1.

MEC
´
ANICA DE FLUIDOS
HIDROST
´
ATICA
Densidad, presi´on, Ec. Fundamental:
ρ =
m
V
, p =
F
A
,
dp
dz
= −ρg →p = p
o
+
p.hidrost.
¸..¸
ρgh
Fuerza en una pared:
F
p
= ρga ·
1
2
H
2
Flotaci´ on:
F
A
= mg ⇒ρ
l
V
s
g = mg
Fluido compresible (H
0
= 8)
p = p
o
· e
−z
H
0
ρ = ρ
0
· e
−z
H
0
Tensi´ on superficial:
σ = F
r
⇒F = ∆P · S
σ2πRcos θ = mg ⇒h =
2σ cos θ
ρgR
HIDRODIN
´
AMICA
Ec. continuidad:
v
1
S
1
= v
2
S
2
= Q
Ec. Bernoulli:
p
1
+
1
2
ρv
2
1
+ρgh
1
= p
2
+
1
2
ρv
2
2
+ρgh
2
= C
Relaciones:
v =
_
2gh; v
1
=
¸
¸
¸
_
2gh
_
S
1
S
2
_
2
−1
; Q =
¸
2gh
S
2
1
−S
2
2
S
1
S
2
Sif´ on:
v
2
2
= 2g(l +d)
Viscosidad:
F = ηS
v
z
; R =
8ηL
πr
4
; N
r
=
ρvR
η
Fla. de Poiseuille:
v =
∆P

(R
2
−r).
2. TERMODIN
´
AMICA
T
f
=

i
m
i
T
i
m
i
;
c
2
c
1
=
m
1
(t
1
−t
f
)
m
2
(t
2
−t
f
)
;
∆L = αL
0
∆T; ∆V = βV
0
∆T;
∆Q = mc
e
∆T = c
c
∆T; W =
∆Q
∆t
TRANSPORTE DE CALOR
1. Conducci´on:
Flujo:
I
T
=
∆Q
∆t
= κA
T
+
−T

L
; j
T
= −κ
dT
dx
Conductividad t´ermica de una pared:
j
T
=
κ

∆T; R
f
=

κ
; I
T
= j
T
S =
κS

(T
0
−T

); ∆T = I · R
T
2 Barras en Serie:
∆T = IR
eq
; R
eq
=

S
_
1
κ
1
+
1
κ
2
_
I =
∆T
R
eq
= (T
0
−T
2
) ·
S

_
κ
1
κ
2
κ
1

2
_
2 Barras en Paralelo:
∆T
1
= ∆T
2
= ∆T; I = I
1
+I
2
; ∆T = I
i
R
i
∆T = R
eq
I
Aislamiento:
=

α∆T; α =
κ
ρ
c
c =
κ
2
κ
1

1

2
=
_
ρ
2
c
2
κ
2
ρ
1
c
2
κ
1
R =
d
κS
2. Convecci´on:
Ley de enfriamiento de Newton:
∆Q
∆t
= qS[T
S
−T

];
R
conv
=

qS
; R
eq
=

i
R
i
Flujo y F´ormula de Wien:
j = κ
∆T

; λ
m
T = A
3. Radiaci´on:
I
R
=
I
E
I
A
F´ormula de S. Boltzmann:
j
T
=

5
15
K
4
B
T
4
h
3
c
2
P´erdida de calor:
∆Q
∆t
¸
¸
¸
neta
= eσS(T
4
s
−T
4

)
Gases Ideales
pV = nRT; k
B
=
R
N
A
; n =
m
µ
; µ = m
0
N
A
pV = Nk
B
T = nN
a
k
B
T = nRT
Procesos: Isot´ermicos, Isob´aricos e Isoc´oricos:
pV = cte. V = V
0
(1 +αT); p = p
0
αT
C´alculo cin´etico de la presi´on:
p =
1
3
ρ¯ v
2
Energ´ıa cin´etica media:
¯
E =
3
2
k
B
T; ¯ v
2
=
3k
B
T
m
→v
rcm
=
_
3k
B
T
m
1
Velocidad media at.:
¯ v
at
=
(R
2
−R
2
)ωR
2
S
Distribuci´on de Maxwell (Boltzman):
f(v) = 4π
_
m
2πk
B
T
_
3/2
v
2
e
−mv2
2k
B
T
Velocidad m´axima, velocidad media y v
rcm
:
v
M
=
_
2k
B
T
m
; ¯ v =
_
8k
B
T
πM
; v
rcm
=
_
3k
B
T
m
Relaci´ on f(v) →f(ε)
f(ε) =
2

