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@)^( ;fn c;f/ !& ut] cfOtaf/ (July 1, 2012)

Pdfcf]jfbL;usf] ;DaGwljR5]b :jefljs M ls/0f


sf7df8f}F . g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf
cWoIf df]xg j}B ls/0fn] PsLs[t
g] s kf
dfcf] j fbL;F u sf]
;DaGwljR5]bnfO{ :jfefljs ?kdf
lng cfu|x u/]sf 5g . OR5's
;f+ : s[ l ts k| l ti7fgsf] ejgsf]
utz'qmaf/ /fhwfgLdf lznfGof; ub{}
ls/0fn] Pstf, ;+3if{ ?kfGt/0f /
;DaGwljR5] b
dfS;{ j fbL
dfGotfcg'?k d"n g]tT[ j ?kfGt/0f
x'g tof/ gePkl5 cfk"mx?n] gofF
kf6L{ u7g u/]sf] atfP .
pgn] g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf] hGdnfO{

gofF cGofosf] ;+1f lbFb} s[i0f;]g


-afF s L & k] h df_

u+ufnfn c:ktfnsf] a]xfn


sf7df8f}F . g]kfnd} d'6' /f]usf]
cfw'lgs pkrf/sf] ;]jf k'ofpg]
p2]Zon] ;lxb u+ufnfnsf] gfdaf6
:yflkt ePsf] ;lxb u+ufnfn /fli6o
bo /f]u s]Gb| olta]nf c:ktfn
k| z f;gs} sf/0f w/fzoL aGg]
cj:yfdf k'u]sf] ;|f]tsf] bfaL 5 .
g]kfnsf] b"/b/fhaf6 d'6' /f]usf]
pkrf/ u/fpg c:ktfn k'u]sf

la/fdL c:ktfn k|zf;gsf] sf/0f


cfqmfGt aGg k'us
] f 5g\ eg] la/fdLsf
cfkmGtnfO{ klg c:ktfn k|zf;gsf]
sf/0f d'6' /f]un] RofKg] jftfj/0f
aGg yfn]sf] ;|f]tn] atfPsf] 5 .
;|f]tsf cg';f/ c:ktfn k|zf;gsf]
nfk/jfxLsf sf/0f la/fdLnfO{ l6s6
sfpG6/b]lv g} emd]nf cfOnfUg]
-afF s L & k] h df_

dxf;+3af6 ltldlN;gf / b]jsf]6f avf{:t


sf7df8f}F . g]kfn /fli6o sd{rf/L
dxf;+3sf] ut laxLaf/ cWoIf ?Sd
nfld5fg]sf] cWoIfdf a;]sf k"0f{
a}7sn] dxf;+3sf pkfWoIf kljqf
ltldlN;gf / dxf;lrj 7fs'/k|;fb
b]jsf]6fnfO{ avf{:t ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf]
5 . o;}u/L, a}7sn] dxf;+3sf] d"No,
dfGotf / cg'zf;g ljk/Lt sfo{
ug]{ s]xL ;b:oxnfO{ x6fpg] sfo{
klg u/]sf] dxf;+3sf] a}7skl5 cWoIf

?Sd nfld5fg]n] hf/L u/]sf] k|];


lj1lKtdf hgfOPsf] 5 . pQm k|];
lj1lKtsf] k"0f{ ljj/0f o; k|sf/ /x]sf]
5 g]kfn /fli6o sd{rf/L dxf;+3
cfd/fi6;]js sd{rf/Lsf] k];fut
xsclwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{ / gofF
g]kfn lgdf{0fsf] cleofgdf dxTjk"0f{
of]ubfg k'ofpg] dxfg\ p2]Zosf ;fy
:yflkt kl/jt{gnfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{
-afF s L & k] h df_

k"0f{ ljj/0f # k]hdf

d"No ?= &.

k|d e/fO{ clgi6 lgDTofpb}


sf7df8f}F . d'ns
' df /fhgLlts Pj+
;+jw} flgs ;+s6 nlDaFb} hfFbf k|wfgdGqL
e/fO{sf] sfo{zn
} Lsf] sf/0f ;+s6 yk
ulxl/Fb} uPsf] 5 . /fli6o ;xdltsf]
;+oQ' m ;/sf/ u7g ug]{ cGo bnxsf]
k|of;nfO{ afnx7 b]Vg] k|wfgdGqL
e/fO{s} s';L{kl| tsf] afnx7sf sf/0f
;+s6 yk ulxl/Fb} uPsf] xf] . s';L{sf]
nflu dl/xTo ul//x] s f e/fO{
k|wfgdGqLsf] x}l;otdf :vlnt dfq
ePsf 5}gg\, pgsf] cAan af}l4stfsf]
c;nL dfkg;d]t x'g k'us
] f] 5 .
tfgfzfxL zf;ssf] h:tf] :j/ lgsfn]/
e/fO{n] cfgf] cfnf]rgfnfO{ yk
prfOdf k'ofPsf] ljZn]ifsxn]
atfPsf 5g\ . :vlnt k|wfgdGqL
e/fO{sf] tfgfzfxL :j/n] d'ns
' sf]
;+s6dfly yk ;+s6 yk]sf] ;d]t
pgLxsf] l6Kk0fL /x]sf] 5 . hgtfsf]
gh/df lul/l;s]sf e/fO{ cem}
hgtfsf] kIfdf sfd ul/5f8\g]
c;Dej ts{ ub}{ lxFl8/x]sf 5g\ .
/fli6o :jfwLgtf / /fli6otfnfO{
lnnfdLdf /fv]/ e/fO{ g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/

k|ex' sf] rfxgfdf hglxtljk/Lt


cufl8 a9]sf] pgs} kf6L{sf Ps g]tfn]

atfPsf 5g\ . cfk"mlagf d'ns


' g} Wj:t
x'g] b]Vg] ljZj tfgfzfxsf] :j/;Fu ldNg]

g]skfdfcf]jfbL dxflwj]zg k';df


sf7df8f}F . g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf] s]lGb|o
;ldltsf] a}7s k';sf] klxnf] xKtf
dxflwj]zg ug{] lg0f{o ub}{ ;DkGg ePsf]
5 .o;cl3 kmfu'g ! ut] dxflwj]zg
ug{] tof/L u/]sf]df a}7sn] k';sf] klxnf]
xKtf dxflwj]zg ug]{ / To;sf nflu
;b:otf ljt/0f, gjLs/0f ug{n] ufotsf

tof/L k"/f ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] ;f] kf6L{sf


kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:o v8\uaxfb'/ ljZjsdf{
k|sf08n], hfgsf/L lbP . a}7sn] df]xg
j}B cWoIf, l;kL uh'/n] nfO{ pkfWoIf,
/fdaxfb'/ yfkfnfO{ dxf;lrj, g]qljqmd
rGb / b]j u'? ;lrj / kDkmf
e';fnnfO{ k|jStf agfpg] lg0f{o u/]sf]

5 . kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:osf] g]tT[ jdf cf7j6f


Ao'/f] u7g ug],{ /fHo ;ldltdf #@ hgf
s]lGb|o ;b:onfO{ lhDd]jf/L lbg] lg0f{o
a}7sn] u/]sf] 5 . s]lGb|o ;ldlt a}7ssf
lg0f{ox / /fli6o e]nfsf lg0f{oxnfO{
;fpg !% ut];Dd lhNnf, OsfO, df]rf{,
hgjuL{o ;7g;Dd k'ofpg] lg0f{o u/]sf]
5 . a}7sn] c;f/ @ b]lv $ ut];Dd
sf7df8f}Fdf ePsf] /fli6o e]nf
pT;fxj4{s ePsf] lgisif{ lgsfn]sf] 5 .
/fli6o :jfwLgtf / hghLljsfsf
;d:ofxnfO{ lnP/ jfdkGyL, b]zeSt
zlStxsf] s]Gb|bl] v lhNnf;Dd df]rf{
agfO{ cfGbf]ngsf sfo{qmd cufl8
a9fpg], uf]nd]r ;efsf nflu bafa
lbg] / uf]nd]r ;ef u/L b]zsf] /fhgLlts
;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg lgsfNg'kg]{ 7x/ a}7sn]
u/]sf] 5 . kf]ln6Ao'/f] a}7saf6 :jLs[t
;d;fdlos /fhgLlts, ;f7lgs /
;+3if{sf sfo{qmd;DaGwL k|:tfjdf s]lGb|o
-afF s L ^ k] h df_

/]l8d]6 :j/ jsn]/ e/fO{n] ;d]t


cfk"mnfO{ ToxL ;"rLdf k'ofpg] ;+st]
lbPsf 5g\ . df3 !( sf] k'g/fj[lQsf]
sfNklgs xf}jf km}nfP/ e/fO{n]
hgtfsf] dg lhTg] c;kmn x'dt{ u/]sf]
s]xL ljZn]ifsxsf] l6Kk0fL /x]sf] 5 .
/fhgLlts kdf dfq xf]Og,
cfk"mdf sfo{sf/L clwsf/ lglxt /x]sf]
b]Vg] k|wfgdGqL e/fO{ hghLljsfsf]
;jfndf ;d]t Oltxf;sf] sdhf]/
b]lvPsf 5g\ . hgtfn] d'L vfP/ d'/L
pAhfpg] of] a]nfdf dn gkfP/ lanf}gf
ubf{;d]t of] ;/sf/ lg/Lx alg/Xof] .
e/fO{ d'ns
' sf] ;+s6nfO{ lal;{P/ hDaf]
6f]nL lnP/ a|flhn e|d0fdf nlDsP .
otf d'ns
' df sfnf ahf/Ln] ls;fgnfO{
dn lbPgg\, pgsf ;+oGq lg/Lx ag] .
/fhgLlts ;jfndf afa'/fd e/fO{
g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/n] hg;]gfsf] Oltxf;
gfd]6 kf/]/ ljb]zL zlQms]Gb|sf] cfzLjf{b
kfpg] sfd t uof], t/ g]kfnL hgtfsf]
gh/df ;w}F ufnL kfO/xg] s'sd{ ug{
k'Uof] . x'bF fx'bF f ca t hg;]gfsf] nflu
-afF s L & k] h df_

n'lDagL af}4 ljZjljBfnosf]


% SofDk;nfO{ ;DaGwg
sf7df8f} F . cufdL z} l Ifs
;qb]lv af}4 bz{gdf :gftsf]Q/
txsf] cWofkg u/fpg n'lDagL af}4
ljZjljBfnon] % SofDk;n]
;DaGwg lbPsf] 5 . ljZjljBfnon]
!) xhf/ k}ofF z'Ns;lxt ;DaGwg
lbg ;'? u/]sf] 5 . :yfkgfsf] (
jif{ k l5
ljZjljBfnon]
SofDk;xnfO{ ;DaGwg lbP/ af}4
bz{gsf ljleGg ljifo cWofkg
u/fpg :jLs[lt lbPsf] 5 . (
jif{;Dd s'g} SofDk;nfO{ ;DaGwg
glbPsfn] ljZjljBfnotxdf af}4
bz{g ljifosf] lj:tf/ x'g ;s]sf]
lyPg . ljZjljBfnon] cfkm} +
ljBfjfl/wL -kLPr8L_ tx ;~rfng
ub}{ cfPsf] lyof] . ljZjljBfnosf
cg';f/ :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL u/L
$) ljBfyL{ ljZjljBfnodf
ljBfjf/Llw/t 5g\ . ljZjljBfnosf
-afF s L & k] h df_

ljB't dx;'n @) k|ltzt a9g] k'/fg} / gof dfcf]jfbLleq p7]sf s]xL t/x
sf7df8f}F . ljB't dx;'n lgwf{/0f
cfof]un] dx;'n a9fpg] lg0f{o u/]kl5
;/sf/n] ;fpgb]lv nfu" x'g] u/L ljB't
dx;'ndf @) k|ltzt d"No a9fPsf]
5 . . cfof]un] @) o'lg6eGbf sd vkt
ug{ u|fxsn] ltg{k' g]{ b/ eg] oyfjt
/fv]sf] 5 . @) o'lg6eGbf a9L pkef]u
ug{n] lah'nLsf] dx;'n pkef]usf
cwf/df a9L ltg'k{ g]{ 5 . ;fpg !
ut]bl] v cf};t @) k|ltztsf b/n]
lah'nL dx;'n a9\of], ljB't dx;'n
lgwf{/0f cfof]usf ;b:o kz'klt
d'/f/sfn] eg] . dx;'n a9]kl5 ljB't
k|flws/0fsf] jflifs{ 3f6f ;f9] $ ca{n]
36\g] pgn] atfP . ;/sf/n] @)%*
c;f]hb]lv cfof]un] #) k|ltzt dx;'n
a9fPsf] lyof] . Tolta]nf tLg >]0fLdf
dx;'n ;dfof]hg ul/Psf]df o;k6s

eg] kfFr >]0fL agfOPsf] 5 . ca hlt


a9L pkof]u eof], plt w]/} dx;'n
ltg'k{ 5{ . dxFuf] b/df lah'nL lsgL
;:tf]df laqmL ubf{ ljB't pTkfbg,
k|;f/0f / ljt/0f ubf{ k|flws/0fsf]
ljQLo cj:yf v/fa ePkl5 dx;'n
a9fpg' k/]sf] xf] cfof]usf cWoIf
u0f]zk|;fb ;'Aafn] eg], gofF dx;'n
b/ nfu" ePkl5 p;sf] gub k|jfx
a9\5 / yk gofF of]hgf NofpF5 . gofF
dx;'n b/ nfu" ePkl5 k|flws/0fsf]
jflif{s cfDbfgL $ ca{ %) s/f]8 k}ofF
a9g]5 . p;n] jflif{s & ca{k}ofF
gf]S;fnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ dx;'n a9fpg
cfof]udf k|:tfj u/]sf] lyof] . clxn]sf]
dx;'n j[l4n] k|flws/0fnfO{ cem} @
ca{%) s/f]8 k}ofF gf]S;fg x'g] sfd'
sfo{sf/L lgb]z
{ s dx]Gb|nfn >]i7n]

lgikIf ;dfrf/ / k|:6 ljrf/sf nflu


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x]g{ ge'Ng'xf]nf .

atfP . ;+:yfnfO{ gfkm3f6f a/fa/sf]


cj:yfdf Nofpg cem} !& k|ltzt
dx;'n a9fpg'k5{ pgn] eg] . ljB't
r'xfj6 pRr ePsfn] klg k|flws/0f
a9L gf]S;fgdf k/]sf] xf] .
kl5Nnf] ;do k|flws/0fn] lah'nL
vl/bb/ @) k|ltzt a9fO;s]sf] 5 .
k|flws/0f k|lto'lg6 @ k}ofF $* k};f
gf];f{gdf 5 . p;n] k|lto'lg6 ( k}ofF
@! k};fdf lsg]/ ^ k}ofF &# k};fdf
a]Rb} cfPsf] 5 . kof{Kt gub gx'bF f
p;n] cfgf] nufgLdf lgdf{0f eO/x]sf
ljB't cfof]hgfsf 7]sb] f/nfO{ e'QmfgL
lbg g;s]kl5 lgdf{0f k|efljt x'bF } cfPsf]
5 . ;/sf/n] ut kmfu'gdf k|flws/0fsf]
gfddf /x]sf] @& ca{ #@ s/f]8 k}ofF
;l~rt gf]S;fgLnfO{ ckn]vg u/]sf]
lyof] . dx;'n ga9]sfn] rfn" jif{df yk
^ ca{k}ofF k'Ug] k|flws/0fsf] cg'dfg
5 . cfof]un] ca cfly{s / k|zf;lgs
;+ / rgfdf ;' w f/ ug{ k| f lws/0f
Joj:yfkgnfO{ lgb]z
{ g lbPsf] 5 . xfn
-afF s L & k] h df_

k'/fgf] PsLs[t dfcf]jfbLaf6


g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf] k'gu{7g ul/Pkl5
oL b'O{ kf6L{dWo] s'g alnof] aGg] eGg]
xf]8afhL rNg' :jefljs 5 . cfh
kf6L{ lsg / s;/L k'm6\of] eGg] ;a}sf
cfcfgf cg's"nsf rrf{, kl/rrf{

t'ngf ul/Psf] cj:yf 5 . k|r08


olb ;2] ePdf pgn] jt{dfgsf] s'g}
klg d"NofnfO{ b; jif]{ hgo'4sf]
gfossf] Oltxf;k|lt bfu nfUg] jf
k|Zg p7\g] u/L ;Demf}tf ug'{ x'Fb}g .
kf6L{ k'm6\gs
' f] d'Vo sf/0f kf6L{kl| tsf]

If]Kof:q ax;
lji0f' kGt

/ cf/f]kk|Tof/f]kx rn]sf 5g\ .


Pp6f ;fdfGo sfo{stf{n] ljefhgnfO{
krfpg ;Sb}g g}, a? cln c;fdfGo
dfG5]xn] dfq j}rfl/s hLjgnfO{
g} k|wfg 7fG5g\ / k kIfnfO{ uf}0f .
PsLs[t dfcf]jfbL vf;df xf];\ u'ds
] f]
gfosh:tf] aGof] cyf{ t \ Pp6f
lj:d[ltsf] /f]u nfu]sf] Oltxf;sf]
lx/f]h:tf] . k|r08nfO{ stfstf
s]z/h /fodfemL, df]grGb| clwsf/L
jf /fwfs[i0f d}gfnLsf] ljrng;Fu

hgljZjf;df cf3ft k'Ug' / kf6L{ jf


g]t[Tjk|ltsf] cfdljt[i0ff g} xf] eg]/
:jLsf/ ug]{ lxDdt ug'{k5{ . kf6L{sf]
ljefhgkl5 k|r08sf ;fd' cfk"mnfO{
qmflGtsf/L / /fi6jfbL b]vfpg'kg]{
sl7g r'gf}tL 5 lsgls pgnfO{
gj;+ z f] w gjfbL tyf /fli6 o
cfTd;dk{0fjfbLsf] cf/f]k Hofb}
;zQm 9n] nufOPsf] 5 .
Pdfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k|r08n]
Psftkm{ g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf

ls/0fsf] tTsflns sfo{gLlt jf


sfo{lbzfnfO{ c:ki6 / tflTjs cGt/
gePsf] eg]/ cf/f]lkt u/]sf 5g\
eg] csf]{tkm{ ls/0fnfO{ h8\;"qjfbL,
qmflGtsf/L nkmfhL / qmflGtsf/L
/f]dfG;jfbL jf zf:qLo sDo'lg:6 eGg]
cf/f]k nufP/ cfgf] arfp ug{ kl5
k/] s f 5} g g\ , ha ls oL b' j }
k/:k/lj/f]wL / Pscfk;df aflemg]
cf/f]kx x'g\ . ptf s= ls/0fn]
zflGtk| l qmof kl5sf] kl5Nnf]
cj:yfdf k|r08sf] lgotdfly g}
k|ZglrXg v8f u/]sf 5g\ . g]kfnL
hgjfbL qmflGtsf] ;Gbe{df ank"js
{
;QfsAhf, ;j{xf/fju{sf] clwgfosTj
/ hgljb|fx] sf] tof/L jf sfof{Gjogsf
;jfndf k|r08 dgf]j1} flgskdf k"/}
k/fwLg, knfog, ljrlnt / kye|i6
eO;s]sf 5g\ eGg] cfz+sfnfO{ g}
d'Vo cfwf/ agfPsf 5g\ . vf;u/L
k|r08n] af/Daf/ eGg] u/]sf] k|lts"n
-afF s L & k] h df_

ltdL ltd|f] tl/sfn] n8, xfdL xfd|f] tl/sfn] n8\5f}

s= dfcf]T;] t'

jif{ %, c+s #^
#^,, c;f/ !& ut] cfOtaf/ @)^
@)^((

 ;DkfbsLo

zflGt / ;+ljwfgsf] sfo{ef/ k"/f u/


;+ljwfg;efsf] cj;fg;"u} bnx?aLr cfGtl/s
/ afXo?kdf w|j' Ls/0f a9]sf] 5 . k|dv
' bnsf
g] t fx? ;xdlt / ;xsfo{ eGb afXo /
cfGtl/s?kdf ;Qf / zlStsf bf}8d\ f nfu]sf
5g\ . g]tfx?sf] ;xdlt / ;xsfo{sf] af]nL ;'Gbf
;'Gbf hgtf jfSslbSs eO;s]sf 5g\ . zflGt /
;+ljwfgsf] af6f] 5f]8/] ;Qf / zlStsf k5fl8
bf}8g\ ] g]tfx?sf] rl/qn] clxn]sf] ;+s6 cfPsf]
xf] . clxn]sf] cfjZostf ;a} bnx?aLrsf] ;xdlt
/ ;xsfo{ g} xf] t/, s'g} klg /fhgLlts bnx?n]
;xdlt / ;xsfo{sf] ljZj;gLo cfwf/ k|:t't
ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ . bnx? ;Qfsf] v]nd}
clNem/x]sf 5g\ . /fli6o /fhgLltnfO{ ;fy{
lgisif{df k'ofpg] u/L bnx? gof" ;xdltdf
cfpg} kg{5
] . ToxL ;xdltdf 6]s/] ofqf to
ug{g;Sg] xf] eg] bnx?sf] cff}lrTo ;dfKt eP/
hfg]5 . clxn]s} l:yltnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbP/
d'ns
' nfO{ lgsf;ljxLg cj:yfdf /flv/fVg' s;}sf]
lxtdf 5}g . . o;sf ljsNkx? w]/} 5g\ t/
/fhgLlts bn / g]tfx? ;Qfs} jl/kl/ 3'Dg
rfxG5g / cfgf] xft dfly kfg{ bfpdf 5g\ .
o:tf] dfgl;stf gTofUbf;Dd ;xdlt ufx|f] 5 .
hgtfsf] 7"nf] ;+3if{ / jlnbfgaf6 k|fKt ePsf
pknlAwx?nfO{ sd cfFSg] / To;nfO{ ;+:yfut
ug{t] km{ Wofg glbg] xf] eg] clxn]sf] l:ylt nlDab}
hfg]5 / d'ns
' n] 7"nf] b'36{ gf a]xf]gk{' g]{ 5 . To;a]nf
oL /fhgLlts bn / g]tT[ jsf] cf}lrTo ;dfKt
eP/ hfg]5 . of] l:ylt cfpg glbg] xf] eg]
clxn];Dd ePsf ;xdltsf] hudf 6]s/] zflGt /
;+ljwfgsf] sfo{ef/ k"/f ug}k{ g]{ x'G5 . o;sf]
s'g} ljsNk 5}g .

dWokxf8L nf]sdfu{nfO{ b'O{ ca{


sf7df8f}F . dWokxf8L nf]sdfu{
lgdf{0fsf nflu ;/sf/n] cfufdL
cfly{s jif{sf nflu b'O{ ca{ k}ofF
ah]6 ljlgof]hg ug]{ ePsf] 5 . kxf8L
If]qsf] ljsf;nfO{ ult lbg] p2]Zon]
lgdf{0ffwLg nf]sdfu{sf ljlgof]hg x'g]
/sdn] afFsL 6ofs vf]Ng], rf}8f /
sfnf]kq] ug]{ nIo /x]sf] ef}lts of]hgf,
lgdf{0f tyf oftfoft n:Joj:yf
dGqfnon] hgfPsf] 5 . afFsL @%
lsnf]ld6/ 6ofs vf]Ng], vf]lnPsf
6ofs rf}8f ug{ v'sf]6{ 3'dL{v08 /
afUn'a'tL{afv08 sfnf]kq] ug]{ u/L
ah]6 ljlgof]hg x'G5, dGqfnosf
;lrj t'n;Lk|;fb l;6f}nfn] eg],
/fli6o uf}/jsf] cfof]hgf ePsf] /
hgtfsf] hLjgofkgnfO{ k|ToIf k|efj
kfg{] b]lvPsfn] ah]6df sdL x'g glbO{
sfd cl3 a9fpFb5
} f}F . rfn" cfly{s
jif{df ljlgof]lht Ps ca{ &% s/f]8
k}ofFdWo] vr{ gePsf] /sdnfO{ klg
/sdfGt/ gu/L cfof]hgfd} qmdzM
vr{ ug{ nfluPsf] l;6f}nfn] hfgsf/L
lbP . rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo;Dddf
sfd ubf{ hDdfhDdL @% lsnf]ld6/
6ofs vf]Ng dfq} afFsL /xg] b]lvPsf]

l;6f}nf atfpF5g\ . 6ofs vf]Ng]


sfd;Fu} v'sf]6{ 3'dL{v08 / afUn'
a'tL{af v08sf] @)@) lsnf]ld6/
;8s sfnf]kq]sf] sfd yfNg] pgn]
atfP . s'n Ps xhf/ ;ft ;o ^&
lsnf]ld6/ nDafOsf] of] nf]sdfu{df
Ps xhf/ kfFr ;o !^ lsnf]ld6/
;8s o;cl3 g} ;~rfngdf
cfO;s] s f] 5 . nf] s dfu{ n ] @#
lhNnfsf b'O{ ;o a9L a:tLsf &)
nfv hg;+VofnfO{ ;8s ;~hfn;Fu
hf]8g\ 5
] . k"j{ kfFry/sf] Rof\yfk'nfO{
klZrd a}t8Lsf] e'mnf3f6 hf]8g\ ] of]
nf]sdfu{ lgdf{0fsf] sfd cfly{s jif{
@)^$^% b]lv yflnPsf] xf] . ;/sf/n]
cfg} ;|f]tdf ah]6 Joj:yf u/L
nf]sdfu{ lgdf{0f yfn] klg :yfgLojf;Ln]
nf]sdfu{ lj:tf/ ubf{ s'g} lglZrt a:tL
5'jfpg'kg]{ / hUuf ldRg gx'gh
] :tf
JolStut dfu /fv]/ cj/f]w ub}{ cfPsf
lyP . oBlk kl5Nnf] ;dodf
:yfgLojf;L;Fu ;dGjo u/L sfd cl3
a9fOPsf] dGqfnon] hfgsf/L lbPsf]
5 . nf]sdfu{sf] s'n nDafOdWo] sl/a
( ;o lsnf]ld6/ ;8snfO{ sfnf]kq]
;d]t ug]{ of]hgf dGqfnosf] 5 .

