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n tt nghip

Thit k dao c rng


Trng HBK H Ni Cng ha x hi ch ngha Vit Nam
c lp - T do - Hnh phc
-------------------------------
Khoa: C kh
Ngnh: ch to my
Nhim v:
Thit k tt nghip
H v tn sinh vin:
Lp: CH08 CTM12
1. u thit k:
Thit k v lp quy trnh cng ngh ch to c rng
2. Cc thng s ban u:
- Chi tit gia cng: Cp bnh rng
22
24
2
1

Z
Z
; m=4; gc n
khp
0
0
20
; h s dch chnh
0
- Sn xut hng lot nh.
- Thit b cng ty dng c cng nghip s 1 v xng C8
3. Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton:
- Thuyt minh phn nguyn l c v cc phng php c
rng.
- Thuyt minh phn tnh ton mt nguyn dao c.
- Thuyt minh phn tnh ton dao.
- Thuyt minh phn quy trnh cng ngh ch ta dao c.
- Thuyt minh phn quy trnh cng ngh, tnh ton lng
d, ch ct.
- Thuyt minh phn thit k g.
4. Cc bn v:
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Bn v chi tit cn c: 1 A0
- Bn v nguyn l c: 1 A0
- Bn v ch to dao c: 1 A0
- Bn v quy trnh cng ngh: 4 A0
- Bn v g: 1 A0
5. Thi gian thc hin t: 01/03/2011 n
30/4/2012.
H Ni, ngy thng 4
nm 2012
Cn b hng
dn:
PGS.TS Trnh Minh T
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Nhn xt ca ging vin hng dn

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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
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Nhn xt ca ging vin duyt

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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

Li ni u
Chng ta ang thc hin s nghip cng nghip ha v
hin i ha t nc tin ti nm 2020 c bn tr thnh
nc cng nghip tin tin. Vn l mt nc lc hu, ch yu l
nng nghip vi nng sut thp, pht trin mt cch phin
din nn cch mng khoa hc chim mt v tr v cng quan
trng trong cng cuc cng nghip ha v hin i ha t
nc. xy dng thnh cng ch ngha x hi th phi to
c s vt cht, k thut tht di do, cng nghip tht hin
i, khoa hc k thut tin tin.
Cng ngh ch to my l ngnh ng vai tr xng sng
ca nn kinh t quc dn. N chim mt v tr v cng quan
trng trong cuc cch mng khoa hc k thut. L v tr hng
u nng cao cht lng sn phm v nng sut lao
ng. Ngnh cng ngh ch to my lm c s cho tt c
cc ngnh khc ca nn kinh t quc dn pht trin.
Trong cng ngh ch to my th cng ngh ch to dao
(dng c ct) kim loi chim mt v tr v cng quan trng,
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
to ln. Bn cnh nhng my mc hin i, cc bin php cng
ngh tin tin, th rt cn thit phi c mt khi lng dao
ct ln phong ph v c cht lng ngoi vic s dng vt liu
ch to dao m bo tnh nng ct dao cn i hi v ch
chnh xc cao.
i i vi s nghip pht trin ca ngnh cng ngh ch
to my, cng ngh ch to dao cng cn phI pht trin cho
ph hp vi nhip . Cc yu cu v tnh ton thit k cng
i hi chnh xc v hp l hn, chng loi dao ngy
cng nhiu v phc tp hn.
Ngy nay ta c vin my v dng c cng nghip (IMI),
cng ty dng c ct s 1 tp trung nghin cu, ch to dao,
phc v cho ngnh cng nghip ca t nc ang ngy mt
i ln.
Bnh rng l mt chi tit my c dng rt ph bin trong
cc my mc c kh cng nh cc ngnh kinh t khc nh: giao
thng, vn ti, hng hi, hng khng, m N l chi tit
truyn v bin i chuyn ng. Bnh rng l mt chi tit
m i hi chnh xc ch to cao, nht l trong cc my
mc hin i. Do vy vic ch to bnh rng cng i hi c
cc dng c ct bnh rng hin i, chnh xc.
C rt nhiu phng php ch to bnh rng nh: phay
rng, xc rng, mi rng, c rng
Phng php c rng l mt phng php gia cng tinh bnh
rng thng hoc nghing, n khp ngoi hoc n khp trong.
y l loi dng c lm tng chnh xc v gim nhm
b mt ca bnh rng sau khi gia cng bng ct gt.
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
C rng c nng sut tng i cao t chnh xc t
cp 6 cp 8 v khi c th chnh xc v bc rng, profin
rng, hng rng v o profin rng c tng ln mt cp.
Khi c th sai s tch ly bc rng khng sa c v o
hng knh bnh rng thng ln hn sai s tch ly bc vng.
Dao c rng c chia ra lm cc loi:
- Dao c thanh rng: gm nhng thanh rng bn sn
rng c s nhng rnh phi.
Khi lm vic bnh rng c c lp lng trn trc g chng
tm v n khp vi dao c. Dao c c g trn bn my c
chuyn ng tnh tin qua li.
Khi c bnh rng thng ngi ta dng thanh rng nghing v
ngc li khi c bnh rng nghing ngi ta dng dao c thanh
rng thng. Chiu rng ca dao c thanh rng thng ly t 3
4 ln chiu rng bnh rng c th thay i v tr tng
i ca phI v dao c theo phng ngang lm tng tui
bn ca dao.
- Dao c hnh a: Thc cht l mt bnh rng tr rng
thng hoc rng nghing trn mt rng c xc cc rnh to
thnh cc li ct. Khi lm vic th dao c v bnh rng gia
cng n khp vi nhau khng khe h v to ln chuyn ng
xon vt tng i vi nhau. Trc ca dao c v trc ca bnh
rng t cho nhau i mt gc. Mi dao c c th mi sc
li 5 ln v mi ln mi sc li th dao c th gia cng t
300 500 bnh rng, loi ny c dng ph bin trong thc t.
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Vy c rng l mt phng php gia cng tinh bnh rng
mang li hiu qu kinh t cao hin nay ang c dng rng
ri.
nh gi kt qu hc tp sau 3 nm hc tp ti trng
em c phn cng lm n tt nghip ti b mn Gia cng
vt liu v dng c cng nghip, vi ti tt nghip:
Thit k ch to dao c rng hnh a gia cng
bnh rng Z
1
trong cp bnh rng:
22
24
2
1

Z
Z
; m = 4.
Cng vi s hng dn ca thy PGS.TS Trnh Minh T
Sau thi gian lm vic chng em tnh ton cc thng s
hnh hc ca dao c mi v dao c mi sc li ln cui trn
c s tm mt nguyn dao c. Tin hnh lp quy trnh
cng ngh dao v thit k g cho mt s nguyn cng
chnh gia cng ch to dao c.
Trong qu trnh nghin cu v l lun v thc tin
hon thnh n ny chng em nhn c s gip
nhit tnh ca Thy cng cc thy c gio trong b mn Gia
cng vt liu v dng c cng nghip, kt hp vi s n lc
ca bn thn nhng do trnh v kin thc thc t cn hn
ch nn bn n khng trnh khi nhng thiu st. V vy
chng em knh mong cc Thy cc c gp thm kin
em c iu kin b sung, nng cao kin thc trong cng
tc thc t sau ny.
Chng em xin chn thnh cm n!
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Chng I:
Tng quan v dao c rng
Dng c ct bnh rng trc khi c
c lng d ct gt trc khi c rng t 0,04 0,06 mm
dng c ct bnh rng trc khi c, ngoi vic gim chiu dy
rng cho ph hp vi tr s lng d c rng ra, cc rng cn
c hnh dng c bit.
Qu trnh ct c m bo do s trt gia cc profin rng
dao v rng bnh rng gia cng. S trt ny ch tn ti cc
mt bn ca rng dao cn nh rng dao th khng c,
y cng khng c gc sau. Do iu kin lm vic
nh dao khng tt v khi b qu tI d b gy. c bit
khng cho php nh rng dao ct y rnh rng bnh rng
gia cng v ct ng cong chuyn tip to nn khi ct bnh
rng s b (ct bng dao phay ln hoc dao xc rng); nu
nh rng dao v ng cong chuyn tip tip xc vi nhau
th s gy ra hin tng n khp mp rng v do vy ph hoi
s n khp chnh xc gia dao c v bnh rng gia cng khi
c. m bo cho dao c rng lm vic ng cn la chn
mt cch hp l hnh dng v lng d c. Lng d chn
rng phI gim xung s khng. y chiu dy nh rng
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
dao c tng ln mt lng xp x bng lng d c mi pha,
tc l vi chiu dy t 0,04 n 0,06 mm chiu cao rng dao
c xc nh v bnh rng gia cng tt. Khi c nh dao
ct khng tip vi y rnh rng ca bnh rng gia cng.
Lng d nh rng ca bnh rng cn gim xung. Mun
vy phI c bit ngh ti vic tng chiu dy chn rng
ca cc dn c ct s b.
Nhng dng chn rng dao xc v dao phay ln ni trn
ch to kh khn. Do ngi ta ch to hai loi dao ct s
b ny vi hnh dng khc ca rng vi lng d thay i u
n. y profin rng ca dao phay ln c ch to theo
hai ng thng vung gc v gia cng dao xc rng theo hai
ng thn khai. Ngi ta ch to dao xc rng vi lng d dch
chnh ca tit din khi thy a hoc l nh, hoc l c gi
tr m. Khi dng cc dao xc rng ny ct bnh rng gc n
khp ca bnh rng gim, lm cho tm tch gia cng xch
dn n phn chn ca profin chi tit v do gim chiu
dy ng cong chuyn tip.
1. Phn tch tc ct v gc g dao:
1.1 Ct bnh rng bng dao c thanh rng:
Do chuyn ng tnh tin qua li ca dao c, c sau mt
hnh trnh phi dch chuyn ny nh tng dch chuyn ca
AC v CB.
AC: dch chuyn do tr ln ca bnh rng ln khng trt
trn mt rng nn khng trt trn mt rng ca dao c gy
ln.
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
CB: dch chuyn do s trt rng dao c dc rng ca bnh
rng gy ra, chnh l tc ct khi c.

?
u
A
B
C
Hnh 1.1: Nguyn l c dao c thanh
rng
Chiu di dao c thanh rng:
L =
) 2 (
cos
.
+ Z
m
u
n


Trong :
m
n
: moodun php tuyn ca bnh rng.
u

: gc nghing ca rng dao c.


Z: s rng ca bnh rng gia cng.
1.2 Ct bnh rng nghing bng dao c rng
nghing:
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

?

o
t
d
V'
1
V
1
V'
2
V
2
V
ot
V
3
phi
dao
Hnh 1.2: Ct bnh rng nghing bng dao c rng
nghing
1.2.1 Gc g dao:
Gc g dao

l gc to gia trc ca dao v bnh rng gia


cng chuyn ln mt phng gia cng chiu ln mt phng
song song vi trc ca dao v bnh rng gia cng.
Khi g dao gia cng th hng rng dao v hng rng chi
tit phi trng nhau. Do m gc nghing
ot

ca rng chi
tit gia cng v gc nghing
d

ca rng dao c nh hng


n gc g dao

.

d t
+
0
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Trong trng hp chiu nghing rng dao v chiu nghing
chi tit cng ly du (-), nu khc ly du (+).
1.2.2 Tc ct:
Khi gia cng bnh rng bng dao c rng th dao c v chi
tit gia cng n khp vi nhau. Do c c chuyn ng t
ng c ra v chi tit c chuyn ng b ng.
Tc ca dao:
1
V =
'
1
V
+
'
2
V
1
V thng gc vi mt rng
1
V = V
1
cos
d

1
V tip tuyn vi mt rng V
2
= V
1
sin
d


1
V =
'
2
V
+
3
V
'
2
V
vung gc vi trc ca chi tit gia cng y chi tit
quay.

'
2
V
=
t t
V V
0
1
0
'
1
cos
cos
cos


3
V tip tuyn vi hng rng
V
3
=
d t d
tg V tg V cos .
0 1
'
1

Tc ct:

1
V =
'
2
V
+
3
V
V
1
=
) cos . (sin
0 1 3
; '
2 d t d
V V V + t
Du (+) khi chiu nghing rng ca dao v chi tit cng
chiu.
Du (-) khi chiu nghing rng ca dao v chi tit khc
chiu.
1.3 Ct bnh rng thng bng dao c rng
nghing:
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

u
V
CKU
V
U
V
1
= V
n
?
Hnh: 1.3: Ct bnh rng thng bng dao c rng nghing
Tng t nh trn:
V
2
= 0; V
1
=
'
1
V
Nn:
3
V V
cat

M: V
3
= V
1
tg
t 0

Vy: V
ct
= V
1
tg
t 0

* So snh 3 phng php c:


Trong 3 phng php c trn th dao c thanh rng ch to
v lp rp kh dng trong sn xut hng khi.
Phng php ct bnh rng nghing bng dao c rng
nghing phc tp.
Theo u thit k bnh rng cn l bnh rng trc
rng thng nn ta chn phng php c: ct bnh rng thng
bng dao c rng nghing.
2. Phn loi dao c rng v cc ph ng php c rng:
2.1 Phn loi:
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Dao c thng dng c 2 loi: dao c thanh rng v dao c
hnh a.
- Dao c hnh thang rng: c dng thanh rng nghing.
Ngi ta ch to cc rng dao v ghp li vi nhau c
thanh rng dao c nh hnh v trn.
- Dao c hnh a: l mt bnh rng tr rng nghing.
C 2 loi dao c hnh thang v hnh a u c th ct
gt c kim loi. Trn mt bn ca rng dao c x cc rnh.

+ C nhiu loi rnh:
- Rnh song song vi mt u ca dao, loi rnh ny c
gc trc 2 bn khc nhau v khc 0 nn loi ny khng
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
tt v nh vy cht lng b mt gia cng s khng u
nhau.

Hnh 1.6: rnh song song vi mt u ca dao
- Rnh vung gc vi mt bn ca dao. Loi rnh ny v to
nn c gc trc bng nhau v bng 0 nn tt hn.
hnh 1.7: Rnh song song vi mt u ca dao
- Rnh hnh thang:

Hnh 1.8: rnh hnh thang
+ y rnh cng c nhiu loi:
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Loi y rnh thng xc mt lt: chiu cao ca rng thay
i khng u. Tui bn ca dao khng cao, ch dng vi
cc modun nh:
m 3mm
- Loi y rnh thng, xc 2 lt, chiu dy rnh thay i t-
ng i u, tui bn ca dao c cao hn, dng cho cc
modun ln hn:
m 3,5mm
- Loi rnh cong hnh thn khai: vi loi y rnh ny chiu
cao ca rng thay i rt u do tui bn ca dao c
tng ln. Nhng kh ch to do phi hp chuyn ng kh
khn. Loi ny t c s dng.
- Loi rnh thng: c bnh rng c modun nh (m < 1mm)
(v cc kch thc nh nn rt kh x rnh trn mt bn ca
rnh dao)
Dao c rng cng c th dng gia cng bnh rng c kch
thc ln nh bnh rng ch V trn cc tuabin. c tin hnh trn
cc my chuyn dng hoc trn cc my ln rng ci tin.
trn y bnh rng l bnh ch ng, cn dao c c lp
trn trc quay ca b phn g lp, chuyn ng chy dao
cng bc song song vi trc bnh rng v dao c quay cng
bc.
2.2 Cc phng php c rng:
C rng c rt nhiu phng php, cc phng php c
phn bit vi nhau bng phng chuyn ng ca bn ma
mang chi tit gia cng. chnh l phn bit bng gc dch
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Thit k dao c rng
chuyn ca bn my to bi ng tm ca chi tit gia cng
v hng dch chuyn ca bn my S.
Ta c cc phng php:
2.2.1 Phng php c thng thng: (cn gi l phng php
c song song):
?
S
L
Hnh: 2.2.1.1: phng php c thng thng
Hng dch chuyn S ca bn my song song vi ng ca chi
tit gia cng.
phng php ny lng dch chuyn ca bn my bng chiu
dy ca bnh rng gia cng.
L = B
ct
L: chiu dy ca bnh rng gia cng.
B
ct
: ng knh ca chi tit gia cng.
Trong qu trnh gia cng, tip xc tc thi gia dao c v
bnh rng gia cng l tip xc im (v tip xc ca mt
cp mt vt l tip xc im).
im tip xc ny v ng n khp (ng to profin rng)
ch dch chuyn theo chiu dy dao c.
1.2.2 Phng php c cho:
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
C 3 phng php c cho:
Phng php c cho th nht:
L
I
II
L
.
s
.
Hnh 2.2.1.2: phng php c cho th nht
Hng dch chuyn S ca bn my to vi trc ca phi mt
gc nm cng pha vi gc g dao so vi trc ca chi tit gia
cng v

<90
0
.
S nguyn l phng php c cho th nht.
Khi bt u chuyn ng S, im tip xc (im to
hnh) v tr I. Trong qu trnh chuyn ng ct v to
hnh im tip xc di chuyn dn n im II cui
hnh trnh. im n khp dch chuyn t u ny ca rng
dao n u kia ca rng dao. Tt c cc rng ct u ln
lt tham gia ct gt. iu lm cho qu trnh gia cng d
dng hn v tui bn ca dao cao hn.
Phng php c cho th hai v th ba cng c qu trnh
chuyn ng ca im tip xc nh trn.
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Vi phng php ny chiu rng dao c v lng dch chuyn
tng i ln.
B
d
= B
ct
) sin(
sin


L = B
ct
) sin(
sin

* Phng php c cho th hai:


II
L
.
s
.
Hnh 2.2.1.3: phng php c cho th 2
Hng dch chuyn S ca bn my to vi trc ca phi gc
khc pha vi gc g dao so vi trc ca phi v <
0
90 .
phng php ny im tip xc cng dch chuyn dn
t im I n im II t u n cui hnh trnh ca
bn my, t u ny ca rng dao n u kia ca rng
dao.
S nguyn l phng php c cho th hai.
phng php ny chiu rng ca dao
d

v lng dch
chuyn ca bn my c gim I so vi phng php c cho
th nht.
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Ta c chiu rng ca dao v hnh trnh L ca bn my.
B
d
> B
ct
) sin(
sin

+
L = B
ct
) sin(
sin

+
c chiu rng dao
d

v lng dch chuyn L nh nht ta


c phng php c cho th ba.
Phng php c cho th ba:
L
.
.
I
II
s
hnh 2.2.1.4: phng php c cho th ba
Vi phng php ny, hng dch chuyn S ca bn my
vung gc vi trc dao c, to vi trc ca chi tit gia cng gc

0
90 , khc pha vi gc g dao so vi trc ca chi tit gia
cng.
S nguyn l phng php c cho th ba.
phng php ny t u hnh trnh S n cui hnh
trnh S ca bn my im tip xc (im to hnh) cng
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
dch chuyn t im I n im II theo chiu di ca rng
dao.
y l phng php c c chiu dy dao
d

v lng dch
chuyn S ca bn my l nh nht. V vy y l phng
php c vi lng chy dao L nh nht.
B
d
> B
ct
) sin(
sin

+
L = B
ot
sin

Lng chy qu ca dao trong phng php ny cng nh


hn, c th khng qu 3mm.
y l phng php gia cng c nng sut nht tng t 1,2
2 ln so vi phng php c thng thng.
1.2.3 Phng php c tip tuyn:
I
II
s
.
.
L
Hnh 2.2.1.5 phng php c tip tuyn
Phng php c tip tuyn cn gi l phng php c vung
gc.
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n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
phng php ny hng chuyn dao S ca bn my vung
gc vi trc ca bnh rng dao trong qu trnh dch chuyn
ca bn my.
Chiu rng dao c:
B
d
=
cos
ct
B
Lng dch chuyn S ca bn my:
L = B
0t
tg

phng php ny khng c thnh phn dch chuyn theo


trc ca dao c. Nn khi gia cng bng dao c thng thng c
cc rnh dao nm trn cng mt mt phng song song vi
mt u s gy ra qu trnh lp li trong ct gt nn b
mt bnh rng sau khi gia cng c gn sng. Chiu cao nhp
nh c th t 0,005 0,02, nn khng dng dao thng thng
gia cng c phng php gia cng ny m phi dng
loi dao c m cc rnh trn mt rng dao khng nm trn
cng mt phng song song vi mt u dao. S x dch rnh
trn hai dao rng bng nhau t s v bc ca rnh v s rng
ca dao.
y l phng php c m khi lm vic cc li ct chu tI
u nhau do mi mn gim xung, tui bn ca dao
tng ln, c khi tng 50% so vi dao c thng dng, chiu di
hnh trnh gim xung.
phng php ny c bit l qu trnh ng hc gim
xung n gin ta c th thc hin gia cng trn cc my
vn nng v d nh: my phay nm ngang.
25
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Chng II:
Thit k dao c rng
1. Thit k bnh rng cha c:
V qu trnh ct gt bnh rng khi c c m bo do s
trt gia profin rng ca dao c v profin rng ca bnh rng
gia cng, s trt ny ch xy ra cc mt bn ca rng dao
cn nh v chn rng khng c.
V vy bnh rng trc khi c th ch c lng d mt bn
ca rng bnh rng, cn lng d chn v nh rng th hu
nh bng 0, v lng d ng cong chuyn tip cng bng 0.
V vy hnh phi c to thnh t hnh dng dao phay ln
v dao xc rng c cc nh dao dy.
26
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Cc thng s ca bnh rng trc khi c:
Z
1
= 24
0
20
m = 4
0
1

Thng s ca bnh rng n khp vi n:
Z
2
= 22
0
20
m = 4
0
1

1.1 ng knh vng chia ca hai bnh rng n khp:
d
c1
= m.Z
1
= 4.24 = 96(mm)
d
c2
= m.Z
2
= 4.22 = 88(mm)
1.2 ng knh vng c s ca hai bnh rng n khp:
d
01
= d
c1
cos

= 96 cos 20
0
=90,211 (mm)
Chn d
01
= 90,211mm
d
02
= d
c2
cos

= 88 cos 20
0
= 82,694 (mm)
Chn d
02
= 82,694
1.3 ng knh vng nh ca hai bnh rng n khp:
d
e1
= d
c1
+ 2m = 96 + 2.4 = 104(mm)
d
e2
= d
c2
+ 2m = 88 + 2.4 = 96(mm)
1.4 Bc rng trn vng chia ca bnh rng:
t =
m .
= 3,14.4 = 12,56(mm)
1.5 Chiu dy rng trn vng chia ca bnh rng:
S =
mtg t 2
2
1
+
V tg

= 0 nn: S =
56 , 12 .
2
1
= 6,28(mm)
1.6 Chiu di lm vic ca ng n khp l thuyt:
l = (
2
2
2
01
2
1 e e
D d D + ). 0,5 - A
12
sin
a

27
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Trong : A
12
l khong cch gia hai tm ca b truyn
A
12
=
2
) 22 24 ( 4
2
) (
2 1
+

+ Z Z m
= 92(mm)
V y l cp bnh rng thng nn:

0
20
a
Vy thay s vo ta c:
l = (
2 2 2 2
692 , 82 96 211 , 90 104 + )0,5 - 92sin20
0
=
19(mm)
1.7 Bn knh cong ti im u tin ca phn profin
lm vic:

2
01
2
1
5 , 0 d D
e
-l = 0,5
2 2
90 104
- 19 = 7(mm)
1.8 Khong iu chnh cn thit ca profin rng
dao c:
l =
3420 , 0
6 , 0
20 sin
4 . 15 , 0
sin
. 15 , 0
0
0

m
1.9 H s trng khp khi bnh rng n khp vi dao c:
74 , 1
20 cos . 4 . 14 , 3 . 90 sin
75 , 1 19
cos . . . sin
0 0
1

c
m
l

: gc nng ca ng vt trn hnh tr c s ca bnh


rng.
V bnh rng gia cng l bnh rng thng nn = 90
0
2. Xc nh mt nguyn dao c:
2.1 Cc phng php xc nh mt nguyn.
2.1.1 Phng php xc nh bao hnh c in:
28
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
C s ca phng php bao hnh c in l da trn
nguyn l: tm ng bao ca h ng cong.
Khi gia cng bng phng php bao hnh th mt ca chi
tit l mt bao ca h cc vt dng c trn h ta gn
vi chi tit.
V ngc li mt ca dng c l mt bao ca h mt chi
tit trn h ta gn vi dng c.
*c im ca phng php ny l khi lng tnh ton
nhiu v rt phc tp. N ch p dng trong nhng bi ton
n gin.
*Ni dung ca ph ng php bao hnh c in:
- Tm bao hnh h mt mt tham s bng phng
php bao hnh c in:
+ Khi phng trnh chi tit cho di dng:
F
1
(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
,
1

) = 0 (1-A)
V b mt bn rng ca chi tit lin tc khng c im
k d nn mt bn rng ca chi tit khng tn ti cc o
hm ring bng khng, tc l:

0
1
1
1
1
1
1

F
y
F
x
F
x
1
y
1
z
1
Do theo hnh hc vi phn ta c th vit:
z
1
= f(x
1
, y
1
)
Dng cng thc chuyn ta ta c s lin h gia ta
ca h H
1
(ta gn cht vi chi tit) vi ta ca
h H
2
(h ta gn cht vi dao).
Ta c:
29
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

'

) , , , , (
) , , , , (
) , , , , (
12 1 2 2 2 1 1
12 1 2 2 2 1 1
12 1 2 2 2 1 1
i z y x z z
i z y x y y
i z y x x x

(2-A)
Nu thay (2-A) vo (1-A) v rt gn ta c phng trnh h
mt chi tit trong h mt dao.
F
2
(
12 1 2 2 2
, , , , i z y x
) = 0 (3-A)
Mt nguyn ca dao c l bao hnh ca h mt:
F
2
((
12 1 2 2 2
, , , , i z y x
)
1

)
Theo ti liu hnh giI tch ta c:
F
2
(
12 1 2 2 2
, , , , i z y x
) = 0

1

F
2
(
12 1 2 2 2
, , , , i z y x
) = 0 (4-A)
H (4-A) l phng trnh mt bao.
+ Phng trnh chi tit cho di dng ta li.
r
1
= x
1
(u
1
,v
1
)
1
i + y
1
(u
1
,v
1
)
1
j + z
1
(u
1
,v
1
)
1
k (5-A)
Trong : u
1
,v
1
l cc ta li.
Tng t nh trn p dng cng thc (2-A) vo cng thc (5-
A) ta c phng trnh hc mt chi tit trong h dng c:
r
2
= x
2
(u
1
,v
1
,
1

)
1
i + y
2
(u
1
,v
1
,
1

)
1
j + z
2
(u
1
,v
1
,
1

)
1
k
(6-A)
Trong
1

l thng s xc nh h. Mt bao ca h
mt phI m bo iu kin c mt phng tip tuyn
chung do 3 vc t:
r
2
r
2
r
2

1
2
u
r


1
2
u
r


1
2
u
r


phi ng phng
30
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Tc l phI tha mn iu kin tch hn hp bng 0.

1
2
1
2
1
2
( .
u
r
v
r r

)=0 (8-A)
T phng trnh (8-A) ta c th bin i thnh phng
trnh di dng: u
1
= u(v
1
,
1

)
V lc phng trnh hnh bao ca h mt cho di dng
ta li c th vit:
r
2
= x
2
(u
1
,v
1
,
1

)
2
i + y
2
(u
1
,v
1
,
1

)
2
j + z
2
(u
1
,v
1
,
1

)
2
k
(9-A)

1
2
1
2
1
2
( .
u
r
v
r r

)=0
- Bao hnh h mt hai tham s:
+ Khi phng trnh ca h mt chi tit trong h dao c
dng:
F
2
(
, , , ,
2 2 2
z y x
) = 0
Trong :
,
l hai thng s c lp xc nh h. Phng
trnh c dng:

'

0
0
0 ) , , , , (
2
2
2 2 2 2


F
F
z y x F
(10-A)
+ Khi phng trnh ca h mt chi tit trong h dao c
dng:
r
2
= x
2
(u
1
,v
1
,
,
)
Trong :
,
l hai thng s c lp xc nh h(u,v) l
ta li.
31
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Vy phng trnh hnh bao c dng:

'

0 ) .(
0 ) .(
) , , , (
1
2
1
2 2
1
2
1
2 2
1 1 2 2
u
r
v
r r
u
r
v
r r
v u f r


l phng trnh hnh bao ca h mt chi tit.
2.2.2 Phng php bao hnh ng hc:
C s ca phng php ny l nh l v n khp khng
gian. Ti im bt k ca b mt chi tit vc t vn tc t-
ng i nm trong mt phng tip tuyn chung ca hai b
mt ti im tip xc tc l trong chuyn ng tng i
mt chi tit v mt bao ch trt nhau v vc t vn tc
trong chuyn ng tng i trong mt phng tip tuyn
ti im tip xc.
- Bao hnh h mt mt tham s:
+ Khi mt chi tit cho bi phng trnh:
x
1
=x
1
(u
1
,v
1
); y
1
=y
1
(u
1
,v
1
); z
1
=z
1
(u
1
,v
1
)
Th phng trnh ng tip xc trn h H
1
s l:
x
1
=x
1
(u
1
,v
1
); y
1
=y
1
(u
1
,v
1
); z
1
=z
1
(u
1
,v
1
)
0 .
1 1
v n (11-A)
Trong :
1
n l vc t php ca mt chi tit
1
v l vc t vn tc ca chuyn ng tng ng.

2 , 1
1
v = (
) 2 , 1 (
1
) 2 , 1 (
1
) 2 , 1 (
1
, ,
z y x
v v v
)
32
0
s
y
2
y
02
x
1
y
2
y
02
s
x
02
x
01
= x
02
x
2
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
tm thnh phn:
2 , 1
1
v = (
) 2 , 1 (
1
) 2 , 1 (
1
) 2 , 1 (
1
, ,
z y x
v v v
)
Theo roxman ta lm theo th t: x
01

x
02
- Dng cng thc bin i ta t H
1
sang H
2

- ta c:

'

) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (
2 2 2 2 1 1
2 2 2 2 1 1
2 2 2 2 1 1

z y x z z
z y x y y
z y x x x
- Tm cc o hm ring:

1
1

x
;
1
1

y
;
1
1

z
- i ngc t H
2
sang H
1
:

'

) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2

z y x z z
z y x y y
z y x x x
p dng cho hai trng hp cho nhau mt gc khong cch
ngn nht l A ta c:

'

+
+

) sin cos ( sin
cos sin sin ) cos 1 (
sin cos cos sin ) cos 1 (
1 1 1 1 21
) 2 , 1 (
1
1 21 1 21 1 21
) 2 , 1 (
1
1 21 1 21 1 21
) 2 , 1 (
1
A y x i V
Ai i z i x V
Ai i z i y V
x
x
x



(12-A)
Khi phng trnh ng n khp trong h 1 l:

'

+

0 , . ; . .
) , ( ); , ( ); , (
1 1 1 1 1 1
12 1 1 12 1 1 12 1 1
Z v n v n v n
v u z z v u y y v u x x
z z y y x x
(13-A)
Trong :
k n j n i n n
z y x
. . .
1 1 1 1
+ + l vc t php ca mt l.
33
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

'

u
z
v
y
v
y
u
y
n
u
z
v
y
v
y
u
y
n
u
z
v
y
v
y
u
y
n
y
y
x
1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1
1
. .
. .
. .
(14-A)
Thay cng thc (12-A) vo cng thc (14-A) vo phng
trnh (13-A) v rt gn ta c phng trnh:
f
1
(u,v,
1

) = 0
do phng trnh ng tip xc trong h chi tit H
1
l:

'


0 ) , , (
) , ( ); , ( ); , (
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
v u f
v u z z v u y y v u x x
(15-A)
Phng trnh mt dng c c tm bng cch chuyn ph-
ng trnh (15-A) sang h H
2
.

'

1 21 2
1 1
.
0 ) , , (
r M r
v u f
(16-A)
Trong M
21
l ma trn chuyn t 1 n 2
Vi hai trc cho nhau mt gc

, cch nhau khong A th:

'

+ +
+ +
+
+




cos cos sin sin sin
sin sin cos ) 2 cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 (sin ) cos cos sin (sin
cos sin sin
) cos sin cos cos (sin ) cos sin sin cos (cos
1 1 1 2
2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2
2 2 1
2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2
z y x z
A z y x y
z
y x x

(17-A)
- Bao hnh h mt hai tham s:
Nu h mt cho bi phng trnh:
r
1
= r
1
(u,v)
34
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
V chuyn ng tng i gia khu 1 v khu 2 c
xc nh bi hai thng s c lp v th im tip xc
ca dng c v chi tit trong h 1 c xc nh bng ph-
ng trnh:
r
1
= r
1
(u,v) = 0 (18-A)

) 4 , 12 (
1 1
.v n =0
Trong :
k n j n i n n
x y x
. . .
1 1 1 1
+ + l vc t php ca mt chi tit
v c xc nh theo cng thc (14-A)

'

1 ) , 12 (
1
1 ) , 12 (
1
r
v
r
v
Trong v
1
l cc vn tc tng i. Nu thay th n
1
bng
cc thng s b mt (u,v) v thay
) , 12 (
1

v v
) , 12 (
1

v bng cc
thng s chuyn ng (
,
) v thng s b mt (u,v) ta
c phng trnh im tip xc trong h chi tit:

'

0 ) , , , (
0 ) , , , (
) , (
1 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
1 1


v u f
v u f
v u r r
(19-A)
Phng trnh mt nguyn dao c c xc nh bng cch
chuyn (19-A) sang h dao:

'

0 ) , , , (
0 ) , , , (
.
1 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
21 1 2


v u f
v u f
M r r
(20-A)
1.3 Cc phng php bao hnh ng hc ci tin:
35
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
tm mt nguyn dao c thun tin v nhanh chng t-
ng ng vi tong trng hp c th trong thc t ta dng cc
phng php cI tin sau:
2.3.1 Phng php: ROXMAN
C s ca phng php ny l l thuyt n khp khng gian.
- c im ca phng php: tm phng trnh
hnh bao ta xc nh trc tip phng trnh tip xc
trn h chi tit (hoc c th trn h trung gian bt k
no ). Sau khi xc nh c ng tip xc ta
chuyn v h dng c ta c mt nguyn dao c.
Do m vic tnh ton theo phng php ny c u im
hn rt nhiu so vi phng php bao hnh c in.
Cch tm ng tip xc theo phng php Roxman:
+ Tm mi quan h gia h ta chi tit h H
1
vi h
ta ca h dao c H
2
thng qua ma trn chuyn i:

'

) , , , , (
) , , , , (
) , , , , (
12 1 2 2 2 1 1
12 1 2 2 2 1 1
12 1 2 2 2 1 1
i z y x z z
i z y x y y
i z y x x x

(21-A)
- Khi phng trnh chi tit cho di dng n:
F
1
(x
1
,y
1
,z
1
)= 0
Phng trnh ng tip xc trong h H
1

[ ]

'

0 ) , , , ( ); , , , ( ); , , , (
0 ) , , (
1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1
1
1 1 1 1
z y x z z y x y z y x x
x
F
z y x F
Hoc:

'

0 . . .
0 ) , , (
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1 1 1 1

F F y
y
F x
x
F
z y x F
36
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Phng trnh cho di dng thng s:
x
1
=x
1
(u,v); y
1
=y
1
(u,v); z
1
=z
1
(u,v)
Khi phng trnh ng tip xc c dng:

'