π
1
(k
B
T)
3/2

εe
−ε
k
B
T
Conclusi´on: Q = cµn∆T
I Ley de la termodin´amica:
Q = ∆U +W ⇒dQ = dU +pdV
C
µ
dT = dU
µ
+RdT ⇒C
p
= C
v
+R
Th. de equipartici´on de energ´ıa i recorrido libre:
c
1
= i
1
2
k
B
=⇒c
µ
= i
1
2
R; λ =
1

2πd
2
n
3. ONDAS Ecuaci´on de un oscilador arm´onico (MAS):
¨ x+ω
2
x = 0; ω = 2πν; T = 2π
_
m
k
; x = Acos(ωt +ϕ
0
);
Energ´ıa:
E =
1
2
mv2 +
1
2
kx
2
=⇒m¨ x +kx = 0
E =
1
2
kA
2
P´endulo simple:
m¨ x = mg sin α; x = Lα; T = 2π
¸
L
g
Tubo de U:
∆F = pS −ρgS∆H
Suma de 2 M.A.S:
x = x
1
+x
2
= 2Acos
ϕ
2
cos
_
ωt +
ϕ
2
_
Oscilaci´ on peri´odica: y(t
0
+T) = y(T)
Oscilaci´ on arm´onica: y(t) = Acos(ωt +ϕ
0
)
Funci´on de onda: y = f(x −vt)
Relaciones:
λ = vt →v = λν →ω = kv; v =
¸
F
T
µ
; k =

λ
a
max
= Aω
2
; v
max
= Aω
Funci´on de onda arm´onica:
y(x, t) = Asin(kx ±ωt +ϕ
0
)
v
y
(x, t) = Aω sin(kx −ωt)
a
y
(x, t) = −Aω cos(kx −ωt) = −ω
2
y(x, t)
Energ´ıa, potencia e intensidad de una onda:
E
c
=
1
2
µ
2
v
2
y
=
1
4
µA
2
E = E
c
+U
p
=
1
2
µA
2
ω
2
=
1
2
µv
2
max
∆E =
1
2
µA
2
ω
2
v∆t
P =
∆E
∆t
=
1
2
µA
2
ω
2
v
P =
1
2
µvω
2
A
2
→cuerda
P =
1
2
ρvω
2
A
2
→medio volum.
I =
∆E
∆S∆t
=
P
∆S
=
1
2
ρvω
2
A
2
Ondas estacionarias, principio de superposici´on:
y
T
= y
1
+y
2
= 2Acos(kx) cos(ωt)
A
i
+A
r
= A
t
; A
i
k
1
−A
r
k
2
= A
t
k
2
α =
v
2
v
1
=
k
1
k
2
; ω = k
1
v
1
= k
2
v
2
; α =
ρv
2
ρv
1
Desfases: (1)temoral, (2) = y = t, (3) = y = t:
∆t =
∆x
v
; ∆ϕ = ω∆t; ∆ϕ = k∆x
Coeficientes de transmisi´on, reflexi´on; potencia, coeficiente de
reflectividad y transmitancia:
t =
A
t
A
i
=

α + 1
; r =
A
r
A
i
=
α −1
α + 1
P =
1
2
µvω
2
A
2
=
1
2
F
T
ω
2
A
2
v
; R =
P
r
P
i
=
A
2
r
A
2
i
=
(α −1)
2
(α + 1)
2
= r
2
T =
P
t
P
i
=
A
2
t
/v
2
A
2
i
/v
1
=
t
2
α
=

(1 +α)
2
; R +T = 1
Arm´onicos(a) extr.fijos; (b) 1 extr. libre:
(a)L = n
λ
n
2
; λ
n
=
2L
n
; ν
n
= n
v
2L
= nν
1
y
n
(x, y) = 2Asin(k
n
x) sin(ω
n
t)
(b)L = n
λ
n
4
; λ
n
=
4L
n
; ν
n
= n
v
4L
= nν
1
; n = 1, 3, 5...
Ondas sonoras:
S(x, t) = S
n
cos(kx −ωt); ∆p(x, t) = ∆p
n
sin(kx −ωt)
∆P
m
= ρvωS
m
; v =
¸
B
ρ
=
¸
γ
RT
µ
=
_
γ
k
B
T
m
I =
1
2
(∆p
m
)
2
(ρv)
2
; β = 10 log
I
I
0
Efecto Doppler (1) OMFR, (2) ORFM, (3)OMFM:
(1)ν

= ν
_
1 ±
v
ob
v
_
; (2)ν

= ν
_
1
1 ±
v
f
v
_
(3,1) : ν

= ν
v ±v
ob
v ∓v
f
; (3,2)ν

= ν
v −v
ob
v +v
f
2

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful