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Closed-Loop Control of Hybrid Stepper Motor Drives

Closed-Loop Control of Hybrid Stepper Motor Drives

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Closed-Loop Control of Hybrid Stepper Motor Drives
Closed-Loop Control of Hybrid Stepper Motor Drives

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 47, NO.

6, DECEMBER 2000

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Microcomputer Implementation of Optimal Algorithms for Closed-Loop Control of Hybrid Stepper Motor Drives
´ ´ Petar Crnoˇ ija, Member, IEEE, Branislav Kuzmanovic, and Stipe Ajdukovic s
Abstract—This paper discusses optimal algorithms for closed-loop control of hybrid stepper motor drives and their microprocessor implementation. The torque characteristics and the optimal control angle of hybrid stepper motor drives with added series resistance and reluctant stepper motor drives have been described in detail in the literature. The specific contribution of the present paper to this field of research consists of the analysis of the torque characteristics and the optimal control angle of hybrid stepper motor drives with a chopper amplifier and current controller. Analytical expressions for the average torque and the optimal control angle of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor with chopper amplifier and current controller have been developed. An actual hybrid stepper motor drive and the microcontroller-based implementation of the suboptimal and exact optimal control algorithms have been described. The experimental results obtained by positioning a two-phase hybrid stepper motor drive with chopper amplifier, phase current controller, and incremental encoder suggested that the derived optimal control algorithm provided maximum acceleration and minimum positioning time of the hybrid stepper motor drive. Index Terms—Closed-loop control, hybrid stepper motor, microcomputer implementation of optimal control algorithms, optimal control algorithms.

I. INTRODUCTION HERE ARE THREE types of stepper motors [12]: reluctant, permanent magnet (magnets placed radially to the rotor), and hybrid (permanent magnets placed axially to the rotor). Reluctant and hybrid stepper motors are the most commonly used types. Stepper motors are designed to allow both rotation and translation motion [11], [12]. Decreased phase current rise time and increased hybrid stepper motor torque may be obtained by decreasing the phase time constant. This is most conveniently achieved by employing an added series resistance or transistor (chopper) amplifier with current controller. Since the supply voltage in these cases substantially exceeds the rated value, the response of the phase current is forced.

T

Manuscript received January 19, 2000; revised July 14, 2000. Abstract published on the Internet September 6, 2000. This paper was presented at the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Bled, Slovenia, July 11–16, 1999. P. Crnoˇija is with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unis versity of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia (e-mail: petar.crnosija@fer.hr). ´ B. Kuzmanovic is with the University of Zagreb, Polytechnic of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia. ´ S. Ajdukovic is with Prova plus, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(00)10269-2.

The effects of the added series resistance, i.e., phase time constant and hybrid stepper motor parameters on the torque characteristics have been extensively described in [10]. A rated analytical expression was derived for the torque characteristic, utilizing only three motor parameters. This expression is suitable for use in motor design as well as for calculating the required added series resistance that would provide the desired torque characteristics. An analytical expression was derived for the optimal control angle of a hybrid stepper motor with added series resistance [17], which provides the maximum torque and compensates for the effects of the phase time constant. This expression has the same form as the expression for the optimal lead angle of a reluctant stepper motor [1]. Substantial loss of power on the series resistance is the basic shortcoming of this approach to forcing current response and increasing hybrid stepper motor torque. The development of transistor (chopper) amplifiers and current controllers using integrated technology has significantly contributed to improved torque characteristics and broader utilization of stepper motor drives. The basic advantage of stepper motors over other types of motors is the possibility of digital and open-loop control. A relatively large torque reserve is required to ensure reliable hybrid stepper motor performance in the open-loop control mode. Consequently, the maximum acceleration and angular speed of a hybrid stepper motor cannot be achieved with open-loop control. With closed-loop control, the reliability of hybrid stepper motor performance is significantly improved and the angular speed and the acceleration markedly increased in comparison with open-loop control strategies. Optimal and suboptimal control angle algorithms for hybrid stepper motors with chopper amplifiers and phase current controllers have been described in the literature [3], [5], [14]. Information on position and speed of a stepper motor is usually obtained from an encoder [4], [12]. Attempts have been made to obtain information on step position and angular speed from electric signals generated by a phase current [2], [12], back EMF [8], [9], [13] or a reconstructed rotor magnetic flux [6]. This paper is concerned with the development of expressions for the average torque and optimal control angle of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor drive with chopper amplifier and phase current controller. The development of the analytical expression for the average torque of a hybrid stepper motor with chopper amplifier and phase current controller is presented in Section II, and that for the suboptimal and optimal control angle in Section III. The microcomputer implementation of

