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Image Capture for Hand - Drawn Animation
compiled by David Nethery

Hand-drawn animation images can be captured and digitized in one of two ways:
1.) Scanning with a Flatbed Scanner

or an Auto Document Feed (ADF)

scanner. 2.) Shooting the drawings with a camera mounted on a down shooter (copy stand) to hold the camera steady and in precise alignment as each drawing is captured frame-by-frame

The book 'Producing Independent 2D Character Animation' by Mark Simon (Focal Press) has some good basic information about scanning and digital ink & paint techniques that you will find helpful. Also, the book 'Animation: Pencils to Pixels' by Tony White (Focal Press) has some good information on adapting traditional animation techniques to digital production. For Pencil Testing a web cam or Digital Video Camera connected directly to a computer via a Firewire connection will interface directly with pencil test programs such as Digicel Flipbook, Toki Line Test, MonkeyJam, TVPaint, Animo, etc. The video camera is controlled by the capture software and images are captured directly into the program. The camera is mounted on a sturdy copy stand or photo enlarger stand . For Final Scan of artwork that will be digitally inked & painted a scanner is used to capture the final high-resolution images for import into the ink & paint program. Popular pencil test programs include Digicel Flipbook, Toki Line Test, Monkey Jam, TVPaint, and Animo. Many of these programs also have an Ink & Paint component for coloring your artwork after it has moved beyond the pencil test stage. Digicel, TVPaint, and Animo are among the number of digital ink & paint software programs available. You may also import your final line artwork into programs such as ToonBoom Studio, ToonBoom Digital Pro, and Flash to color the images in vector format. Different types of camera set-ups and scanners are shown and discussed in the following pages and a detailed discussion of the different image capture options is on pages 17 - 18 of this manual.

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Image Capture for Hand-drawn Animation
In the decades up to the 1990's animation had to be shot on heavy, elaborate camera stands which held up heavy 35mm or 16 mm motion picture cameras. Mitchell, Bell & Howell. Bolex cameras and Acme or Oxberry camera stands were once ubiquitous in the animation field. The advent of smaller ,lighter weight digital video cameras and computer software for shooting, organizing, and coloring hand-drawn animation has changed all that. Where as once we had to have these elaborate compound tables that would move in every direction North/South, East/West (and rotate) and Camera cranes to raiSe and lower the camera for truck-in and truck-out moves , now all that is required is a simplified camera support to keep the camera steady as it captures our hand-drawn images frame by frame. The compound table and camera crane have been replaced by digital ink & paint and compositing software to simulate camera movements .

An Oxberry Animation Camera about 12' ft. high and 8' ft. wide at the base.

A simple copy stand such as those made by Testrite, Bogen, or K.aiser will suffice to hold our camera steady and in perfect alignment with our animation drawings on a peg bar taped down below the camera on the shooting stage. Lighting can be provided by inexpensive clip-on flood lamps placed at 45 degree angles to the surface of the copystand stage to provide soft, even illumination and prevent glare or hotspots on the drawings. The Testrite CS-l, CS-2and CS-3 models of copystand are affordable pencil test camera stands. ""Note : very recently it has come to my attention that the Testrite Co. has discontinued making these stands, though they are still available used on e8ay and other places.

These are available from various photographic stores (see list ot end) and can often be purchased very inexpensively on eBay. (used)

3

Some models of copy stands are much more elaborate than the Testrite CS-l - - CS-3 line. The more elaborate ones have precision geared columns and geared camera mounts that allow for precise adjustment of the camera. These are not as elaborate as the old Oxberry animation stands, but they are more complicated than the simpler stands and allow for quite a bit of flexibilty in adjusting the camera position, but aga.in ,with digital scene planning, camera movement, and compositing the importance of physically adjusting the camera is not as great. What is mostly needed isa solid support and to make sure the camera is accurately centered over the area where you will be shooting your drawings, and that the lighting is even with no cast shadows or glare. If you happen to find one of these more elaborate copy stands by Bogen or Ka.iser at a good price on eBay or at a studio going-out-of-business sale then by all means get one and you will certainly appreciate these fine, precision instruments. but the Simpler stands will do quite well.

These stands with the geared columns and professional lighting units are made by Ka.iser. Your home studio set up need not be this elaborate, but these are good examples of professional level video testing stations.

Another useful accessory is a hinged glass platen to press down the drawings absolutely flat, which eliminates any wrinkles on the paper which can cause distracting shadows and other artifacts. This is especially useful when shooting final clean-up scenes where the line quality and clarity is more important. You can make a hand-held platen by attaching wooden handles to a free-floating sheet of optical quality glass. The glass is lifted on and off the stage as each drawing is shot. 4

More pencil test camera stand set ups:

Another Kaiser geared-column stand shooting with digital video camera in Toki Line Test on a Mac.

Testrite C5-3copystand with digital video camera, C5-3 column mounted on custom raised platform.

Compact Testrrte C5-1 stand with video camera hooked up to iBook with firewire

Here's another nice set up with the popular Testrite C5-3 stand. Note that the C5-3 column is bolted to the table top and a custom designed shooting stage with inset top and bottom peg bars has been placed under the camera. Camera is a professional Sony CCD high-defintion B&W camera with zoom lens. The camera position is stationary, but can zoom in to focus in Close on drawings if need be.

5

Here's another view of that nice CS-3 copy stand set up from the previous page . Notice how the long Lshaped table helps to maximize the work area and keep everything in good order, with the computer and other equipment off to the side, but easily cccessible . There is room on the right hand side of the shooting stage to neatly stack draWings waiting to be shot.

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This Testrite CS-1070 stand has a more elaborate precision geared column and camera mount, more like the Kaiser models. Inexpensive clomp-on lights and a taped down peg bar would make this a great pencil test Ifinal scan set up

This Pentax stand with geared double chrome columns is a nice design. Add a peg bar and lights and you're ready to shoot your pencil tests 6

This stand has the shooting stage and top/bottom peg bars painted flat black, which is good for minimizing reflections. The stand itself is semi-blocked off from the rest of the room (significantly the window) with a flat block three sided screen. This will keep out unwanted light flares or shadows coming from other parts of the room. The light comes from clip -on desk lamps. An area where you can save some money if you buy a copy stand new is to buy it without the light units and just go to Home Depot or an office supply store to get cheap clip-on lamps which are lightweight and easy to adjust (and did I mention, cheap?) . What is chiefly needed with the lighting for pencil tests is to have the lights be at the correct angle and to have the light be evenly spread from edge to edge of the paper.

You need a couple of these thin, metal peg bars like this one from Cartoon Colour Co. in Culver City, California (also good for attaching to a scanner) .

7

As the low-end and mid-range Copy Stands made still frequently found on eBay as of this writing, Beseler, and Bogen tend to be more expensive, Copy Stands. Here are a few examples that are

by Testrite Corp. have been phased out (they are Sept. 2007) and the stands made by Kaiser, the need has arisen to find more reasonably priced currently on the market for under $100.00.

CamStand 30HD from KENT CamStands

Side view of Kent CamStand 30HD This one and mode.1CamStand PRO 24 will work fine for animation shooting.

Sharpies Tabletop Monopod MP-16 clamps on to any sturdy table to adapt to an animation capture station. Camera mount head swivels so camera can face straight down to shoot animation drawings below.

Studio Pro Copy Stand #380 is a compact, no frills stand that will hold alight-weight digital video camera. ·Just add peg bar and dip-on lights. 7a

This is a ve.ry fine design for a do-it-yourself Camera Stand designed by animator JE Nystrom when he was a student. Mr. Nystrom has the complete plans for this stand on his website:

http://www.sci.fi/ ... nimoto/stand/stand.html a
The photograph shows it with a Super-8mm film camera mounted on it , but this light-weight stand would also be ideal for digital video cameras or webcams. Again, the lights are simple clip-on lights set at 45 degree angles.