0 . ; . .
) , ( ); , ( ); , (
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1 1


z y x
n
y
n
x
n
v u z z v u y y v u x x
Trong : n (n
x1
,n
y1
,n
z1
) l vc t php ca mt tip xc vi
mt chi tip v c xc nh theo cng thc (14-A)
2.3.2 Phng php xc nh mt nguyn bng thanh
rng trung gian:
- C s ca phng php ny l: khi gia cng bnh rng v
dao c cng n khp vi mt thanh rng trung gian. y l
thanh rng tng tng c chiu dy bng 0.
- c im ca phng php ny l n gin ha m
hnh tnh ton, thng p dng khi gia cng bnh rng bng
dao c c mt nguyn dng h licoit. Do khi tm mt
nguyn theo phng php ny ta tin hnh giI hai bi ton:
+ Tm bin hnh thanh rng khi bit bin hnh chi tit.
+ Tm bin dng c khi bit bin hnh thanh rng.
Ta c th tng kt vic xc nh mt nguyn dao c
bng thanh rng trung gian theo s sau:
37
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Phng php vc t c trng tip xc:
C s ca phng php ny: da vo iu kin, tnh cht
ca b mt i tip v c im ring ca tng loi b
mt chi tit tm ng tip xc.
c im ca phng php ny: so vi cc phng php
khc l tnh ton n gin hn.
*Ni dung ca phng php vc t c trng tip
xc:
+ Vc t c tr ng tip xc ca h cc b mt.
Khi hai mt tip xc vi nhau ti im tip xc, ng
thuc mt ny tip xc vi mt kia. Ngha l vc t tip
tuyn ca ng trn mt ny tip tuyn vi mt kia.
Thanh rng trung
gian
Bin dng chi tit
C im p
Hai thanh ln ca hai
thanh rng trung gian
trng nhau
Khng c im
p
Hai mt ln ca hai
than rng trung gian
0 trng nhau
38
M l chiu ca p ln
mt chi tit
Gii bng gii
tch
Gii bng
thc
P: cc to hnh(cc n
khp)
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Do nghin cu s tip xc ca cc b mt ta s
xc nh cc ng c trng in hnh trn tng lp mt.
Tng ng ta c vc t c trng tip xc ti mi im ca
lp mt do gip ta nghin cu c lp mt n gin.
+,Mt s mt n gin:
* Lp mt helicoit:
- Cc lp mt helicoit c chia thnh cc lp theo hng
xon p.
- Lp mt helicoit c ng c trng chung l ton b -
ng xon vi hng s p, b ng xon ny ph ton b lp
b mt c chung p v trc xon.
- Vc t c trng tip xc ca lp mt ny l vc t
tip tuyn ca ng xon vt vi hng s p.
- Nu gi z l trc xon ca lp b mt helicoit th vc
t c trng tip xc ca lp mt c xc nh:
* Lp mt trn xoay:
- Lp mt trn xoay cng chung trc z th h c ph
ton b lp b mt l cc ng trn to bi cc im quay
quanh z. Cc ng c trng l cc ng trn ca lp b
mt.
Do vc t c trng tip xc l ng tip tuyn vi
ng trn.
Z

X

39
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

'

0
z
y
x
x
x x
y x
X

* Lp mt tr:
Vi lp mt tr c ng sinh song song vi trc z th -
ng c trng ca n chnh l h ng sinh vc t c tr-
ng tip xc song
song vi -
ng sinh.

'

1
0
0
z
y
x
x
x
x
X
+ Vc t c tr ng tip xc ca vn tc t ng i
c trng cho vn tc tng i ta s dng vc t ch
phng ca n gi l vc t c trng tip xc ca vn tc t-
ng i.
* Chuyn ng tng i l chuyn ng xon vt.
- Hng xon vt p
t
=
t
t
u

Vc t c trng tip xc ca vn tc tng i l vc


t ch phng tip tuyn ca ng xon vt.

'


0
T
tz
t
T
ty
t
T
tx
X
x X
y X
40
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
* Chuyn ng tng i l chuyn ng tnh tin. Z
t
l
phng trnh tnh tin.

'

1
0
0
T
tz
T
ty
T
tx
X
X
X
+ Biu din iu kin tip xc thng qua vc t
c trng tip xc:
Bng cch xc nh cc vc t c trng tip xc cho lp
cc b mt helicoit. Trn xoay tr v cho c kiu chuyn
ng tng i ta biu din s tng i ca lp b mt bi
ba phng trnh:

'

0
0 .
0 .
2
2
1
R
X N
X N
Xc nh mt nguyn dao c bng phng php
c trng tip xc vi p dng bin i tng ng
quay tnh tin.
1. Mc ch v ni dung ca vic xc nh mt
nguyn dao c:
- Mc ch ca vn tm mt nguyn dao c l kim
tra vic tnh ton profin dao v t kt qu nghin cu mt
nguyn dao c ta c c cc ci tin v thng s kt cu v
to iu kin cho cc bc tip theo.
- Ni dung ca vic tm mt nguyn dao c l phI tm
ra cc kt qu sau:
41
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
+ Tm c phng trnh im tip xc trong h H
1
, t
tm ra dng profin rng dao c v bn knh vng c s
ca dao c.
+ Tm phng trnh im tip xc trong h ta v
chi tit lm c s cho qu trnh nghin cu vt to hnh
dao c.
+ a ra iu kin to hnh.
+ Qua vic tm mt nguyn dao c v so snh vi thc
t rt ra kt lun.
- Trong thc t sn xut v theo u thit k cc
bnh rng c gia cng bng phng php c bnh rng
tr rng thng, nn trong phn tm mt nguyn dao c
ta cng p dng cho trng hp khi c bnh rng tr rng
thng lc bi ton ca ta tr thnh bi ton: Tm
mt nguyn khi bnh rng tr rng thng n khp vi
bnh helicoit nn ta ng dng bin i tng quay tnh
tin v p dng phng php vc t c trng tip xc
tm mt nguyn dao c.
2. Tm mt nguyn dao c:
O
I
v O
II
: ng vung gc chung ca 2 trc z
o1
v z
02
z
o1
v z
02
ln lt l trc dao c v trc chi tit.
H H
01
v H
02
l 2 h ta .
H H
2
l h gn vi chi tit trc gia cng.
H H
1
l h chuyn ng tnh tin song song vi trc z
01
vi vn tc:

1
1
1
P U
42
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
( H ta bin i tng ng quay tnh tin)
H H
T
l h thng chuyn ng xon vt tng i.
Hng xon P
T
c xc nh:

2
1
2
1
02 1
cos cos


t t
t
P P
z U P


Z
t
trc xon vt tng i khi p dng bin i tng -
ng quay + tnh tin.
H H
T
c: y
1
// y
01
x
1
// x
01
v v tr ca im OT c xc nh t phng trnh:
U
1
0 ) (
2 2 02
+ z V y
oT

'


+
02 1 1 02 1
02 01 2 2 2 2 2
sin
) ( ) (
j P y U
j X A O O z V
ot
t
OT


V 2 vc t cng phng nn ta c:
-P
1
0 ) ( sin
01 2 1
+
ot
X A

2
1
01
sin


t ot
P
A X
y
T
// y
02
2.1 Cc vc t c trng tip xc ca b truyn:
V mt 2 (mt bnh rng gia cng) l bnh rng tr rng
thng, do vc t c trng tip xc
2
X trong h H
02
l:

'

1
0
0
2
02
2
02
2
02
1
02
z
y
x
X
X
X
X
(1-B)
Vc t c trng tip xc ca mt 1 trong h H
01
. Mt 1
l mt helicoit nn:
43
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

'

1
1
01
01
1
01
01
1
01
1
01
P X
x X
y X
X
z
y
x
(2-B)
Trong chuyn ng tng i vc t c trng tip xc
l vc t tip tuyn vi ng vt ca chuyn ng tng
i.

T
T
X

0
=

'

1 0
01 0
0 0
P X
x X
y X
T
Tz
T
Ty
t
T
Tx
(3-B)
2.2 Ma trn bin i vc t - ma trn bin i
ta v quan h gia cc h ta :
Gi m l ma trn bin i vc t
M l ma trn bin i ta
m
o1.ot
=


cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1

(4-B)
M
o1.ot
=
1 0 0 0
0 cos sin 0
0 sin cos 0
sin
0 0 1
2
1 1


P
A
M
o1.ot
=
1 0 0 0
0 cos sin 0
0 sin cos 0
sin
0 0 1
2
1 1


P
A
m
o2.2
=
1 0 0
0 2 cos 2 sin
0 2 sin 2 cos


(5-B)
M
o2.2
= m
o2.2
44
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
m
o1.02
=


cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1

= m
o1
M
o1.02
=
1 0 0 0
0 cos sin 0
0 sin cos 0
0 0 1


A
m
o1.2
= m
o1.02
. m
o2.2
= m
12
=
1
21

m
m
o1.2
=



cos sin 0
sin cos cos . cos sin
sin sin cos sin cos
2 2 2
2 2 2 2

M
1.2
=
1 0 0 0
cos sin cos sin sin
0 sin cos cos cos sin
0 sin cos
1 2 2
2 2
2 2
P
A



M
2.1
=
0 0 0 0
0 cos sin 0
sin cos . sin sin cos cos cos sin
sin sin . cos sin sin cos sin cos
2 1 1 2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 2 2 2




P A
P A
1 1 0 0 0
cos sin cos sin sin
0 sin cos cos cos sin
0 sin cos
1
2
2
2
1 1 2 2
2 2
2 2
1
1
1
Z
Y
X
P
A
Z
Y
X

'

+ + +
+

1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 1
cos sin ) cos sin (
sin cos ) cos sin (
sin cos



P Z y x Z
Z y x Y
A y x X
(6-B)

1 21 2
.r M r

1
2
2
2
Z
Y
X
0 0 0 0
0 cos sin 0
sin cos . sin sin cos cos cos sin
sin sin . cos sin sin cos sin cos
2 1 1 2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 2 2 2




P A
P A
x
1
1
1
1
Z
Y
X
45
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

'

+
+ + +
+ + +



cos sin
sin sin ) ( cos cos sin ) (
sin sin ) ( cos sin cos ) (
1 2
2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2
2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2
Z y Z
P Z y A x Y
P Z y A x X
(7-B)
M
ot.1
=
0 0 0 0
cos cos sin 0
sin sin cos 0
sin
0 0 1
1 1
1 1
2
1 1


P
P
P
A

+

1
1 . .r M r ot
ot

1
ot
ot
ot
Z
Y
X
0 0 0 0
cos cos sin 0
sin sin cos 0
sin
0 0 1
1 1
1 1
2
1 1


P
P
P
A

+
x
1
1
1
Z
Y
X

'

+
+
+ +



cos ) ( sin
sin ) ( cos
/ sin
2 1 1
2 1 1 1
2 1 1 1
P Z y Z
P Z y Y
P A x X
ot
ot
ot
(8-B)
M
ot.1
=
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 cos sin
sin
0 sin cos
2 2
2
1 1
2 2



P

2
2 . .r M r ot
ot

1
ot
ot
ot
Z
Y
X
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 cos sin
sin
0 sin cos
2 2
2
1 1
2 2



P
x
1
2
2
2
Z
Y
X

'

+
+
2
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 2 2 2
cos sin
/ sin sin cos
o ot
ot
ot
z z
y x y
P y x x


(9-B)
3. Tm phng trnh im to hnh (im n khp)
46
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Phng trnh im to hnh trong h H
1
.
Gi D
1
l phng trnh ng n khp trong h H
1
(qu
tch cc im to hnh) th D
1
c xc nh bi h phng
trnh:
D
1
=

'

0 .
0 .
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
T
X N
X N
(10-B)
Trong :
T
X1
c xc nh bng cch chuyn
T
ot X
v h
H
1

T
X1
=
t
ot
ot
P
x
y


cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
1
1
1
1

T
z o
T
y o
T
x o
T
o
X
X
X
X
x
t
ot
ot
P
x
y

'

+ + +
+ +
+




cos sin
sin
cos sin
sin cos
sin
sin cos
sin ) cos (
2
1 1
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
1 1 1
t o t ot
T
z o
t o t ot
T
y o
o o ot
T
x o
P
P
A x P x X
P
P
A x P x X
z y y X
(13-B)
m
1.o1
= E (E l ma trn n v)
Do :

'

+ +
+ +
+



cos sin )
sin
(
sin cos )
sin
(
sin ) ( ) cos (
2
1 1
1 1 1
2
1 1
1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1 1
t o
T
z o
T
z
t o
T
y o
T
y
T
x o
T
x
P
P
A x X X
P
P
A x X X
P z y X X
(14-B)
1
1

o X
c xc nh nh sau:
47
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
1
1

X
=
1
1

o X
=
1
1
1
P
x
y
(15-B)
-
1
1

N
l vc t php tuyn mt 2 trong h 1.
- Phng trnh ca mt tr thn khai
2

trong h H
2
:

'

v z
r y
r x
o
o
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
) cos (sin
) sin (cos


(16-B)
2
2

N
c xc nh theo:
2
2

x N
=
u
z
v
y
v
z
u
y

2 2 2 2
=r
o2
usinu
2
2

y N =
u
x
v
z
v
x
u
z

2 2 2 2
=-r
o2
ucosu
2
2

z N
=
u
y
v
x
v
y
u
x

2 2 2 2
=0
2
2

N
=
0
cos
sin
u
u

2
1

N
=
2
0

N
=m
o1.2
.
2
2

N
= m
o1.o2
.
2
2

N
2
1

N
=m
o1
0 1 0 0
cos 0 cos sin
sin 0 sin cos
2 2
2 2
u
u



= m
o1
0
) cos(
) sin(
2
2
u
u
+
+

=
0 cos sin 0
) cos( sin cos 0
) sin( 0 0 1
2
2

u
u
+
+
48
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
2
1

N
=

sin ) cos(
cos ) cos(
) sin(
2
2
2
u
u
u
+
+
+
(17-B)
Thay (15-B) vo (17-B) vo phng trnh 2 ca (16-B), ta
c:
2
1

N 0 . .
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
+

z y y
x X X N N y
= -y
1
sin(
)
2
u +
-(x
1
cos4-Psin4)cos(
)
2
u +
=0
(18-B)
Thay (3-B) vo (17-B) vo phng trnh 3 ca h (10-B) ta
c:

2
1

N
0 . . .
1
2
1 1
2
1 1
2
1
1 +
T
z z
T
y y
T
x x
T
X N X N X N X
[ ] ) cos( )
4 sin
( ) sin( 4 sin ) ( 4 cos
2
2
1 1
1 2 1 1 1 1
u
P
A x u P Z y + + + + +


(18-B)
Thay cc gi tr lin h t ta 2 sang h ta 1
theo (7-B) v (16-B), ta c:
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]

'

+ + +
+
+

1 1 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 1
2 2 2 1
2
1
sin sin cos ) sin (cos sin ) cos (sin
sin cos cos ) sin (cos sin ) cos (sin
sin ) sin (cos cos ) cos (sin



P v u u u u u u r z
v u u u u u u r y
A u u u u u u r x
o
o
o
Rt gn ta c:
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]

'

+ +
+ +
+ + +

1 1 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 1
2 2 2 1
2
1
sin sin ) cos( ) sin(
sin cos ) cos( ) sin(
) sin( ) cos(



P v u u u r z
v u u u r y
A u u u r x
o
o
o
(19-B)
Thay cc gi tr ca x
1
, y
1
, z
1
t (19-B) vo phng trnh
(18-B) v rt gn ta c:

sin
) cos(
1 1
2
2 2
P
r u
o
+
(20-B)
49
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Nh vy 3 phng trnh (17-B), (19-B) v (20-B) l 3 phng
trnh ca h (10-B), do phng trnh tip im trong
h H
1
c dng:
D
1
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]

'

+ +
+ +
+ +
+ + +
0 = u) )cos( Psin - cos (x u) y1sin(
sin sin ) cos( ) sin(
sin cos ) cos( ) sin(
) sin( ) cos(
2 1 2
1 1 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 1
2 2 2 1




P v u u u r z
v u u u r y
A u u u r x
o
o
o
(21-B)
cos

sin
) (
1 1
2
2 2
P
r u
o
+
Nhn xt:
Thay (
u +
2

)=const vo phng trnh 1 v 2 ta c:


(22-B)

'

+ +
+

0
3 2 2 1 1
1
1
1
k y k y k
u ku z
u y
u x

Trong :
3 2 1
, , , , , , k k k k
l cc hng s phng trnh(22-B)
l phng trnh biu din ng thng, ng thng
chnh l qu tch cc im n khp.
Khi cho D
1
chuyn ng xon vt vi hng s p
1
quanh
trc z
1
th ta c mt nguyn ca dao c cn tm.
V D
1
l ng thng nn dc theo D
1
php tuyn ca
mt do khng i v vy mt nguyn ca dao c l mt
xon vt thn khai.
4. Lp phng trnh mt nguyn dao c:
Nh nhn xt trn ta they rng mt nguyn ca dao c
l mt xon vt thn khai do tm phng trnh ca
ng xon vt thn khai ca dao c ta cn tm bn knh
vng c s r
01
ca dao.
50
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Tm bn knh vng c s r
01:
Ta thy ng tip xc l giao ca hai mt phng biu
din bi phng trnh 1 v 2 ca h (22-B) ta li thy trong
phng trnh 2 ca h (22-B) khng cha z do mt
phng biu din phng trnh 2 ca h (22-B) s song song
vi trc z v tip tuyn vi vng c s ca dao c.
Xt trong h mt phng z = 0 phng trnh (2)
ca h (21-B):
y
1
sin
( ) 0 ) cos( ). sin cos (
2 1 1 2
+ + + + u p x u
l phng trnh -
ng thng ct trc y
1
ti a, ct trc x
1
ti b, t 0
1
k 0, H
vung gc vi ab chnh l r
01
(bn knh trc c s ca dao
c).
T hnh v ta c:
r
01
=
2 2
b a
ab
+
T phng trnh (2) ca h (21-B) nu cho x
1
= 0 ta c:
a=-p
1
sin
) ( cot
2
u g +
Y
1
=0 ta c: b=-p
1
tg

V vy nn 0
1
:
r
01
=


2
2
2
2
2 2
2 1 2 1
cos ) ( cot ) ( cot . sin
) ( cot sin ). ( cot sin
u g u g tg
u g p u g tg p
+ + + +
+ +
(23-B)
r
01
= r
01
(p
1
,r
02
,

)
t r
01
ta c phng trnh mt nguyn dao c:

'

+ +
+
t
t t
t t
p z
r y
r x
1
01
01
] cos ) sin (cos sin ) cos [(sin
] sin ) sin (cos cos ) cos [(sin


(24-B)
Trong :

v t l hai thng s.
51
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Kt lun:
1. Nu mt bnh rng c c l mt tr thn khai dao
c dng helicoit l mt xon vt thn khai.
2. Khi thay i gc cho dn n s thay i bn knh
trc c s ca dao tng ng vi s thay i gc ca thanh
rng sinh khi ch to.
Tm phng trnh ng n khp trong h H
01
v h
H
2
:
1. ng n khp trong h H
01
:
Ta c qua h:

'

01 1 1 1
01 1
01 1
z p z
y y
x x

Thay (21-B) v phng trnh D


01
ta c:
D
01
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]

'

+ + + +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
0 = u) )cos( sin p cos (x u) sin( y
sin sin ) cos( ) sin(
sin cos ) cos( ) sin(
) sin( ) cos(
2 1 1 2 01
2 2 1 01
2 2 1 01
2 2 1 01




v u u u r z
v u u u r y
A u u u r x
o
o
o
(25-B)
Cos(
u +
2

)=-r
01

sin
1 1
2
p
Ta thy phng trnh (25-B) biu din ng n khp l
giao ca hai mt phng tip tuyn vi hai trc c s r
01
v
r
02
.
2. ng n khp trong h H
2
:
a chuyn D
1
v h H
2
ta c phng trnh ng n khp
D
2
ta nhn thy:
52
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Trong phng trnh (21-B) phng trnh th 3 chuyn v
h H
2
vn gi nguyn khng i.
- Phng trnh u chuyn v h H
2
l phng trnh
mt trc thn khai.

'


+
v z
u u u r y
u u u r x
2
02 2
02 2
) cos (sin
) sin (cos
chuyn phng trnh th hai v h ta dng cng thc
lin h ta ca (3-B) ta c phng trnh:

'

+ + +
+

1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 1
cos sin ) cos sin (
sin cos ) cos sin (
sin cos



p z y x z
z x y
A y x x
Thay (8-B) vo phng trnh 2 ca h (21-B) ta c:
0 ) cos( ] sin cos ) sin cos [(
) sin( ] sin cos ) cos sin [(
2 1 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
+ +
+ + + +
u p A y x
u z y x


0 ) cos( . sin
) cos sin ).( cos( ) sin( sin sin cos cos cos (
2 1
1 2 2 2 2 2
+ +
+ + + + +
u p
A p u u z u y u x


Thay :

'


+
v z
u u u r y
u u r x
2
02 2
02 2
) cos (sin
) sin (cos

Vo ta c:

0 ) cos sin ).( cos(
) sin( sin sin cos ) cos (sin cos cos ) sin (cos
1 2
2 2 02 02
+
+ + + + +


A p u
u r u u u u r u u u r

0 ) cos sin ( ). cos(
) sin( sin cos
1 2
2 2 02
+
+ + +


A p x u
u z r

'


+
v z
u u u r y
u u r x
2
02 2
02 2
) cos (sin
) sin (cos
53
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
D
2
v.sin(2+u)=r
) cos sin ).( 2 cos(
1 02
A p u +
(26-B)
cos(

sin
)
1 1
2
2
p
r u +
)
Kt lun:
- ng n khp trong h H
2
l ng thn khai (ng n
khp trong tit din song song(vi mt u), v tr):
) sin( sin
) cos( ). cos sin ( cos
2
2 1 02
2
u
u A p r
v z
+
+ +



- iu kin c im to hnh:
-1
+ ) cos(
2
u

sin
1 1
2
02
p
r
1
trc xon tc thi x
t
(vi ng dng bin i tng ng
quay cng tnh tin)phI nm ngoi tr c s r
02
Phng php mt nguyn dao c:
m = 4
0
20

0
15 z
u
= 41
T cng thc tnh bn knh tr ca dao c (theo ti liu
thit k dng c gia cng bnh rng) ta c:

cos . .
.
1
z
z v
r
n
cd

Trong : r
cd
l bn knh tr chia ca dao r
cd
= 84,89.
v: vn tc ct cu dao v= 40 m/ph
z
u
: s rng dao c z = 4d1
z: s rng bnh rng gia cng

1

: vn tc dao c.
Suy ra:

1

=
z v
z r
cd
.
cos . .
54
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Thay s vo ta c:

1

=
41 . 40
9659 , 0 . 24 . 895 , 84
= 1,2 (vng/ pht)
Vy vn tc gc ca bnh rng gia cng :

2

=
1

.i

2

= 2,05 .1,2
24
41
= .
1

z
z
u
Thay vo phng trnh (26-B) ta c:
A =

sin
cos
1
2
1
1 1
]
1

p
Ta c:

sin )
cos
1
(
2
1

A
p
Trong : A l khong cch gia trc ca dao c v bnh
rng.
A= 130
2
) 41 44 .( 4
2
) 2 (

+
u
z m
Vy:
33 , 333
15 sin )
05 , 2
2 , 1
15 cos
1
(
130
0
1

p
Vy:
Cos(
u +
2

)=
492 , 0
15 sin . 2 , 1 . 33 , 333
05 , 2
1 , 45
sin . .
0
1 1
2
02

p
r
Suy ra: 2+u = 37
0
25
Vy tha mn iu kin c im to hnh:
-1< cos(
u +
2

) < 1
Phng trnh mt nguyn dao c:
55
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng

'

+ +
+ +
t z
t t y
t t x
33 , 333
] 2 , 1 cos ) sin (cos 2 , 1 cos ) cos [(sin 495 , 79
] 2 , 1 sin ) sin (cos 2 , 1 cos ) cos [(sin 495 , 79


Tnh dao c
Nhim v phn tnh, thit k dao c hnh a l tnh
v thit k dao c hnh a gia cng bnh rng Z
1
trong cp bnh rng thng:

22
24
2
1

Z
Z
1. Gc lch gia trc dao v bnh rng gia cng:

Theo tiu chun ly

= 15
0
2. Gc nghing ca rng dao c trn vng chia:

0
+
cd
V bnh rng l bnh rng thng nn gc nghing ca
rng trn vng chia bng khng.
Tc l
0

= 0
Vy:
0
15 0 +
cd
3. S rng dao c:
Z
d
=
m
m D
0
max
15 cos ) 3 (
vi m = 4 ta chn D
max
= 180mm
Z
d
= 568 , 40
4
15 cos ) 4 . 3 180 (
0