/fatOfc t]u &! /f;c nf; (^)@

;+ljwfg;efsf] lj36g;Ddsf cf7 sfnf cGofo


q]tf / fk/ o'udf 7'nf7'nf
wd{o'4x? eP h:sf sf/0f gf/Lx?
g} x'g elg/xg' gknf{ lsgsL l;tfsf
sf/0f /fdfo0f o'4 eof] eg], b|fk} lbsf
sf/0f dxfef/t . o; ;G4j{nfO{ d
oxfF lsg hf]8g rfxG5' eg] xfd|f]
g]kfn / xfdL g]kfnLsf] efUo / elj:o
dfly vu|fz nfu]sf] klg gf/L s}
sf/0f xf] . g]kfnsf] PsLs/0f kZrft
g]kfnL /fhgLlt / g]kfnL hgtfn]
af]Zjf] ;fd|fHojfbsf] lau'n k'mSb}
lx+8s
] f] c+uh
]| x?nfO{ x/fpb} pgLx?sf]
laZjf]lahonfO{ k"0f{lj/fd nufpg
;Sg] ;fdYo{ /fVg] g]kfnL ;k'yx?
ePsf] ;'Gb/ zfGt g]kfndf /fgL
/fHonIfdLsf] cfgf] 5f]/fnfO{ /fhf
agfpg] ;Qfdf]xn] ubf{ g]kfn /
g] k fnL hgtfsf sfnflbgx?sf]
cEo'bo eof] . tfTsflng k|wfgdGqL
led;]g yfkfn] zfxjzsf] h]7f] 5f]/f]
g} /fhf x' g ' k 5{ eGg] g] k fnsf]
;ljwfgsf] ;Totfdf cl8s /x]
kZrft a9]sf] ;Qfdf]xn] slxn] yfkf
kl/jf/ alnof] agfof] t slxn] kf08]
kl/jf/ o;/L df} n fpb} uPsf]
;Qfdf]xn] g]kfnL /fhgLlt1x?df u'6
pku'6sf t/x? dfs'/fsf] hnf] em}
g]kfnL /fhgLltdf h]lng k'Uof] .
o;sf] pkh ef/bf/x?aLrsf]
u'6jGbL / b/afl/of if8\oGqdf kf/]/
led;]g yfkfnfO{ h]ng]n;lxt cg]sf}
oftgf lbO{ y'gfdf /flvof] . cfgf]
ckdfg ;xg g;sL logn] cGttM
lj=;+= !*(^ df cfTdxTof u/ ].
pgsf la/f] w Lx? kf08] tyf
a:oftx?sf sf/0f pgn] kbTofu
ug{ jfWo ePsf lyP pgL . eLd;]g
yfkf k|wfgdGqL h+uaxfb'/ /f0ffsf]
cfdf klsf] xh'/a'af lyP . cfgf]
xh'/a'afsf] d[To'sf] va/n] b'lvt
h+uaxfb'/ /f0ff pgsf] d[To'sf] abnf
lng] bfpk]rdf nfu] oxLaf6 z'? eP
g]kfnL hgtfsf sfnf lbgx? . s;/L
5fof] /f0ffsfnsf] sfnf] /ft led;]g
yfkfnfO{ cfgf] cf6f]af6 k5\ofP kl5
bfdf]b/ kf08] kL 9Ns]sL /fgL
/fHonIdLsf] cfgf] 5f]/fnfO{ /fhf
agfpg] ;kgf pgLaf6 klg k'/f x'g]
gb]v] kl5 la:tf/} uug lz vjf;
nufot h+uaxfb'/;Fu ldn]/ /fgL
csf]{ if8\oGq lt/ nflug h+uaxfb'/n]
klg /fgLsf] glhs /x]/ cfgf] abnf
/ ;kgf k'/f x'g] pko'St df}sfnfO{
;b'kof]u ub}{ /fgLsf] ;fy nfu]/
tfTsflng k|wfgdGqL dfya/ lz
yfkfsf] xTof u/] hf] h+uaxfb'/sf
cfg} dfdf lyP . o; kl5 /fgLsf]
O{zf/f lagf g} lj= ;+ !()# eb} #!
ut] /flt dxf/fgL /fHonIdLsf] lk|o
kfq tyf dlGqkl/ifb\ s f ;b:o
uugl;+x vjf;sf] /x:odo 9+un]
xTof u/] vfjf; /fgLsf clt
ljZjflznf ;b:o lyP . cfgf
ljZjfzsf ;b:osf] xTof ug]{ xTof/f
kQf nufpg /fgLn] lj=;+= !()#
c;f]h @ ut] zlgaf/ /flt ;a}
ef/bf/x?nfO{ sf]tsf] kl/;/df hDdf
x'g] cfb]z cg';f/ sf]tdf e]nf eP .
uugl;+xsf] xTof/f kQf nufpg]
l;nl;nfdf Ps csf{df egfeg x'bF f
h+uaxfb'/ /f0ffsf dflg; o'2jL/
clwsf/Lf/f ;j{k|yd cledfgl;+x
a:g]t dfl/Pkl5 l:ylt rls{bF} xft
xfnfxfn tyf uf]nL xfgfxfg x'Fbf
cledfgsf ;fy;fy} Toltv] /
g]kfnsf k|wfgdGqL kmQ]h zfx,
bne+hg kf08] nufotsf $) hgfsf]
xTof ePsf] sf]tsf] kl/;/df /utsf]
vf] n f aUof] . o:tf] ljeT; /
b'MvnfUbf] l:yltsf] kmfObf p7fP/
h+uaxfb'/ k|wfgdGqL ag] / !)#
jif{sf] /f0ff zf;gsf] pbo eof] hf]
h+uaxfb'/sf] ;kgf lyof] . ;Dk"0f{
b]zeSt / hgtf k|d] Lx?sf] sf]tkj{df
xTof ePkl5 g]kfn / g]kfnLsf] lxt
/ clwsf/sf] lgDtL w] / } hgf
b];eStx?n] /f0ffsfndf alnbfg

ax;

ch'g
{ a:g]t
lbPsf] /ut cfhklg lt b/af/sf
leQf / l;s'jfx?df 6f7} 5 .
oxfF af6 z'? eof] g]kfnL hgtf
dfly zf] i f0fsf] csf] { cGofo .
/f0ffsfnsf] pGdftnfO{ pv]Ng g]kfnL
b]zeStn] hGd lng k'/f !)$ aif{
s'g'{ kof] tTkZrft /fhf lqe'jg /
lakL sf]O/fnfsf] cu'jfOdf PstGqLo
zf;gsf] ;dfKtL t eof] t/ g]kfnL
hgtf dflysf] sfnf] cGofo d]l6Pg .
k|hftGq k|flKtsf] 5f]6f] ;dodf g}
lqe'jgsf] b]xfjf;g ePkl5 /fhf
dx]Gb|;Fu ldn]/ PstGqLx?n] ulx/f]
h/f uf8\g df}sf kfP h;sf] kl/0ffd
laqmd ;Djt @)!& ;fndf
lg/'zsf] bf]>f] sfnf] cGofo g]kfnL
hgtfsf] sfFwdf nflbof] . /f0ffsfnsf]
cWof/f] sfnv08af6 pHofnf]
tkm{a9\b} u/]sf] g]kfnL qmflGtn]
:jtGqtfsf] /fsf] afnL ;s]sf] lyof] .
o:tf] kl/l:yltdf w] / } g] k fnL
;k'tx?n] Hofgsf] cfx'tL lbg' kof] .
cem eGbf bdgsf/Lx?sf] bdgdf
l5Gtf sf08n] c?0f gbLdf /utsf]
e]n aUof] eg], cf]vn9'f sf08n]
l;:g]vf]nf /lof] . /f0ffsfnsf sf]tkj{
cnf}kj{ / eG8f/vfn kj{eGbf klg
eo/ ljeT; xTofsf08x? lg/'z
k~rfotsfndf eP . lt sf08
dRrfpg] gfOs] x ? cfh klg
k|hftGqsf] dv'G8f] nufP/ g]kfnL
hgtfk|lt lu2]b[li6 ul//x]sf 5g\ .
vf]O t ltgLx? dfly sfjf{xL ePsf] <
hgtf ?i6 eP /fhtGq /xFb}g eGg]
elneftL 1fg ePsf /fhf la/]Gb|n]
@)#^ ;fnkl5 hgtfk| l t s] x L
pQ/bfO e"ldsfsf] af6f] cjnDjg
u/]sf eP klg pNn]lvgLo sfd eg]
ePgg\ . ;w}+ zf;s / zf]ifsaf6
lkl;Psf hgtf k~rfotsf]
sfnv08df klg /OtL g} eP/ /x]sf]
tYo @)$^ sf] cfGbf]ngn] k|:6
b] v fof] h;sf] kl/0ffd lazfn
hg;xefuLtfn] cfgf] xsclwsf/
/ ;fj{ef}d ;Qf xfdL hgtf d} lglxt
/xg' k5{eGb} u/]sf] cfGbf]ngn] /fhf
la/]Gb|nfO{ hgtfsf] clwsf/ lkmtf{
ug{ jfWo kfb}{ k|hftGqsf] 3f]if0ff
u/fpb} g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf hgtfn]
cfgf] clwsf/df lnP . Tolta]nfsf]
g]kfnL /fhgLltn] g]kfnL hgtfnfO{
lgSs} cfzfjfbL b]vfPsf] lyof] .
@)$& sf] cfd lgjf{ r gaf6
lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnsf] g]t[Tjdf
ax'dtsf] ;/sf/ sfFu;
]| n] agfof] eg]
dbg e08f/Lsf] g]t[Tjdf g] s kf P
df n] k|ltklIfdf /Xof] . Tolta]nf
k| l tkIfdf st{ A olgi7 hgtfsf
k|ltlglw dbg e08f/L, dgdf]xg
clwsf/L nufotsf b]z / hgtf
k|]dL AolStTjx?sf] lgi7fn] hgtfn]
/fxtsf] ;f; km] g { yfn] . t/
hgtfnfO{ ;w}+ /OtL agfpb} zf]if0f
ug{ kNs]sfx?sf] /jfkmn] / hgtfsf]
dtn] l;+xb/af/ lelqPsf g]tfx?df
b]zsf] lasf; / hgtfsf] hLjg :y/
eGbfklg :jfy{ / ;Qfdf]x emlNsg
yfNof] . :jfy{ / ;Qfdf]xsf] s/
la/f]wL ePsf dbg e08f/L ;a}
/fhgLlt1x?sf cfFvfsf] tf/f] x'g k'u]
h;sf] k|ltkmn @)%) ;fn h]i7 #
ut] a8f] ;'lgof]lht tl/sfn] pgsf]
xTof ul/of] oxfFaf6 g]kfnL hgtf
dfly t]>f] sfnf] cGofosf] kfgf
ylkof] . sd{ / lg:jfyL{ k|ltkIfL
g] t fnfO{ lsgf/f nufP kZrft
/fhg]tfx?n] b]z / hgtf dfly lagf
ldof]sf] bfpgL ug{yfn] o:tf] hgtf
dfly ul/Psf] b':sd{n] Psflt/ g]kfn
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ dfcf]afbsf] hGd eof]
eg] csf{ lt/ g]tfx?df e|:6rf/
gftfjfb s[kfjfb / u'6 pku'6sf]

v]tL df}nfpg yfNof] . k|hftGqsf]


unt pkof]un] b]zsf] l:ytL eofex
x'bF } lyof] eg] dfcf]afbL hgcGbf]ngn]
lta| ?k lnFb} /fHo ;Qf ;~rfngsf]
3f]/ la/f]w ub}{ lyof] . o:tf] lazd
kl/l:yltnfO{ glhsaf6 lgofNb}
u/]sf /fhf la/]Gb| klg lgSs} lrlGtt
lyP . pgL dfly g]kfn g]kfnL hgtf
/ /fhtGq hf]ufpg' kg]{ lhDj]af/L
lyof] . o;}n] b]z / hgtfsf] enfOsf
lgDtL pgn] laz]if sbd rfNg] of]hgf
agfO/x] s f lyP, o;sf] egs
k'/ftgjfbL cyf{t g]kfnL hgtf dfyL
x}sd hdfpg kNs]sfx?nfO{ o;sf]
egs nfUof] h;sf] kl/0ffd /fhf
la/] G b| / pgsf ;a} kl/jf/sf]
;fd'lxs xTof ul/of] . o; xTof
sf08n] b]z k'/} /f]of] eg] g]kfnL
hgtfdf rf}yf] sfnf] cGofosf] kfgf
n]lvof] .
of] b/af/ xTosf08n] g]kfnsf]
5ladf laZjsf] ;fd' k|Zg lrGx
nufof] eg] /fhgLltdf pynk'yn
eof], hgtfdf e'Ornf] cfof] . xTof
lx+;f, n'6, df/, cft, ckx/0f, wDsL,
e|:6rf/, gf/f, h'n';, aGb, x8\tfn,
tf]8kmf]8, rSsfhfd h:tf sfo{x?n]
k|f]T;fxg kfP . oxL c/fhstfsf]
dfem} dfem x'ls{b} u/]sf] dfcf]afbL
hgcGbf] g n] u[ x o' 4 sf] lau' n
k'mls;s]sf] lyof] . o:tf] laqmfn
;dodf tTsflng k| w fgdGqL
z]/axfb'/ b]pjfn] ;ef;b la37g
u/]/ g]kfnL hgtfk|lt k|hftGq
sfnv08sf] kfFrf} sfnf] cGofosf]
kfgf yk] . hg lgjf{lrt ;/sf/
la37g x' g ' g] k fnL hgtfdfly
s' 7 f/f3ft cyf{t @)$^ ;fnsf]
hgcfGbf]gsf pknAwL :jfdL eSt eP/
/fhfnfO{ ;'Dkg' afx]s c? s]xL lyPg .
b]z ;/sf/ljlxg ePsf] cj:yfsf]
kmfO{bf p7fpb} tfTsflng /fhf 1fg]Gb|n]
b]zsf] zf;g ;Qf cfgf] xftdf lnP/
cfg} cWoIftf dlGqd08n u7g ub}{
t'n;L lu/L / sdn yfkf h:tf
s'ofVtx?sf] hdft tof/ u/L g]kfnL
hgtf dfly /fhgLltsf] 5}6f} sfnf]
cGofosf] kfgf yk] .
sfFu|]; / Pdfn]sf] s'b[li6n] ubf{
t/n ePsf] @)$^ ;fnaf6 k|fKt
k|hftGq /fhf 1fg]Gb| dfk{mt\df
s'DNofPkl5 larlnt x'g k'u]sf]
lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfn] g]tT[ j u/]sf]
sfFu;
]| / dfwj g]kfnn] g]tT[ j u/]sf]
Pdfn] km]b} b]vL n8v8fpg k'Uof] .
Tof] larlnt x'g', n8v8fpg' g]kfn
/ g]kfnL hgtfsf] lxtdf geO
pgLx?sf] ;Qfdf]x / efu xl/Psf]n]
lyof] . g]kfnL /fhgLltdf cltg} rt'/f
dflgPsf lul/hf afa' cfgf]
rt'ofOsf] ;b'kof]u ug{ cj;/sf]
vf]hL ub}{ hgcfGbf]ng rsf{pb}
u/]sf] dfcf]afbL kf6L{;uF ;f7uf7 ug{
Pdfn] g]tf ;lxt lbNnL b/af/ lt/

k| : yfg u/] . lbNnL b/af/df


lul/hfafa'sf] rt'ofOn] ;kmntf
kfof], o;sf] pkh g]kfnL ;ft
/fhgLlts bn / dfcf]jfbL kf6L{ lar
!@ aFb' ] ;xdlt eof] . To; ;xdltn]
dfcf]jfbL kf6L{ xltof/ la;fP/
zlGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ngdf ;Dd]lnt eof] .
g]kfnL hgtfsf] xslxt / clwsf/sf]
lgDtL nl8/x]sf] dfcf]jfbL k'/ftg /
oyfl:yltjflbx?nfO{ h/} b]vL pv]n/]
ofSg] l;4fGtdf lyof], t/ Tof] !@
a' F b ] ;xdltn] ;ft /fhgLlts
bnx?sf] /fhf 1fg]Gb|af6 vf]l;Psf]
efu lkmtf{ eof] eg] !) aif{ dfcf]jfbL
hgo'4 t'lxof] o;/L lul/hfafa'sf]
rt'ofOn] t'xg' k'us
] f] hgo'2n] g]kfnL
hgtf dfly ldVofOsf] ;ftf} sfnf]
cGofo yKof] . b]zsf ;a} zlStx?
ldn]/ u/]sf] zflGtk"0f{ cfGbf]ng
;kmn eof], g]kfndf #)) aif{b]vL
/fh ub}{ cfPsf] /fhtGqsf] cGTo
eof], b]zn] u0ftGq kfof] . /f0ff
sfnb]vL g} hgtfn] vf]hs
] f] ;+ljwfg
agfpgsf] lgDtL cGtl/d ;+lawfg
hfl/ ul/of], % aif{ klxn] d/]sf] ;f+;b
;ef Ao'tfOof] / cfGtl/d ;+lawfgn]
;+lawfg;efsf] lgjf{rg u/fof] . t/
lgjf{rg kl/0ffd /fhgLlts bn /
l5d]sL /fi6x?n] u/]sf] cg'dfgsf]
7Ls pN6f] eof] . ;a}sf] ;f]rfO lyof]
dfcf]jfbL hnaf6 cfPsf] xf] o;n]
slt g} l;6 lhTnf / < eGg] k|Zg
lrGx
nufpb}
a;] s f
oyfl:yltjfbLx?sf] ;kgf dfly 3ft
Tolta]nf nfUof] ha dfcf]jfbL kf6L{n]
ax' d t glhs lgjf{ r g kl/0ffd
NofpFbf . Tof] lgjf{rg kl/0ffdaf6
larlnt ePsf sfF u | ] ; Pdfn]
nufotsf bn / cGt/f{ l i6 o
;d'bfox? dfcf]jfbLnfO{ s;/L ktg
u/fpg] / b]zsf] zf;g ;Qf xTofpg]
eGg] ulGtsf] v]ndf nfu] . r'gfj
lht]sf] kf6L{nfO{ ;/sf/ agfpg #
dlxgf nfUof] . ;+lawfg agfpg
ul/Psf] cfd lgjf{rg ;Qfsf] v]n
v]Ng] ynf] eof] . To;sf] nfe aflx/L
zlStx? pBf]uL Jofkf/L / xftdf
zlSt x'g]x? nfO{ eof] eg] g]kfnL
hgtfn] df/, sf6, xTof, lx+;f, aGb
x8\tfn, tf]8kmf]8, rGbf, cft /
ckx/0f kfP . b]zdf ^ dlxgf ;/sf/
x'g] / ^ dlxgf ;/sf/ljlxg x'g] sfo{sf]
kmfO{bf xftdf zlSt x'g]x?n] e/k'/
p7fP . ufp, 6f]n, If]q / zx/ zx/df
cfh d]/f] kf6L{sf] ;/sf/ aGof], ef]nL
p;sf] kf6L{sf] ;/sf/ aGof] eGg]
k|zn] k|fyldstf kfpFbf l5d]s
l5d]sdf b':dgL / lt/:sf/x?n]
df}nfpg] df}sf kfP . @ aif{df ;+lawfg
agfpg] Dof08]8sf ;fy r'lgPsf ^)!
hgf hgtfsf k|ltlglwx?n] $$
aif{;Dd g]kfnL hgtfsf] /utn]
sdfPsf] k};f vfFb} ltg} hgtfnfO{
b'Mv lbP . cGtt @)^( ut h]i7
!$ ut] ;+lawfg;efsf] lj37g u/]/
g]kfnL hgtf dfly u0ftGq g]kfnsf]
cf7f} sfnf] cGofPsf] kfgf ylkPsf]
5 ;fjwfg g]kfnL hgtf ;fjwfg
csf]{ cGofosf] k|ltIff u/fF} .

sf/fuf/df ;L;L6LeLaf6 lgu/fgL


sf7df8f}F . ljleGg s;'/df s}bdf
/x]sf aGbLxsf] lqmofsnfk tyf
pgLxnfO{ e] 6 \ g cfpg] d fly
Sofd/faf6 lgu/fgL ;' ? u/] s f]
s]lGb|o cg';Gwfg Ao'/f]n] hgfPsf] 5 .
h]nleq /x]sf s}bLx ck/flws
ultljlwdf ;lqmo x'g;Sg] ;Defjgf
/x]sfn] o:tf] lgu/fgL a9fOPsf] xf] .
pkTosfleqsf tLgj6} sf/fuf/xdf
!^ j6f l;l;l6eL h8fg u/L
s}bLxsf] ultljlw ;+sng ug{
nfluPsf] xf] . Ps dlxgf;Ddsf] 8f6f
Aofsck ug{sf ;fy} ljleGg d'2fdf
s}b e'Stfg ub}{ /x]sfdWo] xfn;Dddf
Ps xhf/ @ ;o (* hgfsf]

kmf] 6 f] ; lxtsf] /] s 8{ /fVg] sfo{


eO;s]sf] k|x/Ln] hgfPsf] 5 .
;f] n ufot sf/fuf/df /x] s f
s} b LxnfO{ e] 6 3f6 ug{ hfg]
cfuGt'sxdWo] xfn;Dd b'O{ xhf/
Ps ;o $# hgf cfuGt'sxsf]
kmf]6f];d]tsf] /]s8{ /flv;lsPsf] 5 .
s]lGb|o cg';Gwfg Ao'/f]n] cfufdL
;fpg dlxgfsf] clGtd ;ftf;Dd
sf/fu/df /x]sf ;Dk"0f{ s}bLxsf
kmf] 6 f] ; lxtsf] ljj/0f tyf
l;l;l6eLaf6 lgu/fgL ul/Psf 8f6f
cg';Gwfgsf nflu cfjZos k/]sf
avt ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ pknAw
u/fpg] nIo /fv]sf] hgfPsf] 5 .

/fatOfc t]u &! /f;c nf; (^)@

xfd|f] nIo gof


hgjfbL hgu0ftGq xf]
xfdLn] qmflGtsf] em08f p7fO/fVg / hgjfbL
qmflGt ;DkGg ug{ gof kf6L{ u7g u/]sf xf} .
cj;/jfbL ljrngsf] lj?4 ;+3if{ gu/L, pgLx;Fu ;DaGw
ljR5]b gu/L qmflGt ;DkGg ug{ ;lsFbg} .
hgtfsf] clwsf/ :yflkt u/fpg xfd|f] kf6L{n] s'g} ;Demf}tf ub}g{ .

;ftfsf] s'/fsfgL
) g]skfdfcf]jfbL
u7g
ug'{ePsf] 5, clxn] o;sf]
cfjZostf lsg kof] <
g] s kf dfcf] j fbL u7g
ug'k{ 5fl8 d'Vo u/L tLg sf/0f /x]sf
5g\ . b;jif]{ hgo'4dfkm{t\ ;Dk"0f{
;j{ x f/f, >dhLjL hgtfsf]
Ph]G8fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ gofF hgjfbL
qmflGt ;DkGg ug]{ eg]sf lyof}F .
clxn];Dd cfpFbf Tof] qmflGt ;DkGg
x'g ;s]g a? pN6} kf6L{sf] Pp6f
lx:;f juL{o cfTd;dk{0fjfbdf
efl;g k'Uof] . kf6L{sf] Pp6f lx:;f
kf6L{ gLlt / of]hgfljk/Lt ef/tLo
lj:tf/jfb;F u uDeL/ k| s f/sf]
;fF7ufF7 ub}{ uof] . xfdLn] ef/t;Fu
ePsf] ;a} v fn] c;dfg
;lGw;Demf}tf vf/]h ug]{, ;Ldf
cltqmd0f aGb ug]{ d'ns
' sf ljleGg

:yfgdf ePsf] ef/tLo x:tIf]ksf]


cGTo ug]{ s'/f hf]8tf]8n] p7fpFb}
cfPsf lyof}F . t/, kf6L{ g]tT[ j To;sf]
ljk/Lt lxF8\g yfNof] . afa'/fdn]
ef/t;F u laKkfh:tf] /fi6 3 ftL
;Demf}tf ug{ k'u,] To; ;Fu;Fu} k|r08n]
Ps cGtjf{tf{df ef/t;Fu xfd|f] ljz]if
;DaGw 5 eGg] h'g sfd eof], o;n]
s] k|dfl0ft uof] eg] kf6L{ g]tT[ j /fli6o
cfTd;dk{0fjfbtkm{ uof] . /fli6o
:jfwLgtfsf] o'4 uDeL/ aGb} uof] .
To; sf/0f xfdLn] qmflGtsf] em08f
p7fO/fVg / hgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg
ug{ gofF kf6L{ u7g u/]sf xf}F .
) d' n ' s olta] n f uDeL/
/fhgLlt Pj + ;+ j } w flgs
;+ s 6df km;] s f] 5, o:tf]
cj:yfdf Psh'6 eP/ cufl8
a9\g'kg]{df lsg gofF kf6L{sf]

k|wfgdGqLn] unt u/] klg 5"6 x'g]


/fi6kltn] h] u/] klg ;lqmotf a9fof]
eGg ldNb}g . d'ns
' nfO{ lgsf; lbg]
;jfndf /fi6klt uDeL/ ePh:tf]
b]lvG5 . d'ns
' ;+s6df /x]sf] a]nf klg
k|wfgdGqL s;/L ;Qfsf] s';L{df
6fFl;/xg] eg]/ nflukg'{ ePsf] 5 eg]
/fi6klt ;+s6nfO{ s;/L lgsf; lbg]
eg]/ lrlGtt b]lvg'ePsf] 5 .
--jt{dfg ;+s6sf] lgsf; /fli6o
;xdltsf] ;/sf/ uf]nd]r
;Dd]ngdfkm{t\ u7g ug'k{ 5{ . tLg
kf6L{sf zLif{ g]tfx c;kmn eP .
pgLxaf6 ;d:ofsf] lgsf;
cfpg]jfnf 5}g . ;Dk"0f{ zlQmnfO{
ldnfP/ gofF /fli6o ;xdlt dfq
;+oQ' m ;/sf/ u7g u/]/ cufl8
a9\gk' 5{ .

df]xg j}B ls/0f, cWoIf, g]skfdfcf]jfbL


cfjZostf dx;'; ug'{eof] <
h'g kIfn] d'n'snfO{ of] uDeL/
cj:yfdf km;fof], ToxfF kIfsf] lj?4
n8\g t cfjZos kof] . xfdLn]
k|r08hLnfO{ kfGt/0f ug{ w]/}
sf]l;; uof}F t/ pxfF kfGt/0f x'g'
ePg . afa'/fddf klg kfGt/0f
cfPg . To:tf] cj:yfdf
cj;/jfbL;Fu ;Fu;Fu} a:g ;Dej
lyPg . To;s/f0f xfdL cnlUuof}F .
) k| r 08 / afa' / fddf To:tf]
s] ljrngtf b]Vg'eof], h;n]
ubf{ gofF kf6L{ g} u7g
ug' { k of] <
kf6L{ g]t[Tjdf gj;+zf]wgjfbL
ljrf/ Pj+ Jojxf/ b] v fkof] .
gj;+ z f] w gjfbn] 3' d fOlkm/fO
dfS;{ j fbsf] lj/f] w u5{ .
gj;+zf]wgaf6 eg]sf] cj;/jfbL
ljrng xf] . cj;/jfbL ljrngsf]
lj?4 ;+3if{ gu/L, pgLx;Fu ;DaGw
ljR5]b gu/L qmflGt ;DkGg ug{
;lsFbg} .
) hgo'4 ;'? ubf{ tkfO{+xn]
rfnL; a'Fb] dfu /fVg'ePsf]
lyof], clxn] klg rfnL; a'Fb]
dfu e/fO{ ;dIf /fVg]
tof/L eO/x] s f] ;' l gPsf] 5,
tkfO{+x k'gM hgo'4df hfg
nfUg' e Psf] xf] <
xfdL, tTsfn hgo'4sf] tof/Ldf
5}gf}F . hgtfsf ;d:ofxsf] ;dfwfg
gx'g] cj:yfdf gofF 9n] cufl8
a9\gk' 5{ . hgtfsf clwsf/ :yflkt
ug{ xfdL gofF 9n] cufl8 a9\g k/]
cfjZos 5nkmn u/] / cufl8
a9\5f}F . hgtfsf] clwsf/ :yflkt
u/fpg xfd|f] kf6L{n] s'g} ;Demf}tf
ub}g{ . cfjZos k/] h:tf];s
' } dfu{df
cufl8 tof/ 5 .
) jt{ d fg /fhgLlts ;+ s 6sf]
;dfwfgsf] nflu s] of] h gf
5 <
;xdltdf ;+ljwfgsf s]xL a'bF fx
;+zf]wg u/]/ cufl8 a9\g'k5{ .
;+ljwfg;ef k'g:yf{kgfsf] s'/f;d]t
aflx/ cfPsf] 5, oxL cj:yfdf
k' g :yf{ k gf ug{ ;Dej 5} g .
k'g:yf{kgf ePkl5 cfpg] t log}
kf6L{x x'g h'g c;kmn eO;s] .
jt{dfg ;+s6sf] lgsf; /fli6o
;xdltsf] ;/sf/ uf] n d] r
;Dd]ngdfkm{t\ u7g ug'k{ 5{ . tLg
kf6L{sf zLif{ g]tfx c;kmn eP .
pgLxaf6 ;d:ofsf] lgsf;
cfpg]jfnf 5}g . ;Dk"0f{ zlQmnfO{
ldnfP/ gofF /fli6o ;xdlt dfq
;+o'Qm ;/sf/ u7g u/]/ cufl8
a9\g'k5{ .
) tkfO{ + x ;/sf/df ;xefuL
gx'g] s'/f aflx/ cfPsf] lyof],
/fli6 o ;xdltsf] ;+ o ' Q m

;/sf/ aGof] eg] tkfO{+xsf]


;xeflutf /xG5 <
;/sf/sf] s' / f ub} { d f xfdL
;/sf/df ;xefuL x'gk} 5{ eGg] 5}g .
xfdL ;+oQ
' m /fli6o ;xdltsf] ;/sf/
u7g eof] eg] To;df ;xefuL x'g
klg ;lsG5 gx'g klg ;lsG5 .
clxn]sf] cj:yfdf xfdL ;/sf/df
hfFbg} f}F .
) /fi6 k ltsf ] ;lqmotfnfO {
s;/L x] g ' { e Psf] 5 <
/fi6klt ;lqmo ePh:tf] dnfO{
nfUb}g . k|wfgdGqLn] unt u/] klg
5"6 x'g] /fi6kltn] h] u/] klg ;lqmotf
a9fof] eGg t ldNb}g . d'n'snfO{
lgsf; lbg] ;jfndf /fi6klt uDeL/
ePh:tf] b]lvG5 . d'n's ;+s6df
/x]sf] a]nf klg k|wfgdGqL s;/L
;Qfsf] s';L{df 6fFl;/xg] eg]/ nflukg'{
ePsf] 5 eg] /fi6klt ;+s6nfO{
s;/L lgsf; lbg] eg]/ lrlGtt
b]lvg'ePsf] 5 .
) Pdfcf] j fbL;F u tkfO{ + x sf]
Pstf
xx'' g ]
;Defjgf
b] V g' x ' G 5 <
;lRrP/ cfP kf6L{ Pstfsf] nflu
9f] s f v' N nf /xG5 . /fli6 o
:jfwLgtfsf] kIfdf b]lvg'kof], gofF
hgjfbL qmflGtsf] sfo{ l bzfnfO{
dfGg'kof], To:tf] cj:yfdf kf6L{
Pstf x'G5 .
) ca, tkfO{+x oxL cj:yfdf
/xg' x ' G 5 ls gofF hgjfbL
qmflGt
;DkGg
ug {
hgljb| f ] x tkm{ nfUg' x ' G 5 <
xfdL nf]stflGqs u0ftGq dfGb}gf},F
xfd|f] nIo gofF hgjfbL hgu0ftGq
xf] . nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] ljsNk
gofF hgjfbL u0ftGq xf] . xfdL ;a}
k|lqmofaf6 cufl8 a9\5f}F . cfjZos
k/] hgljb|fx] dfkm{t\ cufl8 a9\g;d]t
tof/ 5f}F . cfGbf]ngsf] ;a} 9f]sfx
v'nf /fv]/ xfdL cufl8 a9\g]5f}F .
) s] p;f] eP ca tkfO{ + x
l 5 }}
g}
hgcbfnt,
hg;/sf/nufotsf
lgsfox k ' g u{ 7 g u/ ] /
cufl8 a9\ g ' x ' G 5 <
xfdL o; ljifodf 5nkmn ub}5
{ f},F
hgtfsf ;d:ofxsf] ;dfwfg gug]{
xf] eg] xfdL gofF 9n] cufl8 a9\5f}F .
hgcbfnt, hg;/sf/ k'gu{7g x'g]
s'/f hgtfsf] clwsf/ ;Daf]wg x'g]
s'/fn] lgwf{/0f u5f}{F cfjZos k/] xfdL
k'gu{7g u/]/ cufl8 a9\5f}F .
) Pdfcf] j fbLdf 5F b f ;lxb
kl/jf/, a ] k Qf kl/jf/,
hg;]gf, jfOl;Pn ;a} g]t[Tj
/ kf6L
kf6L{{ s f] sfo{ z } n Lk| l t
c;Gt' l i6 lyP, ltgLxnfO{
;d] 6 \ g s] sfo{ q md NofpF b }
x' g ' x ' G 5 <

clxn] kl/l:ylt lgs} ab\lnPsf]


5 . ca k'/fgf] tl/sfn] x'Fb}g, xfdL
gofF tl/sfn] cufl8 a9\5f}F . s;nfO{
s;/L ;+ul7t ug]{ eGg]af/] xfdL l5}
gofF sfo{qmd NofpF5f}F .
) cGTodf yk s]xL eGg

rfxg' x ' G 5 <


o; klqsfn] b]z / hgtfsf]
kIfdf h'g ;sf/fTds e"ldsf v]Nb}
cfPsf] 5, To;n] cem gofF prfO
r'df];\ eGg] z'esfdgf Pj+ z'eR] 5f
JoQm ub{5' .

xfdLn] k|r08hLnfO{ kfGt/0f ug{ w]/}


sf]l;; uof}F t/ pxfF kfGt/0f x'g' ePg .
afa'/fddf klg kfGt/0f cfPg . To:tf]
cj:yfdf cj;/jfbL;Fu ;Fu;Fu} a:g ;Dej
lyPg . To;s
To;sff/0f xfdL cnlUuof}F .
--;lRrP/ cfP kf6L{ Pstfsf] nflu
9f]sf v'Nnf /xG5 . /fli6o
:jfwLgtfsf] kIfdf b]lvg'kof], gofF
hgjfbL qmflGtsf] sfo{lbzfnfO{
dfGg'kof], To:tf] cj:yfdf kf6L{
Pstf x'G5 .
--hgtfsf ;d:ofxsf] ;dfwfg gug]{ xf] eg]
xfdL gof 9n] cufl8 a9\5f}+ .
hgcbfnt, hg;/sf/ k'gu{7g x'g] s'/f
hgtfsf] clwsf/ ;Daf]wg x'g] s'/fn]
lgwf{/0f u5{ . cfjZos k/] xfdL k'gu{7g
u/]/ cufl8 a9\5f}+ .

/fatOfc t]u &! /f;c nf; (^)@

o'/f]kdf hftLo lje]b / ;fdL ;d'bfosf] ;+3if{


cfhsf] o'u clwsf/ k|flKtsf] o'u
xf] . ;~rf/ hutsf] Jofks Pj+ tLj|
ljsf;;Fu} ;+;f/df eO/x]sf ljleGg
ultljlw xfdL ;lhn} yfxf kfpF5f}+ .
g]kfndf xfn rln/x]sf] klxrfg /
k|ltlfglwTjsf] cfGbf]ngsf] af/]df
ljZj ;d'bfo cgle1 kSs} klg 5}g .
vf;u/L g]kfnsf] dw]zL, cflbjf;L,
hghflt, blnt / dlxnfxsf]
cj:yfaf/] hfgsf/L kfpFbf hf] sf]xL
u}/g]kfnLx cf}n
+ f 6f]S5g\ . pgLx
;f]Rg afWo x'G5g\ . ;fFRr} o:tf] x'g
;S5, Pp6} b] z sf gful/saLr
km/skm/s Jojxf/ /fHof/f ul/g
;S5 < t/ ha pgLx xfd|f] b]zsf]
w/ftnLo oyfy{nfO{ ab5 . oxfFsf
dw]zL, hghflt, blnt, d'l:nd /
dlxnfxsf] kL8fxnfO{ dx;';
ub{5 ta pgLx eG5g\ xf] of] 7"nf]
lje]b xf] . of] cIfDo ck/fw xf] .
g]kfnsf ;LdfGts[t ;d'bfox
vf;u/L dw]zL, hghflt, blnt,
d'l:nd / dlxnfxn] cfh klg cfgf]
d'n'sdf oxfFsf afx'g, If]qL, 7s'/L,
bzgfdLx ;/x hLjgofkg ug{
gkfpFbf / ;xcl:tTjdf pEofpg
gkfpFbf UnfgL dx;'; ub{5g\ .
ljutsf] @%) jif{b]lv cfGtl/s
cf}klgj]zLs/0fsf lzsf/ agfOPsf
dw]zL nufotsf oL ;d'bfox
oltv]/ /fHodf cfgf klxrfg /
k|ltlglwTj vf]h]sf 5g\ . pgLxsf]
cfzf / e/f];fsf s]Gb| ;+ljwfg;ef
lj36g x'bF f clwsf/ ;DkGg x'g] ;kgf

bLkf ld>f
rsgfr'/ ePsf] 5, t/klg cfzfjfbL
b]lvG5g\ / ;+3if{ pGd'v 5g\ .
ljleGg b[ l i6sf] 0 fn] vf;u/L
cfly{ s , ;fdflhs, z} l Ifs /
/fhg}lts lx;fan] km8\sf] df/]sf
o'/f]kdf klg lje]bdf k/L ljleGg
b[li6sf]0fn] k5fl8 kfl/Psf Pp6f
;fdL ;d'bfosf] ;+3if{sf] syfJoyf
blIf0f Pl;ofsf] eGbf sd 5}g .
lkmgNof08l:yt 8]df] lkmgNof08 eGg]
;+:yfsf] cfdGq0ffdf g]kfnsf ljBfyL{
g]tfxn] z}lIfs e|d0f ug]{ qmddf
d klg To;df dlxnfxsf] tkm{af6
k|lt:kwf{ u/L 5flgP kl5 o'/f]k hfg]
/ a'em\g] cj;/ kfPsf] lyPF . of]
d]/f] klxnf] o'/f]k e|d0f ePsf]n] xf]nf
d lgs} pT;flxt b]lvGy] . To;df
klg lxdfn zdf{, dfwj 9'u+ n
] , /+hLt
s0f{, dx]Gb| zfx / r'GgL vft'g h:tf
cg'ejL ljBfyL{, g]tfx;Fu hfg
kfpFbf uf}/jflGjt klg Tolts} dx;';
eO/x]sf] lyPF . ;fy} s]xL l;Sg]
pT;'stf klg Tolts} lyof] . xfdL !
h'g @)!@ sf lbg lqe'jg cGt/f{li6o
ljdfg:ynaf6 OQ]x] fb ljdfgaf6 b'aO{
x'Fb} hd{gLsf] aln{g k'Uof}+ / ToxfFaf6
km]l/ Po/ aln{gaf6 lkmgNof08sf]
/fhwfgL x]nl;GsL k'Uof}+ .
o'/f]ksf] ;DkGg, ljsl;t / ;d[4
zx/dWo] Ps x]nl;GsL x]b{} nf]e nfUbf]
lyof] . ;kmf, ;Eo, lzlIft / dlxnf
;dfj]zLsf] gfd'b pbfx/0f ag]sf]

lkmgNof08 cfgf] :jtGqtfsf] Ps


;o jif{d} 7"nf] km8\sf] df/]sf 5g\ .
Tolta]nf g} d]/f] dgdf Pp6f lh1f;f
knfof] . s] xfdL g]kfnnfO{ o:tf]
agfpg ;Sb}gf}+ < km]l/ d}n] cfgf]
dgnfO cs}{ df]8 lbP / ToxfFsf]
/dfOnf]df /Dg vf]h] . ;do;dodf
xfdL;Fu} /xg'ePsf 8]df] lkmgNof08sf
;+of]hg jf;' uf}td / g]kfn k|ltlglw
l/Ssf onf] n ] g n] xfdLnfO{ lgs}
;"rgfd"ns hfgsf/Lx lbP/ xfd|f]
ofqfnfO kmnbfoL agfO/fVg' ePsf]
lyof] . o;/L x] l nl;GsLsf] d' 6 '
cnjltgfsfn'l:yt ;f]s; xf]6ndf
a;L kfFr lbg;Dd lkmgNof08sf /fd|f
kIfx, ljsf;sf 5nfx
cjnf]sg uof}+ . ToxfFsf o'lgel;{6L,
:s"n, kfln{ofd]G6, kf6L{x / ljleGg
dGqfno h:tf 7fpFdf uO{ k|ToIf
kdf cg'ej a6'lnof}+ .
xfd|f] e|d0fsf] 5}7f}+ lbg *&% lsld
/]nofqfaf6 xfdL NofkNof08 k'Uof}+ .
ToxfF xfdL lkmgNof08sf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf]
kf6L{ ;]G6/ kf6L{sf Pshgf :yfgLo
g]tf;Fu e]63f6 uof}+ / ljZjljBfno
3'Dof}+ . To;kl5 xfdL lkmgNof08df
lje]bsf ;fdgf ul//xg' k/]sf ;fdL
-hghflt_ ;d'bfonfO{ e]6\g] cj;/
kfof}+ . pgLx;Fu e]6 x'Fbf aNn
xfdLn] yfxf kfof}+ ls o'/f]kdf klg
lje]b eO/x]sf] 5 . Ps nfv hDdf
hg;+ V of ePsf ;fdL ;d' b fo

lkmgNof08, /l;of, :j]8g] / gj]d


{ f
a;f]af; u5{g\ . ;fdLx ToxfF
cfgf] /fHo k|flKtsf lglDt ;+3if{/t
5g\ . ;d"xdf a:g rfpg] pgLx
k|foM lqkfn em'08\ofP/ a:5g\ .
o;sf] lkmgNof08df hDdf hg;+Vof
gf}+ xhf/ dfq 5g\ . ;aeGbf a9L
gj]{df a:g] ;fdLx k|foM n'y|g
lqmZrg wd{ dfGg] ub{5g\ .
cfgf] 5'} klxrfg clwsf/sf
lglDt l;8f eGg] ;d"x u7g u/]/
;fdL efiffdf k9\g kfpg] clwsf/
kfO;s]sf 5g\ . ;g\ !((% df
hghflt eg]/ x]Kg] u/L 5'6fPsf
lyP . /fhgLltdf ;xeflutf
gePsf ;fdLx hUuf :jfldTjaf6
;d]t jl~rt 5g\ eg]/ ;'Gbf lgs}
cfZro{ dfg]sf lyof}+ . pgLx
/fhgLltdf dfq x}g s'g}klg If]qdf
clwsf/ ;DkGg 5}gg\ . Toltdfq
xf]Og lkmgNof08sf] ;+;bdf ;d]t
pgLxn] sd clwsf/ kfPsf 5g\ .
cGtdf, blIf0f Pl;ofl:yt
ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6 g]kfndf dfq xf]Og
ls o'/f]ksf] ;d[4 / ;DkGgdf ulgg]
d'ns
' lkmgNof08df ;d]t dw]zL,
hghflt, blnt, dlxnf h:t} ;fdL
;d'bfo lje]bdf kg'n{ ] xfdL lje]b cefjn]
dfq xf]Og dfgl;stfn] x'bF f] /x]5 egL
lgisif{ lgsfNg ;S5f}+ . lje]b Pl;of /
o'/f]kdf dfq geO{ ;+;f/d} JofKt /x]sf]n]
o;sf] h/}af6 pGd'ng x'g h/L 5 .
-ld>f t/fO{ dw] z ljBfyL{
k|mG6sL s]Gb|Lo ;b:o x'g\ ._

j}bl] zs /f]huf/Ldf ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf a9fp


;xrf/L, g]kfnL b"tfjf;, s'jt]
cfh g]kfnLx k|To]s lbg xhf/f}s
F f]
;+Vofdf c? d'ns
' df sfd ug{ hfg
afWo 5g\ . log} g]kfnLn] hu]8f u/L
k7fPsf] /sddf ;Dk"0f{ b]zsf] cy{tGq
c8]sf] 5 . s'n ufx{Yo{ pTkfbgdf
j}bl] zs /f]huf/Ldf uPsf gful/sn]
k7fPsf] /sdsf] lx:;f sl/a @)
k|ltzt x'g cfpF5 . cy{tGqsf] kfFr
efusf] Ps lx:;f cf]u6]sf] o; If]qnfO{
;'/lIft / dof{lbt agfpg] lbzfdf
/fHon] slt nufgL u/]sf] 5 < clg
s;/L j}bl] zs /f]huf/Ldf gful/s
uO/x]sf 5g\ < s] ;/n / ;lhn}
uPsf 5g\ < k|lqmof kf/bzL{ 5 < clg
pgLxsf] sfdsf] ;'/Iff (Job
Security)
jf
Uof/] G 6L
(Guarantee) 5 < ladfnufotsf
k|fjwfg k|ofKt 5g\ < cfh oLnufot
j}bl] zs /f]hfuf/df ofjt\ k|Zgxsf]
hjfkm /fHon] :ki6 kfg{'kg]{ a]nf
cfPsf] 5 . sl/a #% nfv g]kfnL
ljb]zdf >d kl;gf aufO/x]sf 5g\
eg] of] ;+Vof k|To]s jif{ # b]lv $
nfv;Dd ylk/x]sf] 5 / gofF uGtJo
klg a9\b} uO/x]sf 5g\ . cfh !)*
d'n'snfO /f]huf/Lsf] nflu v'nf
ul/Psf] 5 . lbgk|ltlbg g]kfnL
>ldssf] dfu al9/x]sf] ;DaGwdf
;/sf/n] klg ;xL af6f] lnP/ sfd
ug{k' g]{ a]nf cfPsf] 5 . cfh j}bl] zs
/f] h uf/Ldf b] l vPsf cg] s f} F
ljs[ltxnfO{ ;dod} lg/fs/0f ug{
s8f kdf d}bfgdf v6\g} kb{5 .
sd{rf/Ldf klg >d dGqfno /
dftxtsf lgsfodf hfg' eg]sf] k};f
sdfpg' xf] eGg] h'g dfgl;stf 5 /
To;sf] nflu df]6f] /sd kf];/] hfg]
ul/G5 eGg] u'gf;f] 5, o; k|yfsf]
cGTo x'g}k5{ . csf]{tkm{ j}b]lzs
/f] h uf/;F u k| T oIf ;+ n Ug /xg]
lgsfoxaLrsf] ;dGjosf] cefjsf]
sf/0f 7"nf] ;d:of l;h{gf ePsf] 5 .
>d / cWofudgaLr ;xhtf /
;dGjo gx'bF f >d :jLs[t lnP/ cfpFbf
klg ljdfg:yndf cgfo;} b'Mv em]Ng'
k/]sf] tyf sltkon] l6s6 tyf
/f]huf/L g} u'dfpg' k/]sf] 5 . ljb]zdf
t bf];|f] bhf{df x]l/G5 g}, cfg}
d'ns
' df ;d]t o; lsl;dsf] Jojxf/

e'jg kf}8]n
cjZo plrt xf] O g . j} b ] l zs
/f]huf/Ldf sfdbf/nfO{ sfo{:ynd}
;xof]uL aGg] lgsfo eg]sf ;DalGwt
d'ns
' df /x]sf b"tfjf; x'g\ . h;n]
jf:tljs ;d:of glhs}af6 a'lem/x]sf]
x'G5 . t/, b'Mvsf] s'/f slt d'ns
' df
/fHosf] pkl:ylt dflgg] ld;g g}
:yfkgf ePsf 5}gg\ eg] :yfkgf
ePsf 7fpFdf klg cTofjZos ;|ft]
;fwgsf] cefjdf u'hg| ' k/]sf] 5 .
To:t} cfjZos clwsf/ glbg' /
b"tfjf;n] cg'/f]w / l;kmfl/; u/]sf]
s'/f sfo{Gjog gugf{n] klg ;d:of
hl6n x'bF } uPsf] 5 . h;/L eP klg
/f] h uf/Lsf] gfddf d' n ' s aflx/
ws]Ng'eGbf klg Jojl:yt / dof{lbt
tj/n] a? yf] / } k7fpg' hfoh
b]lvG5 . pbfx/0fsf] kdf sf]l/ofdf
g]kfnL k7fpg] h'g k|lqmof 5 To;n]
ubf{ sfdbf/ pSt d'ns
' df uP/ klg
;d:ofdf kg]{ ;Defjgf Go"g 5 .
h;sf] sf/0f g]kfn ;a}eGbf pTs[i6
7xl/P/ k'/:s[t;d]t eof] . cfh
To:t} /fd|f] uGtJo dflgg] Oh/fonn]
s] x L ;dosf] aGbkZrft k' g M
g]kfnLnfO{ v'Nnf u/]sf] 5 . ahf/df
Oh/fon hfg w]/} OR5's b]lvG5g\
t/ nfut ;'g] a'em]cg';f/ ;ftb]lv
bz nfv nufgL ug{'kg]{ . s:tf]
lj8Djgf < sfd ug{ hfg' olt df]6f]
/sd ltg{' hfoh 5 t < ;/sf/n]
Oh/fon ;/sf/;Fu ;dGjo u/]/ s]
k7fpg ;Sb}g t < cflv/ cfgf
gful/ssf] ;'/lIft / ;'ne tl/sfn]
b]zdf t /f]huf/L lbg g;s] klg
bf]>f] d'ns
' df kl;gf aufpg Jojl:yt
tl/sfn] k7fpg'k5{ . klxn] sf]l/ofdf
g]kfnL k7fpFbf Dofgkfj/ Ph]G;Lxn]
df]6f] /sd lng] u/]sf] sf/0f sf]l/ofn]
s]xL ;do aGb u/L xfn clt
Jojl:yt / kf/bzL{ tj/af6 Go"g
nfutdf hfg kfPsf 5g\ . u/]kl5
c;Dej t x'bF f]/x]g5 lg s] oxL ;"q
cGo d'ns
' df nfu" ug{ ;lsFbg} . cfh
sltko ax'/fli6o sDkgLn] g]kfnL
sfdbf/ Nofpg dfGb}gg\, vf8Lsf s]xL
b]zdf t clgjfo{kdf ;|ft] b]zdf
sfdbf/ vf]Hg] Joj;foLnfO{ lglZrt

kdf s]xL /sd ;le{; rfh{sf] kdf


/f]huf/bftfn] clgjfo{ lglZrt /sd
a'emfpg'kg]{ k|fjwfg 5 . ax'/fli6o
sDkgLsf] ts{ s] x'G5 eg] g]kfnsf
Joj;foL / Ph]G6n] ul/a sfdbf/af6
a9L /sd c;'N5g\ . clg xfdL;uF
k| l tk| Z g u5{ ;/sf/n] ;f] e m}
k7fpFbg} < xfdL;uF Pp6} pQ/ x'G5
pxL Ph]G6 cfh c1ft kdf dfgj
t:s/Ldf nfu]sf Ph]G6sf] abdf;Lsf
sf/0f w]/} g]kfnLn] 5f]6f] ;dodf w]/}
sdfpg cToGt} hf] l vd df] n ] /
ckmuflg:tfg / O/fs k'us
] f] 5g\ eg]
sltn] Hofg klg u'dfO;s]sf 5g\, hxfF
/f]huf/Lsf nflu k|ltaGw nufOPsf]
lyof] . ckmuflg:tfgdf eg] cem} klg
v'Nnf ul/Psf] 5}g eg] O/fsdf klg
gofF k7fpg v'Nnf ul/Psf] 5}g . s]jn
ToxfF sfo{/tnfO{ dfq Jojl:yt ug{
vf]lhPsf] xf] . t/, jf:tljstf cs}{
5 / lgoGq0f aflx/ k'u]sf] 5 .
j}bl] zs /f]huf/Lsf] If]qnfO{ Jojl:yt,
dof{lbt, zf]if0fd'St / ;'/lIft agfpg]
dfldnfdf ;/sf/ g} cu|;/ tyf tTk/
x' g ' k b{ 5 . j} b ] l zs /f] h uf/LnfO{
tTsfnsf] a]/f]huf/L ;d:of xn ug{]
/ eljiodf :jb]zdf /f]huf/Lsf]
Uof/]G6Lsf] jftfj/0f ;[hgf ug]{
b[li6sf]0fsf ;fy kxn rfNg' kb{5 .
a}bl] zs /f]huf/ k|j4{g af]8s
{ f] u7g
xfn} s f lbgdf ;/sf/n] lnPsf]
sbddWo] ;j}eGbf :jfutof]Uo xf] /
o;nfO{ cem a9L clwsf/ ;DkGg
agfpg'kg]{ b]lvG5 . af]8s
{ f] tTk/tf
/ ;xof]usf] sf/0f w]/} b]zdf cfh
/sdsf] cefjdf zj cnkq k/]sf
5}gg\ . j}b]lzs /f]huf/df hfg
rfxg]xsf] nflu kof{Kt uGtJo
d'ns
' sf] /xg;xg, wd{;:+ s[lt, cfk"m
sfd ug{ hfg nfu]sf] sDkgL sfdsf]
k|sl[ tnufotsf ljifodf hfgsf/L lbg
tflndsf] Joj:yf ePdf ;DalGwt
d'ns
' df cfPkZrft 7"nf] /fxt ldN5
eg] lgbf]i{ f sfdbf/ 7lugaf6 klg aRg
;S5g\ . To:t} csf]{ dxTjk"0f{ ToxfFsf]
efiff xf], h;sf] sf/0f w]/} b'Jo{jxf/
Joxf]g{' t 5Fb5
} eg] cgfo;} si6 klg
kfPsf 5g\ . ljz]if u/L 3/]n' sfddf

hfg]xsf] xsdf t of] 7"nf] ;d:ofsf]


kdf 5 . ;/sf/ g} cfdgful/ssf]
cleefjs ePsf]n] klxnf] bfloTj
tyf g]tT[ j lnP/ kof{Kt sfd ug{k' g]{
a]nf cfPsf] 5 . ef]lnsf lbgdf sf]xL
klg 7lug tyf cGofodf gk/f];\ egL
bL3{sflng b[li6sf]0f;lxt k|i6 vfsf
lnP/ sbd rfNg}k5{ . j]6/df eg]/
d?e"lddf e]8fsf] sfddf k7fP/
cfPsf] Ps dlxgfd} d[To' ePsf] Pp6f
pbfx/0fnfO{ lng] xf] eg] ;/sf/n]
Joj;foLxnfO{ k"0f{lgoGq0f ug{
g;s]sf] jf ug{ grfx]sf] :ki6
emlNsG5 . s] o:tf] unt sfo{ ug]{
Ph]G6 tyf Dofgkfj/ sDkgLnfO{
sf/jfxL gug]{ t < bf]ifL d[tssL
e'mSofP/ k7fpg] Hofgkfj/ < unt
sfo{ ug]{ / Joj;fosf] gfddf
snxnfO{ xb};Ddsf] sf/jfxL ug{]
cf6F ug{k' 5{ . of] t Pp6f ;fgf]
pbfx/0f dfq xf] . c? slt lhpFb}
nfz eP/ a:g afWo ePsf 5g\
lsgeg] pgLxnfO{ ;w}F cfk"m cfpFbf
lnPsf] C0f r'Stf ug]{ lrGtf,
kl/jf/sf] kfngkf]if0fsf] lrGtf / cfkm}F
klg ;'v;Fu afFRg] lrGtf ;a}n]
;tfO/x]sf] x'G5 . o:tf] ;d:ofnfO{
lg/fs/0f ug{] ;DalGwt lgsfoaLr
kf/:kfl/s ;dGjo, ;"rgfsf] cfbfg
k|bfg / lg/Gt/ kdf lgoGq0f,
lg/LIf0f / cg'udg ul//xg' Hofb}
g} cfjZos x'G5 clg dfq sfdbf/n]
;'/lIft / dof{lbt cg'ej ug{
;Sb5g\ . clg ljz]if u/L vf8L
/fi6sf] nflu 7s'jf u/]/ eGg ;lsG5
ls olb ;/sf/ Ps sbd cufl8
a9]/ cfkm}F cu|;/ eP/ k7fpg] xf]
eg] s'g} klg sfdbf/ cfpFbf Ps
sf}8L klg ltg{'kb}{g / ;/sf/sf]
nfu]sf] vr{ klg /f]huf/bftfn]
pknAw u/fpF5g\ . vf8Lsf] tna
:s]ndf klg cjZo j[l4 x'g] 5 /
;dfg sfdsf nflu ;a} sDkgLdf
Ps} k|/sf/sf] ;]jf ;'ljwf lbnfpg
;lsg]5 . csf]t{ km{ sDkgLn] ug{]
Jojxf/df klg kl/jt{g b]lvg]5, eg]
a9L lhDd]jf/L b]lvg]5g\ .
gf]6M oL d]/f lgtfGt JolStut cleJolSt
x'g\ / s'g} klg xfntdf ;+:yfut
k|ltlglwTj ub}g{ g\ .