Side view

It seems to me that J.E. Nystrom's do-it-yourself camera stand design could be adapted to be built from PVC tubing as shown in this example:

http://csigizmos.com/products/photography/photostand.html

Some top-of-the-line digital video cameras will shoot at high enough resolutions to capture single frame images that can be imported to a digital ink & paint program for painting,. however in most cases you will find that a.video camera is great for quickly capturing pencil tests, but you will want to use a a scanner to capture your final images that will be taken to color. The next section will show some examples of scanners adapted for animation scanning.

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A Scanner is used for capturing high-res. images that will be used for final coloring. Your scan settings for high-res. should be 200 dpi or more. 300 dpi is safe in most cases. However, you can use a scanner set at low-res. (72 dpi) to make quick scans that can be imported into a pencil test program such as Digicel or Toki Line Test .. Scanning a.t a lower resolution will go more quickly and make for smaller file sizes. Again, your options are .:a basic scanner available at any office or computer store, that only scans letter (8.5" x 11") or legal (8.5" x 14") sized paper. This limits you to working within an area that is approx. 9 or 10 Field (compare to 12 Field paper) but many people find that is not a problem and it does save money on paper and allows you to use the more commonly available (and less expensive) A4 letter size scanners. The second type of scanner is an oversized tabloid (11"x 17" or larger) scanner. These are more expensive, but will allow you to easily scan an entire 12 or 16 field sheet of standard animation paper. The final type of scanner is an Auto Document Feed scanner. These are very expensive if they are oversized (11"x 17" or larger) A3 tabloid paper size, but sometimes the regular size AA/letter sized (8.5" x 11")ADF scanners can be comparatively much more affordable and they do offer you the option of doing all your line testing work via the Auto Document Feed scanner. It is fairly easly to pop the drawings into the ADF tray and send them quickly through the Scanner. The only limitation is having to work on smaller sized paper, but many people do not find this to be a major drawback. You can also use the smaller size paper with a regular A4/1etter size flatbed scanner. If you are buying a new scanner check out reviews of different models to see which ones are rated the best in terms of 1.) Image Quality and (equally important) 2.) Speed. I have had a Canon LIDE 50 scanner for several years now that I am very happy with, but I know there are faster scanners on the market now and if I were going to do a large amount of scanning with this scanner I'd probably trade-up for a newer (and faster) model of flat bed. For full-size 12 and 16 Field animation paper I use an Epson Expresstcn 10000XL 11"x 17" scanner which is excellent. Great image quality and relatively fast for a flatbed scanner.

Canon LIDE 50 flatbed A4/Letter sized scanner sitting on top of Epson Expression 10000XL A3lTabloid size Scanner. Note the peg bar attached along the outer edge of the Can.on.

9

Smaller size paper, standard copier size 8.5" x 11"can be used and scanned off the bar ,so the peg holes up in the main Scan

Here is the Canon LIDE 50 scanner with smaller 8.5" x 11paper shown.

If this is scanned
off the peg bar then the peg holes will show up within the scan and software will be used to AutoA I ign the draWings using the peg holes. This size paper allows you to work at about a 10 field max.

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The Canon LIDE 50 and most other inexpensive scanners are A4lLetter sized scanners. This is not large enough to scan a full 12 Field shet of animation paper.

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When Scanning the full sheet of paper including the peg holes the paper size must be regular copier paper size 8.5" x II" . This gives you an effective area of about 10 Field. work

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This is the scanner inteface, showing the area that will be scanned on an 8.5" x 11" sheet of punched animation paper The max. draw-to area on this size is about 10 Field. 9 field is Safe area.

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The advantage to scanning the entire sheet with the peg holes visible is that you can use an auto document feeder to speed up the process and toke advantage of alJto~al'ign software such as Digicel or ScanFix to use the scanned peg holes to automatical.ly. r.egister your drawings.

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Use a ruler and run tests to find the exact center position to line up the center peg

Peg bar attached along the edge of the Scanner. accurately before you tope the peg bar down.

Be careful that you've centered the pegs

Full size 12 Field animation paper will fit on the Canon UDE scanner bed, but only 10 to 11.5 will be captured in the Scan area.

