trade must be a chimera. We are apt to believe that the global village will only breed global village idiots; and it is in the light of this supposition that the ideal Swiss canton of the mind. trafficked. but isolated. and the New England village of the picture postcard, closed but open to all the imports of mercantile venture. begin again to clamour for attention. For an acceptance of free trade need not require complete dependence upon it and the benefits of free trade are not entirely obliged to lead to a rampage of the libido. In issues such as these the ideal Swiss canton of the mind and the New England community of the picture postcard are reputed to have always maintained a stubborn and calculated balance of identity and advantage. That is; to survive they could only present two faces; and. if to the world they became exhibit, for themselves they could only remain scaffold. Which, because it is a qualification that must be laid upon the idea of free trade. could, before conclusion, allow occasion to recall ~vi-Strauss's precarious 'balance between structure and event, necessrty and contingency. the internaJ and the external ... ' Now a collage technique. by intention if not by definition. insists upon the centrality of just such a balancing act. A balancing act? But: :~eY~~~~cl~~o~e unexpe~ted copulation of ideas, the discovery of other; and an effUSionbetw~cn images m appearance remote from each knowledge: a memory th~hefore: presup~oses an accumulation of cull out to compose n I' W1 btotJOns. which the imagination may vigour of the mind sh ew assem ages. Whatever may be the native ideas. as many cha~ges ~acan nev'be form many combinations from few indeed. sometimes rod n never rung upon a few bells. ACCident may these gifts of chan~e a~ce ~ }ucky parallel or a striking contrast: but own, requent. and he that has nothing of his or theft.22 Imselfto needless expenses must live upon loans

very like collage than any we are c such state of mind should' f apable of producing: and surely some tradition. In crm all approaches to both utopia and We thi~ again of Hadrian. We hink '" t scene at Tivoli, At the same time w . of the private and diverse Sant'Angc\o) and the Pantheon in e t~lnk of the Mausoleum fCastel particularly we think of th P b their metropolitan locations. And to contemplate the pUblic~y Of.ts ~ulus. ~bich may lead one i Empire) and the privacy of elabora;ly smgula~ Intention (keeper of which is not at all like th t f 'J/ personal Interests-a situation Garches. a 0 VI e radieuse versus the Villa Stein at


Habi~ually u~opia. whether platonic or Marxian. has been conceived of as axIS. mundl ~~ as axis lstortee: but. if in this way it has 0 rated like all. totemic. tradltlcnaljst and uncriticired aggregations of ~eas if its ex~~ence has been poetically necessary and politically deplorable, then thls IS only to assert the idea that a collage technlque, by accommodattn a whole range of axes mundi (all of them vest pocket utopias-Swiss canto~. N~w England village, Dome of the Rock. Place Vendome. Cam~ldOglio .. etc ... might be a means of permitting us the enjoyment of utopian poetics without our being obliged to suffer the embarrassment of utopian politics. Which is to say that. because collage is a method deriving its virtue from its irony. because it seems to be a technique for using things and Simultaneously disbelieving in them. it is also a strategy which can allow utopia to be dealt with as image. to be dealt with in Jragmwts without our having to accept it in toto, which is further to suggest that collage could even be a strategy which. by supporting the utopian illusion of changelessness and finality. might even fuel a reality of change, motion, action and history.


[ understand;

you speak of that city of which we are the founders. and which exists in

idea only for 1 do not think there is such an one anywhere on earth. In heaven [replied there is laid up a pattern of such a city. and he who desires may behold this. ~nd behoiding. govern himself accordingly. But whether there really IS o~ ever will be such an one is of no importance to him; for he will act according to the laws 0 that city and of no other. PLATO. Republic. Book IX (Jowett trans.)

Samuel Johnson



id , provr es a far better definition

of something

Memorable streets
First of all certain memorable strael.~:from Edinburgh the one sided Princes Street: from New York its grown up equivalent. the great wall of Fifth Avenue along Central Park with the North British hotel become the Plaza: from Paris. as a type of simplified Uffizi. the Rue des Colonnes: from Karlsruhe Priedrlch Weillbrenner's project for the Langen

Friedrich Wcinbrcnner: Karlsruhe. prolect for Langen(Kaiser-) strasse. J 808

Strasse: from old Berlin the amassed spectacle of the Unter den Linden and the Lustgarten: from unbuilt Berlin Van Besreren's project of 1925 for part of the same sequence: from Genoa the Strada NUO\Ta.

abol'e New York, Fifth A venue along Park


EdInburgb. Princes Street





) I' i' :



Cor Van P.csteren: Bcrlln, project for Unter den Unden.

Then. movlng from linear progression to centric emphasis, a number of magically useless stabili:rrs. points or navels which essentially exhibit. a coherent geometry. Accompanied by buildings this category might include: from Vlgcvano its piazza: from Paris the Place des Vosges: from vttrorta the Plaza Mayor: and. entirely detached from any immediate closure: from Rome the Mausoleum of Augustus as it presented itself in the se\'cntecnth century: from Padua the Prato della Valle: from Valsanzibio the rabbit island.
bt/rJ\\! Paris. Place des Vosges (Place


vtgecano. Piazza Ducele

righf below Vlttorta. Plaza Mayor


above Padua. Prato della Valle right Rome. Mausoleum or Augustus right belolV Valsanzibio. Villa Barbarigo the Rabbit Island .

Potentially interminable set pieces
~1').1: a group of Jvuudd1{1/ iuunuilMpk st'C l'irt¥S among which. from ancient Rome, the- n--lentlt"ssJy extended Porticus At'miliil might be cited: but. ifrhi:sparticular penQrnHUlcc might provide too literal an iIlu$tratioll

of a n-pt'fitin' t'-~en::1St ...which distends: the eye. then one may assoclate with it: from Arhens the Sma of Attalos: from rkt'llzn its partner t-he PalallO Chjerirati.; from Venire the procuratie vecchte: from Paris the rjrande Galerif> of the Louvre; and. with slightly different tnflecttcns: from unbuilt Hamburg. Heinrich

De Pries's project for the Exportmesse
the theatrical backdrop of Chester


and. from Regent's Park in London.


Rome. the' Porttcus ..\emilia

Athens. Stoa ci Atralos right lKkm' \ "lcema. Palaml Chiericati

lef! above London. Chester Terrace left below Paris. Louvre and 'Iullertes

above Heinrich de Fries: Hamburg. project for the Bxportmesse. 1925 below Venice. Procuratte Vecchie

Among further items a number of spltndid public terraces, commanding sometimes landscape sometimes water: from Rome the Plnclo: from Florence the Piazzale Michelangelo: again from Vlceaza the platform of the Monte Banco-all of them

the type of terrace promenade which might include: from vanished London Robert Adam's Adelphi: from Algiers the astonishing extravaganza. part Durand part Piranesi of the waterfront: which. from un built Baden-Baden. might be prefaced by the ramping and terraced suburbia of

Max Laeuger'a Frtedrtchspark. above
Rome. Plnc!n

project for the

vtoenza. Piazzalc Monte Bertco

LondOD. Adelpbl1'crrace

Algiers. righl Max Laeuger: Baden-Baden. project for the Priedrichspark Siedlullg. 192&

the werenrcm

AmbiguOUSan d co

mposite buildings
Vlcnntl, Hn!burg. figure-ground plan

Ne.d a series of amlliguouS alld (Xlmpo.~ilfb,UildiIl9S, urb~no;:~far stnlctureS If need be. a (rom 'modem' but all of then~ . engaging drcumstance and nsmg • above it: from Vienna the Holburg. from Munich the Residenz; from a Dresden that is no looger. the group "d Bruhlscbeterrasse. schloss orbng~

)JJf1 ~~'-..... .Munich. gestdenz, figure-ground plan and possibly. as an Indian version of the Villa Adriana. the amazing distributions at Fatephur Sikri. These are, all of them. regular/irregular and more than a little wild. They. aJI of them. oscillate (and in different parts) between a passive and an active Dresden. zwlnger. figure-ground plan


and zwoger. To wbich might be added: the triangular chateau of Complegne in its relationship to town and park: the relation of town to park at Franzesbad: the palacedry relationship at laipur: comparable conditions at Ispahan:

behaviour. They, all of them, both quietly collaborate and strenuously assert. They, all of them, are occasionally ideal. But, above all. this series is highly accessible to a present sensibility and, of its nature, is capable of almost every local accommodation. and chateau. figureground plan

/ II
I . ~,. ':.




' ... ~ e. \......\.






palace. fi gure-ground plan patephur Sikri • figure-ground I plan

fspehan. plan




ostalgia-producing instrUIDents




of noswJgio which may be

.5dentIfic. and of the furore ·romantic· and of the past. or whjch. in diiIemJt ways. may be simply degaIl1 <emacular or Pop. And. in
this cootal.

one thinks of offshore oil

pyramid ofCahls Cestius. rod:et launching and indoor dima tes at Cape Cana<eraL the VlgDola (1)
umpimo at Bomarzc. old Roman tombs . small town America. a Vauban fort. and the Las Vegas or any other strip so adored by the VeobJris. 1
Las \ ...... lbeSlrip

2 fJ!&bon, ail rig

I Boman.o. garden temple 8 Iortill<atlo",dMootloub 9 -...". d



The garden
But all of these observations/ discrimination,s which primarily record 'events are to be understood as quasi-absorbed in some. prev~lent 'strUcture'. matrix. or fabnc which migbt be regular or irr~gu1ar and. In its spread. either horizontal or vertical. Regular and irregular instances of horizont~ ma~ices should scarcely require calhng out: the texture of Manhattan and the texture of Boston; the pattern of Turin and the more random pattern of Siena: and. in the area of semisolid structures. the highly perforated grid of Savannah ~nd the more casual agglomerations of OxfordCambridge: and instances of prevailing vertical matrices should no less obvious; the urban wallpaper be streets; and, finally, the American and park orVenailles; Second Empire Paris is something of a built replica of a COUectiOD of gardens in the style of le Notre; and the American romantic suburb (Tunle Creek.. Grosse Pointe Farms) is evidently affiliated to such English gardens as Stourbead and the tater conditions of Stowe. but such too obvious transpositions apart. the potentia) of the garden. what should be its suggestiveness for the 'planner' or the 'designer' of cities. continues to be very little noticed. Therefore. Simply to observe that. if the garden may offer the presence of a constructed Situation independent or the necessity or any buildings. then gardens may be useful: and we think not so much of the acknowledged set pieces, not so much of Vaux-Ie-Vicomte as Chantilly. not so much of Versailles as of the impacted and Hadrianlc disarray represented by Bridgeman's below chateau of Verueull street of the nineteenth century with the uniformity of its white painted ~ouses and their continuous framing In an apparatus of small lawns and a shadOwing lattice of huge elm


And the American nineteenth century street. a matter of intricate white figures sustained by an all pervasive grid of green, an unlikely culmination of so much that was implicit in the programme of Romantic Classicism. a street which can. sometimes. be almost unbearably idyllic and arcadian. a species of garden though by no means a species of garden City. this street which is so little advertised and so little recorded may now serve as a fulcrum for a further interjection of stimulants. The garden as a criticism of the city and hence as a model city. This is a theme which has already been introduced and which should deserve attention. So fragments of Washington. D.C. provide almost a literal reproduction of the gardens

of Venice. of the Rue de Rivoli. or of Regent's Park; the gabled three-bay facades of Amsterdam: hip-roofed. pretensions the colossal. of Genoa: in

the upper east side of Manhattan that strange combination Genoa in the avenues and domesticated Amsterdam

of palatial
in the

I '


Stowe. The influence of the too platonic. too Cartesian and too arcadian garden has. so far. dominated: and, against these. we would prefer to admire certain conditions of randomness and order-

mostly French. Thus; after Chantilly which. with the grandeur of its plateau and the casual arrogance of its axis. wlth its implications of Descartes and its shades of Shaftesbury. with the exaggerated precision of its masonry and its careless throwaways. is surely the most comprehensive of gardens (and rJ1C most promising of cities): and. after the Anglo-French of Bridgeman's Stowe Oust how much can you agitate a bland terrain?) we would cite: Verneuil (which. as presented by Du Cerceau. excited Le
Corbusier) and then a variety of

chateau of Gailloo


from Stein's

/ardi"s de

France we extract two rather
primitive items: the chateau of Colbert entirely Bishops Bishops de Villacerf equivalent of Langres. of Langres and the not chateau of the The scene of the presents an

unacknowledged and sometimes provincial pieces. abol'e chateau of the Bishops of Laogres Mo", chateau or Colbert de Villacerf

obviously old house. probably refaced. but equipped with appropriate Paris. Pare Manceau garden and gesture: but Colbert de villacerf with its almost Chinese

grid of canals and counter water pieces. might also present one of the most important of references. And. to these. we would wish merely to annex the highly delicate Pare Manceau which. as a te Notre style distribution violated by lyrical imperatives. speaks for itself: and. finally. a highly assertive, slightly frenzied episode which Du Cerceau records as at Gaillon.


~.... .:" h


Pcussm: Landscape with the asbes or Phoclon collected by hls widow

offer comparable cities of composite presence. Poussin's manipulation of his architectural objets J reaction poetique is. of course, infinitely more impeccable and evocative than anything of which Canaletto and Marlow were capable. The first titillate the informed traveller. the second move the heart; and. in Poussln's imaginary cities everything becomes classically condensed. In, for instance, the Knowsley PJtociol1 the city of Megara, an Italian village offar more than usual quality. is dominated by an accurate replica (again from Palladia) of the temple at Trevl: while In the Louvre's Christ

Healing tile Blind Men. the village of
Nazareth presents a Romano-Venetie anthology comprising a close version of Palladia's unbullt Villa Garzadore. an early Christian basilica which is not quite a facsimile of anything, and another house of which the appearance suggests that it ought to have been built by Vincenzo Scamozzi. A protracted backward look could involve many more instances of just this style of amalgamation (for instance. Jan Van Eyck's simultaneously Romanesque and Gothic backgrounds for the Ghent Adoration of the. Lamb): but the

Pousetn: Christ healing the blind men

issue, surely. does not require to be pursued, For, fundamentally. the city of composite presence is too pervasive an idea ever to become outdated: and one must. therefore. still ask why the subjective, synthetic procedures which cha..ractertze


for so long been conceived of as reprehensible. Tbu~. for ,all ~~ the coercions. the utopian CIty abstractive intellect still remains respectable, while the far more benevolent metropolis of loosely organized sympathies and eDthUSi~ continues to appear illegitimate. Bu . if utopia is a necessary idea. no less and no more important should be

that other city of the mind which the vedure !alltasticlrt of Canalettc and the collaged backgrounds of Poussio both represent and prefigure, Utopia as metaphor and Collage City as prescription: these opposites. involving the guarantees of both law and freedom. should surely constitute the dialectic of the future, rather than any total surrender either to scientific 'certainties' or the simple vagaries of the ad hoc. The disintegration of modem architecture seems to call for such a strategy: an enlightened pluralism seems to invite; and. possibly. even common

sense concurs.

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SprilY:, 197-1.


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Edmund Burke's from and L"hlcago, 1'l0b.

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~ IS

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p.lf,: thls'sti:ltt.'b)' a sanctili('d




u.n..London.ISll. l'i
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IS !lien fmm


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''n<I'I'II!bt. f()t

W4Shln~on. \\hat.

19i 3, ;1:'mnJl

thl$ Ollie. In any

rL d'l'



to Il


our d!' som<: from





ofsuch Uri;' .. pn1ir)'"

dOCWllt'ru ",11 !'f01;1k

as F.romOinud leaS! bul.



\li!rljll'JilI dlllJch maners



=~~:Q~::U~II!'~~n;~U~I!'nC=~:Ia!= \nlli)' fill' ITmo\~ from t'_' 1001\' cht;sjc;:l' $upPfJl'ltion thai !hI'

intimlltilln.~ 1,uIlS\I'ood lIm~tntim<:.

1I mcdl~led dllKhil«lUn'


COI1I"CfSlltinn> al ronrcm: did ariSl'ilnJ.lh<:n.

1\'('/1:' mo:>t1~- If a mllll:m'

or polUiCid ilnd urhanlSm

stann. 1;5

Index to text

sure. !iulIlle, Sp~~r,

Cumlllo, [ohn, I\lbert,

3(, I\/!Icrl~a. lil

Index to Illustrations
AI~.llIl\Ijar, I!f~ I\lgl~n.'h~r <'6 166 ;4, 55 1)lagrnm Mlcholongel<l.1t;5;UflhI,a!r view. plan, 11129,21 Fra~n'bad.Hgun:-zroundplan. FricfJman. 1(11 ; In FrI~ vIew. 68-69



Village, 19M.
the wDlcrfrOIll.

l'h.... ...Tnr~'r, II
enilnc·huu'IC. l'ItpoI.I"4;.

1f>2., ircular c
Clmdrn Tnwn


AmjICr~omSulllh. I\ndre:nmld_19thcclllury


Spengler,051V1I11I,11 I):brls.lnfersdlflL Ilr'larrolE.£Ugtnc. Ikslgn. TOfal95-96.



K8fJsruhe.Dammll~lock. Klenze.LroI'01l.116-12; I.ang~.ChllteauofthelJlshopsof, Iii

11, 56


y Gussel.]

.. 118



Abro:lldI.H.nn.h. A1bm.Plitltt.11S AlblDl.f"rnl'o.Hl AkDnder.Cbristopher.96

lS,27 100. 101.

Odord-Combrldge.175 OZCnfllnL.l!.m~dre. B-H
Padua. Prutc 134: della 17S: Valle.

.. 99 Sleln.ll"l7(l Stnckholn SI0II'1:.1;6 SITuvlnsky.lgor, Sopcr~lufJlo, Team Tenny~on, X. 4U-42 Alfred, •• Royal Chancdlcry.

~~ojeclroranllle"lcommUnlty. A<.>~la. I!.om~n cDrly senictncm.


"naIJ~"(I{"nlt.'ll.ondon. 1'171_114 ltIbctkln~ndTrcton 111lhpolnl Lulll.r, Robnt.· III05.11 \Iarlow, 2. PIlIU" .... chiTe..i·U o double a)!1~gc, wildon.

Ikf~lntsm.Hlstorical,loo.I45. 147

Laverdant. U'Corbusler, GabrIel Oc~lr~. 20 11.11.13. 14.51. 56.58.68.;1-75.i8.92-93. 102. IH. 176: lje Betstegul Omnfam Sutsse. Porte Siudio. Mollroe,

l'Url5. 51, 126.
Leclerc Gene\'le\'e. Opero.scwen, 7,): Pure

156 It.veGcnerul



Blbltctequc 127: Hotel 45; de


19th century. 101 Archlgrom·\'lug.lnclty.1964.40
I\!plund. Gunnar: Siockholm. prclect ror the !\oyal

A!jtIa$.l ... terlronLI'H ,\1IISI~.m.31·1;5



1961.16 lIelrrrkh de: Hamburg. proJea for the ExPQrlmes'IC. 192;.163 Gallloll. Chulau d~ 177
Galena. illinoIS. 172


1918. \ir


\landala.119.146·I-Il W1Dl~m Caprtcdo. St. I'au]", ~nd a \'elU'lIan canal,t79i.i18 \lartln,.F.dlGlurgiOJludies/or Ideal dUes. 1\ \Ilrhrlantelo.


AmtdJ ..

16. 19 41H! ..·.Thfo.H

Iktrolt.J.lS OIslKY worlcl Ji.4148. OIsr.eU.fkonlam!n.64


Beauvais. 78; l..oU\<rC. 160;
1'011115 Royal, Manceau.



PClllhouse, Pavillcn




.~Ilod. Gunnar. il·1;
.0Uben5.AanpolJsS4.Stolor Analns.160 A~Chirtct.6.41.58 Aulkn. W. H_ 12 AlI5Ch,,'ltxJlI Bicoll.friIIod.s.8 BadeIl·Baden.FI1edrlcbspatk.l64

~1-sky.Fyodor.Hj Qresden.Z..ingef.168
Dubrol·n!k. Durand.I.N. fidlnbW1:h. 145 C.• 126 51.


'rod!. Tokyo.


AlhcnS.ilcrOflOU,.84:Slm.n/ i\ttal05.161

Villa Adriana. Santu \34


Du Ct'r~ilu.I.It. .. li6. Iii 56:

pessec, Carches, Ncstl1! Pal'l!!on. Plan vcistn. Pol55Y,
VlU~ Radleuse.

151:ruede Rlvall, 175. See also: Le Carbusler Pnscal. Blalse. 2.8,95 Pergnmum.145
Colonnes, l'errct,Augustc.68,72 ]'hAlanstery.22


90·94.149 Alcxl~ de. 117 Marl,' deUII

Berlln. Unter den
Boullee. 19

Unden.154 proJcctror

Glinner.FrlrdtIcbvoD:Munlch. '1~lrca:;<, flhe$bibUothek. o 1832.135
Genoa. Griffin. Strnda D3\id. Nuova. aod air vlew andplan.l'i5

Bomnno.gardentcmple.171 EUcnnc-LouJ5:

as 1~{)


II Cenotaph

to NCII'lon.c.



the 1'I~=a dd CamPldor,llo

Olyofcomposl"'pr~o,;:,.,.vl CrOpiIl$,Wal!cr:dlagranu shOwing H~rlo\\' view. thcl!e\'clllpmenlofa Market elew and alr

compitledln I'NU. \Ud-weslcrnpralrl~4!
MOlldrlan. PIn \\'1IO~e.I'l41_1qH_il;


Ledoux. U' N6tre. lie: Pautre,

Claude-Nl~ol~s. Andr1!. li4 Antolne.;8


TulslOY.Lee. 92-93
rl'own scnpe . .33-37. 41-42. t rz. 97. 117.

E!I'I"cL Gusta\'e.l07 lJ7. Ralph Waldo. EIlot.T.Sri

artancon. fortlJ\c:atioru;, 173 Burallnl.lmperl~ll\omeplan.
Canaleuo: Pautasuc Canal, view Grand Grand Ventce.179:The



Bo.UmLJ •. 41
Bl.ilham. Reytltl'.

99. III

enesee. Mu'

141. 178 50

Levl-Streuss, CllIllde. 102-105,
136.139.148 Levhto ... n.4S 164: Crystal ChesterTerrace. 160: High

Phtladelphta. 25 Picasso, e.. 92. 137,

138-140. Trudttlun, 144.147 juegenev.L, 121-126.

rectanguJarsile..5i New Town. 60-61 Square.19.50s.

of the 10


More. Sir '11Iomu: Iromlsplece
rromiJlDpfll.IH6.12 \IQrnU,Lollll·lIome..r_de1 Glrasole..ddaD.l04. HI



Poggloli.Renato.146 Potsdam. 127
Planning. Plan

&entham.leremy,ll aem~H.p_51 BcrIirl.l2i;.\lan:-EngdsPlaa. IH:U~dtDUDlkn.Dd LaslguWl..151 Berlin.lsalab. BDnle'Illu:·~c.Hl 805uIn.li5 i6.91 If BaIlWlD. TmlpieUo.l;l

falephurSlkrI.168 FUarete.A..14.87.90 Fill$lerlln. Hermann. n. 11 neeeece, UIfu!.. 68:Piazzale \Uchel~nRdll. 164
foutit't. Charles. 19.21, zz

Palace. 118: Point/I. 142 Los Angetes. 107
Louis XIV, 90-94 Ludwlg I. 126 LubetktnBerthcld, LUlyens.EdlVin,92 Lynch. Keejn.

fr.uu~nsbad. 168 FreuclSIl.IIlund.19 FuUer.Buctllllnst .. r.92
Futuri$m.19. Gaillon. Carcbes. Giimler. l.f.. 15. 30. 38. 144 de. 177 50 4.5 ChiilL'au Charles.


31. 71 1'1010., 151 Pluyboy.47 Pluralism,97 Poch~. 78·80
Polssy.V1l1aSavoye. Popper, Karl. 95·96. 78. 142





28 Turgor. aaron. 94 1·urlll.175
Urblno.48 Utopia. 121-126. ActIvist. 132. 13.

RlalloBridge.179 CaDdllls.joslcandWOQds:



project lor Teulouse-le-Mlralt, 1961. 41. 100: Free UnIversity or Bertln. 1964. plan. 96
Canlna. Lulgl: Rome, rrom Imperial uie Pianale Florida. 173. 114 RomepJall. 113: getes Villa Borghese.

Hilbesbelmtr.Lud,..ig: pro}l!ctfor central8e:rllo. 1917. 57.95
IS02:ilkl. Arato:spaccdry collag~ Ithaca. prnject,

plao. 129: 111:


1842_ 127.


Ludw!plraW'. LSeib.



!spahan.plan.170 New York.. Sta"'Streel. 1869.4].47 /a1pur.palace.!igure-gTou.ndp!an, 170

Ijtcpra. 94

146.147 15.20.22. 19.

IJO,Odeonsplatzwrlhtbo: Fddb=n_HalL!: of F ~on GMtner.I84I-18H.l!9; 1tc:si,uIU.Sgure-grouodplan.168 Nabpma.

2Y.87.94.95,IH Classical.
Rabbit Jan, Sebastien

U. 14. Island.


Flnmlnlo, Cape

1815-1828. 114


BruncDCkhl,LIlS Bnmd UDl\"a"lit}'. Edmund. 134 Il-n.



36 Machlavelll, Nlcculo, 14 Main Street 46 Man. 'Natural', 16·19 Mannhelm.Karl. H

104. 106. 116, 118, 121-126. 144. 145 Populism. 97·99 •. 105 Posluvlsm, 21, 22. 14. 25.107.183
Pcussln. 137. N" 178. 180-181

valsanziblo, Van V a n Eyck.


Doesburg, 'rneo. 56
180 GiorgIo.

Chantilly. plan of chateau and park..1H Chateau ofColhert de VWa~erf.


TalSuhitoaodC. ...US.

leo ~OD: ~Iunich. 1854. 128: 126; IH:


Glaspalast. Qdeoll5plalZ. 1846-1860.




(l8. 72
Lc Presrre. Ch a teau de.

"alural \Ian. Tboe.&nmF.O.c.. Oarley.SuMJ/romlndianUfe.
18+i.16:frum O"u ..... Coml'liu, t..:Corbusirr. IYII)-I929. 17




or the

Bishops or
view ol or



2i.H'lh-38 Burnham. DaM-ltl ~.178,18O-I81

Strada Nuova, 150 GMaIt,62,64
Gledlon.Sleg!rted.52 Grah<lm, 92.137 GulIt, BiDy.

c.peCuueraJ. 134. 172 Cusirer.FrIUl..9.120
Cas:!I&llo=8~J4 Oumdlly.Cba~ude..176 ChliuLLI:~nede.19 ChIcago. !:lsenbOWeT Elpre5lIWily,

46 28.30. 76_




144 Marlow, WIlliam, 178, IBO-181 Mal1iell!es, Unlt~, 68. ;8-79. 142 Man:.Karl.21-13,27_29.4S.IJ8 Memory. 'rbcetre er, 49 Mey~r. Hannes, 92, 99. 137 Mles Van der Rohe, Ludwlg. 28.

F. T.. 30, 38.

Poverty Apostolic. II Prophecy. Theatre of. 49 Proust. Marcel. 92. 137
Ratlcnallsrn, 11. 122 22,28


Langres.176 Cheltenham. Chlauooe. rear Marte: Lansdoll'nTcrrace.B An aspect

Allerb!"illgenhorkln:h~ and

:o.'ERGroup.IJSSR: \losco"'dty
proJIX1..19&7.J6 N...... York:pubUchousingill lower\lanhatlan. A\ ...nuealongC 153 .... hat ManhNllan

Venice. 175: Procurane vecchle. 160: RIalto, 178
Venturl.Ruberl.42.45. 112. de. 176 23, de, 22. 171.



vcrsatlles. vtccree.

Chateau Chateau

Habf'rmas.Jurgen.I04.145 HildrWi. 90-94.149 H.alevy,Lton.20


QA~l6.41. Ot)'Qldusclltll. 58


38. 94

Oly.1dW. 14·15
12&-136. 147 Ot,oI''Tl!reeMillloolnhbUanUi.

Hamburg,.E:J:portmCli5C, 160 Harlow,60-62 Ha~mann.Georges.45.88.127 Hawbmoor. Nlcholu. 92
Hedgehol-Fol. 90-94.98.117. 47 .. 8.21.27_18.29.

Mondrlan,Piet.91,114 Moore. Charles. 142 More. SI. Thomas, 14.87
MorettJ.LuJgI.,142 Morm. MOS(:ow. Mo5eS, Mumford, Munich. ~flWOlini. WilHam, 102 Lewis. Benito, 51. 38 56


CIullo. 92 Rome, 10G-l12: Campidogllo, 88. 149; easa del Glrascle. 142; Castello Sam' Angelo, 149: Imperlall'ora. 84: Mausolcum of Augustus. 156: palazzo
Borghese. 77: PaJa1:ln Palazzo 77: Palazzo Pamese. 88: 79:

Compitgne. town und cheteau. tcwnscape Iigllrc"sroundplun.t69


,-\potheur!lugeL1831-IBH. 129 Mu: Baden-Baden, project for the Fr'i~dricbspart
Sledlung.1926.167 The Interior.

;;F"Jft.b ...nII1lIPark. dt:mOC:nllf~

88-94. 174 178;

Palil:t'7-D Chterlentl.

Las Vegas.

Strip, li2
Bordeaus-Pessec, 191).141: quadmntof VillaSlein.




... oulll look Ilkc.

IbO:MOllleBcrieo.164 Vienna. 127: Hcfburg. 168 Vletnilm.121 Vigevano. Piazza Ducale. 156 Vllle Budleuse. 4, 30. 31. :13. 38, 50.150 Vlt\orlll.l'h,l'<l Wagner. Washington, Webb.PhllJp.92 Wells. H. G.. 3 L 33. 137 \Vitson.Woodrol'l,4 Wimbledon. HI Woodstock Fesrlval. 47 World Wnr I. 4. 10 Wren. WrlKht. Christopher, 'J.! Frank Lloyd. 13,92 Ymca, Prances. 48 Mayor O.C., .. 156




Corbusier: bouse

Padua,PI1IIOdcUaVllll .... 158


Cumbemeuld. town centre. rnodel
of early deslgn. Oath 39: or 25 resldeuttal

21 Pa[accoflheSo\~eU.



del qutrtcele,

urea. 39 Dnvtdr The
Court. Oelacrolx:

atyrort.b~m11Ilon Inhnbilants. 1922. plan, 92: Garches.

Paru:Bobign)·.': La IlatllSl!". 7: Galerted·OrlCiins.c.18lo.1JJ:
grand $taJrciUt ollhe Opc!ra. Ib.!;

the Tennis

(.Qu\n'aoo Tullenn, Plan Louvre, Tuikrlcs.andPalais IIO)'al fromll\t 17)9 SI:WUVff.

Htfner. Hugh, ~geLG.W.F

Colbert de V1II.iiQ:l'{. li7 Chateau de.


Rcsldell1 ..


CoIcdd&e.!>amudTaylor.l31 CoWJU, Peta'.68

123,128.138 ffiJ~lmer.Ludwla.6
HJstorIrum. I·Pihlln.168 29


Pantheon. 149:Pincio, 164: Peruees Aemtlla, 160; PyramId of Cal us Cestlus, 172: gam' Agnescln P1aua Navona. 77 ROUSSCilU, Jean Jacques. 8. 19.21.


Unltt!d·Habltatioo.I94f>.site plan 140: view,

RiehlI'd. 1}8

Llberty I,cuding the People, 1830, 24 Disney World. Plortda. Main










1918. •

andPaJilIsRo)'al.liSo. li!!ure-grouodp(iln.Sl:PaJiIlS R.»"JlcuutlyardSl:Parc-





HOWIlon, 07 1 Jlcobl,/ane,36

Co~n.lmll1ilcuhl.te.JO Cubb;m.14.IU Cumbetrull,dd. 40

Napoleon III, 88 NlIJh. John. 92 National Goalt Resc:arch Slaff, 123 Ne61M Pavilion. 142 Newton,baae, 8.15.19,20,102
New't'ork.II1-115.174;l'lIll1 1!.\·Cl]ue, 152 Nletuchc,P Novara, .. 30 82

Saint-Simon, Henri de. 19.20, 21. 22,26,
Surttayana, St.OIe, Sllnt' Sllvage. George, 58-62 2, 6


Doesburg, 'l'heo con.~tructlon.
Dr~so;::::I~:~~~g~~2 plan. gdtnburgh. for llntcr IS·I lilll.'tef.

