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c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7

Phn i s
Ch 1: S hu t s thc
I. s hu t:
Tp hp Q cc s hu t:
+ Tp hp Qcc s hu t c vit:

'

0 ; ; | b Z b a
b
a
Q
+ S hu t c dng:
( , , 0)
a
a b Z b
b

+ S nguyn l s hu t; Cc s vit c di dng phn s u l s hu t.
+ S hu t biu din c trn trc s; im biu din s
b
a
gi l im
b
a
.
+ S hu t gm: s dng; s 0; s m.
So snh s hu t:
+ S m < 0 < s dng.
+ Vit s hu t di dng phn s cng mu dng; ri so snh t: Nu t no ln hn
th s hu t ln hn, hoc vit s hu t di dng s thp phn ri so snh.
Cc php tnh vi s hu t:
a/ Php cng; php tr:
+Vit s hu t di dng phn s cng mu dng ( Quy ng);
+ Ly t cng hoc tr vi t, gi nguyn mu chung;
+ Rt gn kt qu nu c.
+ Nu cc s hu t vit c di dng s thp phn th ta cng; tr ging nh cng; tr
s nguyn.
V d:
1/
12
1
12
9 8
12
3 . 3 4 . 2
4
3
3
2

+
2/
14
53
14
2 . 2 7 . 7
7
2
2
7
7
2
5 , 3
+
+

,
_

3/
1
2, 5 2, 5 0, 5 2
2
+ +
b/ Php nhn:
+ Vit s hu t di dng phn s
+ Ly t nhn t ; mu nhn mu.
+ Rt gn phn s.
+ Nu cc s hu t vit c di dng s thp phn th ta nhn ging nh nhn s
nguyn.
V d:
1/
10
3
2 . 5
3
4 . 5
) 3 .( 2
4
3
.
5
2

2/
875 , 1 ) 5 , 0 .( 75 , 3
c/ Php chia:
+ Vit s hu t di dng phn s
+ Thc hin php chia nh php chia phn s (gi nguyn PS
1
, nhn vi PS nghch o
ca PS
2
)
Nm h c: 2011-2012
1
c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
+ Rt gn phn s.
+ Nu cc s hu t vit c di dng s thp phn th ta chia ging nh chia s nguyn.
V d:
1/
4
3
8 . 7
21 ). 2 (
8
21
.
7
2
21
8
:
7
2

2/
95 , 5 ) 4 , 0 ( : 38 , 2
d/ Php lu tha: Thc hin theo quy tc c vit bng cc cng thc sau y:
Lu tha vi s m t nhin:
n
n
n
b
a
b
a

,
_

Nhn hai lu tha cng c s:


n m n m
x x x
+
.
Chia hai lu tha cng c s:
n m n m
x x x

: (x 0, m n)
Lu tha ca lu tha:
n m n m
x x
.
) (
Lu tha ca mt tch:
n n n
y x y x . ) . (
Lu tha ca mt thng:
n
n
n
x x
y y
_


,
( y 0 )
e/ Php khai phng:
+ Khi nim cn bc hai: Cn bc hai ca mt s a khng m l s x sao cho x
2
= a.
+ S dng a c ng hai cn bc hai, mt s dng k hiu l a v mt s m k hiu l
- a .
+ S 0 ch c mt cn bc hai l s 0, v vit: 0 = 0.
+ V d: 4 16 , (v: 4 > 0 v 4
2
= 16.) 9 81 (v: 9 > 0 v 9
2
= 81.)
+ Ch : Khng c vit 4 2 t .
II. s v t: (k hiu tp hp s v t l I)
+S v t l s vit c di dng s thp phn v hn khng tun hon.
III. s thc:
+ S hu t Q v s v t I c gi chung l s thc R.
+ Mi s thc c biu din bi mt im trn trc s.
Nm h c: 2011-2012
2
c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
Ch 2: t l thc
Khi nim:
+ T l thc c dng:
d
c
b
a

hoc:
d c b a : :
. (
) 0 ; ; ; d c b a
+ Trong a; d l s hng ngoi t; b; d l s hng trung t.
Tnh cht:
Tnh cht c bn: Tch trung t bng tch ngoi t:
d
c
b
a

c b d a . .
T
c b d a . .
ta c th lp c cc t l thc sau y:
- Theo tnh cht c bn:
c b d a . .

d
c
b
a

- i ngoi t, gi nguyn trung t:


d
c
b
a

a
c
b
d

- i trung t gi nguyn ngoi t:


d
c
b
a

d
b
c
a

- i c trung t v ngoi t:
a
b
c
d
d
c
b
a

Tnh cht dy t s bng nhau:
1/
d b
c a
d
c
b
a
+
+

2/
d b
c a
d
c
b
a


3/
f d b
e c a
f d b
e c a
f
e
d
c
b
a
+
+

+ +
+ +

Ton chia t l:
Khi c
p
c
n
b
m
a

Ta ni cc s
c b a , ,
t l vi
p n m , ,
v ngc li cc s
c b a , ,
t l
vi
p n m , ,
th ta c
p
c
n
b
m
a

.
Khi ni:
Chia s Q thnh nhng phn a; b; c t l vi m; n; p th ta c:
p n m c b a : : : :
v
Q c b a + +
Hay:
p n m
Q
p n m
c b a
p
c
n
b
m
a
+ +

+ +
+ +

Khi ni Chia s S thnh nhng phn a; b; c t l nghch vi m; n; p th ta c:
p n m
S
p
c
n
b
m
a
1 1 1 1 1 1
+ +

Nm h c: 2011-2012
3
c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
Ch 3: Hm s
i lng t l thun - i lng t l nghch:
L T l thun L t l nghch
a) nh ngha: y = kx (k

0) a) nh ngha: y =
a
x
(a

0)
b)Tnh cht: b)Tnh cht:
Tnh cht 1:
1 2 3
1 2 3
...
y y y
k
x x x

Tnh cht 1:
1 1 2 2 3 3
. . . ... x y x y x y a

Tnh cht 2:
1 1 3 3
2 2 4 4
; ;....
x y x y
x y x y

T1nh cht 2:
1 2 3 4
2 1 4 3
; ;......
x y x y
x y x y

Khi nim hm s:
+ Nu i lng y ph thuc vo i lng thay i x sao cho vi mi gi tr ca x ta lun
xc nh c ch mt gi tr ca y th y c gi l hm s ca bin s x .
+ K hiu hm s:
) (x f y
+ Gi tr ca hm s ti x = x
1
l
) (
1
x f
V d:
Cho hm s:
( ) 2 2 y f x x +
. (1)
Tnh: f(- 1); f(0); f(1).
(Tc l ta tm gi tr ca hm s ti x = - 1; x = 0; x = 1)
Gii: + Thay x = -1 vo (1) ta c
0 2 ) 1 .( 2 ) 1 ( + f
+ Thay x = 0 vo (1) ta c
2 2 0 . 2 ) 0 ( + f
+ Thay x = 1 vo (1) ta c
4 2 1 . 2 ) 1 ( + f
.
Nh vy: 0 l gi tr ca hm s
( ) 2 2 y f x x +
ti x = - 1.
2 l gi tr ca hm s
( ) 2 2 y f x x +
ti x = 0.
4 l gi tr ca hm s
( ) 2 2 y f x x +
ti x = 1.
Mt phng to :
+ H trc to : Ox Oy: Ox gi l trc honh; Oy gi l trc tung.
+ Mt phng cha h trc to xOy gi l mt phng to .
+ Mi im trn mt phng to u c to (x
0
;

y
0
).
+ Vi to (x
0
; y
0
) ta xc nh c im trn mt phng to .
+ Cc im trn trc honh c tung bng 0 .
+ Cc im nm trn trc tung c honh bng 0
+ Gc to O c to (0; 0)
th hm s y = ax (a

0)
+ th hm s y = ax l ng thng i qua gc to .
+ Cch v: - Cho x = x
1
tu
- Thay x
1
vo y tnh c y
1
= ax
1
- Xc nh im A(x
1
;y
1
)
- V ng thng OA.
Nm h c: 2011-2012
4
c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
Bi tp tng hp
Dng1: Cc php tnh vi s thc:
Bi 1: Thc hin php tnh:
a)
4 1 5 2
: 6 .
9 7 9 3
_ _
+

, ,
; b)
2 2
1 4 7 1
. .
3 11 11 3
_ _
+

, ,
Bi 2: Thc hin php tnh:
a)
0 2
1 4 2
2 .
7 9 3
_ _


, ,
; b)
7 2
3 5
2 .9
3 .2
.
Bi 3: Thc hin php tnh:
a)
2
1 5 5
: 2
3 6 6
_
+

,
; b)
5, 7 3, 6 3.(1, 2 2, 8) +
Bi 4: Thc hin php tnh:
a)
4
25 3
9
; b)
5 2 5
2 : 1
3 7 21
_ _
+

, ,
Bi 5: Thc hin php tnh:
a) 12,7 - 17,2 + 199,9 - 22,8 - 149,9; b)
4
0
1 2
2007
2 3
_
+

,
Bi 6: Thc hin php tnh:
a)
3
1 1
4 : 5
2 2
_
+

,
; b)
0
6
3 9 : 2
7
_
+

,
Bi 7: Thc hin php tnh:
a)
5 19 16 4
0, 5
21 23 21 23
+ +
; b) ( )
3 1 1
2 : 25 64
2 8
+ +
.
Bi 8: Thc hin php tnh:
a)
3 2 17 3
:
4 3 4 4
_
+

,
; b)
( ) ( )
2 2 7 11
5 . 5 .
45 45
+
Bi 9: Thc hin php tnh:
a)
2
1 1
: 1
3 3
_


,
; b)
1 2 5 3 7 5
2 3 3 2 3 2
_ _ _
+

, , ,
.
Bi 10: Thc hin php tnh:
a) ( ) ( )
2 3 1
3 . 49 5 : 25
3
+
; b)
27 5 4 6 1
23 21 23 21 2
+ + +
Nm h c: 2011-2012
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c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
Dng 2: T l thc Ton chia t l:
Bi 1: Tm x, y bit:
12 3
x y

v
36 x y
Bi 2: Cho y t l thun vi x v khi x = 6 th y = 4.
a) Hy biu din y theo x.
b) Tm y khi x = 9; tm x khi
8 y
.
Bi 3: Tm x, y, z khi
6 4 3
x y z

v
21 x y z +
Bi 4: Cho bit hai i lng x v y t l nghch vi nhau v khi x = 8 th y = 15.
a) Hy biu din y theo x.
b) Tnh gi tr ca y khi x = 6; x =

10 .
c) Tnh gi tr ca x khi y = 2; y =

30.
Bi 5: Tm 2 s x,y bit:
5
7
x
y

v
72 x y +
.
Bi 6: Tm 2 s a,b bit: 11.a = 5.b v a

b=24.
Bi 7: Ba nh sn xut gp vn theo t l 3; 5; 7. Hi mi nh sn xut phi gp bao
nhiu vn bit rng tng s vn l 210 triu ng.
Bi 8: Mt tam gic c s o ba gc ln lt t l vi 3; 5; 7. Tnh s o cc gc ca tam
gic .
Bi 9: Ba i my cy, cy ba cnh ng cng din tch. i th nht cy xong trong 2
ngy, i th hai trong 4 ngy, i th 3 trong 6 ngy. Hi mi i c bao nhiu my bit
rng ba i c tt c 33 my.
Bi 10: Cho bit 8 ngi lm c mt cnh ng ht 5 gi. Hi nu tng thm 2 ngi (vi
nng sut nh nhau) th lm c cnh ng trong bao lu?