11

Full size 12 Field animation paper willfit on the Canon LIDE 50 scanner bed, but only 10 to 11.5 Field will be captured in the scan area.

The peg bar is positioned in such a way that it is possible to get a sheet of full-sized 12 Field animation paper on the scanner, the the area scanned will be less than full 12 Field .. Probably a max of 11 Field draw-to area, with a "Safe" area of 10 Field.

The peg bar is positioned so the pegs do not prevent the scanner lid from dosing

The peg bar is positoned so that the lid of the scanner will close without running into the raised pegs.

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Notice the peg holes are not visible because the peg bar is ~;aped down out of -*' the scanner area. Th'IS . f+ scanning . IS or full 12 Field size paper on a standard A4/Letter scanner. It allows you to scan an area somewhere between a 10 field and 11 field using a standard 4:3 aspect ratio.

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Here are examples of actual scans made on the A4/Letter size scanner. This top one is 12 Field, scanned On the Pegs, with an outside draw-to area of about 11- to - 11.5 Field, but a "Safe" working area of 10 Field (at the 4:3 aspect ratio)

12 field paper scanned on Canon UDE 50 A4 (letter) scanner at regu.lar 4: 3 aspect ratio gets effective 11 field if you're careful and a "Safe" area of 10 field (11 f should be fine if you're not drawing out to the edge of the paper)

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The middle scan shows the fielding obtained by scanning 12 Field paper at 16:9 "widescreen" HD aspect ratio. Because of the narrower aspect ratio you can actually get almost a real 11.5 field if you don't draw out all the way to the edge of the paper on the sides. 11 Field would be considered a "Safe" area.

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If you work on 8.5" x 11" paper scanned on on A4/Letter scanner you win still only get all.effective 10 field working area, but the advantage is you could useen Automatic Document Feed to speed things up and by scanning with the peg holes visible you can use auto-align software such as DigiCel or ScanAlign ,etc. to automatically align YOlJr drawings using the scanned peg holes.

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For comparison, here again is an example of the smaller 8.5" x 11" paper scanned fully, with the peg holes visible. This size will get an effective 10 Field draw-to area, with 9 Field probably being a "Safe" area. Smaller paper lets you use a less expensive A4/Letter size Auto Document Feed scanner. Working at full size 12 Field or 16 field requires a step up to an A3/Tabioid (11"x 17") ADF scanner which is much more expensive than the smaller ADF scanners . 13

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To scan full-sized 12 Field and 16 Field animation paper an A3/Tabioid (11"X 17" ) scanner must be used. Here are some views of several different A3 size scannners.

Epson Expression 10000XL with 16 Field paper ready to be scanned On Pegs

if desired the 16 Field paper may be scanned Off Pegs and an Auto-Align pegs function used in software to register the drawings. (this is sometimes foster than having to take the drawings on and off the pegs each time) It is possible to purchase on optional Auto Document Feed attachment to convert the Epson 10000XL from a flatbed scanner to an ADF scanner.

Here is another large format scanner , the Microtek ScanMaker 6400 XL , with a sheet of 12 Field paper ready to be scanned On Pegs. Microtek's A3/Tabioid scanners are popular because they are quite c hitless expensive than most large format scanners They are not necessar.ily very fast scanners , but they do produce good quality scans. 14

Fujitsu high speed Auto Document Feed scanner

This is one of Fujitsu's top of the line ADF scanners which is well-suited for scanning animation. Unfortunately Fujitsu does not make a Macintosh compatible TWAIN driver for their ADF scannerS so unless the Mac user wants to buy a PCwhich is dedicated to scanning work it is best to stick to the Epson scanners. Other brands of large-format ADF scanners include Ricoh Canon, and HP .