Von: malson


l-t l : Paris.



f'rln~csStre"'l. den IJud~n,

1922. 140: Paris. terrn«oftbe Do: Be15teguJpenlhousr. 19l0-19JI. 141: Pans. Plan vetstn, 1915, 3.)0. 67. 72.
74-75: Pclssy, Vltlo Sal'tl)'~. 78; prole~1 for dly centre. 1945,5S. $9.62: SahU-D!~. Vi!ltcontempornlne. Vllkrudieus .... 19JO.51 1921. 3:



\'os&~(PlilreRo)'ill<'l51.15&! Boule\'ardRkbard·~nOlr. UI61_186J.5;:rlIl'\Ie$

I!Jla,It.ntonlo. 25,27.29 Noble, 16-19,21. 22.24,


tbesewrrs.rromll,\rA!JUSl~ '~"urt:l"qW.-l5 parmu ~rrel. 19J1. ~gure-i\ruundph"L ,-\lIgUSlt~ .\II>SCO"·,


Dahomey. 14~ Dantt, 92
Darwlo. Charlea. 19, 138 DaY1d.Jacqurs-LoUI1.24,27

/dctlOn. Thomll. 25, 50 /llhnJOn.Samuel, !43,148 Jordy.WUllam.9J
Joyee,lamel.137,143 Klrlsruhe. LangcnlKalser)

127 Object Plx~L1oll. 8, 5
Ofl'shoreoU rlgt. 172

Stta .. ~, IS2

50 SaVllnnllh,175 Sden!lsm, 29, 95, 117, J45 'Scicllce fiction', H. 37"38 Serllo,Scbaluono,j4.36
Sfor:dlldll,87 Shull'.

YCUlCS, W. B., 137





f.c!ltltclst.65 Zui1\,Hmllc,

n. 50


Cr~sc~nt. 51 rntcpilurSlkrl.lll1ur"'-j:rOluld ))lnn.171 , Florcllce, puliluo'!:lI:r VlIln,
IJllrnllcld c 1I15U. 1.15: \'IUll:lu!c

l.edllul:.C1nude-Nicolns;projl<i:t for iJl Snlln~ tit Chnwo. ];;6.

ror Ihe Pain, ... p!anand


tht SOli~\$. lie .... ill. 71


...rr ......·-



StiltUfr l'owsln;Chl1Sf Ashd

,,·UhChllrCllnlllg. IJ9. 140 wIth tlte by IkaUngU1rBlJnd CoII«1ed

Sources and Credits
Reference Is by p"ge numbcr of Brttlsh 3. 5 r, I 19r1g,,/T<lm Sehumnchcr;

KlmlJ/:/i:umus. %urkh.1961: R",f''''lIndOeU&




1I'1Ihoui and

herlrQnS-Atlantlc superwsmn, book the would of this


14.1 ArrhUa/ura! Walnwrlght; del

Insislencc oppcIlrancc

Men. 181:l.a.ndscilpe of Phodon Ills \\'ldo" ', 180


The RoyallnstJlut~ Lolldon:llJ.

Arehllt'Cts. 17.10_ righi,


t sn

Servll:lofotographlco dl Romo: IVllltllms: Copyright: 1967: School 161 PilI/lid/a. from


Commune 1. Reynolds 001 Crown Vllale

51 rl.ghl. 59.6iklClIl,·. '11. ;Z"bo'T. 92. 7Jb(low. 1-10. 87.108-111 Romllna 7 /,(/ow Unll'erslty and

15111110"" 152 IItlow
155 160 from F,rst 11111 Press C paperback 19711 by Cdllion. 1981

theMU1t'OdcllaOl11tllRomana 87. lOS-III: mausoleum

69(oprlglll,70IlDlII'fu"dlKlo"" 78b.Jlll1m. 141. 118.JJ9.

R. Ghl~nda.

QollOI'g Serilda


Nuo,'Il. GeIiOIl.
dcUIOviJtllRomana: l'heAm~r!Clln Studies Roberto Editrlce. Pane.


Copyrlghl Technology

Augustus. 1511;ocwus Pilnlbeon.IIIl:Pal,DD Boo-gbese. 76:PllllaoFam""t. 76:pal1nsofPlB_dd

©SPADRM;J\·. Untone: 16

16111bow ofClu5.lJcal bdawfl"Om Electra J61 lit/ow

The Massachusetts Insutute or

.\1uscodellIO\'ll!u t'Ololcca

01 Athem:



CIImpldoailo. ISO: Ptndo, 164: pliln.aftt;rCanInB.18H.II3.
117: pjDn aftuBufllinl. Ill:PortIrusAemllJ 1551. .. 160:

IJbrnry:21brlow.24.2S0Ich6o; dcsMusIXsNpt/onaull'.I'uris: N.. 15fromThrConcisr rOIl'IU('Q~.1heA«:hilectu~ .. 1

"W~n. 1952:

All rights book may


No part


be reproduced means,

In llDy electron[c

[tolo Ballartn, 1970: 165

PIII::tlSall Venice. Club

or by (lny

MIlrl'o.MarsJlJoEdl[orl. Touring

orme(!hnnlcal.lncludlng photocopylng.nx:ordlng.orby anylnformot]on retrla\·alsystem.wlthout permJssJonln publisher. This Il'rlUngrrom the storage and


ciCaluS lie",.

Ce:suus. In:
the;( 80. with


Noll!. SO, hit
Alneseln \'llliI 5t1'ucturelnd 102-101

Press. London, 1971:19 Cumbemauld Develcpmenr
Corpornllon:Urlghl.98rrom A Dmllit

171 Ithlca. K.. Herdeg.

1972:168~lll\ll,IMI_ M. Ocnn!sand 170 ildow fronr TM Ur/ltm PfI!~dcnrs. and 1. Bakh!alr. Unll'ersltyof abo,y SerutfUrt Ithaca. FOI'mlll

beloll'from 1974:



oj ArchitulUrt
Karl from Kramer

lind UrbllR verlag,

Navon •. 76: gwdtn

il!f/gn, Garnett. AmtrlrllR

N. Ardalon




N, A.