O6fnLsf] cfly{s ;+s6af/] cf]afdfsf] rf;f]


jfl;\6g . O6fnLdf hf/L cfly{s ;+s6sf af/]df cd]l/sL /fi6klt
af/fs cf]afdfn] rf;f] JoSt u/]sf 5g\ . cf]afdfn] O6fnLsf k|wfgdGqL;Fu
6]lnkmf]g jftf{ u/L ToxfFsf] cfly{s ;+s6sf af/]df rf;f] JoSt u/]sf x'g\ .
;f] jftf{nfksf qmddf k|wfgdGqL df]G6Ln] o'/f]hf]g ;+s6sf] jf:tljstfsf
;fy} kl5Nnf] ;dodf ;f] ;+s6df]rgsf nflu eP ul/Psf k|of;xsf
af/]df hfgsf/L u/fPsf lyP . ;fy} o'/f]hf]gdf hf/L ;+s6sf] ;dfwfgsf
nflu O6fnL / cGo o'/f]kn
] L /fi6xn] u/]sf lqmofsnfkxsf af/]df klg
cf]afdfnfO{ hfgsf/L u/fOPsf] hgfOPsf] 5 . pgn] o'/f] If]qsf] cfly{s
;d[l4 / l:y/tfsf ;fy} cfly{s :yfloTjsf nflu hf/L /flvPsf sfo{qmd
/ ltgsf] pkfb]otf Pj+ cfufdL lbgdf klg ug'{kg]{ sfdsf af/]df klg
hfgsf/L u/fPsf] XjfO6xfp;sf k|jStfn] hgfPsf 5g\ . s'/fsfgLdf ut
;ftf dfq d]lS;sf]sf] n; sfaf];df ;DkGg ePsf] hL@) ;Dd]ngdf
ePsf] 5nkmn tyf yk k|ult ljj/0fsf af/]df klg rrf{ ePsf] lyof] .
;f] ;Dd]ngdf o'/f]If]qdf ;a}eGbf a9L cfly{s dGbLsf] cj:yf ef]lu/x]sf]
lu|;nfO{ o'/f]k]nL /fi6xsf] If]q o'/f]hf]gaf6 lgisfzg ug{ gx'g] ljifodf
s'/fsfgL ePsf] lyof] . ljZjsf ;a}eGbf 7"nf] cy{tGq ePsf /fi6xsf]
;+u7g hL@) df cfufdL lbgdf ;f] o'/f]hf]g ;+s6df]rgsf ljleGg
pkfosf af/]df klg Jofks dfqfdf 5nkmn ePsf] lyof] . ;Dd]ngsf]
clwsf+z ;do o'/f]If]qsf] cfly{s dGbLsf] lg/fs/0fsf ljifod} s'/fsfgL
ePsf] lyof] . pSt ;Dd]ngdf O6fnLsf df]G6Ln] g} ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfgsf
nflu ;xof]u /sdsf] k|of]usf] k|:tfj u/]sf lyP . uPsf] gf]eD] a/ dlxgfdf
O6fnLsf] k|wfgdGqL lgo'St ePkl5 df]G6Ln] cd]l/sL /fi6klt cf]afdf;Fu
lg/Gt/ ;Dks{df /xL o'/f] If]qdf hf/L /x]sf] cfly{s dGbLsf] af/]df
k/fdz{ ul//x]sf] XjfO6xfp;n] hgfPsf] 5 . pgn] ut km]a|'c/Ldf
cd]l/sfsf] e|d0f u/]sf lyP . ;f] e|d0fsf qmddf pgn] cd]l/sfdf klg
;g\ @))* sf] cGTob]lv ;'? ePsf] cfly{s dGbL / To;sf] ;dfwfgsf
nflu /fi6klt cf]afdfn] u/]sf] k|of;sf] k|z+;f u/]sf lyP . l;GXjf

a]nfotn] !& ldlnog kfpG8 cg'bfg ;xof]u lbg]


sf7df8f}F . g]kfnsf] e"sDkLo Iflt Joj:yfkgsf nflu a]nfotn] ? b'O{
ca{ -!& ldlnog kfpG8_ cg'bfg ;xof]u lbg] ePsf] 5 . a]nfotsf
cGt/f{li6o ljsf;;DaGwL /fHodGqL Png 8gn] cfgf] g]kfn e|d0fsf]
clGtd lbg laxLaf/ ;f] ;xof]u lbg] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] a]nfotL b"tfjf;f/f
hf/L k|]; lj1lKtdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfnsf] b}jLk|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf]
Ifdtf clej[l4 u/L rfnL; xhf/ g]kfnLnfO{ b}jL ljklQaf6 hf]ufpg
;Ifd u/fpg] sfo{df ;f] /sd ;fd'bflos ultljlwdfkm{t\ k|of]u ul/g]
atfOPsf] 5 . cfufdL rf/ jif{sf nflu l8PkmcfO8Lf/f lbOg] ;f] ;xof]uaf6
ut jif{kj" L{ g]kfndf uPsf] e"sDkdf elTsPsf !^@ j6f ljBfno ejg
lgdf{0fsf ;fy} c:ktfnxnfO{ e"sDkLo hf]lvdaf6 ;'/lIft /fVg] ;/sf/sf]
/fli6o of]hgfdf pkof]u ul/g] pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfnsf] klxnf] e|d0fb]lv
g} oxfFsf] e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf] cj:yfk|lt Hofg lbO{ o;sf] Iflt Go"gLs/0fdf
cfk"mn] k|fyldstf lbPsf] / /fli6o b}jL k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;'wf/ u/L /fxt
Ifdtf j[l4 ug{ a]nfotL /fHodGqLn] hf]8 lbFb} cfPsf] k|]; lj1lKtdf
pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . e|d0fsf qmddf /fHodGqL Pngn] pkk|wfg tyf
u[xdGqL ljhos'df/ uR5bf/ / g]kfndf b}jL k|sf]k Joj:yfkgdf ;xof]u
k'ofpg] ;7gsf k|ltlglwx;Fu klg e]6 u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .

ef/tdf a]lrPsf $* anfb]zLnfO{ 3/ kmsf{Oof]


sf7df8f} F . anfb] z af6 ef/t NofO{ a] l rPsf dlxnf tyf
afnaflnsfdWo] $* hgfnfO{ 3/ kmsfOPsf] 5 . tLg jif{cl3 cj}w 9n]
ef/t NofOPsf pgLxnfO{ Ps u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] kxndf afn ;/sf/nfO{
a'emfOPsf] ef/tLo ;~rf/ dfWodn] hgfPsf 5g\ . afnfb]zaf6 NofOPsf
w]/h
} ;f] dlxnfn] cfk"mxnfO{ hah{:tL b]xJofkf/ ug{ afWo kf/]sf] atfPsf
5g\ . pgLxn] ef/tsf] k'0f] / d'DaO{ ;x/df a9L b]xJofkf/ x'g] u/]sf]
atfPsf 5g\ . kLl8t Ps dlxnfn] glhs}sf] ;fyL tyf cfkmGtn] ef/t
3'Dg hfpF eGb} gzfn' kbfy{ v'jfP/ a]xf];\ agfP/ b]xJofkf/df ws]nLlbPsf]
b'v];f] kf]v]sL l5g\ . pgn] xf]; v'Nbf cfk"m a]lr;s]sf] yfxf kfPsf]
atfPsL 5g\ . ;fdflhs s';:+ sf/sf sf/0f a]lrPsf dlxnfnfO{ ef/taf6
3/ kmsfOP klg pgLxsf] cfpg] lbg lgs} r'gf}tLk"0f{ / si6s/ x'g]
a+unfb]zsL Ps dlxnf clwsf/sdL{n] atfPsL 5g\ . anfb]zaf6 a]lrg]
dlxnfxsf] olsg tYof geP klg x/]s jif{ xhf/f}s
F f] ;+Vofdf anfb]zaf6
ef/t / vf8L d'n'sdf dlxnfx a]lrg] u/]sf] dlxnf clwsf/sdL{xn]
atfPsf 5g\ . pgLxsf cg';f/ /f]huf/Lsf] nf]e b]vfP/ ;Ldfdfkm{t\
anfb]zsf dlxnfnfO{ ef/t k'ofOg] ul/Psf] 5 . dfgj t:s/ /f]Sg
;Ldf If]qdf ;'/Iff r]s hfFr s8f agfpg'kg]{ pgLxsf] egfO 5 .

kmfu'gb]lv j}zfv;Ddsf] cjlw xfjfx"/L a9L cfpg]


;do xf] . cfuf] afNbf ;'/lIft 7fpdf dfq afNg],
;nfO{, nfO6/, dlt]n cflb HjngzLn j:t'
s]6fs]6Ln] e]6g\ ] 7pFdf g/fVg], s]6fs]6LnfO{ hyfefjL
cfuf] afNbf x'g ;Sg] cfunfuLsf b'36{ gfxsf]
;DemfOa'emfO ug]{ / o:tf s'/fxaf6 ;hu /xg
hgr]tgf a9fpg] sfo{ ;xof]u u/f} .

g] k fn ;/sf/
;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno

;"rgf ljefu

/fatOfc t]u &! /f;c nf; (^)@

pRr lzIff k|j]zsf bf];fwx


cfhef]ln olb s;}df lljwf 5
eg] Tof] tL ljBfyL{xdf 5, hf] ev{/}
P;Pn;L pQL0f{ u/]/ pRr lzIff xfl;n
ug{] dfgl;skn] tof/L cj:yfdf
/x]sf 5g\ . ;fFRr} P;Pn;L pQL0f{
efOalxgLxnfO{ lljwf dfq geO{ b'Mv
klg TolQs} 5 lsgeg] pgLxsf
cufl8 olt w]/} @ ;~rfnsxsf]
3'Or
f] nfu]sf] 5 ls k|To]sn] cfk"mn]
pTs[i6 lzIff lbg] bfaL ul//x]sf 5g\ .
h;/L r'gfjtfsf ufp3/df ef]6 dfUgsf
nflu g]tfsf] 3'Or
f] nfU5 To;/L g}
cfhef]ln P;Pn;L pQL0f{ ljBfyL{xsf
3/df @ ;~rfnsxsf] cf]O/f]
nfu]sf] 5 . cfcfgf] 7"UofO" 5fF6g\ ] /
cfZjf;g afF9g\ ] sfddf g]tfx /
@ ;~rfnsx ;dfgh:tf b]lvG5g\ .
;a}n] cfcfgf ;+:yflt/ ljBfyL{sf]
xft tfGg vf]Hbf ljr/f ljBfyL{xnfO{
olt dsf{ k/]sf] 5 ls slxn]sfxLF t
pgLx cfgf cg'QL0f{ ;fyLxsf]
:jtGqtfsf] 8fxf g} u5{g\ xf]nf lsgls
cg'QL0f{xnfO{ cfhef]ln xfO;~rf] 5 .
sd;]sd pgLxsf] xft kfv'/f tfGg
t sf]xL hfFbg} . ;'lgG5, /fhwfgLdf
;~rflnt ljleGg lghL z} l Ifs
;+:yfx;d]t ljBfyL{sf] xft kfv'/f
tfGg /fhwfgL aflx/ l5/]sf 5g\ /] v}
oL sfgxn] slxn] xf] Kn; 6'
;~rfnsx cfk;df s':tL v]ns
] f
;dfrf/ klg ;'Gg'k5{ xf]nf . ufpufpdf
l5/]sf lj1fkgstf{sf 7"UofO"nfO{ ev{/}
P;Pn;L pQL0f{ efOalxgLxn] s;/L
d"Nof+sg ug]{ < ;a}sf s'/f dL7f 5g\ /
;a}sf lj1fkg ;fdu|Lx cfsif{0f g}
b]lvG5g\ . cem cfhef]ln t /fhwfgLdf
;~rflnt z}lIfs ;+:yfxn] o:tf
gfdx /fv]sf 5g\ ls pgLx
a]nfot, cd]l/sfaf6} cfgf ;+:yfsf]
k|rf/k|;f/df cfPsf] h:tf] cg'el" t
x'G5 . 6'sL afn]/ v/sf] 5fgfd'lg a;]/
k9]sf ufpn] ljBfyL{x o:tf ljb]zL
gfdwf/L ;+:yfsf cfsif{0f lj1fkgaf6
k|efljt gx'g] s'/} ePg . slgs'yL u/]/
bz sIff;Dd cfgf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ lzIff
lbPsf cleefjsx klg cfgf
;Gtfgsf cufl8sf] k9fOsf nflu dxFuf
lghL z}lIfs ;+:yfsf ;~rfnsx;fd'

dfwjk|;fb bfxfn
cleefjsx cNndNn g} k/]sf 5g\ .
lzIf0f ;+ : yfxsf] k| r f/k| ; f/
3/cfFug;Dd k'ofpg' 7Ls g} xf]nf
lsgls cfgf] ;+:yfnfO{ ;d[4 agfpg
kfpg] clwsf/ ;a}nfO{ x'gk' 5{ . t/,
cfhef]ln @ ;~rfnsx 3/cfFug
wfpg] sfdn] ljBfyL{x lbUe|ldt ePsf
5g\ . pgLxsf] :jtGqkdf cfgf]
nIo to ug]{ clwsf/ vf]l;Psf] 5 .
lzIf0f ;+:yfxn] dL7f gf/fx lbFb}
z'Nsd} afu]l{ g u/]/ eP klg cfgf
;+ : yfdf ePsf ljifox /f] H g
ljBfyL{xnfO{ k|l] /t ul//x]sf] b]lvG5 .
ljBfyL{xnfO{ cfgf] nIo ls6fg ug{
nufO{ pgLxs} ?lr / nIocg';f/
:jtGqkn] ljifo 5gf}6 ug{ nufpg'sf]
;f cfgf] ;+:yfdf k9fO x'g] ljifo
hah{:tL /f]Hg nufpg' dof{lbt k|fl1s
sd{ xf]Og . pRr lzIff k|jz
] sf] bf];fFwdf
plePsf ljBfyL{xnfO{ pgLxsf
lh1f;f d]l6g] u/L s'g} lglZrt ljifo
kgf{n] eljiodf k'lug] uGtJosf] k|i6
gS;f oyfy{ kdf sf] l /lbP/
:jtGqkn] cfgf] uGtJo cfkm}F lgwf{/0f
ug{ lbg'kb{5 . cfgf :jfy{k"0f{
lj1fkgsf sf/0f ljBfyL{xnfO{
cndndf kfg]{ z}lIfs Gofo kSs} xf]Og .
To;} n ]
lzIf0f
;+ : yfsf
lj1fkgstf{xnfO{ Pp6f cg'/f]w s]
ug'k{ g]{ ePsf] 5 eg] ;a} z}lIfs ;+:yfn]
cfgf] ;+:yfsf] ;jn kIfxsf] lj1fkg
eb|kd} /fVg'kb{5 . lzIffsf] lj1fkg
vfB kbfy{sf] lj1fkgh:tf] kSs} xf]Og .
8fOnu kmddf PkmPd /]l8of]xaf6
;'lgg] lzIf0f ;+:yfsf lj1fkg ;'Gbf
Pp6f k|fl1s If]qdf sfd ug{ dfG5]sf
sfgxn] ;xh dx;'; ub}g{ g\ . To:tf]
k|rf/ r6\ss
] f] bz{s tfGg] k|of;eGbf
klg t'R5 ;'lgg] ub{5 / lzIff If]qdf
sfd ug]x{ nfO{ o;n] emg} eNsfpg]
ub{5 . To;}u/L 3/cfFug wfP/
ljBfyL{nfO{ cfk"mtkm{ cfpg k|l] /t ug]{
sfd /fd|f] kSs} xf]Og / o;nfO{ aGb g}
ug{k' 5{ . cfgf k|rf/ ;fdu|LxnfO{
gff] Jofkf/ j:t'sf] k|rf/ h:tf] x'gaf6

arfO{ dof{ l bt 9af6 ;~rf/


dfWoddf k:sg' g} kfRo xf]nf h:tf]
nfU5 . x'g t cfhef]ln lzIff If]qdf
dfq geO{ htftt} cfgf ;LdfxeGbf
k/ uP/ sfd eO/x]sf] b]lvG5 . Pp6f
lzIfs 5gf}6 ug{' kbf{ ;fd'bflos
ljBfnon] cfhef]ln dxFuf] vr{
v]Kg'k/]sf] 5 . ljifo ljz]if1 ;DalGwt
If]qsf] ljBfno lg/LIfs, Joj:yfkg
;ldltsf cWoIf / lk|lG;knnfO{
a'emfpg'kg]{ dxFuf] eQfn] ljBfno emg}
u/La aGg] b]lvG5 . olt ul/;s]kl5
klg lgikIf 5gf}6 x'g] s'/fdf z+sf x6]sf]
5}g . cg'dlt a]u/ ;~rfng ePsf
lghL ljBfno aGb u/fpg] sfd t k/}
hfcf];\ a? pN6} o:tf ;~rfnsnfO{
k'/:s[t ul/Psf 36gfx ;'Ggdf
cfPsf 5g\ . ;/sf/Ltkm{ t o:tf] 5
eg] lghLdf t emg\ nufgLstf{sf]
xfnLd'xfnL gx'g] s'/} ePg . lj1fkg,
lzIfs 5gf} 6 b] l v k7gkf7gsf
dfldnfdf b]lvPsf ;Ldfaflx/ uP/
ul/g] sfo{sf] cg'udg tyf lgoGq0f
ug]{ lgsfox gePsf klg xf]Ogg\ t/
ltgLxsf] sfd Tolt k|efjsf/L x'g
g;s]sf] s'/fnfO{ ToxL If]qdf sfo{/t
JolStx :jLsf5{g\ . b]z g} efuj08fdf
rln/x]sf] a]nf lzIff If]qdf klg
:t/LotfeGbf klg ank"js
{ sdfp
l;4fGt xfjL eO/x]sf] 5 . o; s'/fnfO{
cleefjs / ljBfyL{ x n] klg
a'g'k5{ .
ljBfyL{ tyf cleefjsxn] ug}k{ g]{
s'/f s] xf] eg] lj1fkg ul/Psf z}lIfs
;+:yfxdf k'u/] ToxfFsf] jftfj/0f,
j:t'l:ylt, k':tsfnonufotsf k|rf/
ul/Psf s'/fx oyf]lrt dfqfdf 5g\
ls 5}gg\ x]gk' { b{5 . of]Uotf k'us
] f lzIfs
5g\ 5}gg\ / ltgLxsf] lzIf0f l;sfO
lqmofsnfk j}1flgs 5 ls 5}g, pgLx
ljBfyL{sf] eljio lgdf{0fdf slQsf]
pT;flxt 5g\ h:tf s'/fx kQf
nufpg'k5{ . of]Uotf k'us
] f dfq eGbf
klg pgLxsf] OR5fzlStsf] klg
d"Nof+sg ul/g'kb{5 . ;don] afWo

kf/]kl5 dfq ab\lng] lzIfseGbf k|To]s


sIff sf] 7 fdf l;sfO k| l qmofdf
kl/jt{gsf] dx;'; ug{] lzIfsaf6 ;jn
gful/s pTkfbg x'g;S5g\ . To;}u/L
ljifo 5gf}6sf] kIfdf klg cleefjs
/ ljBfyL{ b'jd} f cGof]n ePsf] b]lvG5 .
cleefjsxn] klg cfgf] OR5f dfq
eGbf cfgf 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] OR5f /
Ifdtfcg';f/ pgLxnfO{ ljifo 5gf}6
ug{ lbg'kb{5 . pgLxn] g} /x/ u/]/
k9]sf] ljifodf pgLxn] /fd|f] ug{;Sg]
;Defjgf a9L ePsfn] To;tkm{
pgLxnfO{ k|f]T;flxt ug{'kb{5 .
ljBfyL{xn] klg cfgf cleefjs,
lzIfs ;a}sf] ;'emfjdf cg'zfl;t eP/
cfk"mn] /fd|f] dfGg] / To;sf] uxgtfnfO{
e]6o\ fpg ;Sg]vfnsf] ljifo 5fg]/ d]xgt
u/]/ k9\gk' 5{ . lj1fkgsf] nxnx}df
nfu]/ ;+:yf 5fGg'kj" { To; ;+:yfsf]
z}lIfs Oltxf;, ToxfFaf6 pTkflbt
hgzlStsf] dt a'g cfjZos 5 /
To; ;+ : yfsf] eljiosf] z} l Ifs
/0fgLltnfO{ klg ljBfyL{n] a'g] sf]l;;
ug{k' b{5 . cfsif{s lj1fkg ug]{ ;+:yf
/fd|f] gx'g klg ;S5 / ldl8ofdf lj1fkg
g} gug]{ ;+:yf klg /fd|f] x'g;S5 . s'g}
klg ;+:yfsf] d"Nof+sg To;n] ;dfhdf
k'ofPsf] z}lIfs, g}lts / Goflos
w/ftnaf6 ul/g'kb{5 . o:tf] d"Nof+sg
l;f] ;dfhn] dfq ug{;S5 g ls s]xL
k"jf{ux| L JolStn] . JolStut, kfl/jfl/s,
bnLo / ;d"x ljz]ifsf] :jfy{sf] bnbndf
km;]sf] xfd|f] ;dfhnfO{ oL t'R5 :jfy{af6
dfly p7]/ g]kfn / ;du| g]kfnLsf]
lxtdf ;f]Rg] / sfd ug{;Sg] bIf
hgzlSt pTkfbg ug]{ lzIff rflxPsf]
5 . 3[0ff, ]if, l/;, cfqmf]z, c:j:y
k|lt:kwf{, 8fxf, ef}lts hf]xf] dfq h:tf
cg]sf}F unt k|jl[ Qsf] ljsf; ug{ k|l] /t
ug]{ lzIfs / lzIffnob]lv ;fjwfg
ePdf dfq pRr lzIff k|j]zsf]
bf];fFwaf6 xfdL ;kmn 9n] cl3 a9\g
;S5f}F . ;/n, ;xh, rl/qjfg\,
cWoogzLn, k/fqmdL / ef}lts
pGgltnfO{ dfq ;kmntf g7fGg], d[be' fifL
/ k|efjzfnL lzIfsx e]6\ofP/
pgLxdfkm{t\ g} bLlIft eof}F eg] dfq
xfdL hLjgdf ;kmn x'g ;S5f}F .

gf/Lx lsg cfl>t x'g'kof] <


>Ldfg\n] >LdtLsf] xTof u/]sf]
;dfrf/ k9]/ >LdtLn] elgg\ k'?ifn]
gf/LnfO{ zf]if0f ug],{ bf;L agfpg], xTof,
lx+;f ug],{ lhp"b} hnfpg], cfk"m ;dfg
gdfGg] j:t'ut / dgf]ut sf/0f s]
xf]nf < tTsfn} csf]{ Pp6f s'/f klg
elgg\\ x'g t o;sf] jf:tljs ;TotYo
tkfO"n] eGg' x'g] 5}g, cfg} kIfdf s'ts{
lbg' x'g5] . ddfly cljZjf; u/]/ s'ts{
lbg] s'/fdf ljZj:t ePsf] b]v/] d]/f]
dgdf ps';d's;
' eof] . s] sf/0f xf]nf
eg]/ dgn] 3r]6g\ yfNof] . k'/fgf
k'/f0fx / ;flxlTos u|Gyx vf]Hg]
qmddf lxtf]kb]zsf] k':ts xft nfUof] .
of] k':ts kbf{ uGtJodf k'Ug] uf]/6] f]
km]nf k/]h:tf] nfUof] . ToxL uf]/6] f]
;dfP/ lx"8b\ f e]6fPsf ljifoj:t'nfO{
dbf{ lg:s]sf] gf}gL kf7sx;fd' k:sg]
k|of; u/]sf] 5' . x'g t lxtf]kb]zsf]
k':ts ;+:s[t k9\bf s07 kf/]sf] lyP"
t/ Tof] a]nfsf] eGbf clxn] x]g{] b[li6
leGg / vf]hd"ns ePsfn] ToxL b[li6n]
x]/]F . of] k':ts cToGt /f]rs,
/f]df~rsf/L, 1fgj4{s dfq geP/ o;n]
wd{, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/, /fhgLlt,
;fdflhs ;b\efj, d]nldnfk, cfr/0f
/ Jojxf/h:tf ;f/ule{t s'/fx
kz'kI+ fLnfO{ kfq agfP/ pgLxsf]
dfWodaf6 dflg;nfO{ ;r]t / ;hu
agfpg] of] k':ts cgf}7f] ePsfn] k7gLo
5 . Ps :yfgdf kz'xaLrsf]
5nkmnsf] qmddf s] elgPsf] 5 eg]
k'?ifsf] eGbf dlxnfsf] cfxf/f b'O{ u'0ff,
j[l4 rf/ u'0ff, kl/>d ug{;Sg] Ifdtf
5 u'0ff / ljifo af;gf cf7 u'0ff a9L
x'G5 . jf:tjdf x/]s b[li6n] k'?ifeGbf

u'?k|;fb zdf{ /]UdL


dlxnf g} ;zSt x'G5g\ . o:tf
dlxnfxnfO{ ann] k/f:t ug{ ;lsFbg} .
lognfO{ k/f:t ug{ a'l4 / ljj]s k|of]u
ug'k{ b{5 eg]/ sf}jfsf] pksyf lbOPsf]
5 . sf}jf a;]sf] ?vsf] 6f]8s
\ fdf Pp6f
;k{ a:bf]/x]5 . To;n] sf}jfsf k'mn
vfOlbg] /x]5 . sf}jfn] glhs}sf] vf]nfdf
uxgf lems]/ /fhs'df/Ln] g'xfpg nfu]sf]
b]v5
] . tTsfn sf}jf uP/ /fhs'df/Lsf]
l;qmL l6k]/ p8\of] . p;sf] k5fl8
l;kfxLx klg bf}l8P . sf}jfn] l;qmL
nu]/ ToxL ;k{ a;]sf] ?vsf] 6f]8s
\ fdf
xflnlbof] . l;kfxLxn] ToxfF x]bf{ ;k{
b]v] . ;k{nfO{ df/]/ l;qmL lems]/ nu] .
olt ;zSt / Ifdtfjfg\ gf/Lx lsg
zf]lift / kLl8t x'gk' of] xf]nf eGg]
s'/fsf] ;DaGw stfstf oxL ;k{sf]
syf;"u hf]l8Psf] h:tf] cg'dfg u/]/
ToxL af6f] ;dfPsf] 5' . k"jj{ l} bssfndf
dlxnfx lzlIft tyf bLlIft lyP,
k/fqmdL / zlStzfnL lyP . Tolta]nf
k' ? ifn] ug{ g;Sg] sfd gf/Ln]
;xhkdf ub{y] . bfgj;"usf] o'4df
k/flht ePsf b]jtfx gf/Ls} z/0fdf
uP/ cfgf] /Iff ug{ k|fy{gf u/]kl5
gf/Ln] g} bfgjxnfO{ k/f:t u/]/
b]jtfxsf] /fhkf7 lkmtf{ u/fOlbPsf
cg]sf}F pksyfx k'/f0f tyf cGo
wfld{s u|Gyxdf b]Vg ;lsG5 . To;}n]
Tolta]nf hxf" gf/Lsf] k"hf x'G5 Toxf"
b]jtfxsf] af; x'G5 eg]/ elgPsf]
x'gk' 5{ . pQ/ j}lbssfndf k'?ifn] gf/L
k|ltzf]wfTds efj /fvL pgLxnfO{
s;/L cfgf] clwg:y agfpg ;lsG5

eGg] s'/fsf] tfgfafgf a'Gg yfn] . klxnf]


k|of;df k'?ifn] gf/Lsf] k, ;f}Gbo{
k'?iffy{ / jL/tfsf] olt a9L k|z;
+ f
ul/lbP ls gf/Ln] bDe /fVg yfn] .
bDen] dflg;nfO{ cljj]sL agfOlbG5 .
p;n] ;xL / untsf] cGt/ 5'6o\ fpg
g;Sg] cj:yfdf k'ofOlbG5 . gf/LnfO{
o:t} cj:yfdf k'ofOlbP . bf];f| ] qmddf
tkfO{x+ nIdL xf] . tkfO"x 3/df
a:g';,\ xfdLxn] tkfO"xsf] ;]jf ub{5f}F
eg]/ cg]s k|nf]egdf kf/] . tkfO"x
;/:jtL g} xf] . tkfO"xn] lsg
k9\gn
' V] g' kof] eg]/ ljnfl;tfdf o;/L
pNemfOlbP ls gf/Ln] cfgf] zlSt
u'dfp"b} uP . ljnf;do hLjgdf
cfslif{t x'b" } uP . ;lh;hfp eP/
u[xnIdL ag]/ 3/df a:g yfn] . cfgf]
clwsf/, Ifdtf / zlSt k'?ifnfO{
x:tfGt/0f ub}{ uP . gf/Lsf] oxL
ljnfl;tfsf] r/d\ cj:yfnfO{ b]v/] t
j]bJof;n] slno'udf gf/Ln] cfDbfgLsf]
7"nf] efu d]sckdf -;f}Gbo{ k|;fwg_ /
sk8fdf vr{ ug]5
{ g\ eg]/ efujt
k'/f0fdf n]vs
] f] x'gk' 5{ . o;/L k'?ifn]
sf}jfsf] a'l4 / ljj]s k|of]u u/]/
gf/LnfO{ cfgf] clwg:y agfPsf] s'/fdf
z+sf ug]{ s'g} 7fp" 5}g . k'?ifn] gf/Lsf]
dg dl:tisdf k|Tof/f]k0f ul/lbPsf]
bDe / ljnfl;tfn] ubf{ k'?ifsf] cufl8
nfu]sf gf/L k5fl8 kg{ uP . wd{ /
k'0osf] gfd lbP/ sGofbfg ug]{
k/Dk/fnfO{ d"t
{ k lbFbf gf/L k'?ifsf]
;DklQ aGg] unt wf/0ffsf] ljsf;
x'guof] . o;n] gf/LnfO{ cjnf agfof] .

k'?ifaf6 pgLx zf]lift kLl8t x'g


yfn] . lx+;f / xTofsf 36\gf x'g yfn] .
nfdf] ;do;Dd oxL k/Dk/f alg/x]sf]
5 . rfx]/ klg o;df kl/jt{g x'g ;s]sf]
5}g . df}lns ;+:s[ltsf dfGotfxnfO{
e"m6sf] au/df k'/kf/ kf/]/ gof"kg
lbgsf nflu cfgf :jfy{sf s'/f hf]8/]
;+:s[ltsf] s'/f eg]/ 9f"6g\ yflnof] . oL
9f"6g\ x] 9f"6/] cfk"m dfq cfglGbt
ePgg\, c? cfkmGt cf>oL, kf>jjtL{,
lk5nUu'xnfO{ klg 9fF6\g] afgL
a;flnlbP . o;/L k'?ifxn] 5n5fd
u/]/, 9f"6/] cfgf] cl:tTj arfpg]
k| o f;df nfu] . 9f" l 6Psf
cjf:tljstfn] el/Psf] k/Dk/f /
;+:s[ltsf] tfn km'6]/ 5tf5'Nn /
l5/f]lnGg x'b } uof] . jt{dfg ;dodf
ha gf/Lx lzlIft / bLlIft x'g
yfn] . pgLxnfO{ cfgf] clwsf/ /
Ifdtfsf] cg'el" t x'gs
' f] ;fy} zf]lift,
kLl8t, lx+;f / xTofdf k/]sf] kL8faf]wn]
;zSt agfp"b} uPsf] 5 . olta]nf
gf/Lx klg x/]s If]qdf k'?ifsf] eGbf
a9L lhDd]jf/ eP/ sfd ug{;Sg] s'/f
l;4 ePsf] 5 . h'gs'g} sfddf gf/Lsf]
sfd k'?ifsf] eGbf a9L :yfloTj ePsf],
bfloTjnfO{ ;fy{s agfpg ;Sg], g}ltstf
/ kf/blz{tf x'G5 eGg] s'/f klg
dgf]lj1xn] l;4 ul/lbPsf 5g\ .
gf/Ln] k9]nv
] ] klg, 7"nf / lhDd]jf/
kbdf k'u] klg k/Dk/f, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/
unt eP klg To;nfO{ kl/Tofu ug{
;s]sf 5}gg\ . af}l4skdf cufl8 a9]
klg dfgl;skdf k5fl8 g} 5g\ .
To;}n] zf]lift / kLl8t x'gk' /]sf] 5 .
;jnf eP/ klg cjnf aGg'k/]sf] 5 .

dw]zdf a9\b}5 cfGtl/s a;fO{;/fO{


/fhf/fd clwsf/L
g]kfnnfO{ ef}uf]lns agfj6sf] lx;fjn] tLg k|bz
] df ljefhg ul/Psf]
5, lxdfn, kxf8 / dw]z . ef}uf]lns If]qkmnsf] cfwf/df lxdfn !%
k|ltzt, kxf8 ^* k|ltzt / t/fO{dw]z !& k|ltzt e"efu cf]u6]sf]
5 . xfjfkfgLsf] lx;fan] x]bf{ lxdfndf w]/} hf8f], t/fO{dw]zdf udL{df
w]/} udL{ / hf8f]df w]/} hf8f] -zLtnx/_ / kxf8df udL{ jf hf8f] b'j}df
dWod jf egf}+ g t udL{ g t hf8f] k|sf/sf] df};dL jftfj/0f kfpg
;lsG5 . o;/L x]bf{ jftfj/0fLo lx;fan] klg dfgj af;:yfgsf nflu
pko'Qm :yfg kxf8 g} x'ghfG5 . t/ cfh /fhgLltdf dfq xf]Og ;Eo
af;:yfgsf nflu klg dw]z df]x a9\bf] qmddf 5, lsg < vf;u/L
k|zf;lgs lx;fan] dw]z / kxf8 u/L b'O{ lsl;dn] kl/eflift u/]sf]
kfOG5 eg] k|zf;lgs lx;fan] klg dw]z Tolts} dxTjk"0f{ dflgG5 .
lsgeg] cfh Jo'/f]qmf;L o'8f]qmf;Ldf kl/0ft ePsf] kfOG5 . g]kfndf
cl:y/ /fhgLlts p2]ZoljxLg cfof]hgf, kl/of]hgf / gLlt lg0f{o /
vf;u/L zf;sju{sf] 5nsk6n] ubf{ g} g]kfndf Gofof]lrt k|b]zxsf]
ljsf; x'g ;s]g . cfGtl/s a;fO{;/fO{;uF hf]l8Psf] g]kfnsf] cy{tGq /
cfly{s k|0ffnLaf/] cfh ax; rls{Psf] kfOFb}g . cy{tGqsf] b[li6sf]0fn]
x]bf{ dw]z ;jn / /fh:jsf] gfsf klg xf] . g]kfnsf] k|d'v cf}Bf]lus
s]Gb|dWo] @( j6f zx/L s]Gb| dw]zdf g} kb{55 . ev{/} ah]6 glhlsb}
ubf{ o; jif{sf] dw]zsf] jL/uGh gfsfaf6 dfq %% ca{sf] /fh:j
;+sng ePsf] cfFs8f cfPsf] 5 . To:t} dw]zsf cGo eG;f/ / /fh:j
gfsfaf6 x]g]{ xf] eg] g]kfnsf] s"n ah]6sf] ^) b]lv &% k|ltzt;Ddsf]
ah]6 lx:;f dw]z g} xf] . t/ ah]6 ljlgof]hgdf dw]zdf s"n ah]6sf]
!% b]lv @@ k|ltzt;Dd dfq ah]6 ljlgof]hg ul/P/ dw]znfO{ pk]Iff
ul/of] eGg] cf/f]k dw]zjfbL /fhgLlts bnxsf] /x]sf] kfOG5 . o;df
d'Vou/L kf]lnl6sg 8f]ldg]6 ofS6/ -Political Dominant Factor_n]
ubf{ klg x'g;S5 . vf;u/L g]kfndf sd{rf/L egf{, ;jfa9'jf /
/fhgLlts lgo'lQmdf ;d]t rfs8L k|yf xfjL ePsf] 5 . To;}n] d}n]
Pshgf k"j{ k|zf;s Pj+ g]kfndf dfq geO{ ljZjdf Vofltk|fKt k'/:sf/af6
;Ddflgt jl/i7 ;flxTosf/;Fu s'/fsfgL ug]{ cj;/ ldn]sf] lyof] . To;df
ljfg 8fS6/ ;fx]jn] ;+j}wflgs lgsfox lgjf{rg cfof]u, clVtof/
cg';Gwfg b'kof]u cfof]u nufotdf cfo'Qmsf] lgo'lQmsf nflu
g]tfhLxnfO{ bfd r9fP/ lgo'lQm x'g kfpg] gofF of]Uotf cfPsf] /x]5 .
To;}n] clxn] g]kfndf ;Ifd, ;jn / Ifdtfjfg dflg;sf] :yfg 5}g eg]/
oyfy{tf eGg'ePsf] lyof] . lgZro g} of] hfoh / lj;+ultn] ubf{ xf]nf
ah]6 ljlgof]hgdf g]tftGq xfaL /xG5 . g]kfnsf] gLlt lgdf{0f / /fli6o
of]hgf cfof]u nufotsf /fhgLlts lgo'lQm;Fu} /fhgLlts rnv]n klg
z' xf]nf lg . /fhgLlt ;Ddflgt hg;]jf ePklg g]kfndf k]z]bf/
/fhgLltn] hgtfdf g}/fZotf 5fPsf] xf] . vf;u/L g]kfnsf] ;fdflhs,
cfly{s lx;fan] dw]z eGbf ljs6 kxf8 lxdfnsf lhNnfx w]/} 5g\ .
t/ ltgLxsf] rrf{ cfh kfOFb}g . kxf8 lxdfn k|s[ltn] lbPsf] xl/of
jgh+un / k|fs[lts ;Dkbf h8La'6Ldf wgL ePklg ToxfFsf hgtf cfk"mnfO{
k|s[ltn] klg 7lulbPsf] dx;'; ul//fv]sf] kfOG5 . t/ oyfy{tfdf Tof]
klg hfoh xf] ls eGg] nfU5 . lsgeg] kxf8sf] rfg kj{t / ef}uf]lns
ljs6tfn] ubf{ ;8s, ljB't, :jf:Yo, lzIff nufotdf cfh k"jf{wf/x
lhNnfdf lgdf{0f ePsf] kfOFbg} . ah]6 ljlgof]hg w]/} 5'6o\ fOP klg ef}uf]lns
ljs6tfn] ubf{ pknAwL k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fsf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug{ lgs} ufxf]
kdf /x]sf] kfOG5 . x'gt ToxL+ ljifdtfn] ubf{ xf]nf k|foM kxf8sf
dflg;x a9L sd{rf/LtGqdf xfaL /x]sf] oyfy{tf klg xf] . t/ cfh
ef}uf]lns ;dfg ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] cjwf/0ffdf
klg /x]sf] kfOFbg} . o;n] ubf{ g]kfndf a9\b} uPsf] cfGtl/s a;fO{;/fO{nfO{
/f]Sg ;lsb}g . vf;u/L zx/ s]lGb|t a:tL a[l4n] ubf{ ufpFsf] hUuf
hdLg afFemf] x'g] / eljiosf s0f{wf/ o'jfx ljb]z knfogsf] cj:yf
a9\bf] 5 . o;n] eljiodf Jofkf/ 3f6f / a9\bf] k"FhL knfognfO{ a9fjf
lbg]afx]s d'ns
' sf] ljsf; x'g ;Sb}g . vf;u/L g]kfnsf] cy{tGq ef/tdf
lge{/ 5 rfx] Tof] j}b]lzs ;xof]u jf vfBfGg cfoftb]lv k]6f]lnod
kbfy{sf] cfoft;Dd . pBf]u snsf/vfgf of bIf hgzlQm klg ef/tLo
gful/sx g} /x]sf] kfOG5 . o;n] ubf{ klg g]kfnef/t l5d]sL b]z
dfq geO{ cfly{s, /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs ;DaGw /x]sf] kfOG5 . dw]zdf
dfq} hg3gTj a9L x'g' jf sf7df8f}+ jf egf} zx/ s]lGb|t cfk|jf;gn]
g]kfnsf] eljio stf hfg] xf] < lgZro g} o;n] cfly{s qmflGteGbf
ef]sd/Ldf glgDTofpnf eGg ;lsb}g . cfh kl5Nnf] dfgj ;"rsf+saf6
klg g]kfnsf] dw]zsf] dfgj ;"rsf+s /fd|f] /x]sf] 5 h'g ls kxf8
lxdfnsf] t'ngfdf . t/ cfGtl/s a;fO{;/fO{n] ubf{ dw]zdf g} ljleGg
;+qmd0fsf /f]ux a9\bf] 5 . tfkqmddf a[l4 5, r'l/of h+unx wdfwd
dfl;b} 5g\ eg] sf7 t:s/Ln] /ftf/ftdf k};fsf] cj}w wGbf sdfpg
;kmn ePsf] kfOG5 . ;~rf/hut nufotsf /fHosf] cfFvf vf]Ng] c+ux
g} cfFvf aGb u/]/ jf:tljs ;fdflhs, cfly{s ;d:of eGbf /fhgLlts
g]tfxsf] kmf]6f] lvRg 5fKg / lj1fkgsf] ahf/df nfu]sf] b]lvG5 . t/
hgtfsf] jf:tljs ;d:of / ;txL ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff a9\bf] cfGtl/s
a;fO{;/fO{nfO{ lgT;flxt ug{ s]s] sbd x'g ;S5g\ Tof] cfh rrf{df,
uf]i7L, 5nkmnsf ljifo aGg ;s]sf] kfOFb}g . o;n] ubf{ cJojl:yt
zx/Ls/0f / dxFuL, sfnfahf/Ln] dfq k|>o kfpg] b]lvG5 . To;}n]
cfGtl/s a9\bf] cfk|jf;gnfO{ /f]Sg ef}uf]lns cg'kflts ljsf; xf] .
g]kfn ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq eO;s]sf] 5 . To;}n] :yfgLo ljsf;
/ zf;g ;Qfsf] ;+/rgf / ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/sf] lgdf{0f klg tbg'k
x'g'kb{55 aNsL g]kfnsf] s[lif of]Uo e"ldnfO{ gi6 u/]/ cf}Bf]lus/0f
gul/of];\ cj}w a:tL s]Gb|df dfq a9\g] jftfj/0f gagfOof];\ o;af6
;+3Lotfsf] ; pRrf/0f ePsf] dflgb}g . -dw]z bk{0f

/fatOfc t]u &! /f;c nf; (^)@

oftgf / efjgfsf] cGt/;DaGw


4G4fTds ef}lttsjfbn] x/]s
j:t' b'O{ efudf ljeflht x'G5 eG5 .
Pp6f ;sf/ / csf{] gsf/ kIf .
dfgj hLjgdf klg Tof] egfO{ ;To
;fljt ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5 / xfdLn]
To;nfO{ ljZjf; dfg]sf 5f} . h;/L
x/]s dfG5]sf] dgdf slxn] ;sf/fTds
t slxn] gsf/fTds s'/fn] 3/ u5{
/ ToxL cg';f/sf] Jojxf/ k|s6 u5{ .
cfkm} leq klg cfkm}nfO{ xfgL x'g]
tTj x'G5 eg] juL{o d'lQm o'4
nl8/x]sf of]4fnfO{ b'Zdg zlQm sf]
xf] / ldq zlQm sf] xf] eGg] s'/f yfxf
x'G5 . lu/tf/ k/]kl5 ;}lgs
lgoGq0fdf lbgx'F ;xg' kg{] cg]s
k|sf/sf oftgfsf aLr xfdL slxn]
sfFxL dfq yf]/} ;xfg'el" t / cf/fdsf]
;f; km]g{ kfpYof} . ltgLc:xsf]
lgoGq0fdf /xFbfsf ;'?sf &%*)
lbgx ef}lts tyf dfgl;s kdf
c;fWo} si6s/df lat] . h'g kL8f
ef]u/] cfk"mnfO{ of] :yfgdf Nofpg
;kmn ePsf] 5' Tof] sf]0faf6 x]bf{
kL8f xf]Og uj{n] 5ftL km'n/] cfp5 .
lsgsL ;a}n] o:tf] cj;/ sd g}
kfpbf /x]5g . xfdL dflysf] sfjf{xLsf]
qmdnfO{ :d/0f ubf{ nfU5 s]xL
;}lgsx e]8fsf] h:t} :jefjsf
lyP . Pp6fn] s'6b\ f csf{n
] ] klg s'6g\ '
kg{] . zfob pgLxnfO{ PstkmL{
9un] k|lzlIft ul/Psf] eP/ xf]nf .
tL dWo] s]xL dfq aGbLx k|lt yf]/}
;xfg'el" t / cfb/efj b]vfpg] vfnsf
lyP . o' 4 df cfgf dfl/Psf
;fyLx, km6fx hldgbf/sf ;Gtfg
/ zfxL;+Qf k|lt akmfbf/xn] a9L
g} oftgf lbg] uy{] . ltgsf] cleJolQm
/ Jojxf/ af6 xfdL of] s'/f yfxf
kfpYof}F . cfk"mnfO{ slyt 7"nf] hftsf]
eGGf]n] cln x]k/] lgr zAb k|of]u

;+:d/0f
hLjg xdfn
u/L af]Ny] . nfpg vfg g;Sg] kfhLn]
/fhu2L tfSg] < eGy] . z]kf{ / /fO{xn]
xltof/ af]s/] klg cfk"mnfO{ clx;fjfbL
/ af}4dfuL{ atfFpy] .
sl/a c9fO dlxgfsf] ;}lgs lx/f;t
a;fOdf xfdLnfO{ ldqjt Jojxf/ ug{]
;}lgs xjNbf/ lgdsfGt zdf{ x'g . pgL
xfdLnfO{ dfcf]jfbLsf] kdf eGbf a9L
cfg} bfh'efO{ h:t} dfGby] . cfb/ uy{]
/ dfgljo Jojxf/ uy{] . dfG5]df x'g'
kg{] ;b\u0' f l;sfpy] . s]xL ;}lgsn] eg]
xfdLnfO{ af6f] la/fPsf k|f0fLeGb} bof
b]vfpy] . z]kf{ xjNbf/sf] sdf08df
/x]sf ;}lgsnfO{ xfdLnfO{ pgn] gs'6g\
;Nnfx lbGy] . z]kf{n] xfd|f v'f / xftdf
afFlwPsf 8f]/L v'sn' f] agfOlbGy] . / cfFvf
lau|G5 eg]/ kL vf]nL x]g{ nufpy] .
o;/L xfdL pgsf] kfnf]df s]xL /fxt
dxz'; uYof}{ . b'Zdg k+ltmleq klg ldq
x'g ;S5g To; sf/0f ;a}nfO{ ;dfg
kdf a'emg' x'bg} . pgn] ltd|f] ;Qf
cfPkl5 xfdLnfO{ klg /fd|f] eP t gq
====== eGy] . sfF8]tf/n] 3]l/Psf] /
;x'lnot lbPsf] s;}n] b]Vb}Gy] . tnsfnfO{
dgfO xfNy] eg] dflysfn] To;f] u/]sf]
yfxf kfPdf pgL / xfdL ;a}nfO{ sfj{fxL
x'g] 8/n] ;w} ;r]t /xFb} sf]xL cfPsf]
z+sf nfu]df cfFvfsf] kL :jfQ} tn
emf/]/ cfFvf d'v 5f]kL 5'kS' s cfcfg}
7fpdf r'k nfu]/ a:Yof} .
lg/LIf0fdf cfPsf] clkm;/ kms{GYof]
clg km]/L ;xflnGYof} . xfdLnfO{ ToxfF
/flvPsf] s;}nfO{ yfxf lyPg . sl/a
%% hgf aGbL 3/kl/jf/ / kf6L{sf] nflu

j]kQfsf] l:tlydf g} lyof} . s'g} aGbLsf


cfkmGt vf]Hg cfPsf] t/ ;}lgsn] oxfF
t sf]xL 5}g egL kmsf{O lbPsf] s'/f
yfxf kfpYof} . z]kf{n] xfdL aGbLAfLr
kl/ro cfbfg k|bfg u/fOlbP t/
cfgf] k'/f kl/ro slxNo} lbPgg\ .
pgL xfd|f] lauFb| f] :jf:yk|lt rf;f] lnGy]
/ lj/fdL cg';f/ cf}ifwL NofOlbGy] .
lb;flk;fa nfUbf c?n] eGbf pgn]
l5} / ;lhn} n}hfGy] . h'df| dfg{
nufpy] . kfnf] u/L g'xfpg k7fpFy] .
hLp sl'HhG5 eg]/ s;/t ug{
nufpy] . cg]s lsl;dsf r'6lsnf xfn]/
xF;fpy] . dnfO{ uLt ufpg nufO{ c?nfO{
gfRg k7fFpy] . aGbLxaLr pgL z]kf{
;/sf gfdn] kl/lrt lyP . @)%(
a}zfv clGtdlt/ u:tLdf bfsf]
lbpv'/Llt/ hfbf uf8L b'36{ gfdf 3fOt]
ePsf] vj/ ltgsf ;fyLn] xfdLnfO{
;'gfP . pkrf/sf] qmddf sf7df08f}
uPsf pgL xfdLnfO{ :ofxf/ ug{ slxNo}
kms{g] g\ . s}of} aGbL ;fyLxn] hf] /fd|f]
5 To;}nfO{ b'36{ gfdf kg'{ kg{] eGb}
;xfg'el" t k|s6 uy{] . ldng;f/ / xFl;nf]
cg'xf/sf tL dfG5]sf] ;a}nfO{ kl5 ;Dd
ofb cfO/xGYof] .
csf{ Ps hgf ;}lgs hjfg klg
z]kf{ h:t} lyP . pgn] klg xfdLnfO{
slxNo} ju{ b'Zdgsf] kdf Jojxf/
u/]Gfg\ . ;a} aGbL;+u efjgf / ljrf/
cfbfgk|bfg u/] / ddtf b]vfP .
qmflGtsf/LnfO{ nfUg] u/]em}F pgn] ;w}
;'wf/jfbL ljrf/ JoQm uy{] . k]zf /
;'/Iffsf] sf/0fn] xf]nf slxNo} cfgf]

gfd atfPGfg\ dfq3/ :ofhflt/ eGYf] .


dlxnf aGbLnfO{ lblb alxgL t k'?ifnfO{
bfh'efO{ eg]/ ;+Daf]wg uy{] . csf{ Ps
hgf n];gfos lyP . ltgn] klg
xfdLnfO{ dfgjLo Jojxf/ b]vfP .
dfG5]nfO{ ;+s6df h;n] ;fylbG5 Tof]
g} jf:tljs ldq 7l/G5 eg]emF} b'Zdg
lsQf leq/x]sf oL / o:t} dfG5]xsf]
clxn] klg ofb cfO/xG5 . jf:tjdf
ltgLx zf;sxsf srL{ arfpFg
eGbf /f]hL/f]6Lsf nflu hflu/ vfg]x
lyP . tL :ofhfnL l76fn] ToxfFaf6
;?jf eO{ hfg] a]nfdf ;a}nfO{ efj's
agfP/ uP . a}zfv clGtd lt/ ;?jf
eO /f]Nkf uPsf] tL ;}lgsn] xfd|f] km]l/
e]6 xf]nf of gxf]nf, oxfF /xbf s] s]
eof] e'lnlbg'xf]nf . tkfO{sf ;fyLxn]
arfP eg] s'g} lbg e]6 xf}nf gq olQ
x} eGb} labfO{sf xft xNnfpb} pgL
uP . pgn] labfOsf zAbx cf]sNb}
ubf{ / sf]7faf6 pgL lgl:sPkl5 ;a}
aGbLx efj's eof+} . efjgfsf s'/fn]
dfG5]nfO{ a9L 5'bf]/x]5 . s]xL ;fyL t
wGg} /f]Psf . b'Zdg ;]gfleqsf] dfG5]
h;sf] lgoGq0fdf xfdL lyof}F t/ ;fdfGo
ls;fg kl/jf/sf h:t} nfUg] tL ;}lgsn]
xfdLk|lt y'k}| efjgf / ddtf vr]s
{ f]
;+Dembf crDd nfU5 . ptf z]kf{
xNbf/n] hflu/ 5f]8g] /] eGg] ToxL
leqaf6 ;'Gof+} . To;kl5 ToxfF c5fdaf6
cfPsf] /0f;'/ u'Ndsf ;}lg;sn] xfdLnfO{
;f:tL lbP . h] xf]; ;}lgs SofDk xfdL
/ xfdL h:t} lgbf]i{ f hgtfsf] nflu
si6;fWo 7fpF xf] . hxfFaf6 y'k} | qmflGtsf/L
of]4fnfO{ zf;sxn] xTof u/], j]kQf
kf/] t/ ToxL lsQfdf :ofhfnL l76f /
z]kf{ xNbf/ h:tf dfG5]x klg
x'bfF/x]5g . To; sf/0f lrGg ;s]kl5
zq' kIfleq klg ldq x'bF f/x]5g eGg]
lzIff lng cfjZos 5 .

PgcfO{;L / a}s
+ ckm Pl;of ufleb}
sf7df8f}F . b]zsf b'O{ jfl0fHo a}s
+
PgcfO;L a}s
+ / a}s
+ ckm Pl;of
Pscfk;df ufleg] ePsf 5g\ . laxLaf/
/fhwfgLdf cfof]lht sfo{qmddf g]kfn
OG8:l6on P08 sdl;{on -PgcfO;L_
a}+s / a}+s ckm Pl;of g]kfn
Pscfk;df ufleg ;xdt ePsf x'G.
b'j} a}s
+ n] k';;Dd ufleP/ Ps x'g]
nIo;lxt cf}krfl/s ;Demf}tf u/]sf
5g\ . b'O{ 7"nf jfl0fHo a}s
+ cf}krfl/s
kdf ufleP of] clxn];Dds} 7"nf] dh{/
x'g5
] . clxn];Dd 7"nf] dh{/ k|so[ fdf
jfl0fHo a}s
+ / kmfOgfG; sDkgL dfq
uPsf 5g\ . dh{/ k|so[ fdf hfgsf nflu
b'j} a}s
+ n] laxLaf/} cfgf] ;]o/ sf/f]af/
/f]Ssf ug{ g]kfn :6s PS;r]Gh -g]K;]_
df kq k7fO;s]sf 5g\ . g]K;]n] sf/f]af/
/f]Ssf u/]kl5 b'j} a}s
+ n] dh{/sf nflu
/fi6 a}s
+ df cfj]bg lbg] 5g\ . gofF
;]jf, ;f]r / /0fgLlt lnP/ cufl8
a9\5f},F ;Demf}tfkl5 PgcfO;Lsf k|dv
'
sfo{sf/L clws[t zlzg hf]zLn] eg],
;]jfsf] lj:tf/;Fu} bx|f] a}s
+ sf kdf
:yflkt x'g] nIo;lxt dh{/df uPsf
xf}F . uflePkl5 a}s
+ sf] r'Stf k'h
F L#
ca{ #! s/f]8 k}ofF k'Ug] 5 . uflePkl5

a}s
+ sf] gfd s] /xg] eGg] af/]df 6'f]
nflug;s]sf] dh{/ ;ldltsf ;+of]hs
/fh]Gb| cof{nn] atfP . ;|ft] sf cg';f/,
uflePkl5 a}s
+ sf] gfd PgcfO;L -Pl;of_
x'g]5 . dh{/kl5 a}+ssf] ;~rfns
;ldltsf] g]tT[ j PgcfO;Lsf cWoIf
hulbzk|;fb cu|jfnn] g} ug]{ 5g\ . k|dv
'
sfo{sf/L clws[t klg PgcfO;Lsf hf]zL
g} x'g] 5g\ . dh{/kl5sf] ;~rfns
;ldltsf] afFsL ;+/rgf 5nkmnkl5
ldnfOg] cof{nn] hfgsf/L lbP . b'j} a}s
+ sf
^% zfvf 5g\ . o;dWo] !) zfvf ljleGg
7fpFsf Ps} :yfgdf 5g\ . a}s
+ n] Ps} 7fpFdf
ePsf zfvfnfO{ :yfgfGt/0f ug]{ nIo
lnPsf] 5 . a}s
+ ckm Pl;ofsf] ks8 k"jL{
g]kfndf a9L 5 . dWo g]kfndf eg]
PgcfO;L cufl8 5 . klZrdlt/ b'j}
a}s
+ sf] ;dfg pkl:ylt 5 . zfvfx
Ps} :yfgdf w]/} ePsfn] aGb gu/L
:yfgfGt/0f ug{5
] f},F a}s
+ ckm Pl;ofsf
sfd' k|dv
' sfo{sf/L clws[t nId0f
l/;fnn] eg], o;n] sd{rf/L ldnfg ug{
klg ;lhnf] x'G5 . pgn] a}s
+ sf sd{rf/L
gx6fpg] atfP . PgcfO;Ldf $ ;o %)
sd{rf/L 5g\ eg] a}s
+ ckm Pl;ofdf #
;o %) hgf 5g\ . zfvfxsf]

:yfgfGt/0f ul/g] ePsfn] sd{rf/L


ldnfpg ;d:of gx'g] bfjL pgn] u/] .
/fi6 a}s
+ n] dh{/sf nflu ;}4flGts
;xdlt lbPkl5 b'j} a}s
+ n] cfgf] ;Dk"0f{
;DklQ tyf bfloTjsf] n]vfhf]vf l8l8P_ u/fpg]] 5g\ . l8l8Psf nflu
g]kfnL sDkgL 5flgg] l/;fnn] hfgsf/L
lbP . l8l8P k|ltj]bgkl5 s'g a}s
+ slt
;]o/ d"Nodf ufleg] 6'f] nfUg] 5 .
dh{/kl5 vr{ Joj:yfkg tyf ahf/
lx:;f, k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtf a9\g] 5,
hf]zLn] eg], 7"nf kl/of]hgfxdf nufgL
ug{ / u|fxsnfO{ gofF ;]jf pknAw
u/fpg ;Ifd eOG5 . pgn] dh{kl5
a}s
+ sf] zfvf / Pl6Pd ;~hfn;Fu}
g]kfnsf] cu|0fL a}s
+ dWo]sf] Ps x'g]
hfgsf/L lbP . :6s PS;r]Ghsf
cg';f/, PgcfO;Lsf] k|lt;]o/ d"No $
;o ^* k}ofF / a}s
+ ckm Pl;ofsf] @
;o @* k}ofF 5 . ut jif{sf] gfkmfaf6
PgcfO;Ln] @) k|ltzt / a}s
+ ckm
Pl;ofn] &=#& k|ltzt gub nfef+z
ljt/0f u/]sf] lyof] . ;]o/ sf/f]af/
/f]Ssfkl5 ;j{;fwf/0f ;]o/wgLn]
gfd;f/L ug{ ;Sb}gg\ . To;cl3, g]kfn
/fi6 a}s
+ n] PgcfO;L / a}s
+ ckm Pl;of

g]kfnnfO{ 5 dlxgfcl3 uflegsf nflu


bafa lbPsf] lyof] . ;~rfnsxnfO{
af]nfP/ /fi6 a}s
+ n] Psf3/ kl/jf/n]
k|j4{g ug]{ ePkl5 b'Oj{ 6f a}s
+ lsg
rflxof] eGb} bafa lbOPsf] lyof] . /fi6
a}s
+ sf] lg/Gt/sf] bafakl5 b'j} a}s
+ n]
cfk;df dh{/ gx'gsf nflu ljb]zL
;fem]bf/;d]t vf]h]sf lyP . Ps
dlxgfcl3;Dd klg b'j} a}s
+ n] ef/tsf
tLgrf/ sDkgL;F u /0fgLlts
;fem]bf/sf kdf 5nkmn a9fPsf
lyP . ;fem]b/sf nflu kxn u/]sfaf6
7f]; k|:tfj gcfPkl5 cGttM b'j} a}s
+
dh{/df hfg] lg0f{odf k'us
] f x'g\ . s]lGb|o
a}s
+ sf] bafan] cfk;df ufleg] afx]ssf]
ljsNk gePkl5 b'O{ ;ftfcl3 b'j}
a}s
+ sf] ;~rfns ;ldltn] dh{df hfg]
lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] . dh{/df hfg] kSsf
ePkl5 PgcfO;Lsf ;~rfns /fh]Gb|
cof{nnfO{ dh{/ ;ldltsf] ;+of]hs rog
ul/Psf] xf] . pgL ;j{ ; fwf/0f
;]o/wgLsf tkm{af6 ;~rfns ag]sf
x'g\ . ;ldltdf PgcfO;Laf6 nf]sdfGo
uf]N5f / zlzg hf]zL tyf a}s
+ ckm
Pl;ofsf tkm{af6 lxdaxfb'/ /fjn,
zlt;s'df/ df]/ / nId0f l/;fn 5g\ .

dhb"/ sNof0fsf/L sf]if ;~rfngdf NofOg]


sf7df8f} F . ljleGg 6 ] 8
o'lgogaLrsf] ljjfbsf sf/0f ljut
rf/ jif{bl] v sf]if ;~rfngdf cfpg
g;s]sf] dhb"/ xslxtsf nflu
:yfkgf ul/Psf] /fli6 o :t/sf]
sNof0fsf/L sf]if ;~rfngdf cfpg]
ePsf] 5 . . clxn] 6 ] 8
o'lgogxaLrsf] cfk;L ;xdltaf6}
sf]if ;~rfng x'g nfu]sf] >d
ljefusf dxflgb]z
{ s 8f= dfgaxfb'/
ljs]n] atfP . sf]if sfof{Gjogsf nflu
pgs} ;+of]hsTjdf pk;ldlt;d]t
u7g ul/Psf] 5 . ljsn] eg],
pk;ldltn] dhb"/ xslxtsf nflu
s]stf{ sfo{qmd Nofpg] eGg] ljifodf
k|ltj]bg;d]t tof/ kfl/;s]sf] 5 .
sf]ifdf clxn] ?= # ca{eGbf a9L /sd
hDdf 5 . ;f] sf]if @)%& ;fndf
:yfkgf ePsf] xf] . t/, sf]ifn] clxn];Dd
p2]Zocg'ksf] sfd eg] ug{ ;s]sf]

5}g . dhb"/nfO{ af]g; afF8/] afFsL


/x]sf] /sddWo]af6 #) k|ltzt /sd
sf]ifdf hDdf x'g] u/]sf] 5 . s]xL
;docl3 ;f] /sdaf6 dhb"/sf nflu
c:ktfn :yfkgf ug]{ elgPsf] lyof] .
t/, To;a]nf klg 68] o'lgogxaLrsf]
cfk;L lvrftfgLsf sf/0f ;f] sfd
cnkq k/]sf] lyof] . sf]ifsf] /sdaf6
dhb" / sf] :jf:Yof] k rf/, aLdf,
5f] / f5f] / Lsf] k7gkf7g, dhb" /
;xsf/LnfO{ ;xof]u, 3/hUuf vl/bsf
nflu ;x' l not b/df C0f
lbg;lsg]h:tf k|fjwfg 5g\ . sf]if
;~rfngsf nflu 68] o'lgog, g]kfn
pBf]u jfl0fHo dxf;+3 / ;/sf/aLrsf]
cfk;L ;xdlt rflxG5 . k6sk6s
tL sfd ug{ nfUbf dhb"/ ;7gxn]
lj/f]w u/]s} sf/0f sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg
g;lsPsf] ljefun] atfPsf] 5 . 8f=
ljs]sf cg';f/ klxnf] r/0fdf sf]ifsf]

/sdaf6 dhb"/sf] :jf:Yof]krf/, aLdf,


5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ 5fqj[lQh:tf s'/fdf
;xof]u ul/g]5 . sf]if :yfkgfsf] d'Vo
p2]Zo g} sfdbf/sf] :jf:Yof]krf/
ePsfn] o;nfO{ pRr k|fyldstfdf
/flvPsf] pgn] atfP . sf]ifnfO{
sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg] ;DaGwdf ljefun]
If]qLo:t/df ;d]t 5nkmn ul//x]sf]
5 . xfn;Dd tLgj6f ljsf; If]qdf
/x]sf dhb"/;Fu 5nkmn ul/;s]sf 5f},F
pgn] eg], afFsL /x]sf If]qxdf klg
oxL c;f/leq} 5nkmn ug{]5f}F .
pk;ldltn] tof/ kf/]sf] k|ltj]bg
sNof0fsf/L sf]ifsf] af]8d{ f ;d]t k];
ul/;lsPsf] 5 . af]8a{ f6 :jLs[t eP/
cfpg]lalQs} sfof{Gjogdf cfpg] ljs]n]
hfgsf/L lbP . t/, dhb"/ ;7gn] eg]
;/sf/sf sf/0f sfof{Gjogdf l9nfO ePsf]
atfPsf 5g\ . >d tyf /f]huf/
dGqfnodf @@ dlxgfdf dGqL tyf ;lrj

kl/jt{g x'g] u/]sf] 5, g]kfn 68] o'lgog


dxf;+3 -lhkm06_ sf ;lrj bLks kf}8n] n]
eg], gLlt lgdf{0f txsf pRr JolStx
kl/jt{g eO/xFbf sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg
sl7gfO ePsf] xf] . pgsf cg';f/ kl5Nnf]
;do ljleGg 68] o'lgogaLrsf] cfk;L
;xdltaf6} sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg nfluPsf]
xf] . sf]ifdf hDdf ePsf] /sdaf6 s]xL
gofF sfo{qmd Nofpg'k5{ eGg] dfGotfsf
;fy ;a} 68] o'lgog;Fu 5nkmn u/]/
k|ltj]bg tof/ ug{] ljefunfO{ cg'/f]w u/]sf
xf},F pgn] eg], 68] o'lgogaLr ;xdlt
ePsfn] ca sfof{Gjogdf NofpFbf lj/f]w
x'bF g} . sf]ifnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg'
;sf/fTds sfd ePsf] g]kfn pBf]u
jfl0fHo dxf;+3sf sfo{sfl/0fL ;b:o tyf
/f]huf/bftf kl/ifb\sf pk;efklt
dgLifs'df/ cu|jfnn] atfP . sf]ifsf] /sd
dhb"/ xslxts} nflu hDdf ul/Psf] xf],
pgn] eg] .

Pp6f kbf{leqsf] dfG5]


lji0f' kGt
cfxf . ;"o{ pbfpFb} 5
lr;f]n] s7l|Psf lxdfn, kfxf8 / t/fO{
;a}df xif{ljef]/ eO lbPsf] 5
;a} cfgf] s'?ktfnfO{ 9fSb} 5g\
;a} cfgf c;Eotfx? n'sfpFb} 5g\
cfgf ;a} s'rfxgfx? s'ljrf/x? 5f]Kb} 5g\
/f t/ lbgsf] aLrdf Pp6f kbf{ 5
;|ft] fx? nfd nfu]/ al;/x]sf 5g\
clg dnfO{ eGg dg nfU5
Pp6f kbf{leqsf] dfG5] /
Pp6f kbf{aflx/sf] dfG5]
ha kbf{ v'Ng yfN5
clg Pp6f gf6ssf] ;'?jft x'G5
snfsf/x? clego ug{df tlNng x'G5g
slt ;'l/nf] ;+uLt u'l~hG5 ToxfF
sf]xL gfR5g sf]xL ufpF5g
t/ ha kbf{ aGb x'G5
jftfj/0f z'Go / :tAw x'G5
bz{sx?df v}nfa}nf dlRrG5
kbf{leq t n8fO{ dlRrPsf] 5 /]
clg dnfO{ eGg dg nfU5
Pp6f kbf{leqsf] dfG5] /
Pp6f kbf{aflx/sf] dfG5] .
bz{sx? elg/x]5g < kbf{ vf]n kbf{ vf]n
kbf{ aGb 5 oflg if8oGqsf] df]ntf]n 5
;'lgb} 5 s'lr{x? 9Nb} clg 9flnb} 5 /]
cl3 dfNofk{0f / clj/n] k'lhPsf kmf]6fx?
clxn] leq srfs s'rs
' RofltPsf] 5 /]
kmf]6f]df y'Sb} cfuf] nufOPsf] 5 /]
cl3 ld7f] :j/ lbg] Pp6fsf] unf sfl6Psf] 5 /]
clg dnfO{ eGg dg nfU5
Pp6f kbf{leqsf] dfG5] /
Pp6f kbf{aflx/sf dfG5]
306f};Ddsf] xf]xNnf / lrTsf/sf] aLrdf
bz{sx?df w}ot{ fsf] afFw 6'6o\ f] ;fob
pgLx?nfO{ jf:tljstf 5f]Kg] kbf{
clxn] ;a} ldn]/ RofltlbP ;fob
bz{sx? x]g{ eL8 ul//x] 5g
kbf{leq t /S;Lsf af]tnx? k'm6]sf 5g\
ToxfFleq t dlxnfx? anfTs[t 5g\
cfZro{ dfGb} 5g
ToxfF leq t ;x/sf nfnk"hf{ dfq 5g
sldzgsf lx;fjlstfa dfq 5g
ax'dN" o wft'x?sf] aLrdf n'5fr'8F L rn]sf] 5
bz{sx? eGb} 5g\
xfdLn] ck/fwL eg]sfx? klg t
kbf{leq t tSdf le/]sf 5g\
;dy{g / lj/f]wdf h'n;
' lgl:sPsf 5g\
Tolts}df Pshgf g]tf p7]/ eg]
hg;d'bfox? of] t cfw'lgs clego xf]
xfdLn] ;kmn clego uof}
ca kbf{ k'gM v'Nof]
ta dnfO{ eGg dg nfU5
Pp6f kbf{ leqsf] dfG5] /
Pp6f kbf{ aflx/sf] dfG5] .

7
k'/fg}====

/fli6o, cGt/f{li6o kl/l:ylt jf


cfTdut / j:t'ut kl/l:yltsf]
ljZn]if0fn] ls/0fsf] cfz+sfnfO{
tYodf kl/0ft ul/lbG5 . jf:tjdf
;+ l jwfg;efsf] lj36g t
qmflGtsf/Lxn] ug' { k g] { pN6f]
k|ltlqmofjfbLxn] kf] u/] . lj36gsf]
cy{ afa'/fdn] eg]h:tf] !)) df
k'us
] f] ;s{nnfO{ km]l/ z"God} k'ofpg'rflxF
cfkm}dF f k|ltufdL sbd xf] . rf/ jif{sf]
of] nfdf] hLjgrqmdf c;kmn ePsf]
;+ljwfg;efsf] lj36gkl5 km]l/
k'gr'g{ fjsf] s'/f ug'{ d/]sf] dfG5]nfO{
tflGqs nufP/ arfpg vf]Hg] w[i6tf
ug'h
{ :t} dfq xf] .
lj3l6t ;+ljwfg;efsf] k'g:yf{kgf
jf ;+ljwfg;efsf] k'gr'g{ fjsf] gf/f
t jf:tjdf sfFu|];, Pdfn]h:tf
kf6L{xleq klg lemgf] cfjfh dfq
p7]sf] kfOG5 / ;f/df sfFu|];
Pdfn];d]t Tof] gf/fnfO{ kZrufdL
dflg;s]sf] cj:yfdf Pdfcf]jfbLn]
rflxF ToxL gf/f hf]8tf]8sf ;fy
nufpg' / To;}nfO{ hLjgd/0fsf]
;jfn agfpg' hlt xf:of:kb c?
s] x'g ;Snf < Pdfcf]jfbLleq klg
cWoIf k| r 08sf] Ps ;" q Lo
;+ljwfg;efsf] k'g:yf{kgfsf] dfu 5
eg] k|wfgdGqL afa'/fdsf] rflxF Ps
;"qLo r'gfjsf] cfj/0fdf ;/sf/df
/lx/fVg] sfo{ g Llt 5 . k' / fgf]
Pdfcf]jfbL g]t[Tjk|lt ls/0fsf] d'Vo
cljZjf; g} oxL xf] ls sfo{gLltsf]
kdf
:jLsf/
ul/Psf]
;+ljwfg;efsf] gf/fnfO{ pgLxn]
/0fgLltsf] kdf ljsf; u/] . x'bF fx'bF f
t ca ;w} F e l/ ;+ l jwfg;ef
eGg];Ddsf] lxDdt ug{ nflu;s] .
jf:tjdf ;w}Fel/ ;+ljwfg;efsf]
r'gfj ul//xg] t/ slxNo} ;+ljwfg
agfpg g;Sg] c;kmn b]zsf kdf
g]kfnnfO{ ab\gfldt ug]{ if8\oGq
eO/x]sf] 5 . k|wfgdGqL afa'/fd
e/fO{n] t ;+ljwfg;efnfO{ 3f]8fsf]
;+1f lbPsf 5g\, lxDdt eP hlt
k6s r9] klg x'g] . pgn] eg]sf
5g\
Ps k6s 3f] 8 faf6
n8\b}df 3f]8f r9\g 5f8\g' x'Fb}g .
o;af6 k|wfgdGqLn] ;+ljwfg;efnfO{
slt sRrf v]nf}gf 7fg]sf /x]5g\ eGg]
dgf]lj1fg k|:6 x'G5 . To;f] t
k|wfgdGqL e/fO{ / Pdfcf]jfbL
cWoIf k|r08 gofFgofF zAbsf] v]tL
ug{ ax't l;kfn' 5g\ . k|wfgdGqLn]
a| f lhnaf6 kms] { k l5 Po/kf] 6 { d f
kqsf/ ;Dd]ng u/L cfgf] /fhLgfdf
dfUg] ljkIfL ;a}nfO{ afnx7 jf
3'/fp/f] efiffdf s]6fs]6Lkgsf] ;+1f
lbP . /fi6kl5n] pgnfO{ plxNo}
lagf/fhLgfdf sfd rnfpdf kl/0ft
ul/lbP t} k lg pgL Jojxf/tM
cfk" m nfO{ sfd rnfpsf] kdf
:jLsfg{ ;s]sf 5}gg\ / cfk"mnfO{ dfq
sfo{sf/L jf hLljt Ps dfq zlQmsf
kdf pEofpg] kl/eflift ug]{ w[i6tf
ub}5
{ g\ . k|wfgdGqLnfO{ ;Qfaf6 x6\g'
knf{ ls eGg] s'/fdf slt 7"nf] kL/ /
cft+ s /x] 5 eGg] s' / fsf] r/d\
cleJolQm kl5Nnf] k6ssf]
Po/kf]6{sf] kqsf/ ;Dd]ngsf] xf] .
pgnfO{ x6fpg'k5{ eGg]xnfO{ ldNg]
xb;Ddsf ;a} ufnL / k|xf/ u/] .
oxfF;Dd ls pgL x6\g' eg]sf] df3
!( bf]xf]l/g' xf] ;Dd eg] . of]
;QflnK;fsf] klg k/fsfi7f g} lyof] .
;fob ;Qf/f] x 0f pgsf nflu
hLjgd/0fs} ;jfn lyof] . pgsf]
dgf]lj1fg o:tf] nfUYof], of] g} clGtd
o'4 xf]h:tf] u/L . x6] eg] ca pgL
slxNo} Tof] s';L{df cfpg kfpg]
5}gg\h:tf] cg'e"lt ePh:tf] u/L .
wf]lj3f6sf] kIfljkIfdf Hofbf
rrf{ rNb}5, kl/0ffddf wf]lj3f6n]
c? ;a}nfO{ kmfObf lbof] t/ To;sf
d'Vostf{ ls/0fnfO{ rflxF nft g}
xfGof] . t/, /fhgLltskdf x]g]{ xf]
eg] wf]lj3f6n] g} hgtfdf ePsf]
afa'/fd e/fO{kl| tsf] df]x jf qm]hnfO{
Wj:t kfl/lbof], Tolt dfq xf]Og,
pgsf] /fi6 j fbnfO{ klg pbff]
kfl/lbof] . wf]lj3f6n] k|r08leqsf]
cfqmf]z, s'07f / abnfsf] efjnfO{
Hofb} pQ] l ht agfof] /
kl/0ffd:jk ls/0fdfly ;s];Ddsf]
q'm/, bdg eof] / cGtTjuTjf ls/0f
;d"x klg ;DaGw ljR5]bsf] lg0f{o;Dd
k'Uof] . wf]lj3f6n] k|r08nfO{ Pp6f

/fatOfc t]u &! /f;c nf; (^)@


wf/sf] ;xfos / afa'/fdnfO{ k|d'v
g] t f agfOlbof] . vf;u/L
;+ljwfg;efsf] lj36gkl5 k|r08nfO{
afofF sbd rfNg] ;'gf}nf] df}sf lyof]
/ h;af6 dfq kf6L{ Pstf ;Dej
lyof] . t/, k|r08n] hfg]/ jf ghfg]/
pN6f] sbd rfn]/ cfk"mnfO{ afa'/fds}
l8hfOgdf ljlng u/fP .
;+ l jwfg;efsf] lj36g;F u }
ls/0f;Fusf] ;DaGw ljR5]bkl5sf]
cj:yfdf k|r08sf] :jtGq / lg0ff{os
cl:tTj b]lvFb}g / o;af6 k|r08
klg cQflnPsf xf]nfg\ eg]/ sxfFlg/
cfFsng ug{ ;lsG5 eg] ha pgn]
afa'/fdsf] /fhLgfdf lbGg eGg]
pb\3f]ifk|lt l6Kk0fL ub}{ eg] pxfFsf]
/ kf6L{sf] l:kl/6df s]xL km/s 5 .
To;f] t k|r08 xf/] klg hLt]h:tf]
u/L k|x;g ug{ ax't l;kfn' 5g\,
wf]lj3f6sf] kl/0ffd:jk afa'/fd
e/fO{ h'g lbg k|wfgdGqLdf lgjf{lrt
eP, afa'/fdn] eGbf a9L dfnf /
clj/ k|r08n] nufP / Sofd/fdf
afa' / fdnfO{ klg pl5Gg] u/L
d':s'/fP . dgf]j}1flgskdf d}n] t
pgsf] d':s'/fx6nfO{ klg ?jfaf;L,
qmGwg / cfF;'sf wf/fsf] kdf
ljZn]if0f u/]sf lyPF . /fhgLltdf
ls/0f ax't ;f]emf / Odfgbf/ g]tf
x'g,\ ;fob uf}kf| 0fL . dnfO{ t k|r08n]
eGg] u/]sf] kf6L{ Pstfsf nflu
cfjZos k/] cWoIf kbaf6 /fhLgfdf
lbg];Ddsf] pb\3f]if sxLF kfnfsf] k}r
F f]
ltg]{ u/L ;fFlRrs} cfPsf] xf] ls eGg]
yf]/} cfzf knfPs} lyof] t/ Tof] kmut
k| f ] k f] u 08f dfq /x] 5 h] x f] ; \ ,
ls/0fh:tf] TofuL, Odfgbf/ / c;n
ldq u'dfpFbf klg k|r08nfO{ st}
b'Mv]h:tf] ePg . ;fob ls/0fsf]
;f]emf]kg / Odfgbfl/kg clg clt
ljZjf; / clt >4fdfly v]naf8
u/]/ /fhgLlt ug]x{ n] k|r08n] h:t}
c?n] klg pgnfO{ ;lxb agfpg ;kmn
gxf]pmg\ eGg] rfxG5' . hLjgdf
qmflGtsf nflu Tofuafx]s c? s]xL
ug{ g?rfpg] ls/0fh:tf c?
Psb'O{hgf dfq hlGdP Tof] g]kfnL
dfq xf]Og, ljZj;j{xf/fju{sf nflu
g} Pp6f ;'gf}nf] cj;/ x'g]5 . km]l/
klg cfk"mn] grfx] klg ljsl;t
36gfqmd / kl/l:yltn] ls/0fnfO{ g]tf
agfPsf] 5 . lgEg} nfu]sf] qmflGtsf]
lbof]nfO{ km]l/ emndNn afNg'kg]{ r'gf}tL
pgsf ;fd' cfPsf] 5 .
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Pdfcf]jfbL;u===
OR5'sh:tf dxfg of]4fx?sf] cw'/f]
;kgf k" / f ug{ cfk" m x?n] gofF
kxnsbdL lnPsf] / clxn] s f]
/fhgLlts ;6nfO{ lgsf; lbg klg
qmflGtsf/L kf6L{sf] hGd clgjfo{ /x]sf]
bfjL ug{ OR5'snfO{ ;Demg' / pxfFsf]
gfddf k| l ti7fg vf] N g' eg] s f]
P]ltxfl;s sfo{ xf], k|lti7fgnfO{ a[xt
cg';Gwfg s]Gb|sf ?kdf ljsf;
ug{'k5{ ls/0fn] eg] ;]gh:t}
9'Ss;Fu afFRg ;Sg] / 9'Ss;Fu
dg{;Sg] dfq} ;Rrf qmflGtsf/L x'g
;S5 . hgfb]z ;fKtflxssf ;Dkfbs
OR5' s nfO{ tTsfnLg /fHokIfn]
lgoGq0fdf lnO{;s]kl5 @)%( h]7
!# oftgf lbP/ xTof u/]sf] lyof] .

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Ps dfq k|ultzLn k];fut ;+u7g
xf] . o; dxf;+ 3 df ljleGg
lhDd]jf/Ldf /x]sf s]xL JolQmxsf
af/]df ldlt @)^(.#.!$ df cWoIf
?Sd/fh nfld5fg]sf] cWoIftfdf
a;]sf] k"0f{ a}7sn] lgDgadf]lhd ug]{
lg0f{ o u/] s f] n ] o; kqsf/
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kbflwsf/L a}7ssf] lg0f{o ;b/ ub}{
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dxf;lrj 7fs'/k|;fb b]jsf]6fnfO{
avf{:t ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5, -@_ lrof
aufg /fli6 o ;ldltsf cWoIf
/fdk| ; fb vltj8f ;DalGwt
;ldltdf g/x]sf] tyf ljZjljBfnosf
bLks ltjf/L tyf :jf:Yosf lrqh
zfxLn] dxf;+3sf] of]hgf, gLlt /
lg0f{ocg';f/ sfo{ ;DkGg gu/]sf]n]
cfh} s f ldltb] l v dxf;+ 3 sf]
;b:oaf6 x6fO{ lrof aufgdf
c/ljGb clwsf/L, ljZjljBfnodf
xl/x/ a:g]t / :jf:Yodf u~h]Zj/
>]i7nfO{ lhDd]jf/L lbO{ dxf;+3df
k|ltlglwTj;d]t u/fOPsf] 5, -#_

dxf;+ 3 sf] cfgf] kbLo dof{ b f


cg'sn
" e"ldsf lgjf{x gu/L u'6, k'm6
/ ab\gfdLsf nflu kl/rflnt tyf
dxf;+3sf] cl:tTj :jLsf/ gug]{
;lrj ;/f]h uf}td / ;b:ox
dw';b" g clwsf/L hgfb{gafa' s]n,
d's'Gb e08f/L, ch'{g yfkf, 8f= /fd'
zdf{, 8f= hLjg >]i7, z+s/ cof{n,
crn 9'fgf, l8NnLk|;fb cfrfo{ /
ljgf]b yfkfnfO{ dxf;+3sf] ;b:o;d]t
g/xg] u/L avf{:t ul/Psf] 5 . ctM
o;} a}7saf6 ;'?df kbk"lt{ ug{
afFsL / cfjZos vfnL 7fpFdf ;d]t
kbk" l t{ ul/Psf] n ] dxf;+ 3 ;F u
;DalGwt ;a} /fli6o ;ldlt tyf
k|lti7fgxn] o;} lj1lKtnfO{ cfwf/
dfGg lghxsf] s'g} ;f+u7flgs
cflwsfl/stf g/x]sf] ljifonfO{
cfTd;ft ub}{ cfgf ultljlwxnfO{
lg/Gt/tf k| b fg ug' { x' g o;}
lj1lKtdfkm{t\ cg'/f]w ub{5' .

n'lDagL===
pks'nklt k|f=8f= lq/Tg dfgGw/n]
ljZjljBfno txdf af}4 lzIff lng]
ljBfyL{ sd /x]sfn] ;~rflnt cGo
SofDk;nfO{ ;DaGwg lbP/ cWofkg
;'? ug{ yfn]sf] atfP . pgn] cfufdL
;fpgb]lv /fhwfgLsf kfFr SofDk;n]
:gftsf]Q/ txdf ljBfyL{ egf{ lnP/
cWofkg ;'? ug{ nfu]sf] hfgsf/L
u/fP . cGo ljZjljBfnosf] t'ngfdf
af}4 ljZjljBfnosf] ;DaGwg z'Ns
Go"gtd sfod u/]sf] pks'nkltn]
bfaL u/] . pgn] eg], ;DaGwg z'Ns
!) xhf/ k}ofF sfod ul/Psf] 5 .
ljZjljBfnosf cg';f/ af}4 cWoog
dxfofg, y]/jfu af}4 bz{g cWoog,
PKnfO8 a'l4Hd, a'l4Hd PG8 lk; /
a'l4Hd PG8 lxdfno :6l8h ljifodf
:gftsf]Q/ txsf] cWofkg x'g]5 .
qmdzM ;' u t af} 4 dxfljBfno
nlntk'/, y]/jfu Ps]8dL z+vd"n
afg] Z j/, nf] 6 \ ; Ps] 8 ] d L sn] h
nlntk'/, af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk; af}4
/ n' l DagL sn] h ckm a' l 4Hd
sf7df8f}d
F f tL ljifosf] cWofkg x'g]
ePsf] 5 . ljZjljBfnon] ( jif{sf]
cjlwdf af}4 bz{gdf s]lGb|t /x]/
d'Vo % ljifonfO{ cfwf/ agfP/
kf7oqmd lgdf{0f u/]sf] pks'nklt
dfGgw/n] atfP . ;DaGwg z'Ns sd
u/]/ sn]hxn] ;x'lnot z'Nsdf
ljBfyL{ cWofkg u/fpg ;'emfj lbPsf]
pgn] atfP . tL SofDk;n] dxFuf]
z'Ns sfod ug{ gkfpg] ;t{df
ljZjljBfnon] ;DaGwg lbPsf] 5 .
sn]hdf :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ljBfyL{n]
af}4 bz{g cWoog ug{ kfpg] 5g\ .
clxn];Dd /fhwfgLaf6 ;~rfng
eO/x]sf] ljZjljBfno cfufdL jif{af6
kGb]xLsf] n'lDagLdf :yfgfGt/0f x'g]
ePsf] 5 . ljZjljBfno txdf af}4
lzIff lj:tf/sf nflu ;/sf/n] plrt
ah]6 ljlgof]hg gu/]sf] u'gf;f]
pks'nklt dfgGw/n] u/] . ;/sf/n]
rfn" cfjdf sl/a @ s/f]8 k}ofF
lalgof]hg u/]sfdf ck'u ePsf]
ljZjljBfnon] hgfPsf] 5 . cfufdL
cfly{s jif{sf nflu $ s/f]8 k}ofF
dfu ul/Psf] 5 .

u+ufnfn===
u/]sf] 5 . ljutdf cfgf] :jR5 5lj
sfod /fv]sf] / gd'gf c:ktfnsf]
kdf /x] s f c:ktfn jt{ d fg
Joj:yfkgsf] sf/0f nyfln /
etfe'sf] l:yltdf k'us
] f] c:ktfns}
sd{rf/Lx atfpF5g\ . c:ktfn
k|zf;gsf] nfk/jfxLsf] sf/0f s}of}F
la/fdL / pgsf cfkmGtxn] b'Mv
kfpg] u/]sf] / of] ;+Vof kl5Nnf]
r/0fdf XjfQ} a9]sf] c:ktfn ;Da4
sd{rf/Lx :jLsf5{g\ . xfdL t
lgDg:t/sf sd{rf/L xf}F, dflyaf6
h] cfb]z cfof], ToxL kfng ug]{ xf]
t/ clxn] c:ktfn k|zf;gn] la/fdL
/ la/fdLsf cfkmGtnfO{ b]vfpg]
u/]sf] Jojxf/ xfdLnfO{ g} lrQa'bf]
5}g eGb} c:ktfns} Ps sd{rf/L
eG5g\ clxn] c:ktfn k|zf;gsf]
Jojxf/ ;]jfd'vL gePsf] / la/fdL
/ la/fdLsf cfkmGtn] w]/} emGem6
Joxf]g'{ k/]sf] ;fFrf] xf], xfdLn]
cfgf]:t/af6 cfjfh p7fO/x]sf 5f}F .
t/, ;'g'jfO{ ePsf] 5}g eGb} pgL
cufl8 yK5g\ jL/ ;lxbsf] gfddf
:yfkgf ePsf] o; c:ktfnn] kl5Nnf]
r/0fdf lnPsf] gLltaf6 ;lxbsf]
;kgfsf] lvNnL / c;xfoxn] vf;}

;]jf / ;'ljwf kfpg ;s]sf 5}gg\ .


eGb} pgn] c:ktfn k|zf;gsf] o:tf]
Hofbltlj?4 l5} ;+ 3 if{ yflng]
atfP .
;lxbsf] gfdaf6 :yfkgf ePsf]
c:ktfnaf6 ;] j fu| f xL c;Gt' i 6
ePsf] / c:ktfnleq e|i6frf/ /
clgoldttf df}nfpFb} u/]sf] eGb}
o:tf] sfo{nfO{ /f]Sg cfufdL lbgdf
c:ktfnleq eP u/]sf e|i6frf/ /
clgoldttf kbf{kmf; ug]{ / pQm
s' / fxsf] ;fj{ h lgsLs/0f ug{ ]
k|lta4 eP/ ;"rgf pknAw u/fpFb}
hfg] ;|f]tn] atfPsf] 5 .

k|d===

g]kfnL ;]gfdf agfOg] eg]sf] 5'}


dxflgb]z
{ gfno;d]t gaGg] ePsf] 5 .
o;n] hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] Oltxf; d]6fpg]
k|of; ePsf] k|:6 x'G5 . b; jif]{
hgo'4sf pknlAwx w'hfw'hf x'bF }
uPsf 5g\ . t]x| xhf/sf] alnbfg v]/
kmfNg] dfu{df e/fO{ s'lb/x]sf 5g\ .
;du| pknlAwdf wfjf af]Ng] u/L cufl8
a9]sf e/fO{ d'ns
' df clgi6 lgDTofpg]
u/L cGwfw'Gwkdf asaf; ub}{ lxF8g\
yfn]sf 5g\ .
/fli6o ;xdltlag} Psnf}6L 9n]
;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf
e/fO{ tf]lsPsf] ;dodf lgjf{rg gx'g]
kSsfkSsL ePkl5 cg]sg xys08f
ckgfpFb} cufl8 a9]sf 5g\ . lgjf{rg
cfof]un] ;d]t r'gfj u/fpg] cj:yf
gb]v]sf] l:yltdf e/fO{ jt{dfg
;d:ofsf] lgsf; r'gfj dfq ePsf]
l6Kk0fL ub}{ lxF8s
] f 5g\ . d'ns
' sf] jt{dfg
;+s6sf] ;dfwfg uf]nd]r ;Dd]ng /
To;af6 lgdf{0f x'g] /fli6o ;xdltsf]
;/sf/n] dfq ug]{ hfgsf/xn]
atfPsf 5g\ . k|wfgdGqL e/fO{ oxL
dfu{df cufl8 a9\g] xf] eg] pgsf]
/fhgLlts eljio 8fdf8f]n x'g] g} 5,
To; ;Fu;Fu} d'ns
' n] ;d]t uDeL/
b'36{ gf em]Ng'kg]{ b]lvG5 .

g]skfdfcf]jfbL===
;b:oxn] cfgf] wf/0ff /fvkl5
To;nfO{ kl/dfh{g;lxt kf; ul/Psf]
xf] . To:t} cGtl/d ;/sf/ lgdf{0f u/L
uf]nd]r ;efaf6 lgsf; lgsfNg'kg],{
hgo'4sf] hudf hgljb|fx] sf] tof/L
ug{k' g],{ s]lGb|o ;ldlt tTsfn} lj:tf/
gug]{ lg0f{o a}7sn] u/]sf] 5 . a}7skl5
g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf df]xg j}B
ls/0f / dxf;lrj /fdaxfb'/ yfkf
afbn sf] ;+oS' t x:tfIf/df hf/L ul/Psf]
k|;] lj1lKtsf] k"0f{ljj/0f o; k|sf/sf]
5P]ltxfl;s /fli6o e]nfkZrft\ c;f/
!! ut] !# ut];Dd kf6L{sf cWoIf s=
ls/0fsf] cWoIftfdf g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf]
s]lGb|o ;7g ;ldltsf] a}7s ;DkGg
eof] . a}7sdf lnPsf dxTjk"0f{
lg0f{oxnfO{ k|]; jStJodfkm{t\
lgDgcg';f/ ;fj{hlgs ul/Psf] 5 -!_
a}7ssf] k|f/Dedf dxfg\ hgo'4 tyf
hgcfGbf]ng;lxt ;Dk"0f{ qmflGtsf jL/
cd/ ;lxbxk|lt Ps ldg]6 df}g wf/0f
u/L efjk"0f{ >4f~hln ck{0f ul/of] . #_ a}7sdf dxf;lrj sd/]8 afbnf/f
;7g tyf ;+3if{;DaGwL k|:tfj k|:t't
ul/of] / Jofks ax; tyf 5nkmnkZrft\
;j{;Ddt kdf kfl/t ul/of] . -$_
/fli6o e]nfsf] d"n efjgf tyf
lg0f{ocg'k ;7gaf/] lgDgcg';f/sf
lg0f{o lnOPsf 5g\ -s_ cWoIfdf s=
ls/0f, pkfWoIfdf s= uf}/j, dxf;lrjdf
s= afbn, ;lrjodf qmdz s= b]j
u'? tyf s= ljKnjnfO{ ;dfj]z u/L
s]lGb|o kbflwsf/Lxsf] u7g ul/Psf]
5 . -v_ ljleGg /fHoxnfO{ ;dfj]z
u/L ;7g Ao'/f]xsf] u7g tyf
lklaPdxsf] sfo{ljefhg ul/Psf] 5 .
tbg';f/ k"jf{~rn Jo'/f] -lnDa'jfg\, sf]lrnf
tyf ls/ft /fHo_ sf] O~rfh{df s=
k|sf08, dw]z Jo'/f] -ldlynf, ef]hk'/f,
cjw_ sf] O~rfh{df s= k|tLs,
dWodf~rn Ao'/f] -g]jfM, tfD;fln_ sf]
O~rfh{df s= ;'dg, klZrdf~rn Ao'/f]
-du/fft, td'jfg\_ sf] O~rfh{df s=
j;Gt, ;'b/" klZrdf~rn Ao'/f] -;]d,
e]s, yf?jfg\_ sf] O~rfh{df s= ;f]gfd,
cGt/f{li6o Ao'/f]sf] O~rfh{df s= wd]G{ b|,
ha;df]rf{ Jo'/f]sf] O~rfh{df s=
gf/fo0fk|;fb zdf{, k|rf/k|;f/ Ao'/f]sf]
O~rfh{df s= kDkmf e';fn, o'jf
kl/rfng Ao'/f]sf] O~rfh{df s= ljKnjnfO{
lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] 5 . -u_ ljleGg /fHo
;ldltxsf] u7gu/L l;l;Pd tyf cGo
sd/]8xnfO{ lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] 5 .
To;cg';f/ ;]tLdxfsfnLdf O~rfh{df

/fi6;3+ f/f *) nfv 8n/ ;xof]u


sf7df8fF} . g]kfnsf] zflGt k|lqmofdf ;3fpg eGb} ;+o'St /fi6;+3n] *)
nfv cd]l/sL 8n/ cfly{s ;xof]u k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . /fi6;+3Lo zflGt
:yfkgf sf]ifn] g]kfnnfO{ *) nfv 8n/ ;xof]u lgsf; u/]sf] xf] . g]kfnsf]
zflGt k|lqmofdf ylkPsf r'gf}ltx?nfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ ;xof]u k|bfg ul/Psf]
/fi6;3+ sf] egfO 5 . of] /sd g]kfn ;/sf/sf] lgu/fgLdf g]kfnl:yt /fi6;3+ Lo
zflGt sf]ifsf] sfof{nodfkm{t\ kl/rfng x'g] atfOPsf] 5 .
/fi6;+3sf] ;xof]u /sd zflGt :yfkgfsf nflu gLltx?df ;'wf/ ug{
cbfntx?sf] ;'b[9Ls/0f tyf ;+jfb ;+:s[ltsf] ljsfz / g]t[Tj ljsfz
nufotsf If]qdf vr{ x'g] atfOPsf] 5 . ;fy} lx+;fkLl8t dlxnf / afnaflnsfsf]
;xof]udf klg /sd vr{ ul/g]5 . ;xof]u /sdsf af/]df hfgsf/L u/fpFb}
g]kfn l:yt /fi6;3+ Lo cfjf;Lo k|ltlglw /f]a6{kfOk/n] k"jd{ fcf]jfbL hg;]gsf]
;dfof]hg tyf af?bL ;'? x6fpg] nufotsf sfddf dxTjk"0f{ ;kmntf
ldn]sf] ePklg ;+ljwfg galgsg ;+ljwfg;ef lj37g ePsfn] g]kfnsf]
zflGt k|lqmofdf r'gf}lt ylkPsf] atfP .
o;aLr, ljZj a}+sn] k'n lgdf{0f tyf dd{t\ ug{ g]kfnnfO{ ^ s/f]8
cd]l/sL 8n/ -em08} % ca{ $) nfv ?k}ofF_ C0f ;xof]u lbg] ePsf] 5 .
ljZj a}+sn] lalxaf/ pSt ;xof]u g]kfnnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] k|:tfj l:js[t
u/]sf] xf] . g]kfnsf] /0fgLlts ;8s ;~rfndf kg]{ k'n lgdf{0f tyf dd{t
ug{ pSt ;xof]u lbg] lg0f{o ul/Psf] ljZj a}s
+ f/f hf/L lj1lKtdf hgfOPsf]
5 . /fli6o /fhdfu{ kSsL tyf cGo slRr ;8s u/L /0fgLlts ;8s
;~hfnn] /fli6o dxTjsf] !) xhf/ * ;o lsnf]ld6/ ;8s ;d]6\g] pNn]v
ul/Psf] 5 .
ljZj a}+sn] k'n ;'wf/ tyf k'glg{df0f sfo{qmd cGt{ut pSt /sd
g]kfnnfO{ pknAw u/fpg nfu]sf] xf] . g]kfn k'n gLltn] lnPsf p2]ZonfO{
;xof]u k'ofpg] p2]Zon] ;'/lIft, ljZj;gLo tyf k|efjsf/L ;8s lgdf{0f
ug{ ;xof]u lbg] lg0f{o ePsf] xf], ljZj a}s
+ sf] lj1lKtdf pNn]v 5 . lj1lKt
cg';f/ pSt ;xof]udf # ;o k'nsf] dd{t tyf ! ;o @! j6f gofF k'n
lgdf{0f ul/g] 5 . b'u{d If]qsf jfl;Gbfsf] kx'Fr a9fpg o:tf ;xof]unfO{
xfdL lg/Gt/tf lbg] 5f}+, lj1lKtdf ljZj a}+ssL g]kfn k|aGws tfxlzg
;}obsf] egfO{ pw[t ul/Psf] 5, ;xof]un] b'ud{ If]qdf cfly{s cj;/ ;[hgf
ug{ d2t k'Ug] cfzf xfdLn] lnPsf 5f}F .
s= cf]d k'g tyf ;]qm]6/Ldf s= z/b cfGbf]ngsf/L ;fdflhs ;d'bfo gful/s
l;+x, yf?jfg\ O~rfh{df s= cfofd tyf ;dfh cflb;Fu jftf{ tyf ;+jfb\ ug]{ .
;xO~rfh{df ;/nf, ;]qm]6/Ldf s= cv08, -&_ /fli6otf hgtGq tyf dnvfb,
du/ft O~rfh{df s= ;Gtf]if tyf k]6f]lnod kbfy{ dxFuLnufotsf
;]qm]6/Ldf afa'/fd g]kfnL, td'jfg hghLljsfsf ;d:ofxnfO{ lnO{
O~rfh{df s= >Lgfy tyf ;]qm]6/Ldf cfGbf]ng ;+ul7t ug{sf nflu b]zeSt,
s= ozf]bf, g]jfM O~rfh{df s= lbg]z u0ftGqjfbL, jfdkGyL zlSt tyf
zdf{ tyf ;]qm]6/Ldf s= leid, ljleGg hgjuL{o Pj+ ;d'bfosf
tfD;fln O~rfh{df s= klys, k|ltlglwx;Fu ;+o'St df]rf{ tyf
;xO~rfh{df s= cd[tf yfkf, s= s'df/ sfo{/t Pstfsf nflu kxn ug]{ .
bfxfn tyf ;]qm]6/Ldf s= clgn, cjw
ldltM !$ c;f/, @)^(
O~rfh{df s= c6n tyf ;]qm]6/Ldf
s= lzn', ef]hk'/f O~rfh{df s= /fd
cfrfo{ tyf ;]qm]6/Ldf s= ;'jf;, ldlynf @* k|ltzt xf/fxf/Ldf /x]sf] r'xfj6nfO{
O~rfh{df s= s[i0fb]j, sf]lrnf cfufdL kfFr jif{leq @) k|ltztdf
O~rfh{df s= ;d/ tyf ;]qm]6/Ldf s= emfg{, vr{df ldtJooLtf ckgfpg],
ls/0f /fO{, ls/ft O~rfh{df s= kbd dx;'n aSof}tf c;'nLdf s8fO u/L
/fO{, ;]qm]6/Ldf s= bLk]z /fO{, lnDa'jfg a9Ldf b'O{ dlxgfeGbfa9L /fVg glbg],
O~rfh{df s= df};d, k|jf; O~rfh{df lhG;L df}Hbft / ljQLo Joj:yfkgdf
{ :tf lgb]z
{ g 5g\ . sd{ef/Ln]
s= nId0f kGt, ljb]z O~rfh{ s= ;'wf/ ug'h
dgf]hnfO{ lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] 5 . -3_ kfpFb} cfPsf] ljB't ;'ljwf s6fpg klg
{ g u/]sf] 5 . cfof]un] lvDtL
s]lGb|o ;ldltsf dftxtdf ljleGg p;n] lgb]z
] f];L hnljB't cfof]hgfsf
ljefuxsf] u7g ug]{ lg0f{o ePsf] 5 / ef]6s
/ ltgdf ljleGg sd/]8xnfO{ nufgLstf{;uF ljB't vl/b b/ -kLkLP_
{ g lbPsf]
lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] 5 . tbg';f/ s]lGb|o df kl/dfh{g ug{klg lgb]z
] f];L / lvDtLaf6 pTkfbg
sf]if tyf n]vf ljefudf s= ljKnj, 5 . ef]6s
cg'zf;g Pj+ cg'udg ljefudf s= x'g] lah'nL k|lto'lg6 * k}ofF k5{ .
xs{axfb'/ zfxL, cGt/f{li6o ljefudf cfof]hgf dd{t ;Def/ u/L k"0f{Ifdtfdf
s= uf}/j, s= :s'ln ljefu tyf ;~rfngsf ;fy} lgdf{0ffwLg cfof]hgf
s]lGb|o ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf] O~rfh{df ;dod} ;DkGg ug{ ;d]t cfof]un]
{ g lbPsf] 5 . k|flws/0fsf] ljQLo
s= ls/0f, ;+oS' t df]rf{sf] O~rfh{df lgb]z
s= uf}/j tyf ;xO~rfh{df s= b]j ;+/rgf k|ltj]bgn] lbPsf ;'emfj
u'?nfO{ ;dfj]z u/L lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] sfo{fGjogdf ;xof]u ug{ p;n]
5 . To;}u/L cy{ tyf sfg'gnufotsf ;/sf/nfO{ cg'/f]w u/]sf] 5 .
nf] 8 ;] l 8 ePsf a] n f
cWoog cg';Gwfg;Fu ;DalGwt ljleGg
ljefuxsf] O~rfh{df s= b]j u'?, pBf]uLxaf6 k|flws/0fn] lnFb} cfPsf]
blnt ljefu O~rfh{df s= k|sf08, l8dfG8 z'Ns;DaGwL d'2f cbfntdf
dlxnf ljefusf] O~rfh{df s= kDkmf, ljrf/fwLg /x] s fn] cbfntsf]
hftLo If]qLo ljefusf] O~rfh{df s= lg0f{ocg';f/ sfof{Gjog ug{ ;xdlt
;'/z
] cfn], :jf:Yo ljefusf] O~rfh{df ePsf] 5 . k|flws/0fn] ! d]ufjf6
s= /]vf zdf{, a'l4hLjL ljefudf s= lah'nL vkt ug{ k|lta4tf hgfPsf
s[i0fWjh, lzIff ;+:s[ltdf ljefudf pBf]uaf6 dfl;s ! nfv () xhf/
gf/fo0f zdf{ / ;lxb a] k Qf k}ofF;Dd l8dfG8 z'Ns p7fpFb}
ckf;DaGwL k|lti7fgsf] O~rfh{df s= cfPsf] 5 . ^^ s]eL, ## s]eL / !!
ls/0fnfO{ lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] 5 . -_ s]eL Ifdtfo'St k|;f/0fnfOgsf
oxL @)^( ;fn kf}if dlxgfdf dxflwj]zg cfwf/df km/skm/s l8dfG8 z'Ns
;DkGg ug{sf nflu To;sf] tof/L;Fu lnOFb} cfPsf] 5 . k|flws/0fsf] k|;f/0f
;DalGwt sfdxaf/] cfjZos k|0ffnLaf6 k|fljlws / ck|fljws u/L
lg0f{ox lnOPsf 5g\ . -r_ s]lGb|o jflif{s ^ ca{k}ofFa/fa/sf] ljB't
sfof{no ;lrjsf] lhDdf s= k|zfGtnfO{ r'xfj6 x'g] u/]sf] 5 . sfd' sfo{sf/L
{ s >]i7n] cfof]usf lgb]z
{ g k"0f{
lbOPsf] 5 . -%_ ;+3if{af/] lgDgcg';f/sf lgb]z
lg0f{ox lnOPsf 5g\ uf]nd]r ;ef, kfngf ug]{ atfP . ljB't r'xfj6
cGtl/d ;+oS' t ;/sf/ / cu|ufdL lgoGq0fsf ;fy} nf]8;]l8 sd ug{ bfaL
/fhgLlts lgsf;sf] kIfdf cfwf/ tof/ klg pgn] u/] . ef/taf6 yk ljB't
kfg{sf nflu ;+3if{ ;+ul7t ug]{ . cfoft u/]/ nf]8;]l8 sd ug{5f},+
/fli6o :jfwLgtfsf] /Iffsf] k|Zgdf pgn] eg], t/, ef/taf6 NofOg] lah'nL
k|rf/fTds ;+3if{sf] cleofg rnfpg] . vl/b / laqmL d"NoaLrsf] gf]S;fg
dnvfb, k]6f l] nod kbfy{nufot ;/sf/n] a]xf]gk{ ' 5{ . ;docg';f/ dx;'n
hghLljsfsf hNbfaNbf ;d:ofxnfO{ a9fpgsf nflu :jrflnt dx;'n
lnP/ ;+3if{ ;~rfng ub}{ hfg] . ;dfof]hg ;"q sfof{Gjog ug{ cfof]udf
e|i6frf/sf] e08fkmf]/ ub}{ e|i6 k|:tfj ul/Psf] hfgsf/L pgn] lbP .k';
tTjxsf lj?4 k|lt/f]w ;+3if{ ;~rfng @$ df a;]sf] cfof]u a}7sn] dx;'n
ug]{ . -^_ uf]nd]r ;ef, cGtl/d ;+oS' t j[l4sf] lg0f{o u/]sf] lyof] . t/, nuQ}
/fli6o ;/sf/ / cu|ufdL /fhgLlts o;lj?4 ;jf]R{ r cbfntdf d'2f k/]kl5
lgsf;af/] ljleGg /fhgLlts kf6L{ k|lqmof /f]lsPsf] lyof] .

ljB't=\ ==

dfwjk|;b bfxfn

/fatOfc t]u &! /f;c nf; (^)@

sf= lh= k|= sf= b= g+= !^#@)^#^$

g]skfdfcf]jfbL u7gn] NofPsf] t/


ljut nfdf] ;dob]lv kf6L{leq
lg/Gt/ ax; rnfpFb} cfPsf kf6L{sf
pkfWoIf df]xg j}Bn] cfgf g]tT[ jdf
gofF kf6L{sf] u7g ub}{ ljut #) jif{bl] v
lg/Gt/ ;xsfo{ ub}{ / cfkm}n
F ] g]tT[ jdf
:yflkt u/]sf kf6L{ cWoIf k|r08;Fu
;DaGw ljR5]b u/]sf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf
5g\ . of] ;DaGw ljR5]bsf] 3f]if0ffn]
g]kfnL sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ng / vf;u/L
PsLs[t g]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ leq 7"nf]
t/ k}bf u/fOlbPsf] 5 . ;w}F qmflGtnfO{
zf:qsf kdf a'g] / g]kfndf gofF
hgjfbL qmflGtsf] ;Defjgf g} gb]Vg]
df]xgljqmd k|jl[ Qsf lj?4 @)$)
;fndf ljb|f]x ubf{ df]xg j}Bn]
dWokGyLsf] cf/f]k v]Kg' k/]sf] lyof]
eg] clxn] km]l/ qmflGtnfO{ k"/f ug]{ ky
vfFbf k|r08af6 la;h{gjfbLsf] cf/f]k
v]kg' kl//x]sf] 5 . To;}n] cfufdL
sfo{ef/ k"/f ug{ df]xg j}Bsf] g]tT[ jdf
ag]sf] g]skfdfcf]jfbLn] s]xL ;do
df]xgljqmd / k|r08 d08nLsf lj?4
j}rfl/s ;+3if{ ug'k{ g]{ cfjZostf
b]lvG5 . df]xg j}Bsf] g]tT[ jdf ag]sf]
kf6L{nfO{ Pg]skf -dfcf]jfbL_ afx]ssf
bnxn] cToGt r'gf}tLk"0f{kdf
lnPsf 5g\ eg] Pdfcf] j fbLn]
sfnfGt/df d"n kf6L{df g} kms{g] jf
;dfKt eP/ hfg] ljZn]if0f u/]sf] 5,
p;n] b'j} kf6L{df sfo{lbzf Pp6} /x]sf]

/d]z e';fn
e|d km}nfpg] s;/t klg ul//x]sf] 5 .
pgLxsf] -k|r08 ;d"xsf]_ a'emfOdf
kb / k|lti7f;Fu hf]8/] sfo{stf{df e|d
km}nfpg] sf]l;; eO/x]sf] b]lvG5 .
kl5Nnf] ;do k|r08 d08nLdf csf]{
Pp6f e"tn] ;jf/ ug{ yfn]sf] 5, Tof]
xf], ;+;b\ Ao'tF fpg ;s]df j}B ;d"xdf
nfu]sf ;dfg'kfltstkm{sf ;ef;b\sf]
j}wflgs x}l;otdfly afu]l{ g ug]{ /
pgLxnfO{ j}B g]tT[ jsf] kf6L{af6
;DaGw ljR5]b ug{ bafa l;h{gf ub}{
kf6L{sf] j}wflgstfdfly g} k|ZglrXg v8f
u/fpg] bfpdf /x]sf 5g\ .
;+;b\jfbL bnxn] dfcf]jfbLdf
cfPsf] of] ljefhgnfO{ cfgf] cg'sn
"
jftfj/0f agfpg ;xof]uL ePsf] kdf
lnO/x]sf 5g\ / pgLxn] klg j}B
;d"xnfO{ s]xL ;do cndnfP/
qmflGtsf/L sfo{lbzf hgtf;fd'
k'ofpgaf6 /f]Sg] k|oTg gunf{g\ eGg
;lsFbg} . h;/L dw];df cfgf] u'ds
] f]
zlQm kmsf{pg] p2]Zosf ;fy tTsflng
dw];L hgclwsf/L kmf]/ddf k'm6 Nofpg
;kmn eP . To;sf] k|efj clxn];Dd
kl//x]sf] 5 / xfn} dfq z/b\l;+x
e08f/Lsf] g]tT[ jdf gofF kf6L{sf] 3f]if0ff
ePsf] 5 .
gjul7t g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf] klxnf]

s]lGb|o ;ldltsf] a}7s ev{/} ;dfkg


ePsf] 5 . Tof] a}7sn] dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{o
klg u/]sf] 5 / s]xL cfz+sf klg k}bf
u/fPsf] 5 . klxnf] s'/f To; kf6L{n]
cfgf] s]lGb|o ;ldltdf x]/km]/ ub}{ :yfoL
;ldlt l/Qm agfPsf] 5 . ljutdf :yfoL
;ldltdf /x]sf b'Oh
{ gfnfO{ kbflwsf/Lsf]
lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] 5 eg] cGo
kf]ln6Ao'/f] / s]= ;b:osf] ljifodf k'/fg}
;+/rgfdf sfod /x]sf] 5 . o;n] ubf{
bnxdf /x]sf] Psdgfjfb ;fdGtL
lrGtg sfod g} /x]sf] k'li6 ePsf]
5 . ljut nfdf] ;dob]lv x/]s kf6L{leq
/ aflx/ p7\b} cfPsf] ;dfj]zL /
;dfg'kflts k|ltlglwTjsf] ;jfndf
gjul7t g]skfdfcf]jfbLn] cfgf]
;+u7gfTds ;+/rgfdf To;sf] cEof;
k|f/De u/]sf] eP cToGt ;sf/fTds
;Gb]z hfg]jfnf lyof] . Tof] cj;/af6
of] r'ss
] f] 5 . Pp6f lglZrt dfkb08
agfP/ kbflwsf/Lb] l v s] l Gb| o
;ldlt;Ddsf] ;+/rgf agfP/ To;nfO{
;dfj]zL agfpg ;s]sf] eP w]/} /fd|f]
;Gb]z hfg] lyof] . xf] o:tf] cEof;
cToGt r'gf}tLk"0f{ t cjZo lyof] . t/,
ljutdf b; jif]{ hgo'4sf] lj/f]wdf
;+;b\jfbL oyfl:yltjfbL bnx;Fu
df]rf{ agfP/ a;]sf] / ;+ljwfg;efdf

nfhdbf]{ k/fho ef]Ug afWo ePkl5


Pstf u/]sf] tTsflng Pstf s]Gb|
d;fnsf g]tfxnfO{ kbflwsf/L /
:yfoL ;ldltdf n}hfg s'g} dfkb08sf]
cfjZos k/]g . ha ls b; jif]{
hgo'4sf] ;xL ;Ddfg ug]{ xf] eg]
pgLxeGbf t dfcf]jfbLdf ;+ul7t
Pj+ lqmofzLn hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] sdf08sf]
w]/} 7"nf] :yfg /x]sf] 5 . n]vgfy
Gof}kfg]h:tfnfO{ s]= ;= df k|:tfljt
ug{ lxrlsrfpg]n] hLjg uf}td, k|sfz
kf]v/]nnufotnfO{ s;/L s]lGb|o
;ldltdf cg'df]bg ug{ ;s] < To;}n]
gjul7t g]skfdfcf]jfbL klg g]tT[ jsf]
;jfndf k"j{ Pdfcf]jfbLh:t} x'g] xf] eg]
;+u7g lj:tf/ / /fli6o /fhgLlt o;n]
w]/} 7"nf] gsf/fTds c;/ kfg]{ lglZrt
k|foM 5 . x'g t kb 7"nf] s'/f xf]Og
eGg] cfbz{jfbL ts{ klg ug]{ ul/G5 .
kb cfjZostf / e"ldsfsf] cfwf/df
lgwf{/0f x'g] s'/f xf] / w]/} s'/f t cfufdL
dxflwj]zgn] g} 6'f] nufpnf . t/,
g]skfdfcf]jfbLh:tf] cu|ufdL kf6L{sf]
dxflwj]zgdf blnt, dlxnf, hghflt,
pTkL8gdf k/]sf ju{, ;d'bfo cflbsf]
k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] sf8{ ofFs] /
;xfg'el" thGo ef]6 dfUg'kg]{ cj:yfsf]
l;h{gf x'g k'Uof] / cfh}bl] v cGt/kf6L{
;+u7gdf nla ;'? x'g yfNof] eg]
la8Dagf g} x'g5
] .

;Qf :jfy{n] NofPsf] csNkgLo ;+s6 / ;dfwfg


gofF ;+ljwfg agfpg] gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f
ug]{ / g]kfnL hgtfsf] efUo / eljio
;'lglZrt / ;'vb\ t'Nofpg] eg]/ afFl8Psf]
;kgf ;+ljwfg;efsf] cj;fgn] cfh
IftljIft ePsf] 5 . Tolt dfq} xf]Og,
cfh hgtfsf aLr g/fd| f ] ; F u
a}dg:otfsf] aLhf/f]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .
hgtfnfO{ o;/L vl08t ug{ /
Pscfk;df ;Gb]x / cljZjf;sf] ljiffSt
hx/ 3f]Ng] sfd s;n] s'g p2]Zon] lsg
ul//x]sf] 5 cToGt} uDeL/ / ;+jb] gzLn
k|Zg cfh v8f ePsf] 5 . cfhsf] g]kfn
lxhf]sf] g]kfnaf6 ljsl;t eP/ cfPsf]
xf] / Tof] g]kfnL hgtfn] cfk;L Pstfsf]
andf lgdf{0f u/]sf] xf] . g]kfn lgdf{0f
ug]{ s'g} sfnv08df Pp6f cu'jf lyof]
xf]nf s'g} sfnv08gdf csf]{ . t/ To;sf]
d"ne"t cGt/j:t' eg] g]kfnL hgtfsf
aLrsf] Pstf ;b\efj ;lxi0f'tf / k/:k/
;xof]uL efjgf g} xf] . c? s'g} s'/f
xf]Og . jf:tjdf g]kfnsf] cl:tTj g]kfnL
hgtfsf] oxL Pstfsf] pmhf{sf] cfwf/df
l6s]sf] xf] / l6ls/xg] 5 . of] g]kfnsf]
Oltxf;n] k|dfl0ft ul/;s]sf] j:t'ut
oyfy{ xf] . t/ s'/f olt dfq xf]Og,
g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ sdhf]/ t'Nofpg] /
pgLxdfly xfnx'sd' rnfpg] ;fdGtL
tfgfzfxL xf];\ of cw{;fdGtL gj;fdGtL
tfgfzfxL To;sf] lj?4 g]kfnL hgtf
Psh'6 eP/ n8]sf x'g\ / Ps kl5
csf]{ tfgfzfxLnfO{ 9fNb} cl3 a9]sf x'g\ .
g]kfnL ;dfhdf pTkGg cGt/lj/f]wsf]
klxrfg / To;sf] ;dfwfg klg g]kfnL
hgtfn] cfgf] Pstfsf] andf g} vf]hL
u/]sf x'g\ / ;kmntf klg kfPsf x'g\ .
xfdLn] g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ / g]kfnL
hgtfnfO{ Pstfa4 Oltxf;sf] vf]hL ubf{
uf]kfn, dlxifkfn, ls/fFt, lnR5jL, dNn,
zfx sfn, /f0ff sfn;Ddsf] Oltxf;sf
s];f| s];f| s]nfof}F eg] ToxfF hgtf
kl/jt{gsf] kIfdf ;s/fTds lbzfdf
b]znfO{ cl3 a9fpg] kIfdf Psfsf/
eP/ cl3 a9]sf] cToGt} c;n k/Dk/f
/x]sf] xfdL kfpFb5f}F . g]kfn PsLs/0fsf]
kl5Nnf] sfnv08df /;bkfgL gkfpFbf
klg b]zsf] lgldQ zq'sf;fd' gem'sL
gfnfkfgLdf la|l6z ;fd|fHofjfb;Fu n8\g]
g]kfnL jL/la/fgfx aL/ aneb|
cd/l;x yfkf cflbsf] gfd lnFbf xfdLn]
uj{ u/]sf] s] Joy{ xf] la|l6z lj/f]wL
b]zeSt efOef/bf/nfO{ sf]tkj{df
l;WofP/ PstGqLo hxflgofF /f0ff
zf;gsf] ;"qkft u/]kl5 To;sf] lj?4
plqPsf cflb ;lxb nvg yfkfk|lt
;Ddfgk"0f{ ;Demgf ug{' s] lg/y{s xf]
clg /f0ff zf;g lj/f]wL k|ft:d/0fLo cd/
;lxbx u+ufnfn, bz/y rGb, wd{eSt,

nf]sgf/fo0f ;'j]bL
z'qm/fh zf:qLxsf] cd/Tjk|lt cf:yf
/ ztt >4fsf] k"mn r9fpg' s] cgy{ xf]
clg s] /fhfsf] lg/\sz
' ;fdGtL
clwgfosjfbL k~rfotL Joj:yflj?4
nfUbf cd/Tj k|fKt u/]sf To; ;+3if{df
nfUbf jiff}j{ if{;Dd h]ndf ;8]sf /
k|jf;sf] k6'/ nfUbf] kL8f v]ks
] f g]kfnL
jL/la/fgfxk|lt uj{ ug{ gsfd xf]
clg lg/\sz
' zf]if0f / cGofo ug]{
/fhtGqsf lj?4 clGtd k|xf/ ug{ g]kfnL
hgtf Psfsf/ eP/ ;8sdf
dxf;fu/h:t} pln{Psf] kl5Nnf] Oltxf;
klg Joy{ xf] jf:tjdf cfh oL ;a}
s'/fnfO{ pk]Iff ug{] u/fpg] cToGt} ;+sL0f{
;fdGtL ;fDk|bflostf d'ns
' df rnfOPsf]
5 . cfgf] hftnfO{ dfq x]g{] c?nfO{
gx]g] { / dfgl;stf jf:tjdf o:t} ;fdGtL
gj;fdGtL ;fDk|bflostfsf] pkhafx]s
c? s]xL xf]Og . ljZjn] @!cf}F ztfAbLdf
k|j]z ul/;s]sf klxnf] bzsdf
u0ftGqdf k|jz
] u/]sf] g]kfnsf] of] b'bz
{ f
b]v/] ljZjsf] ;Eo ;d'bfon] s] eGnf
clg xfd|f] efjL k':tfn] xfdLnfO{ s;/L
d"Nof+sg unf{ of] s'/f cfh 7"nf] lrGtf /
uDeL/ rf;f]sf] laifo ag]sf] 5 . xf]
b]zdf /fhgLlts lg/\sz
' tf dfq} 5}g
/ lyPg . oxfF hftLo lg/\sz
' tf klg
lyof] ;fdflhs lg/\sz
' tf klg lyof] .
;f+:s[lts lg/\sz
' tdf klg lyof] /
If]qLo lg/\sz
' tf klg lyof] . cfly{s
lg/\s'ztdf klg lyof] . oL ;a}
lg/\sz
' tf ldn]/ s]lGb|o ;fdGtL ju{sf]
lg/\sz
' tf v8f ePsf] lyof] . ToxL
;fdGtL lg/\sz
' tf / ;fDk|bflostfsf

lj?4 g]kfnL hgtf lg/Gt/ s'g} g s'g}


kdf ;+3if{ ub}{ cfPsf klg 5g\ . kl5Nnf]
;+3if{sf] kl/0ffdf xfdLn] b]Vof}F . g]kfnL
hgtf klxn] slxn]eGbf /fd|f;] uF ljhoL
ag]sf lyP . g]kfndf u0ftGq cfof] .
wd{lg/k]Iftf cfof] . ;+3Lotf cfof] . oL
;a} ;fdGtL /fhtGqsf] cGTo ePsf]
;Gb]zsf] kdf cfPsf g]kfnL hgtfsf
ljhosf k|tLs s'/f x'g\ / /xg] 5g\ .
t/, cfh Ps jf csf]{ axfgdf oL g}
s'/fsf] k|ToIf of k/f]Iff la/f]w eO/x]sf]
5 . 3'dfOlkm/fO{ ;fdGtL Joj:yfnfO{
dnhn ug]{ ;fd|fHojfbL zlStsf nflu
:yfg agfOlbg] t/ g]kfnL hgtfnfO{
km]l/ klg lg/Lx g} /fVg] vt/gfs k|k~r
rln/x]sf] 5 . To;}n] g]kfnL hgtfsf]
Pstf h'g pgLxsf] ljhosf] Ps dfq
;zSt pmhf{ xf] dfly k|xf/ ul/Fb5
} .
u0ftGq wd{lg/k]Iftf / ;+3LotfnfO{
hgtf alnof] agfpg] ;fwg xf]Og
pgLxnfO{ ljefhg ug{ vl08t t'Nofpg]
/ Ps cfk;df n8fpg] dfWodsf]kdf
cToGt} unt lsl;dn] b'kof]u ug{
vf]lhof] / vf]lhFb} 5 . jf:tjdf of] s'/f
g]kfn / g]kfnL hgtfsf] lxtdf laNs'n}
5}g . of] ;fdGtL gj;fdGtL tyf
ltgnfO{ cf8wfk lbP h:tf] u/]/
g]kfnnfO{ cfgf] d'Ldf /fVg rfxg]
;fd|fHojfbL zlStsf] lxtdf dfq} 5 .
To;}n] olta]nf g]kfnL hgtf cToGt}
;hu ;r]t / ;+ul7t eP/ cfk;L
PstfnfO{ ;'b9[ / ;zSt t'Nofpg
cu|;/ x'g} kb{5 . o;/L dfq pgLxn]
cfk"mn] 7"nf] ;+3if{ / alnbfg u/]/ NofPsf]

u0ftGq wd{lg/k]Iftf / ;+3LotfnfO{


arfpg / b]znfO{ ;xL lbzfdf cl3
a9fpg ;Sg]5g\ . To;}n] hgtfsf]
PstfnfO{ tf]8g\ ] s'g} klg xs{tnfO{
b[9tfk"js
{ lj/f]w ug{k' b{5 . ToxL g} gofF
g]kfn agfpg]tk{msf] d"ne"t k|:yfg laGb'
xf] . g]kfnL hgtfsf] Pstf ;b\efj
;lxi0f'tf / ;xof]uL efjgfnO{ Wj:t kf/]/
gofF g]kfn sbflk aGg ;St}g . Tof] t
km'6fpg] / zf;g ug]{ s'lT;t if8\oGqsf/L
k|k~r dfq} xf] . c? s]xL xf]Og . t/
hgtfn] 7"nf] ljZjf; / e/f];f u/]/
;+ljwfg;efdf k7fPsf] /fhgLlts
g]tT[ jn] of] s'/fnfO{ lsg 6'n6' n' ' x]//]
a:of] / cem} al;/x]sf] 5 Tof] sd
b'ef{Uok"0f{ / cfZro{hgs s'/f 5}g .
hfg]/ of ghfg]/ ;d:of pTkGg ul/P
kl5 To;sf] ;xL ;dfwfg vf]Hg'
/fhgLlts g]tT[ jsf] klxnf] lhDd]jf/Lsf]
s'/f xf] . oBlk xfd|f] g]tT[ jn] ;d:of
;dfwfgsf] ;xL af6f] klxNofpg]eGbf klg
pTkGg cGt/lj/f]wnfO{ cfgf] ;+sL0f{ ;Qf
:jfy{sf] v]ndf kl/0ft ug]{ sfd ub}{
cfpFbf g} lxhf]bl] v cfh;Dd ;d:ofsf]
vft nfUb} uP/ ;dfwfglaxLg / hl6n
l:ylt v8f x'g cfPsf] xf] . To;}n]
ljutsf ;a} uNtL sdhf]/Lxaf6 d'St
eP/ Odfgbf/ lsl;dn] cfh /fhgLlts
bnxn] ;f]Rg} kg]{ ePsf] 5 . Ps k6s
k'gM g]kfnL hgtf / b]znfO{ ;jf]k{ /L
/fv]/ cl3 a9\gk' g]{ cToGt} ;+jb] gzLn
/ HjnGt /fli6o cfjZostf aGg uPsf]
5 . ca klg Ps jf csf]{ lsl;dn] b]z
/ hgtfnfO{ wf]sf lbg] sfd eof] eg]
To;af6 lgZro klg csNkgLo
b'ikkl/0ffd Nofpg] s'/f lglZrt 5 .

v'nf lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0f cw'/f]


sf7df8f} F .
;/sf/n]
cGt/f{li6o:t/sf] v'nf lrl8ofvfgf
agfpg ah]6 5'6o\ fOP klg rfn' cfly{s
jif{df sfd ;'? gx'g] ePsf] 5 . ;/sf/n],
eStk'/ ;"ol{ jgfosdf rfn' cfj
@)^*^( sf] ah]6df lrl8ofvfgf
agfpg Ps s/f]8 ?lkofF 5'6o\ fOPsf]
lyof] . cfly{s jif{ ;lsg nfUb|f;d]t
;/sf/n] :yfgLo ;fd'bflos jgsf]
:jLs[lt Pj+ ;'emfj ;+sng / /fli6o
k|sl[ t ;+/If0f sf]z -Pgl6Pg;L_ nfO{
v'nf lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0fsf] cflwsfl/s
lhDd]jf/L lbg;d]t ;s]sf] 5}g . jg
ljefusf cg';f/ rfn' cfjleq} v'nf
lrl8ofvfgfsf] afFsL sfd cl3 a9\g]
cj:yf 5}g . ;'?af6} ;fd'bflos jgsf]
:jLs[lt, /fo ;'emfj ;+sngnufot sfd
l9nf ePsf lgdf{0fsf] lhDd]jf/L

Pgl6Pg;LnfO{ lbO;lsPsf] klg 5}g,


ljefusf pkdxflgb]z
{ s ofdaxfb'/
yfkfn] eg], ah]6 5'6o\ fOP klg rfn'
cfjwL leq sfd ;'? ug{] cj:yf
g/x]sf] atfP . hgfj/nfO{ lkFh8fdf
aGb u/]/ cfuGt'sn] :jtGq kdf
cjnf]sg ug{ xfnsf] k4ltsf] 7Ls pN6f]
cfuGt'sn] aGb af6f]af6 v'nf 3'ld/x]sf
kz'kIfL cjnf]sg u/fpg] cGt/f{li6o
k|of]u:jk v'nf lrl8ofvfgfsf] of]hgf
agfOPsf] xf] . d'ns
' sf] Ps dfq hfjnfv]n
;b/ lrl8ofvfgfsf] ef/ sd x'g] / ufpF
;x/af6 ;dfltPsf hgfj/ /fVg ;xh
x'g] eg]/ ;f9] tLg jif{cl3 tTsfnLg
jgdGqL ls/0f u'?n] cGt/f{li6o:t/sf]
v'nf lrl8ofvfgf lgdf{0f ug{] k|lqmof cl3
a9fPsf lyP . sLlt{k/' , km'nrf]sL,
rGb|flul/, uf]s0f{ / ;"ol{ jgfos;lxt kfFr

7fpF s f] :ynut cWoogkl5


;"ol{ jgfosnfO{ pko'St 7xofOPsf] lyof] .
;f9] tLg jif{cl3 cGt/f{li6o:t/sf]
lrl8ofvfgf agfpg] k|lqmof cl3 a9fpFbf
g} lgdf{0f lhDd]jf/L Pgl6Pg;LnfO{ lbg]
elgP klg cflwsfl/s kdf lhDd]jf/L
g;'Dk]sfn] sfd ;'? x'g g;s]sf]
Pgl6Pg;Ln] hgfPsf] 5 . ;b/
lrl8ofvfgf 5 x]S6/df 5 . lrl8ofvfgfdf
sl/a Ps;o gf} k|hfltsf kz'kIfL 5g\ .
h;df kz'kIfL ;+VofTds kdf sl/a
cf7 ;o 5g\ . lrl8ofvfgf ;g\ !(#@
df tTsfnLg k|wfgdGqL h'4zdz]/n]
JolStut k|of]hgsf nflu lgdf{0f u/]sf
lyP . ;g\ !(%) sf] /fhgLlts
kl/jt{gkl5 ;/sf/ dftxtdf k/]sf]
lrl8ofvfgfsf] Joj:yfkgsf] lhDdf ;g\
!((% af6 Pgl6Pg;Ln] kfPsf] lyof] .

7ux?nfO{ j}b]lzs /f]huf/L ljefusf] ;+/If0f


sf7df8f}F . j}bl] zs /f]huf/Lsf] gfddf gSsnL Dofgkfj/ vf]n/] 7Ug]x?sf]
;+Vof lbglbg} a9\b} uPsf] 5 eg] Tof:tf 7ux?nfO{ ljefus} ldn]dtf]df ;+/If0f
lbg]u/]sf] k|df0f klg km]nf k/]sf 5g . s]lx dlxgf cufl8 dsfpdf /f]huf/L
nufOlbg] eGb} tL; s/f]8 p7fP/ km/f/ s]zaxfb'/ u'?nfO{ clxn];Dd ljefun]
;+/If0f lbO{/x]sf] 5 . To;}u/L kf]Nof0f k7fpg] egL gSsnL Dofgkfj/sf] gfddf
rf}w s/f]8 eGbf a9L 7uL ug{ ljdnf nfdf / sdn 3n]sf] 7uL k|s/0fn]
lsgf/f gkfpFb} ckmuflg:tfg n}hfg] eg]/ sl/j b; s/f]8 p7fP/ km/f/
cleo'St lg/f}nf y/sf JolStnfO{ ljefun] kmqmfp u/]sf] 5 .
To;} u/L ls cf]e/l;hsf] gfddf nfvf}+ p7fP/ ljeufsf] ;+/If0f kfPsf
Ps JolStnfO{ kLl8tn] hfx]/L b/vf:t lbFbf;d]t ljefun] kqmfp u/]/ sfjf{xL
u/]sf] 5}g . kLl8tx?n] oxL c;f/ rf/ ut] j}bl] zs /f]huf/ ljefudf pSt
gSsnL Dofgkfj/sf ;~rnssf] kmf]g gDda/ ;lxt hfx]/L lbPkl5 ph'/Lsf
clwsf/Lx?n] lk8s;Fu kmf]g u/]/ /sdsf] df]ntf]n ub}{ 5g\ . j}bl] zs /f]huf/
ljefudf btf{ g/x]sf] ls cf]e/l;hsf ;~rfnsnfO{ kqmfp u/L Ifltk"lt{
pknJw u/fpg kLl8tx? x]dgf/fo0f ofbj, /;'j ldFof, s'jf{g ldFof, s}h' ldFof
/ s'/dfg cG;f/L nufotsf kLl8tx?n] oxL c;f/ $ ut] ljefudf ph'/L
lbPsf lyP . To:tf JolStnfO{ tTsfn} kqmfp k'hL{ sf6]/ kqmg' kg]d{ f ljefusf]
ph'/L zfvfsf lgb]z
{ s of]u/fh a/fnn] clxn];Dd kmqmfp k'hL{ sf6\g lbPsf
5}gg\ . cg';Gwfg clws[t b]lv ph'/Lsf ;'Jjf;fjx?n] pN6} kLl8tnfO{ tkfO+x{ ?nfO{
klg y'lglbG5f}+ eGb} wDsfpg yfn]sf] kLl8tn] pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . pSt gSsnL
Dofgkfj/sf lj?4 lbPsf] ph'/Lsf] btf{ g+= *!*))^()#)$ /
*!&()^()#!$ /x]sf] 5 . pSt gSsnL Dofgkfj/sf ;~rfnsn] dn]l;ofdf
/f]huf/L nufOlbg] egL ^ hgfaf6 k|ltJolSt &) xhf/sf b/n] /sd p7fPsf]
yfxf x'g cfPsf] 5 . oL t cufl8 cfPsf kLl8t JolStdfq x'g . c? ;j{;fwf/0faf6
nfvf}+ ?k}ofF p7fPsf] x'g ;Sg] kLl8tx?n] pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ .
:ki6?kdf j}bl] zs /f]huf/Lsf] nflu /sd lnPsf] sfuhdf pNn]v eP
klg ;j{;fwf/0f gful/snfO{ lgb]z
{ s of]u/fh a/fnn] ljleGg axfgf agfO{
lgj]bg btf{ g} gu/L kmsf{pg] u/]sf 5g\ . d cbfntsf] >]:t]bf/ x',F tkfO+x{ ?n]
cln ultnf jlsn /fVg'k5{ lgb{l] zsf k9]/dfq lgj]bg lnP/ cfpg'; eGb}
kmsf{pg] u/]sf] Ps kLl8tn] pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . cd]l/sf k7fO{lbg] egL
Pshgf JolStaf6 ? rfln; nfv p7fP/ cd]l/sflt/} a;f]jf; ub}{ cfPsf
uf]vf{sf e/fO{ y/sf JolStsf] lj?4 ph'/L g} lng dfg]g lgb]z
{ s a/fnn] .
o:tf bh{gf} 36gfx? j}bl] zs /f]huf/ ljefudf eO/xFbf / kLl8tnfO{ emg}
kLl8t agfO{ /xFbf ;d]t ;DalGwt lgsfo sfgdf t]nxfn]/ lgbfPsf 5g\ .

bnfn sDkgLnfO{ ;xhstf{sf] e"ldsf


sf7df8f}F . g]kfn lwtf]kq af]8n{ ] nufgLstf{nfO{ cNksfnLg ;]o/ shf{ pknAw
u/fpg bnfn sDkgLnfO{ hdfgLsf] sfd ug{ lgb]z
{ g lbg] ePsf] 5 . lwtf]kq
af]8s
{ f] ;~rfns ;ldltsf] lg0f{ocg';f/ bnfn sDkgLnfO{ ;xhstf{sf] sfd ug{
lgb]z
{ g lbg] ePsf] xf] . bnfn sDkgL hdfgL a:g] ePkl5 nufgLstf{n] a}s
+
6fGkm/ -aL6L_ df /x]sf] ;]o/sf] vl/b u/]sf] /l;bsf cfwf/df a}s
+ tyf ljQLo
;+:yfaf6 cNksfnLg ;]o/ shf{ lng ;Sg] ePsf 5g\ . a}s
+ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn]
;]o/ vl/b /l;b;lxt bnfn sDkgLsf] hdfgt eP Ps jif{sf nflu shf{ lbg]
Joj:yf /fi6 a}s
+ n] ul/;s]sf] 5 . cy{dGqfnon] ;]o/ ahf/ ;'wf/sf nflu
nufgLstf{;uF u/]sf] gf} a'bF ] ;xdlt sfof{Gjog ug]{ qmddf af]8n{ ] ;f] lgb]z
{ g lbg]
tof/L u/]sf] xf] . cNksfnLg shf{sf nflu a|fs
] / sDkgLnfO{ hdfgtsf] sfd ug{
lgb]z
{ g lbg] atfpFb} af]8s
{ f k|jStf lg/h lu/Ln] eg], bnfn sDkgLn] nufgLstf{
/ shf{ lbg] a}s
+ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfaLr ;xhLs/0f e"ldsf lgjf{x ug'{ xf] . a|fs
] /
sDkgLn] aL6Ldf /x]sf] tyf gfd;f/L ePsf] ;]o/ k|df0fkq lwtf]sf kdf shf{
lbPsf] a}s
+ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] sfd ug{s
' f ;fy} lwtf]sf kdf
/x]sf] ;]o/ laqmL ug'{ k/]sf] v08df laqmL u/L ;DalGwt a}s
+ tyf ljQLo ;+:yfnfO{
e'StfgL lbg] sfd ug]{ af]8n{ ] hgfPsf] 5 . ;fy} ;+zf]wg ePsf] ;fd"lxs nufgLsf]if
lgodfjnL @)^& d+unaf/b]lv g} nfu" ug{] af]8n{ ] hgfPsf] 5 . af]8n{ ] qm]l86 /]l6
Ph]G;Lsf] sfd ug{ Oqmf g]kfnnfO{ k"jf{wf/ lgdf0f{ ug{ lgb]z
{ g lbPsf] 5 . cfOqmfn]
af]8a{ f6 ut ;fpgdf sDkgL :yfkgf ug]{ ;xdltkq lnPsf] lyof] . cfOqmfn]
af]8a{ f6 ;xdlt kq lnO{ sDkgL /lh:6f/sf] sfof{nodf sDkgL btf{ u/L /]l6
Ph]G;Lsf] sfd ug{ cg'dltkq lng cfj]bg lbPsf] lyof] . Oqmf g]kfn ef/tLo
qm]l86 /]l6 Ph]G;L Oqmf lnld6]8sf] ;+oS' t nufgLdf :yfkgf x'g nfu]sf] sDkgL
xf] . Oqmfn] lgb]z
{ g kfPsf] 5 dlxgfleq cfjZos k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ul/;Sg'k5{ .
sDkgLn] tof/ u/]sf] k"jf{wf/ af]8n{ ] cg'udg u/L of]Uo ePdf Ps dlxgfleq
cg'dltkq lbg] atfOPsf] 5 .

km];a'ssf] ;xf/fn] cfkmGtsf] ;Dks{df


sf7df8f}F . 3/kl/jf/af6 sl/a tLg bzs;Dd ;Dks{ljxLg x'ge' Psf cf]vn9'f
anv' uflj; & sf e/t wdnfsf nflu km];a's kl/jf/;Fu e]6 ug]{ ultnf]
;xf/f aGof] . wdnf 3/ 5f8]/ lxF8s
] f] @& jif{kl5 km];a'ss} ;xf/fn] cfkmGtsf]
;Dks{df cfPsf 5g\ . aNv'l:yt dfdf 3/df hGd]/ !* jif{;Dd ToxLF x'ss
] { f e/t
wdnf @)$@ ;fndf 3/ 5f8]/ lxF8s
] f lyP . cfkmGt tyf 3/kl/jf/n] ;d]t
dfof dfl/;s]sf wdnf Ps xKtf cufl8 dfq} PSsfl; dfjnL efO s'df/ n'O6F n] ;Fu
km];a'sdf e]6/] 3/ kl/jf/;Fu ;Dks{df cfPsf x'g\ . km];a'sdf e]6b\ f klxnf]
k6s t wdnfnfO{ pgsf cfkmGtn] g} lrg]gg\ . dfjnL efO n'O6F n] sf] km];a'sdf
d e/t wdnf bfO x'F eg]/ cfk"mnfO{ lrgfP klg pxfFnfO{ ;'?df glrg]sf] n'O6F n] n]
atfP . km];a'saf6 kl/ro lbPsf wdnfnfO{ klxnf t lrGg] s'/} ePg, kl5
s'/fsfgL ub}{ hfFbf cfg} bfO kf] x'gx' bF' f]/x]5, n'O6F n] n] eg], lj;+ @)@$ df
dfdf3/d} hGd]sf wdnfsf] c7f/ jif{sf] pd]/df 3/ 5f8]/ efu]bl] v g} cQf]kQf]
lyPg, sxfFaf6 lrg]/ PSsfl; km];a'sdf cfOk'u] d cfkm}F crlDdt 5' . km];a'sdf
;fyL ag]sf] 5 dlxgfkl5 pgn] km];a'saf6} cfgf] df]afOn gDa/ kQf] nufP/
6]lnkmf]gaf6 cfgf] kl/ro lbPsf] b'O{ dlxgfkl5 3/ cfPsf] n'O6F n] n] hfgsf/L
lbP . cfzf dfl/;s]sf] 5f]/f] PSsfl; 3/ cfOk'Ubf pxfFsf a'af ho/fh / cfdf
v8dfofsf] v';Lsf] ;Ldf g} /x]g . xfdLn] t lal;{;s]sf lyof},F cfdf v8dfofn]
elgg\, cf; dfl/;s]sf] 5f]/fsf] cg'xf/ b]Vg kfpFbf cf}lw v';L 5' . 5}g eg]sf]
dfG5] crfgs 3/ cfOk'Ubf 3/ kl/jf/ dfq xf]Og e/tsf] ufpFd} v';L 5fPsf]
n'O6F n] n] atfP . olt nfdf] ;do;Dd 3/ kl/jf/;Fu ;Dks{df gcfPsf ljifodf
kl/jf/n] klg Tolt rf;f] glbPsf]h:tf] nfu]/ ;Dks{df cfpg grfx]sf] atfpFb}
wdnfn] ef/tsf] d'DaO{l:yt Ps lhd Snadf sfd u/]/ hLjg u'hf/f u/]sf]
hfgsf/L lbP . lhd Snadf ;fdfGo tnadf hflu/ vfP/ a:g'ePsf wdnfnfO{
3/ cfpg] vr{ geP/ klg ;Dks{eGbf aflx/ /x]sf] x'g;Sg] :yfgLojf;Lsf] egfO
5 . 3/ 5f8]sf] oltsf jif{kl5 g]kfnl:yt cfgf] 3/ kms{g grfxg] bfO e/tnfO{
w]/} cfu|xkl5 3/ af]nfpg ;kmn ePsf] n'O6F n] n] atfP . nfdf] ;do;Dd x/fP/
e]l6g'ePsf pgnfO{ g]kfnd} a:g] Joj:yf ldnfOlbg ;'g;/Lsf] t/x/fdf dfjnLn]
s]xL hUuf;d]t lslglbPsf 5g\ . pxfFn] ca cfk"m hGd]sf] ufpFd} a:g] of]hgf
agfPsf] atfP .

k|sfzs tyf ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M afuahf/, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.chhepyastraweekly.wordpress.com sDKo'6/ tyf d'bs
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