56
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
V s rng dao khng cho php bng s rng bnh rng
gia cng hoc bng bi s ca bnh rng gia cng nn ta
chn Z
d
= 41 rng. y l s nguyn t m bo trnh c
sai s in dp trong qu trnh gia cng.
4. ng knh vng chia dao c:
d
cd
=
79 , 169
15 cos
41 . 4
cos
.
0

d
d
Z m

5. ng knh vng c s ca dao c:


d
0d
= d
cd
.cos
csd

Trong : csd l gc p lc trong tit din mt mt.


tg
3769 , 0
9659 , 0
3640 , 0
15 cos
20
cos
0
0

tg tg
cd
c
csd

vy:
csd

=arctg0,3769 = 30
0
39
Thay vo ta c:
d
0d
= 169,79.cos20
0
59=158,99
6. Gc nng trn trc c s:
cos
d 0

=
2432 , 0 15 sin 20 cos sin cos
0 0
0

cd

suy ra
d 0

= 75
0
55
Tnh dao c mi
7. Gc n khp php tuyn trn trc ban u ca
dao c mi:

+
d d1
Trong : l gc tr s dch chnh ca gc n khp,
theo tiu chun ly = 1
0
Vy
0 0 0
1
21 1 20 +
d

8. Gc nghing ca rng trn trc ban u:


57
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
sin
26048 , 0
21 cos
' 55 75 cos
cos
cos
0
0
1

d
d
d

suy ra
d

= 15
0
06
9. Gc p lc ca profin mt u trn hnh tr ban
u ca dao c:
tg
sd

=
3976 , 0
' 06 15 cos
21
cos
0
0

tg tg
d

Suy ra
sd

= 21
0
41
inv
sd

= 0,01918
10. ng knh tr ban u ca bnh rng:
d
1
=
672 , 96
21 cos
211 , 90
cos
0
1
01

d
d

11. ng knh tr ban u ca dao c:


d
d
=
3 , 170
21 cos
99 , 158
cos
0
1
0

d
d
d

12. Chiu di ng n khp khi c:



672 , 48
9701 , 0 . 2
02057 , 61
2
62318 , 34
' 55 15 sin 2
99 , 158 298 , 170
90 sin 2
211 , 90 627 , 96
sin 2 sin 2
0
2 2
0
2 2
2
0
2 2
01
2
1
+


d d
d d d d
L
13. Bn knh cong ln nht ca profin rng dao c
tnh ti lng dch chnh:
134 , 42 ' 55 75 sin
90 sin
754 , 1 083 , 7
672 , 48 sin
sin
0
0
1




u d
l
L

14. ng knh vng nh ca dao c:


D
ed
= 941 , 179 ) 134 , 42 . 2 ( 99 , 158 ) 2 (
2 2 2 2
0
+ +
d d
d
15. Khe h hng knh gia dao c v bnh rng gia
cng:
58
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
r =
) (
2
1
1 i ed d
d D d d +
m d
i
= m( Z - 3,4) = 4( 24 3,4) = 82,4
r =
41 , 17 .
2
1
) 4 , 82 941 , 197 297 , 170 627 , 96 (
2
1
+
2 r = 0,9836
Vy: 2 r = 0,9836 >0,2m = 0,8
Vy tha mn.
16. Bc php trn trc chia ca dao c v bnh rng:
t =
642 , 12
24
627 , 96 . 14 , 3
1
1

Z
d
17. Chiu dy rng trn trc chia ca bnh rng:
S = d
1
1 0
01
01
d
inv inv
d
S
+
Trong : S
01
=
321 , 6
2
642 , 12
2

t
inv
0149 , 0 20
0
0
inv
inv
0173 , 0 21
0
1
inv
d

Thay vo ta c:
S = 96,627
0173 , 0 0149 , 0
96
321 , 6
+
Vy S = 6,13
18. Chiu dy rng trn trc chia ca dao c:
S
u
= t -s = 12,642-6,13 = 6,512
19. Chiu cao u rng dao c:
hd=

2
298 , 170 941 , 179
2
d ed
d D
4,882
20. Gc p lc mt mt trn ng knh ngoi:
59
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
cos
ed

=
88356 , 0
941 , 179
99 , 158
0

ed
d
d
d

ed

=27
0
56
inv
ed

= 0,0389
21. Gc nghing rng trn ng knh ngoi:
tg
ed

=
cd
cd ed
d
tg D
=
2839 , 0
789 , 169
15 . 941 , 179
0

tg
Vy:
ed

= 15
0
51
22. Chiu dy rng nh trn tit din php
tuyn:
S
ed
= D
ed
( ed ad
d d
inv inv
d
Sd

+
cos
)cos
ed

= 179,941(
0389 , 0 01918 , 0
' 06 15 cos 298 , 170
512 , 6
0
+
)cos15
0
51
= 3,44
Trong tit din mt u:
S
ed
=
576 , 3
9647 , 0
44 , 3
' 16 cos15
S
0
'
ed

Xc nh cc thng s dao c mi sc ln cui:
23. Gc n khp trn tr ban u:

2 d

=
d

-
Trong : l tr s dch chnh gc sau khi mi sc
theo tiu chun ly = 1
0
Vy
2 d

= 20
0
-1
0
= 19
0
inv
2 d

= 0,01272
24. Gc nghing ca dao trn tr ban u:
60
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Sin
2 d

=
2571 , 0
19 cos
' 55 75 cos
cos
cos
0
0
2

d
d

Suy ra
2 d

= 14
0
54
25. Gc n khp trn mt mt ca tr ban u:
tg
2 sd

=
3563 , 0
' 54 14 cos
19
cos
0
0
2
2

tg tg
d
d

Suy ra
2 sd

= 19
0
37
inv
2 sd

= 0,0140
26. ng knh trc chia ca dao c:
d
d2
=
154 , 168
19 cos
99 , 158
cos
0
2
2 0

d
d
d

27. ng knh trc chia ca bnh rng:


d
1
=
154 , 168
19 cos
211 , 90
cos
0
2
01

d
d

28. Bc php tuyn trn trc chia ca dao c v


bnh rng:
t =
483 , 12
24
297 , 152 . 14 , 3
1
1

Z
d
29. Chiu dy rng trn trc ban u ca bnh
rng:
S =d
1
2 0
1
1
d
c
c
inv inv
d
S
+
Trong : S
c1
=
242 , 6
2
483 , 12
2

t
inv
0

=inv19
0
= 0,01272
inv
2 d

=inv20
0
37 = 0,0149
Thay vo ta c:
S = 95,411
411 , 6 0149 , 0 01272 , 0
96
2415 , 6
+
61
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
30. Chiu dy rng trn trc ban u ca dao c:
S
d
= t-S = 12,483 6,411 =6,072
31. Gc p lc ca rng trn ng knh ngoi:
cos
ed

=
9054 , 0
6 , 175
99 , 158
2
0

ed
d
D
d

ed

= 25
0
05
inv
ed

= 0,02831
32. Gc nghing ca rng trn ng knh ngoi:
tg
'
ed

=
ed
ed ed
d
tg D
\ 2

=
2936 , 0
7898 , 160
' 51 15 . 6 , 175
0

tg
Vy:
ed

= 16
0
22
33. Chiu dy rng nh trong tit din php:
S
ed
= D
edz
ed edz
ed d
inv inv
d
Sd

+
cos
cos
ed

= 175,6(
02831 , 0 0140 , 0
' 22 16 cos 154 , 168
072 , 6
0
+
)cos16
0
22
= 3,930
34. Bn knh cong nh nht ca rng dao c trong
tit din mt u:

min d

= d -

sin
sin ) (
d
l l +
= 37,275-
345 , 17
90 sin
' 55 75 sin ) 754 , 1 792 , 18 (
0
0

+
Xc nh cc thng s kt cu:
35. ng knh vng ln:
D
ed
= 73 , 162 345 , 17 . 4 99 , 158 ) ( 4
2 2 2
min
2
0
+ +
d d
d
36. ng knh vng chn rng:
62
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
d
id
= d
d1
- a
ng knh vng chn rng phI m bo ln hn vng
c s mt lng t 1mm n 2mm m bo kh nng
lm vic tt ca li ct. Vy ta chn: d
id
= 160mm
37. Chiu dy mt u rng dao chn rng:

986 , 7 00145 , 0 0140 , 0
' 54 14 cos . 154 , 168
072 , 6
. 160
cos
0
2
+
+
isd ed
d d
d
id isd
inv inv
d
S
d S

38. Gc p lc trn mt mt tai chn rng:


cos
isd

=
id
d
d
d
0
=
9937 , 0
160
99 , 158


isd

= 6
0
28
inv
isd

= 0,00145
39. ln rnh dao ca dao c thng ng trn y
rnh ca dao:
T
i
=
268 , 4 986 , 7
41
160 . 14 , 3

isd
d
isd
S
Z
d
40. ng knh khoan khoan l chn rng dao
c: l gi tr u tin tng nng sut khi xc rnh
rng:
d
k
=T
i
+ (22,5)
d
k
= 4,268 + 2 = 6,268
tin cho vic chn ng knh mi khoan ta chn v
ly: d
k
=6mm
41. ng trn l tm thot dao xc:
D
k
= d
id
- 738 , 155 268 , 4 6 160
2 2 2 2

i lc
T d

63
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
42. Gc nghing ca l khoan:
tg

=
2524 , 0
7898 , 169
15 160
0

tg
d
tg d
cd
cd id

= 14
0
10
43. Chiu cao ton b rng dao:
hu= 97 , 9
2
941 , 179
2

id ed
d D
44. Chiu rng dao c:
Chn theo tiu chun ly B = 20 mm
45. Kch thc rnh chn nh sau:
Do trc lun lun bng 0 nn phoi thot u rung
ng, lc ct n nh nn cht lng b mt gia cng ca
bnh rng tng. Tuy nhin do = 0 nn vic thot phoi khng
thun li. Cht lng cng nh chnh xc gia cng bnh rng
gia cng bnh rng so vi loi rnh mt bn vung gc vi hng
rng. Mt khc qu trnh ch to dao cng n gin hn
loi ni trn.
Do vy ta chn loi rnh ny tt hn c.
Hnh v:
64
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
1,45
1,8
0,9
0,9
Chng III:
Lp quy trnh cng ngh
1. Lp quy trnh cng ngh:
1.1 Cn c vo yu cu ca sn xut, ta chn lp
quy trnh cng ngh ch to dao c hnh a c cc
thng s c bn:
M = 4
Z = 41

= 20
0

= 0
0
Trong iu kin sn xut loi nh
65
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Thit b gm cc my chuyn dng nh my phay ln rng,
my mi rng theo nguyn l bao hnh, my tin, my khoan
ng, my mi phng
Dng sn xut v iu kin sn xut, trang thit b s
nh hng n vic thit k g.
1.2 Chn phi v phng php ch to phi.
V dao c l mt loi dng c gia cng tinh bnh rng,
dao c ch to t vt liu thp gi P18 cho nn cn c cc
yu cu cao v c tnh do phI phI c rn to cc th
kim loi ph hp vi yu cu nng cao tui bn ca dao.
Do dng sn xut hng lot nn ta dng phng php rn t
do trn ma ba t t thp cn 100 n ng knh 185 v
phI rn c.
Ch : khi to phI t 185 phI l phI c, khng to l
trc trong qu trnh gia cng.
1.3 Lp s nguyn cng:
Nguyn cng N
0
1: Chun b phi:
66
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
1
0
0

0
,
5
1151
Trnh t cc bc trong nguyn cng:
- Chn phI thp gi P18 100
- Ct phI theo kch thc ca bn v.
- My: my ca cn 872A.
- Dao: li ca my 450x40x4.
iu kin k thut: B mt ct ca phI khng bc thang.
Nguyn cng N
0
2: Rn phi:
186
3
2
PhI c rn trn my ba.
Nhit rn T
0
= 1150
0
1200
0
C.
iu kin k thut:
- Sau khi rn phI khng c vt xc, khng c v cng.
- cong vnh trong gii hn cho php.
- cng t c sau khi rn: 205 257 HB
Nguyn cng N
0
3: phi:
67
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Sau khi rn thp gi bin cng phI qua t
cng thp 241 269 HB.
gia cng ct gt vi t chc ht peclit dng (xoocbit)+
cc ht nh mn phn b u peclit l hn hp ca perit v
xeemantit c dng lp phng th tm do mng c nhiu
l hng cho nn dng gia cng c kh. Dng ht hn hp
c do cao trong khi khng lm xu bn cng.
Nhit : T
0
= Aca + (20
0
:40
0
C)
Vi thp P18 c 0,75%C nn Aca = 840
0
C
Vy T
0
= 840 + (20:40)
T
0
= 860 : 880
0
C
Nguyn cng N
0
4: Kha mt u - Khoan l - Tin
rng - Vt mp.
2
1
,
2
2
21,7-0,2
0
,
5
x
4
5