Dng 3: Hm s - th y = ax
Nm h c: 2011-2012
6
c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
Bi 1: Cho hm s
( ) 1 5 y f x x
. Tnh :
1 3
(1); ( 2); ;
5 5
f f f f
_ _


, ,

Bi 2: Cho bit x v y l hai i lng t l thun c cc gi tr theo bng:
x -8 -3 1
y 72 -18 -36
in gi tr thch hp vo trng
Bi 3: Cho hm s y = f(x) = -2x
a/ Tnh: f(-2); f(4)
b/ V th hm s y = -2x
Bi 4: Cho hm s: y = f(x) =
x
2
1
a/ Tnh: f(-2); f( 3); f(4).
b/ V th hm s: : y =
x
2
1
phn hnh hc
Nm h c: 2011-2012
7
y''
yy
x'' x
x
cc
bb
a
a
O
c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
CHNG I ng thng vung gc - ng thng song song:
1) nh ngha hai gc i nh:
Hai gc i nh l hai gc m mi cnh ca gc ny
l tia i ca mt cnh ca gc kia.
2) nh l v hai gc i nh:
+Hai gc i nh th bng nhau.
3) nh ngha hai ng thng vung gc:
+ Hai ng thng vung gc l hai ng thng ct nhau
v trong cc gc to thnh c mt gc vung.
4) Tnh cht ng vung gc:
C mt v ch mt ng thng i qua mt im cho trc v vung gc vi ng thng
cho trc.
5) nh ngha ng trung trc ca on thng: d
+ ng thng vung gc vi mt on thng ti trung im
ca n c gi l ng trung trc ca on thng y
A B
6) nh ngha hai ng thng song song:
+ Hai ng thng song song l hai ng thng khng c im chung
7) Du hiu (nh l) nhn bit hai ng thng song song:
+ Cp gc so le trong bng nhau; hoc
+ Cp gc ng v bng nhau.
8) Tin -Clit v ng thng song song:
+ Qua mt im ngoi mt ng thng ch c mt ng thng song song vi ng
thng .
9) Tnh cht ( nh l) ca hai ng thng song song:
Nu mt ng thng ct hai ng thg song song th:
+ Hai gc so le trong bng nhau.
+ Hai gc ng v bng nhau.
+ Hai gc trong cng pha b nhau.
10) nh l v hai ng thng phn bit cng vung gc vi mt ng thng th ba:
+ Hai ng thng phn bit cng vung gc vi mt ng thng th ba th chng song
song vi nhau.
11) nh l v hai ng thng phn bit cng song song vi mt ng thng th ba:
+ Hai ng thng cng song song vi ng thng th ba th song song vi nhau.
12) nh l v mt ng thng vung gc vi mt trong hai ng thng song song:
+Mt ng thng vung gc vi mt trong hai ng thng song song th vung gc vi
ng thng cn li.
CHNG II: Tam gic
Nm h c: 2011-2012
8
A''
B''
C''
CC
BB
A
A
A''
B''
C''
CC
BB
AA
A''
B''
C''
CC
BB
AA
A''
B''
C''
CC
BB
AA
A''
B''
C''
CC
BB
AA
A''
B''
C''
CC
BB
A
c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
1) nh l v tng ba gc ca mt tam gic:
+ Tng ba gc trong ca mt tam gic bng 180
0
2) nh l v gc ngoi ca mt tam gic:
+ Gc ngoi ca tam gic bng tng hai gc trong khng k vi n.
3) nh ngha hai tam gic bng nhau:
+ Hai tam gic bng nhau l hai tam gic c cc cnh tng ng bng nhau; cc gc tng
ng bng nhau.
4) Cc trng hp bng nhau ca tam gic:
1. Trng hp bng nhau th nht ca tam gic (cnh cnh cnh).
Nu ba cnh ca tam gic ny bng ba cnh
ca tam gic kia th hai tam gic bng nhau.
ABC = ABC(c.c.c)
2. Trng hp bng nhau th hai ca tam gic (cnh gc cnh).
Nu hai cnh v gc xen gia ca tam gic
ny bng hai cnh v gc xen gia ca tam
gic kia th hai tam gic bng nhau.
ABC = ABC(c.g.c)
3. Trng hp bng nhau th ba ca tam gic (gc cnh gc).
Nu mt cnh v hai gc k ca tam gic
ny bng mt cnh v hai gc k ca tam
gic kia th hai tam gic bng nhau.
ABC = ABC(g.c.g)
5) Trng hp bng nhau ca hai tam gic vung:
1. Trng hp bng nhau th nht ca tam gic vung: (hai cnh gc vung)
Nu hai cnh gc vung ca tam gic
vung ny ln lt bng hai cnh gc
vung ca tam gic vung kia th hai
tam gic vung bng nhau.
2. Trng hp bng nhau th hai ca tam gic vung: (cnh huyn - gc nhn)
Nu cnh huyn v gc nhn ca tam gic
vung ny bng cnh huyn v gc nhn
ca tam gic vung kia th hai tam gic
vung bng nhau.
3. Trng hp bng nhau th ba ca tam gic vung: (cnh gc vung - gc nhn k)
Nu mt cnh gc vung v mt gc
nhn k cnh y ca tam gic
vung ny bng mt cnh gc vung v mt
gc nhn k cnh y ca tam gic vung
kia th hai tam gac vung bng nhau.
Bi tp tng hp
Nm h c: 2011-2012
9
c ng n t p k 1 Ton 7
Bi 1 : Cho
ABC
c =90
0
v AB=AC.Gi K l trung im ca BC
a) Chng minh : AKB =AKC
b) Chng minh : AK BC
c ) T C v ng vung gc vi BC ct ng thng AB ti E.
Chng minh EC //AK
Bi 2 : Cho gc nhn xOy , C l im trn tia Ox, D l im trn tia Oy , sao cho OC =
OD. Gi I l im trn tia phn gic Oz ca gc xOy , sao cho OI > OC .
a/ Chng minh IC = ID v IO l phn gic ca gc CID .
b/ Gi J l giao im ca OI v CD , chng minh OI l ng trung trc ca on CD
Bi 3 :Cho
OMB
vung ti O, c BK l phn gic, trn cnh BM ly im I sao cho BO =
BI
a/ Chng minh : KI BM
b/ Gi A l giao im ca BO v IK . Chng minh: KA = KM
Bi 4 : Cho gc nhn xOy c Oz l phn gic ca n. T mt im M trn tia Oz , V mt
ng thng song song vi Oy ct Ox ti A . T M v mt ng thng song song Ox ,
ct Oy ti B .
a/ Chng minh OA = OB
b/ V MH Ox ti H , MK Oy ti K . Chng minh : MH = MK
c/ Chng minh OM l trung trc ca AB
Bi 5: Cho
ABC
vung ti B. Gi D l trung im ca cnh AC. Trn tia i ca tia DB
ly im E sao cho DB = DE. Chng minh:
a/
CDE ADB
b/ gc AEC l gc vung

Bai 6 : Cho
ABC
c AB = AC. Tia phn gic ca gc A ct cnh BC ti D. Chng minh
rng
a/
ACD ABD
b/ B = C
Bai 7: Cho tam gic AOB . Trn tia i ca tia OA ly im C sao cho OC = OA , trn
tia i ca tia OB ly im D sao cho OD = OB
a/ Chng minh AB // CD
b/ M l nt im nm gia A v B. Tia MO ct CD N , chng minh :
OAM OCN
c/ T M k MI vung gc vi OA , t N k NF vung gc OC , chng minh : MI = NF
B i 8: Cho ABC c AB = AC , k BD AC , CE AB ( D thuc AC, E thuc AB) .
Gi O l giao im ca BD v CE .
Chng minh ; a/ BD = CE
b/ OEB = ODC
c/ AO l tia phn gic ca gc BAC .
Nm h c: 2011-2012
10