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suboptimal and optimal control algorithms of a hybrid stepper motor with chopper amplifier and phase current controller is described in Section IV. The experimental results obtained by microcomputer implementation of startup and positioning of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor drive with chopper amplifier, current controller, incremental encoder, and microcomputer position controller, using suboptimal and optimal control algorithms, are presented in Section V. II. DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE TORQUE OF A HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR WITH CHOPPER AMPLIFIER AND PHASE CURRENT CONTROLLER The instantaneous torque value of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor is given by [12] (1) where current in phase (A); icurrent in phase (A); motor constant (N m/A); number of rotor teeth; mechanical rotor angle (rad). Since angular speed is constant under steady-state conditions, phase currents and voltages are periodic values expandable into Fourier series (2) (3) where is the electrical rotor angle (rad), and and are the Fourier coefficients of current and voltage waveforms. Assuming identical phase resistances and inductances, phase currents and voltages exhibit identical waveforms. Observing the orthogonal nature of trigonometrical functions, (1)–(3) yield the following expression for the average torque [12]: (4) is the Fourier coefficient of the fundamental phase where current harmonic. may be derived from the phase voltage equaThe value tion (5) where phase resistance ( ); phase inductance (H); motor constant (Wb). In the steady state, the angular speed is constant ) and relations (2), (3) and (5) yield (

the following expression for the Fourier, coefficient of the fundamental current harmonic: (6) where frequency of the back EMF (rad/s); angular speed (steps/s); phase time constant (s); Fourier coefficients of the fundamental harmonic of the phase voltage. When phase current control is absent or nonoperative, the voltage of the phase with bipolar supply is a square wave, the Fourier coefficients of the fundamental voltage harmonic being (7) is the voltage of a supplied phase (V), and is the where control angle (rad). Inserting (6) and (7) into (4) yields the expression for the average torque of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor with bipolar supply and no current control (8) . where When phase current control is operative, phase voltage and current assume the form shown in Fig. 1. In that case, the Fourier coefficients of the fundamental voltage harmonic may be expressed as [14]

(9) where

is the number of periods when the current controller is is the current rise time (s), is the switched on and off, is the time of current time of current switch-off (s), and switch-on (s) (Fig. 1).

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optimal control angle is a complex procedure requiring numerical solution of differential equation (5), which exceeds the scope of this paper. The critical angular speed at which the current controller ceases to operate is obtained under the condition that the current . rise range is half of the signal period (Fig. 1) Considering that the signal frequency is only one-fourth of the , the angular speed [12] critical frequency is given by (12)
Fig. 1. Phase voltage and current waveforms with chopper amplifier and phase current control.

where

is in units steps/s.

The relation for average motor torque and optimal control angle algorithm of a hybrid stepper motor with chopper amplifier and phase current controller was derived under the assumption that it compensates for the effects of the phase time con(Fig. 1). stant on the phase current increase range Consequently, the current rise time and the voltage switch-on (Fig. 1), which are essential for the calculation of the time average motor torque using (4), (6) and (9), may be obtained by neglecting the back EMF in (5) (the last member). Observing this fact, the current raise time and the time of voltage switch-on (Fig. 1) can be obtained from (5) (10) (11) where phase current value at the end of switch-off interval of supply voltage; rated current value; rated voltage value (Fig. 1). Calculation of current rise time and voltage switch-on time according to (10) and (11) will yield relatively accurate values at low angular speeds when the back EMF is small and its impact on rise and switch-on times is negligible. Besides, it must be noted that, in the stationary state, the back EMF passes through zero in the points of intersection of static torque characteristics (in relation to which the control angle is measured) [6], [8], [13] and that the control angle assumes a small negative value in the low speed region. Consequently, at low angular speeds, the back EMF will assume a very small value at the instant of phase switching and its impact on current rise time and voltage switch-on time will, therefore, be negligible. In that ) case, the range where phase current control is operative ( (Fig. 1). At medium anwill exceed the range of current rise gular speeds, the signal frequency and the back-EMF amplitude tend to increase and, consequently, the range of current rise relative to the range where current control is operative ( ) will also increase. As a result of the neglected back EMF, (10) and (11) will, in that case, yield only approximate values for . An accurate calculation of the impact of back times and , and the EMF on times and , the average motor torque

III. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL CONTROL ANGLE OF A HYBRID STEPPER MOTOR WITH CHOPPER AMPLIFIER AND PHASE CURRENT CONTROLLER The optimal control angle of a hybrid stepper motor is obtained by equating the average torque derivative with respect to ). the control angle to zero ( The optimal control angle expression is derived from the average motor torque expression in the absence of current control (8) arctg (13)

Equation (13) is used for calculating the optimal control angle . In of a hybrid stepper motor with added series resistance this case, the phase time constant with added series resistance defined by the forcing coefficient : should be introduced into (13). In the case of phase current control, the suboptimal control angle may be determined by substituting the equivalent response of a first-order system for the current response. Equating the phase current response integral (Fig. 1), which is obtained from the differential equation (5) by neglecting the back EMF (the last member), with the integral of a first-order system response at a with a time constant and a gain coefficient yields the following expression for the voltage change of equivalent time constant: (14) In that case, the suboptimal control angle is obtained by inserting the equivalent time constant (14) into (13) arctg (15)

The exact expression for the optimal control angle in the case of phase current control is derived from (4), (6), and (9), and has the following form [12]: arctg (16)

At frequencies exceeding the critical frequency (12), the current controller ceases to operate, and insertion of condition into (16) yields (13). Hence, (16) provides the exact optimal control angle value for both the low-

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 47, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2000

speed range, where the phase current control is operative, and the high-speed range, where the phase current control is no longer operative. IV. IMPLEMENTATION OF OPTIMAL CONTROL ALGORITHMS The proposed optimal control algorithms have been realized and tested for feasibility in a motor drive containing a hybrid stepper motor with incremental encoder by Phytron, a power supply (chopper amplifier) and current controller by Phytron, a microcontroller card by Intel, and a PC. A. Hybrid Stepper Motor Drive A two-phase hybrid stepper motor RSH 100-200-10 with the following parameter values was utilized [16]: V A mH Nm and kg m . A two-phase incremental encoder with 500 pulses/rev was mounted on the motor shaft. The power supply and controller unit SLS-MSO [15] of the two-phase hybrid stepper motor contained a transistor amplifier with phase current controller which provides the chopper amplifier of both hybrid stepper motor phases. The V and the chopper’s output amplifier voltage was frequency approximately 20 kHz. For the implementation of the proposed optimal hybrid stepper motor control algorithms, the Intel EV80C196KB microcontroller card was utilized [7]. This card contains the 16-bit 80C196KB microcontroller, which is an improved version of the former 8097BH microcontroller. Signals generated by the microcontroller are compatible with those required by the Phytron hybrid stepper motor power supply and controller. A PC was utilized for designing and testing an optimal hybrid stepper motor control program. The program was tested on the PC using a simulator (SIM196KB), which greatly facilitated the design procedure. B. Control Algorithm Implementation The program was designed for hybrid stepper motor control and positioning with constant and optimal control angles. During motor positioning, the angular speed profile contains the following five ranges [12]: 1) acceleration; 2) high-speed running; 3) deceleration; 4) low-speed running; and 5) stop within one step. Thus, the total number of steps performed by the stepper motor is obtained as follows (17) where number of acceleration steps; number of high-speed running steps; number of deceleration steps; number of low-speed running steps; 1 one step for stop. The number of low-speed running steps is specified under ), and the assumption that the load torque equals zero ( . The number of deceleration steps is likewise it is specified under the assumption that the load torque equals zero,

and it is (

. The number of high-speed running steps ) is obtained from (17) (18)

is not large, the acceleraWhen the total number of steps tion response need not finish, and deceleration will commence ). In before the maximum angular speed is achieved ( that case, the number of deceleration steps is as follows: (19) Deceleration is accomplished by the maximum deceleration torque if the control angle is (20) is an optimal control angle obtained from (13), (15), where and (16). The optimal control angle values calculated according to (13), (15), and (16) were stored in microcontroller memory in tabulated form with a discrete step of 9 . Moreover, the time of one counted by the timer within step, i.e., the number of pulses one step was measured instead of the angular speed. The time of one step is defined by ten pulses obtained by processing the signals of the two encoder phases. The angular speed is deterkHz) and the number mined by the timer frequency ( counted by the timer within one step of pulses (21) The frequency of the back EMF , which is utilized in the optimal control angle equations (13), (15), and (16), is obtained using (21). To avoid the opfrom the number of timer pulses eration of division, the dependence of the optimal control angle was computed and stored on the number of timer pulses in tabulated form in microcontroller memory, instead of calculating the dependence of the control angle on back-EMF frequency (22) As a result, it was possible to minimize the microcomputer time required for computing and adjusting the optimal control angle and, thus, allow the recording of angular speed responses steps/s. up to V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The responses of the angular speed and control angle for steps at constant a hybrid stepper motor rotation of control angles of different values are shown in Fig. 2. As is evident, with increasing negative control angle values, maximum angular speed increases and total positioning time decreases. With further increases in the negative control angle value, acceleration may decrease while total positioning time needs no decrease. It must be stressed that the acceleration is initially (0–2000 step/s) equal for all control angles of constant value (Fig. 2) because a high current response forcing is applied . At the beginning of the response, the angular speed and the back EMF are small, so that the back EMF has little or no impact on the current response. As a result, the range of phase (Fig. 1) is considerably smaller than the range of current rise

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Fig. 2. (a) Angular speed and (b) control angle responses for a hybrid stepper motor rotation of N 400 steps at a phase current I = 8 A and constant control angles. 1: = 0 ; 2: = 18 ; 3: = 36 .

=

0

0

Fig. 3. (a) Angular speed and (b) control angle responses for a hybrid stepper motor rotation of N = 400 steps at a phase current I = 8 A obtained with different optimal control algorithms. 1: (13); 2: (15); 3: (16).

phase current control ( ), i.e., the phase current equals its practically over the entire range and has a rectrated value angular waveform. Consequently, at lower angular speeds, the average motor torque is more or less constant and equal to the holding torque , i.e., independent of the control angle. At ansteps/s, the response accelgular speeds higher than eration decreases because of the effect of the back EMF. At the same time, the response acceleration is higher for higher absolute control angle values, i.e., increasing the control angle partially compensates for the effects of the phase time constant and the back EMF on the current response rate and the average motor torque. The responses of the angular speed and control angle for steps obtained a hybrid stepper motor rotation of with different optimal control algorithms are shown in Fig. 3. As is evident, the optimal control algorithm (13) which utilizes the phase time constant , (curve 1, Fig. 3) provides the max) already at low angular imum negative control angle ( speeds, resulting in decreasing acceleration and maximum hybrid stepper motor positioning time. The suboptimal control algorithm (15) utilizing the equivalent time constant for the case of operative phase current control (curve 2, Fig. 3) provides the maximum acceleration at low and medium angular speeds at which the phase current control is operative. At higher angular speeds at which the phase current

controller ceases to operate, the suboptimal control algorithm (15) no longer provides the optimal control angle value, and the acceleration decreases. With the suboptimal control algorithm (15), the total hybrid stepper motor positioning time is shorter than that provided by the optimal control algorithm (13). The exact optimal control angle expression (16), which was developed for the case of operative phase current control, provides the highest acceleration at all angular speed levels, i.e., in both low-speed range where the phase current control is operative and high-speed range in which the phase current control is no longer operative (curve 3, Fig. 3). This algorithm provides maximum angular speed and minimum hybrid stepper motor positioning time. The comparison between Figs. 2 and 3 indicated that optimal control algorithms provide higher maximum angular speeds and lower total positioning times than control algorithms with constant control angles do. Up to angular speeds of steps/s, the response acceleration with an optimal control angle (16) [curve 3 in Fig. 3(a)] equals the response acceleration with [curve 3 in Fig. 2(a)]. At constant control angle (16) [curve higher angular speeds, the optimal control angle 3 in Fig. 3(b)] assumes values in excess of the constant control [curve 3 in Fig. 2(b)] so that the acceleration angle with an optimal control angle (16) [curve 3 in Fig. 3(a)] exceeds [curve the acceleration with constant control angle