When scanning with an ADF scanner a piece of block tape should be positioned behind the peg holes so that the holes will scan dearly (so the Auto-Align software can find and align all the peg holes once the scanning has taken place)

15

Sources for Scanners and Copy Stands
Your best source for scanners and cameras will be online search eng.ines. Find out from the tech support dept.of the pencil test or ink & paint software you plan to use which scanner models and which digital cameras they recommend and once you have the make and model number, search for the best deals online Sometime.s you can find reasonably priced A3/Tabloid size (11" xli') scanners on eBay, but as usual with eBay purchases ASK QUESTIONS of the seller to be sure the equipment is in good working order before you bid (on scanners ask if there is a service/repair record and when was the last time the scanner was serviced?) Same would apply to purchasing digital cameras or video cameras from eBay. Ask probing questions about the working order and the repair record, if any, of any equipment you may want to bid on and get good, clear answers to your questions before you bid on eBay. eBay is also an excellent source for used Copy Stands, such as the Testrite CS-3 and other models which are ideal for shooting animation pencil tests. (see the various examples shown in the photos included in this article) Copy Stands tend to be very rugged equipment, so there is less risk of buying a defective piece of equipment on eBay , but again if the seller's description is unclear about the condition of the copy stand be sure to ask the seller about it before you bid. 1<Newcamera and copy stand equipment: B &. H Photo Video - httpJ /www.bhphotovideo.com/c/shop/711/Copy_Equipment_Copystands.html A dorama Photography - http://www.adoroma.com/ Kent CamStands - http://www.photocopystand.com/reasonsably priced camera stands CamStand PRO 24, CamStand 30HD Studio PRO - http://www.webphotosupply.com/copy.htm Copy Stand model #380 Sharp ics Tab Ietop Mo nopod - http://www.sharpics.com/Products/monopod.htm I Make you own camera stand: Books: http://www.sci.fi/ ... nimato/stand/stand.html a

'Producing Independent 2D Character Animation' by Mark Simon (Focal Press) 'Animation From Pencils To Pixels' by Tony White (Focal Press)

1< Remember, you can save money by only buying the copystand column and camera mount head
without the light units. You can bolt down the column to your own baseboard or a table and the lights can be inexpensive clip-on lights from Home Depot or Target. The more expensive, precision copy stands are not necessary for shooting your animation drawings. If you can find a used model which has the geared column and adjustable came.ra mount for a reasonable price then by all means get it , but in most cases the less expensive Testrite copy stands (Model C5-3 is a good one) are sufficient. The main thing you will want to have with your lighting is adjustable clip-on. lights that can be angled at 45 degrees from the surface of the drawings being photographed, so any shadows or glare (hotspots) are eliminated. For shooting pristine clean-up tests a glass platen can be USed to press down the drawings completely flat. There are copy stand attachments which have a.hinged glass platen. Make sure that it is large enough to cover the size of paper you are using (for example 12 Field = 12.5" x 10..5" or 16 F = 16.. " x 13.5" ) but not so large thct it can't 5 clear the peg bar. You can also get a piece of optical quality gloss and make your own platen, either a hinged one like the professionol models or a free floating platen with handles epoxied along the edges so you can easily lift the glass plate on and off as you shoot the drawings. (this can be very effective inexpensive solution, but will slow you down a.bit when shooting since it tokes extra time to lift the gloss on and off the drawings on the shooting platform. If possible use a sp.ring-hinged platen that is eosilyraised and lowered in one easy action, with one hand.

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Pencil Test and Ink & Paint Software
DigiCel Flipbook - http://www.digicelinc.com/
Pencil Test via video camera or web cam and also has a Digital Ink & Paint module for coloring your final scanned images.

TVPaint PRO - http://www.tvpaint.com/
With TVPaint you can animate directly into the program using a Wacom tablet or you can use it as a traditional pencil tester to shoot your drawings with a video camera. (also imports scanned drawings for Ink & Paint). Powerful Ink & Paint and EFX functions.

Toki Line Test - http://www.digital-salade.com/toki/english/tokilinetest.html
Very nice pencil test program. Captures drawings directly to the digital exposure sheet via a digital video camera or web cam. Also allows import of previously scanned drawings. Full version offers HD resolution.

MonkeyJ am - http://www.giantscreamingrobotmonkeys.com/monkeyjam/index.html
A freeware (donations gratefully accepted) pencil test application for Windows only.

Animo - http://www.animo.com/products/animo.htm An older pencil test/ink & paint program that has ma.nypowerful features.
User interface can be somewhat daunting to learn, but this program is virtually unlimited for high-end digital ink & paint. The pencil test module can be purchased as a stand alone application, but the full benefits of the Animo system are to be had by owning the entire suite of modules. The big drawback is that it is very expensive.

ToonBoom Studio 4.0 ToonBoom Digital Pro ToonBoom Harmony -

http://www.toonboom.com/

The ToonBoom line of animation software ranges from relatively inexpensive (ToonBoom Studio) to extremely expensive (Harmony and Opus). All can be used for basic import, vectorize , and coloring of scanned drawings or you can draw directly into the program with a Wacom tablet.

All of the above are products that I have experience using. Other Pencil Test/ Ink & Paint programs available include:

CTP PRO - http://www.cratersoftware.com/ctp_pro_2.html CelSys

RETAS Pro - http://www.celsys.co.jp/en/retas/index.html
16 a

Detailed Information on Image Capture technique for Hand-Drawn Animation Hand-drawn animation images can be captured and digitized in one of two ways: L) Scanning with a Flatbed Scanner, or an Auto Document Feed (ADF) scanner for increased speed in scanning large numbers of animation drawings. 2.) A camera mounted on a down shooter (camera stand) to hold the camera steady and in precise alignment as each drawing is captured frame-by-frame.

Generally, the camera mounted on a down shooter is used for quickly capturing images to use for pencil tests, while the scanner is usually reserved for capturing the final. high resolution images that will be taken into a digital Ink & Paint program for coloring and final compositing . Animation software used for pencil testing includes : Digicel Flipbook .Toki Line Test, MonkeyJam .Anirno, and TYPaint. Image captures can also be imported into Flash or ToonBoom for playback and export to .SWF movie files. Final images can also be digitally colored in several of these programs such as: Digicel Flipbook, TVPaint, ToonBoom, Flash, Animo, in addition to other digital Ink & Paint software programs on the market. The book 'Producing Independent 2D Character on scanning and digital ink &. paint techniques. Animation" by Mark Simon (Focal Press) has some good basic information

For Pencil Testing a web cam or a Digital Video Camera connected directly to a computer via a Firewire cable will interface pencil test p.rograms such as Digicel Flipbook, Toki Line Test, MonkeyJam, TVPaint, or Animo. The video camera is controlled by the capture software in these programs and images are captured directly into the program. Most low to midprice range consumer video cameras do not have high enough resolution to be used to capture final images for coloring, so for the purposes of capturing final high-resolution line artwork a scanner is used. There are three types of scanners that you are likely to use for animation. One is the basic scanner available at any office or computer store, that only scans letter (S.5 x 11") or legal (S.5"x 14") sized paper. This limits you to working within an area that is approx. 9 to 10 Field (compared to full-sized 12 Field animation paper) , but many people find this is not a problem and it does have the advantage of saving money on paper nod allows you to use less expensive, commonly available letter size scanners. The second type of scanner is an oversized A3/tabloid (ll"x 17" or larger) scanner. These are more expensive, but will allow you to scan an entire 12 or 16 Field sheet of standard animation paper. The final type of scanner is an Auto Document Feed (ADF) scanner. These are incredibly fast compared to flatbed scanners. Letter size 8.5" x 11" ADF scanners are available at relatively low cost, but there are only a few models of large format 11" x 17" ADF scorners and they can cost anywhere from $3400 to $7,000 depending on speed and other features. However, most professionol animation studios find that the cost of an 11" x 17" ADF scanner is justified by the significant time saved in production when using an ADF scanner compared to the slower flatbed scanner. Popular models of large format ADF scanners are made by Epson, Ricoh, Fujitsu, HP , and Canon. Contact the tech support dept. at your digital ink & paint software company for their recommendations on which brand of scanners works best with their software. (also be aware that some ADF scanner drivers only work with Windows and do not work with Macintosh. Epson is one brand that works very well with Macs , the Epson Expression 10000XL scanner being one of those models which is favored by many Mac users).
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An ADF Sconner allows you to scan a great number of drawings relatively quickly and it saves wear and tear on the peg holes of the animation drawings. Drawings are loaded into the document feeder tray on the scanner and are then pulled through the scan area by a series of rollers, each drawing taking about 3 seconds to be scanned. The peg holes are scanned along with the upper part of the paper that has the drawn image on it , then the ink & paint software will use the scanned peg hole shapes to automatically align your drawings in correct registration. In Digicel Flipbook this function is called Auto-Scan. In Animo it is called ScanLevel Auto-Align. TVPaint PRO uses a Two Point Stabilization process which uses the position of the peg holes on the first drawing in a scene to .register the peg holes on all the other drawings. Whatever the name used for the. function, this feature is a part of most digital Ink & Paint programs. For those programs which don't have an auto-align pegs function built in, there is a stand-alone application for registering peg holes called Scan-Fix, written by Duane M. Palyka at Rochester Institute of Technology. Although the ADF scanner is meant for capturing high-res. images for final coloring in a digital Ink & Paint program, many people find that it is a quick way to scan in their drawings for pencil test purposes. The drawings are fed through the scanner, imported directly to the pencil test program (say Digieel Flipbook for example) and arranged on the Ex-sheet in the desired timing, then a Quicktime movie is generated for viewing the animation. This can be much quicker than shooting the drawings one by one with a camera on a down shooter. Although it is a slower method, using a Flatbed Scanner is a reliable way to get high-quality, high-res. scans for your final images to be colored by a digital Ink & Paint program. The ADF scanner has the advantage of speed, but the Flatbed