2
1
,
2
62,97+0,06
110
130
2
,
5
Chi tit c cp trn mm cp 3 chu t nh tm. Cc
chu cp c lp ngc.
- nh v: chi tit c nh v 5 bc t do
+ Mt y nh v 3 bc.
+ Mt tr nh v 2 bc.
Trnh t cc bc trong nguyn cng:
1. Kha mt u t kch thc 21
-0,2
68
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
2. Dng dao kha mt u to mt lm 0,5 t

110 n
ng knh ngoi.
3. To vnh sau 2mm t

110 n

130
4. Dng mi khoan

30 kp trn ng khoan l.
5. Dng dao tin rng tin rng l

30 va khoan
n

62,97
6. Dng dao tin rng c
1

= 45
0
vt mp 0,5x45
0
My: my tin 1K62
Dao: + Dao kha mt u tin rnh T15K6:
25x25x250x45
0
+ Mi khoan

30 P18
+ Dao tin rng: 15x15x150x45
0
xT15K6.
iu kin k thut:
- o mt u khng qu 0,05 so vi tm l.
- o mt vnh khng qu 0,01 so vi tm l.
- B mt gia cng khng c vt en.
Nguyn cng N
0
5: Tin mt ngoi
181,8 -0,5
Chi tit c g trn trc g, hai u chng tm c tc
truyn chuyn ng quay ca mm cp sang trc g.
nh v: chi tit c nh v 5 bc t do.
- Mt t gia cng 3 bc.
- Mt l gia cng 2 bc.
Kp cht chi tit trn trc g bng bulong.
Kch thc t c khi gia cng 181,8
-0,5
.
69
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
My: my tin 1K62
Dao: dao tin T15K6
iu kin k thut:
- o mt tr ngoi 0,001.
Nguyn cng N
0
6: Tin mt u- Vt mp .
181,8 -0,5
0
,
5
x
4
5

20,3
R = 20
Chi tit c cp trn mm cp 3 tru t nh tm c
cc true c lp ngc li.
- Mt vnh: nh v 3 bc.
- Mt ngoi: nh v 2 bc.
Trnh t cc bc:
1. Kha mt u t kch thc 20,3
-0,2
2. H mt vnh 0,5mm t ngoi n

110.
3. H rnh su t

110 n

130.
4. Vt mp 45
0
l

62,97.
My: my tin 1K62.
Dao: dao tin T15K6 25x25x250x45
0
iu kin k thut:
- o mt u khng qu 0,05 so vi ng tm l.
- o mt rnh khng qu 0,1 so vi tm l.
Nguyn cng N
0
7: Mi hai mt t.
70
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
20,2 - 0,1
n
d
s
n
Chi tit c nh v trn bn t, c kp cp bng t
lc.
nh v: khi mi mt t ln th chi tit c nh v 3
bc t do mt t di.
Sau khi mi xong mt t ny ta lt mt kia ca chi tit
ln gia cng tip nh v 3 bc t do mt mi.
Kch thc t c khi gia cng 20,2
-0,2
.
My: my mi phng 3722
Dao: mi 450x40x208 16 25CM2K
Trnh t cc bc ca nguyn cng:
- Mi mt t th nht
- Lt chi tit 180
0
- Mi mt t th hai
iu kin k thut: khng song song 0,02
Nguyn cng N
0
8: Kh t
Vic kh t c thc hin trn my kh t.
Nguyn cng N
0
9: Mi l
71
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
nd
6
3
,
2

+

0
,
0
1
1,25
nCT
nh v: chi tit c nh v 5 bc t do.
- Mt t nh v 3 bc
- Mt l nh v 2 bc
Mun dng mt l lm b mt nh v. Sau khi nh v
kp cht ta rt trc mu ra v tin hnh gia cng.
My: my mi trn trong 3A228
Dao: mi ry50x20x16 10-12CM2K
iu kin k thut: khng vung gc gia hai mt
t khng ln hn 0,01.
Nguyn cng N
0
10: Tin tinh ng knh ngoi
72
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
1
8
0
-
0
,
2
1,25
nguyn cng ny ta gia cng ng thi bn chi tit khi
chiu di l l:
L = 20 x 4 = 80
ng knh l

63,2 do l nh v 4 bc t do, mt
u nh v mt bc t do.
Khi gia cng 4 chi tit c nh v trn trc g. Trc g
c chng tm hai u v kp tc.
My: my tin 1K62
Dao: dao tin T15K6 25x25x200x45
0
iu kin k thut: o mt ngoi 0,08
Nguyn cng N
0
11: Xc rnh then
73
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
67,5+0,03
v
8
2
,
5
2,5
nh v: chi tit c nh v 5 bc t do
- Mt vnh nh v 3 bc
- Mt tr ngoi nh v 2 bc
Chi tit c kp cht bng mm cp 3 tru t nh
tm c cc tru kp lp ngc.
My: my xc 7A420
Dao: Dao xc rnh then D =8
Vt liu P18
iu kin k thut:
+ Chiu rng rnh i xng qua tm.
+ khng vung gc ca rnh then vi mt t 0,1
Nguyn cng N
0
12: Phay rng
n
n
d
S
W W
74
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Trong nguyn cng phay rng, chi tit c nh v 5 bc
t do.
Khi gia cng ta gia cng mt nhm bn chi tit c chiu
di tng cng l l: L = 4 x20 = 80mm
V ng knh l l

63,2 v vy mt l nh v 4 bc
t do, mt t nh v 1 bc t do.
My: my phay rng ZFWZ
Dao: dao phay ln rng: m = 4; P18
iu kin k thut:
+ o vnh rng 0,1.
+ Sai lch hng rng cho php +0,4
+ Sai s tch ly bc vng 0,12.
+ Rng xon phI

= 15
0
Nguyn cng N
0
13: Kim tra
y l nguyn cng kim tra trung gian trong qu trnh
gia cng nhm m bo cht lng chi tit gia cng trong qu
trnh gia cng sn xut, loi b nhng thnh phm khng
t yu cu.
Ni dung kim tra:
- Kim tra ng knh l,ng knh ngoi kch thc rnh,
mt vnh, mt t.
- Kim tra khng song song ca hai mt t.
- Kim tra nhm: mt t, mt vnh, vnh rng, mt
l.
- Kim tra kch thc chn rng.
- Sai s tch ly bc vng.
- Kim tra o vnh chia.
75
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Sai lch hng rng.
Nguyn cng N
0
14: Khoan l chn rng
W
W
S
14
nh v: chi tit c nh v 6 bc t do:
- Mt t 3 bc t do
- Mt l 2 bc t do
- Rnh rng 1 bc t do.
khoan l nghing 14
0
th mt t lm chun phI t
nghing I mt gc 14
0
V gc nghing ca dao c = 15
0
, nhng khi ta khoan l
dao xc rnh sn rng nghing vi trc dao c 1 gc nh hn
gc nghing ca dao c l 1
0
. Bi v gc nghing ca rnh dao
c o trn ng knh vng chia cn gc nghing ca l thot
dao xc rnh sn rng bng gc nghing ca rng dao c o
trn vng trn phn b tm l. Ta bit mt bn rng dao
c l tp hp ca v s ng xon vt, cng gn tm th
gc nghing ca ng xon vt cng nh.
m bo mc khoan n c vo chi tit trn mt
nghing ta cn c bc dn hng.
76
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Sau khi khoan xong mt l ta tho lng ai c kp, phn
chi tit I mt rng. Kp cht chi tit li v tip tc gia
cng.
My: my khoan 2A125
Dao: mi khoan rut g

6 P18.
iu kin k thut:
+ m bo l nm vng trn quy nh.
+ Gc nghing ca l phI m bo.
Nguyn cng N
0
15: Sa ngui
Ni dung ca nguyn cng:
1. Sa bavia phn giao nhau ca l va khoan v
mt bn ca rng dao v trn mt vnh.
2. Vt mp rnh then 0,5x45
0
gia cng nguyn
cng 8.
Nguyn cng N
0
16: Mi s b profin rng.
77
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
n
ct
W
W
n
nh v: chi tit c nh v 5 bc t do.
- Mt t nh v 3 bc.
- Mt l nh v 2 bc.
My: my mi rng theo phng php bao hnh.
Dao: mi 4x400x25x127
12-CM2K
iu kin k thut:
+ Sai s profin rng so vi profin l thuyt c tnh n s
ct nh rng 0,03.
+ Sai s tch ly bc vng 0,08.
+ B mt rng ht vt xc.
Nguyn cng N
0
17: Xc rnh trn mt bn ca dao.
78
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
W
W
n
ct
nh v: chi tit c nh v 6 bc t do:
- Mt t nh v 3 bc
- Mt l nh v 2 bc.
- Bc quay quanh trc ca dao th dng cht t ty ng
t vo rnh rng ca chi tit, cht ny c th quay
quanh trc ca n ph hp vi hng ca rnh rng.
Trnh t cc bc trong nguyn cng ny ta s trnh by c
th trong phn thit k g.
My: my xc 7A420.
Dao: dao xc rng lc P18
g: xc rnh thng.
iu kin k thut:
+ Rnh xc thng u t trn xung trong mt lt xc.
+ Mp ct ca rnh rng (giao ca xc v mt bn ca
rng dao) phi sc.
79
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Nguyn cng N
0
18: Nhit luyn.
420
860
1275
0
9
18 22,5 27
khng kh
78% BaCL
2
22% NaCL
100%
BaCL
2
70% KNO
3
30% NaOH
Khng kh
th ti
Khi nhit luyn phi tin hnh qua hai bc:
* Bc 1: Ti
Qu trnh tI tin hnh nh sau:
+ Qu trnh nung nng: nung nng chi tit mc nhit
420 450
0
C trong 9 pht trong mI trng khng kh. Sau
a chi tit sang mI trng 78% BaCl
2
v 22% NaCl nhit
860
0
C trong vng 9 pht. Sau li a chi tit sang mI
trng 100%BaCl
2
trong thi gian 4,5 pht nhit 1275
0
C.
+ Qu trnh lm ngui: a chi tit nhit 1275
0
C
sang mI trng 70% KNO
3
v 30% NaOH trong thi gian 4,5
pht nhit 420 450
0
C ri sau a chi tit ra lm
ngui bng khng kh.
* Bc 2: Ram
Sau khi tI chi tit phI c ram 3 ln nhit 565
0
C
v mi ln trong 1h.
iu kin k thut:
+ cng t c sau khi nhit luyn: 6265HCR
80
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
+ B mt chi tit khng thot cacbon, chi tit khng
xut hin vt nt.
+ ng u cc ht cp 3- 4.
420
0 60 120 180 t (pht)
th ram
Nguyn cng N
0
19: Kim tra
y l nguyn cng kim tra chung gian loi nhng
bn thnh phm khng t yu cu k thut.
Ni dung kim tra:
- Kim tra cng chi tit 62- 65 HRC
My: my kim tra cng rocoen.
- Kim tra b mt chi tit khng nt, khng thot cc
bon.
- Kim tra khng ng u cc ht kim loi khng
qu cp 3 4.
- Kim tra t chc t vi.
- Kim tra cong vnh ca chi tit.
Nguyn cng N
0
20: Mi hai mt t.
200,05
n
d
s
n
0,32
s
d
81
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
nh v: chi tit c nh v 3 bc t do.
Mt t l mt nh v.
Chi tit c t trn bn t v c kp cht bng t
lc.
Trnh t cc bc:
- Mi mt t th nht.
- Lt chi tit 180
0
.
My: my mi phng 5722
Dao: mi 500x40x280 12 CM2K.
iu kin k thut: khng song song gia hai mt t
0,05.
Nguyn cng N
0
21: Kh t.
Sau khi mi hai mt t do kp cht bng lc t nn chi
tit b nhim t. Do vy phI kh t trn my kh t.
Nguyn cng N
0
22: Mi l.
n
d
n
ct
W
W
0,32
6
3
,
5