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 47, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2000

3 in Fig. 2(a)]. The optimal control algorithm (16) is capable of compensating the influence of the phase time constant, but has no effect on the impact of the back EMF on the rate of a phase current rise and the average motor torque. Therefore, the back EMF tends to decrease the response acceleration at higher angular speeds. Since a large forcing coefficient has been applied , there is only a slight decrease in response acceleration. VI. CONCLUSIONS Optimal control algorithms for closed-loop control of hybrid stepper motors which provide better performance, reliability, and improved torque characteristics in comparison with open-loop control strategies have been discussed. The analytical expression for the average torque of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor with chopper amplifier and current controller has been developed. Using this expression, the analytical expression for the optimal control angle, which provides the maximum average torque of a hybrid stepper motor, was obtained. Likewise, the analytical expression for the suboptimal control angle was elaborated. The proposed optimal and suboptimal control algorithms have been realized and tested for feasibility in a motor drive containing a hybrid stepper motor with incremental encoder by Phytron, a power supply (chopper amplifier) and current controller by Phytron, an Intel EV80C196KB microcontroller card, and a PC. The microcontroller-based implementations of the proposed optimal control algorithms and positioning of the hybrid stepper motor with incremental encoder have been described. The dependence of the optimal control angle on angular speed was calculated from the known parameter values of the presented stepper motor drive using the analytical expressions provided. counted by the timer within one The number of pulses step was measured instead of measuring the angular speed. Furthermore, the dependence of the optimal control angle on was computed and stored in the number of timer pulses tabulated form in microcontroller memory, thus minimizing the microcomputer time required for computing and adjusting the optimal control angle. The experimental results of the hybrid stepper motor positioning using different optimal control algorithms are presented. As indicated by the oscillogram showing angular speed responses, the proposed optimal control algorithm provides the highest acceleration at all angular speed levels and minimum positioning time of the hybrid stepper motor drive with chopper amplifier and phase current control. Oscillograms showing angular speed responses obtained during hybrid stepper motor positioning at constant control angles were also presented. A comparison of these oscillograms indicated that optimal control algorithms provide lower total positioning times than do control algorithms with constant control angles. REFERENCES
[1] P. P. Acarnley and P. Gibbons, “Closed-loop control of stepping motors: Prediction and realization of optimum switching angle,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., pt. B, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 211–216, 1982.

[2] P. P. Acarnley, R. J. Hill, and C. W. Hooper, “Detection of rotor position in stepping and switched motors by monitoring of current waveform,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. IE-32, pp. 215–222, June 1985. [3] R. Brown, “Near time-optimal control of step motors,” in Proc. 15th Annu. Symp. IMCSD, B. C. Kuo, Ed., 1986, pp. 191–200. [4] P. Crnoˇija, Z. Brkia, T. Crnoˇija, and O. Perˇ inic, “Position and speed s s c ´ digital measurement of step motors,” in Proc. 16th Annu. Symp. IMCSD, B. C. Kuo, Ed., 1987, pp. 313–320. ˇ ´ ´ s c [5] P. Crnosija, M. Benakovic, F. Skof, T. Crnoˇija, I. Preložiˇ ek, and O. Perˇ inic, “Optimal closed-loop control of a hybrid step motor c ´ with chopper drive,” Robot. Comput.-Integr. Manuf., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 187–192, 1991. ´ [6] P. Crnoˇija, A. Nad, and B. Kuzmanovic, “Control of hybrid stepper s motor drive by using a signal of reconstructed magnetic flux,” in Proc. EPE Chapter Symp. EDDA, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1994, pp. 197–202. [7] EV80C196 KB Microcontroller Evaluation Board Users Manual, Intel Corp., Chandler, AZ, 1989. [8] V. D. Hair, “Direct detection of back emf in permanent-magnet step motors,” in Proc. 12th Annu. Symp. IMCSD, B. C. Kuo, Ed., 1983, pp. 211–219. [9] T. Higuchi, “Closed-loop control of PM step motors by sensing back emf,” in Proc. 11th Annu. Symp. IMCSD, 1982, pp. 289–294. [10] A. Hughes, “Parameters governing the dynamic performance of permanent-magnet stepping motors,” in Proc. 6th Annu. Symp. IMCSD, B. C. Kuo, Ed., 1977, pp. 39–47. [11] Linear Motors and Positioning Systems, Kinetics, Santa Clara, CA, 1985. [12] B. C. Kuo, Incremental Motion Control, Step Motors and Control Systems. Champaign, IL: SRL Publishing, 1979. [13] B. C. Kuo and K. Butts, “Closed-loop control of a 3.6 floppy disk drive PM motor by back emf sensing,” in Proc. 11th Annu. Symp. IMCSD, 1982, pp. 295–308. ´ s [14] B. Kuzmanovic, P. Crnoˇija, and H. Krndelj, “Optimal closed-loop control of a hybrid step motor with chopper and current controller,” in Proc. EPE Chapter Symp. EDDA, 1996, pp. 129–134. [15] Manual SLS-MSO, Phytron, Grobenzell, Germany, 1989. [16] Schrittmotoren RSS und RSH, Phytron, Grobenzell, Germany, 1989. [17] D. G. Taylor and B. C. Kuo, “Optimization of average torque in hybrid permanent magnet step motors using closed-loop control,” in Proc. 14th Annu. Symp. IMCSD, B. C. Kuo, Ed., 1985, pp. 319–333.

Petar Crnoˇ ija (M’95) was born in Zadar, Croatia, s in 1938. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, in 1962, 1973, and 1977, respectively. Between 1962–1969, he was with the Rade Konˇ ar Institute of Electrical Engineering, Zagreb, c Croatia. In 1969, he joined the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zagreb, as an Assistant Professor. In 1973, he was appointed as a Lecturer. He became an Associate Professor in 1979 and a Full Professor in 1984. In 1999, he obtained tenure as a Full Professor in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing. He has taught a number of undergraduate and graduate courses. He is the author of two student training manuals, a set of instructions for laboratory exercises, and three lecture protocols. He has tutored and provided scientific and educational guidance in 81 graduate theses, 11 M.Sc. theses, and six doctoral theses. His scientific and research activities have covered modeling and simulation of thyristor converters and electrical drives, analysis and synthesis of continuous and digital servosystems, synthesis of conventional and deadbeat servo system controllers using sensitivity functions, methods of adaptive and fuzzy adaptive control based on model reference, self-tuning dead beat controllers based on reference and sensitivity models, closed-loop control strategies for hybrid stepper motor drives using electric signals, and optimal control algorithms. He is the author of 95 scientific and research papers published in journals and presented at conferences. He was Chief Researcher of several scientific projects supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia, several international projects, and a number of applied industrial projects. He is currently Chief Researcher of the project entitled “Intelligent and Adaptive System Control.”

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´ Branislav Kuzmanovic was born in Croatia in 1937. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, in 1962, 1972, and 1978, respectively. He has taught at the Rade Konˇ ar Electrical c Engineering Institute and the Military Engineering Academy, both in Zagreb, Croatia. He is currently with the University of Zagreb, Polytechnic of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. He was appointed a Lecturer in 1973, an Associate Professor in 1978, and a Full Professor in 1983. His research work has included theory of electromagnetic fields, theory of electric networks, and power electronics. He has taught basics of electrical engineering, theoretical electrical engineering, theory of electromagnetic fields, theory of electrical networks, and power electronics. He is the author of one book and several papers published in journals and presented at conferences.

´ Stipe Ajdukovic was born in Sinj, Croatia, in 1971. He received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, in 1998. He is currently an Engineer with Prova plus, Zagreb, Croatia, a company involved in process visualization and automation.

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