Owings. 1969. by



book was





in the Library Rowe, Collage Include~






ComJeSunt, Shant,



permlss1onorHar~r&Row. Publts11rr"o., lttt- .. Ne .. ' York:
©S3 I:wprtjohns. Edward from Brilish

K. Herdeg.

in Illdiall


of Congress Datil CoUn. city. bibliographical



14 Gnhlme: tield




Arnold. Tilll<'and

London.I!J65;54.133Ioprrom S. Gledion.SplKt. Archll«lure.1941:55MloII' KLM Aeroear1o: Archilwurt. London. ColiecUon Doesburg; Allen 1956: 57/(jlfrom & Unwin.

GeIltmLondon.11I71.114 Smlfhson.AllsonandPe~r:

1967: 172 !lip from JlrrhlrulUrlli Plus. Nell' York. September 1967: lil/ejt from R. Venturi. Denise SCOII Brown. and Steven Iaenour. lL4rn/ngfromu,s Vegas. MIT Pn:$5. 1972: J72belowrlghl EIllotilirwltt.fromlvau ChermayeD'.ObsullIlliamorr A.mcrlrllnArchiluIUrt. Press. New York. right 1972: 17] (rom lind bOllom lejl NASA: IIndbotlDrn nnd ], verreus. /acqUC5FrCaI.Paris. olHw" Parma from Galleria Goodll'ood 180 181 Vllubon. Viking 171 tlJp renut

in Publiclltion



Indexes. 2. Functionalism 1. Eclecticism 4. Archlrecture, century. Fred, joinllluthor. In



P.: Wunburg.

market worm-n',

L City plannlng_ (Architecture). architecture. Modern-20th 1. Koetter. ILTII/e. NA90S0.R68 ISBN


penitentiary. bou~n&-11I71. Stowe.

18DD. 112 7 plan.


Bequest Nelly Van
58. 701ltlowkJI Zurich;

Supcrsiudlo;lailliscape"ilh tigures,C.1970.41 1'IIuL8runo:deslgnfromA1pf~ bchlltklur.1919.IO Terragnl. nmpd. nvolL GuIseppl: Roman Rome. ,,1th PnljeaforDantcum.1918,141 settlement lillcrl~lIons.l01 Hadrllo',vmlLvlewof modeL c.ntnl.91 Tod/.SInLl



62.63.81 right. 83. 1jJ. 168ubCIl't. 170 oOO,..,Wayne Copper: 69 wlo~.
Anem[_~ Vetl~g. rlghl MonseU rlghl. Sluan Collecllon: 70 lIdow 74-75 Hunt: 76 Maw Lop. 80 Hervt: 71 Stud!oCbevojon: Co~enandSteven

M. Parent

711'.4 78..60990




NazlonaJe' HoUse--b; 178 Tate CoUect!on Mll5eedu

Gallery. (heEnrl



the Trustees:
Landon: of Derby: Paris.

76 b(lo ..' Itjl AUn~rl; righIAnden;on: 141 loprishl

i8 Ihlrrlbtlow Luc1en

!..ollvre.c1lcMdeSMu~es NatlonDull.

right ~L Dcrmls:81/rJlobolY from 1962; E. de Ganay.

90. 95:

p!iln afttr

dlchtI.eVY-Neurdetn:88cHcM R. Hellrnrd. AndftIt NOllre. Parts. UP, Edillons

fuceCpl(ormilToremcndaUOlis. mostly Holliday prompted 8ndjO('I by jUdith UOSllck.lhetexl completcdIn but

lieI\', 77


Harvard 102,

VaJun.z:tbto. Vlnl Barbarlgo,lbe RlIbblllsiand.lS9
Vanberell,lIeeF.eiteren Venl~Pror:uralleVea:hle.16] alr

NOla orr SynlMsls 10]SU51e

Vlocent 116Ittlowfrom of Form
Mass 115

Cambrld8e Kim:

of this essay was Deccmllt'r 1973;
oflllustTBIiOns ('ompalgn and.

area. we RIchard


Mr. and Mrs.8urton Tllnlrll, Tham~ Ihelndlllrr & Uudsnn 129 lOp 127.1]0 '

Wilsqultellnother In this

VemcuU,li5 ve:wes. V1cenu,


view. Zl. 88: plan.

PhUlpRBw50n. Cull oj

on and. pHrUcuJll~ly.


PaluOfOCh!encau,161 164



11/1 ,

Plnu[eMonte~rl('o \1~;~:I~burg.n&urt'_grOUnd 11gt'nmo. P!a~Duc

MQo'hnerSt~dlrnust!um: Uayerl5CberNallon6Irnuseum' 126,127.



Hadley New

HerhereT SnmCIW(llhlrdsoflhe IIIU$tral/o~weremadebYlhOSl.'

.. [~ 156 IS7

ltC-lind kjljrorn

IIlp. Ihlrd /tjlfrorn



were. and



\'IUOrla,PIIlItIIMIYOr,,,; \\'qrmann.GWitlvAI~r1" ~~~~~;;;~I~Qn$ler l\'elnb~n~r.Frledrich


Klrbrubc. IKII~r_j

~~: ;~~U~':;~I~~::'
.Ro;cr an oa~:U::~u~ 1964: 129btlow.llj 600110171 . 135 bdow righl from K/llnl.umUf. MUnich. S. GledJ~n. 19Z2' sc Bruno Carl, SpofbtrrochfulidRuIJlIIII/l5Chrr prod~cerlltQ


we are


SCnslilVede5lgncrondftepped lime seemed t:!itlrnnled when the To II




prO",rc59 towards In dOubt, Ind~ed


publlcal/on ~:~I;u:~eC~=:~~~~

IJotDlhyRowcour 1101 to Would



Itfl from



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