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scanner is much less expensive than an ADF scanner. You may use the flatbed scanner with a peg bar taped down along one edge to scan your drawings On Pegs, in which case the drawings are kept in alignme.nt by the pegs, or you may use the flatbed scanner to scan your drawings Off Pegs, with the peg holes visible. within the scanned area. If you scan the drawings Off Pegs, the procedure for aligning the drawings is the same as with using an ADF scanner: the pencil test or ink & paint software will use it's Auto-Align Pegs function to line up the drawings after they have been scanned and imported into the program. To recap:

For Pencil Testing 1.) Capture images with web cam or digital video camera mounted on down shooter (copy stand) . Camera interfaces directly with computer via Firewire cab.le . ImaqeS are captured directly into pencil test proqram . 2. Capture images by scanning the draWings through a high speed Auto Document Feed Scanner. After scanning the. image files are imported into the pencil test program. (note: some programs will interface with the scanner directly and the images will be automatically imported into the program as they are being scanned. ) For pencil testing only you can scan at a lower resolution (72 or 96 dpi) to save time and make smaller file sizes. Final scans (below) should always be 200 dpi or higher. Experiment with the best settings. For Final Scan (high-res) to Ink & Paint:

1.) Scan with standard A4/Letter (8.5" x 11") flatbed scanner. (limited to using 8.5" x 11" paper which is equivalent to about 9 or 10 Field, or standard 12 Field animation paper (10.5" x 12.5" ) which will be cropped by the edges of the Scan area, allowing only a workable 10 to 11 field area ( 11 field at the outside, but "Safe" area would be 10 field). 2.) Scan with A4/Letter (8.5" x 11") Auto DocumentFeed scanner, which wil.l be limited to using 8.5" x 11" paper which is equivalent to a workable area of about 9 to 10 Field. Advantage of ADF is that it is much faster than flatbed. 3.) Scan with A3/Tabloid(11" x 17" or larger) flatbed scanner. This size al.lows full scanning of 12 or 16 Field animation paper. Can be tediously slow if a large number of animation drawings need to be scanned. A3/Tabloid flatbed scanners are moderately expensive ($1,000 - $3,000). 4.) Scan using A3/Tabloid (11" x 17") high speed Auto Document Feed scanner. This has the advantage of scanning full sized 12 or 16 Field animation paper at much faster speeds than using a flatbed scanner. Disadvantage is that A3/Tabloid sized ADF scanners are very expensive ($3,400 to $7,000 or more)

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