+
0
,
0
1
s
d
82
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
nh v: chi tit c nh v thnh 5 bc t do: Mt t
nh v 3 bc; mt l nh v 2 bc.
Mun dng mt l chnh l b mt gia cng nh
v, ta dng trc mu nh v ln mt bn 2 bc t do.
Sau khi nh v kp cht ta rt trc mu v tin
hnh gia cng.
My: my mi trn 3A228
Dao: mi Y50x20x16 A- 12-CM2K.
iu kin k thut:
+ cn van nh hn hoc bng 0,01.
+ khng vung gc gia ng tm l v mt t nh
hn hoc bng 0,007.
+ Mt l c nhm R
a
= 0,64 khng cn vt en xc.
Nguyn cng N
0
23: nh bng l.
n
d
0
,
1
6
63,5 +0,01
Sau khi mi l ta cn nh bng l.
Chi tit c t mt t ln vnh g t la vo trc nh
bng.
My: nh bng trn khoan 2A55
Dao: bc nh bng ch C, bt mi M5.
83
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
ht t 3 n 5 mm.
iu kin k thut:
+ B mt t bng R
a
= 0,32 0,16.
+ cn, van nh hn hoc bng 0,0007.
+ Mt l khng c vt xc.
Nguyn cng N
0
24: Mi hai mt vnh.
0,63
19-0,2
n
ct
n
d
s
d
nh v: chi tit c nh v 5 bc t do: Mt l nh
v 2 bc; mt t nh v 3 bc.
Chi tit c kp cht bng t lc trn bn quay.
My: my mi phng c bn quay 3740.
Dao: mi 350x40x127 10 25 CM2K.
Yu cu k thut:
+ Lng d mi hai pha u nhau.
+ khng vung gc gia ng tm l nh hn hoc
bng 0,05.
Nguyn cng N
0
25: Kh t.
Sau khi mi chi tit b nhim t do vy n nguyn cng
ny ta phI tin hnh kh t.
Vic kh t c tin hnh trn my kh t.
Nguyn cng N
0
26: Mi trn ngoi.
84
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
0,63
n
ct
n
d
s
d
1
8
0
-
0
,
0
2
Khi gia cng lin 1 lc 4 chi tit. Nh vy chiu di l:
L = 4x20 = 80mm
nh v: nh v 5 bc t do: Mt l nh v 4 bc;
mt t nh v 1 bc.
Bn chi tit c kp cht ln trc g nh bulong trc g
c chng tm hai u v c kp tc truyn m men
xon.
My: my mi trn ngoi 3515
Dao: mi 350x40x127 16 25 CM2K.
iu kin k thut:
+ B mt gia cng khng vt en, xc.
+ o ng knh ngoi nh hn hoc bng 0,01 so
vi ng tm l.
Nguyn cng N
0
27: Mi profin rng.
85
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
n
d
s
d
n
ct
s
d
nh v: chi tit c nh v 5 bc t do: Mt t nh
v 3 bc; Mt l nh v 2 bc.
Kp cht chi tit ln g nh bu lng.
My: my mi theo nguyn l bao hnh 5831.
Dao: mi 4400x25x127 12 CM2K.
iu kin k thut:
+ B mt gia cng khng c vt en xc.
+ Sai s tch ly bc vng nh hn hoc bng 0,012.
+ Sai lch tng cng ca profin l thuyt nh hn hoc
bng 0,005.
Nguyn cng N
0
28: Khc du.
Vic khc du c tin hnh bng bt in.
Ni dung khc du: m = 4; Z = 41;

= 20
0
; P18.
iu kin k thut:
+ Ch s r rng d c.
+ Ch v s cao 6mm.
Nguyn cng N
0
29: Kim tra kt thc.
Chi tit sau khi qua tt c cc nguyn cng cn c
kim tra.
Ni dung kim tra:
86
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
+ Nhn b ngoi:
- B mt chi tit khng c vt xc, vt en.
- Trn cc b mt lm vic ca dao, mt rng, mt t,
mt l, khng c vt en, bavia.
- Rng dao phi sc.
- Nhng cnh khng lm vic ca dao phI cn.
- Kim tra vic khc du.
* Kim tra nhm cc b mt.
* Kim tra ng knh ngoi.
* Kim tra ng knh l.
* Kim tra cao u rng.
* Kim tra cc sai s ca rng cho trn bn v chi tit.
Nguyn cng N
0
30: Ct th v bao gi.
Sau khi kim tra ln cui xong ta em dao ct th 1 s
chi tit. Nu dao m bo cc iu kin gia cng, chi tit
gia cng, chi tit gia cng m bo cc yu cu k thut th
tin hnh chng r, bao gi, nhp kho.
2. Tnh l ng d ch ct - lc ct:
2.1 Tnh lng d - ch ct - lc ct v cng sut
ct cho nguyn cng tin mt cu:
2.1.1 Tnh lng d:
Lng d ca cc bc trong nguyn cng ny khng phI l l-
ng d i xng nn c tnh theo cng thc trong s tay
thit k cng nghip ch to my tp I trang 22 ta c:
Z
bmin
= R
za
+T
ta
+
2 2
b
a
+
Trong :
Z
bmin
: lng d nh nht ca bc ang tnh.
87
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
R
za
: nhp nh b mt do trc li.
T
ta
: chiu su lp b mt do bc trc li.
a

: vc t tng cng ca nhng sai s khng gian


ca b mt do bc trc li.
b: sai s g t ca bc ang lm.
Nguyn cng ny chia lm 2 bc: tin th, tin tinh l-
ng d.
* Tin th:
PhI thp rn t do c chnh xc cp 3 theo bng (5-
1) sch hng dn lm n mn hc cng ngh ch to my
ta c:
Vi khi lng chi tit t 0,25 n 2,5 kg ta c:
R
za
= 150 m
T
a
= 200 m
Theo bng (7-1) ta c:
cv

= 700 m
V tin thng nn
a

=
cv

= 700 m
Sai s g t:
b
=
k
+
c

Trong :
k
: sai s kp cht, v lc kp vung gc vi phng ca
kch thc thc hin nn:

k
= 0
c
: sai s chun, v chun nh v trng vi gc kch thc
nn:

c
= 0
Vy:
b
= 0
Thay vo cng thc ta c:
88
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Z
bmin
= 150+200+700 = 1050 m
* Tin tinh:
Sau khi tin th chi tit t bng R
z
= 40( 4 ) theo
bng (8-1) sch s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c cht lng
b mt sau khi gia cng c phI rn ta c:
R
za
= 100 m
T
a
= 100 m
Sai s cong vnh cn li tnh theo cng thc:
f
a
=0,07

phI = 0,07.700 = 50 m
Sai s g t
b

=0
Thay vo ta c:
Z
bmin
= 100+100+50 = 250 m
* Kch thc tnh ton:
Tin th: S
1
= 21,5+0,25=21,75 mm
Phi: S
f
= 21,75+1,050 = 22,8 mm
Dung sai tin tinh = 200 m
Dung sai tin th = 350 m
Dung sai phI = 2000 m
* Kch thc gii hn:
- Tin tinh: S
2
min = 21,5 mm
S
2
max= 21,5+0,2 = 21,7mm
- Tin th: S
1
min= 21,75 mm
S
1
max=21,75+0,35=22,1mm
- Phi: S
f
min = 22,8mm
S
f
max = 22,8+2 = 24,8mm
* Lng d gii hn:
- Tin tinh: Z
max
= 22,1-21,7 = 400 m
89
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Z
min
= 21,75 - 21,5 = 0,25 m
- Tin th: Z
max
= 24,8-22,1= 2,7 = 2700 m
Z
min
= 22,8 - 21,75 = 1,050 = 1050 m
Lp bng tnh lng d
Kim tra tnh ton:
Z
0max
- Z
0min
= ct f

3100-1300 = 2000 - 200
1800 = 1800
Vy tnh ton ng.
2.1.2 Tnh ch ct:
Chn my tin 1K62.
Dao: dao hp kim cng T15K6
Cc thng s ca dao:
1

=
0

=45
0
Tit din dao: 25x25
Chiu di phn nh: 100
Tui bn ca dao: T = 60
- Chiu su ct:
Cn c vo bng tnh lng d ta c: t = 1,05mm
- Lng chy dao: tra bng 1 trong sch ch ct khi gia
cng c ta c:
S = 0,5 mm
- Vn tc ct:
V =
xv yv m
t S T
Cv
(m/pht)
Tra bng 28 sch ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
C
v
= 72 Y
v
= 0,8
X
v
= 0 m= 0,2
90
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Thay vo ta c:
V =
0 8 , 0 2 , 0
05 , 1 . 5 , 0 . 60
72
= 55,3 (m/pht)
Cc s hiu iu chnh ct:
V thp c bn:

750
b

(N/mm
2
) nn K

= 1.
V phi rn c v cng nn K
r
= 0,85
mn mt trc ca dao h
a
= 1,5k
a
= 1,1
Gc nghing dao

=45
0
nn k

= 1
Gc trc m ( < 0) k

= 1,05
- H s iu chnh tc ct:
K = K
1
= 1.0,85.1,1.1.1,05 = 0,98
- Tc :
V = 55,3.0,98 = 54,2 (m/pht)
- Tnh s vng quay trn trc chnh ca my tin:
n =
8 , 92
186 . 14 , 3
2 , 54 . 1000
.
. 1000

D
V

(v/pht)
Theo chui s vng quay hp tc ca trc chnh my
tin 1K02 ta chn s vng quay trc chnh l n=100(v/pht)
Vy vn tc thc t ca my l:
V
tt
=
4 , 58
1000
100 . 186 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(m/ph)
2.1.3 Tnh cng sut my v lc ct:
- Tnh lc ct:
Lc ct tnh theo cng thc:
P
zt
= C
pz
.t
Xpt
.S
Ypt
.V
Npt
.K
px
(kg)
Tra bng 17 sch ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
Vi thp gi
750
b

(N/mm
2
)
91
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
C: C
pz
=408 X
pt
= 0,72
Y
pt
= 0,8 N
pt
= 0
Theo bng 18 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c: K
pt
= 1
Vy:
P
zt
= 408.1,05
0,72
.0,5
0,5
.58,4
0
.1 = 242,85 (kg)
- Tnh h s iu chnh lc ct
Vi dao ang ct ta c h s sau:
= 45
0
; = 10
0
; r=1mm
mn mt trc ca dao h
a
= 1,5mm
Theo bng 17 sch ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
k

= 1; k

= 1,2; k

=1,05
vy h s hiu chnh lc ct:
K = K
1
= 1.1,2.1,0.0,84.1,05 = 1,12
Nn lc ct thc t l:
P
z
= P
zt
.K = 242,85.1,12 = 272 (kg)
* Cng sut ct:
N

= 115 , 3
102 . 60
3 , 58 . 272
102 . 60
.

V P
z
(kw)
Cng cn thit ca ng c:
N
ct
=
td
N

Vi
td
: l hiu sut truyn dn t ng c ti trc chnh
my trn

td
=0,8
Vy: N
ct
=
894 , 4
8 , 0
115 , 3

(kw)
My tin 1K62 trang b ng c c cng sut N = 7,5 kw
s m bo tha mn thc hin nguyn cng ny.
92
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
2.2 Tnh lng d - ch ct - lc ct - cng sut
ct cho nguyn cng tin th mt ngoi:
2.2.1 Tnh lng d:
Theo ti liu tham kho cng ngh ch to my tp 1,2
ta tnh lng d nh sau:
V b mt gia cng ca ta l b mt trn xoay cho nn
lng d tnh theo cng thc:
2Z
b
min = 2{ }
2 2
b a a za
p T R + + +
- Nguyn cng trc l rn t do cp chnh xc 3 nn ta theo
bng 7-1 sch cng ngh ch to my c:
+ Sai s lch tm:

lt
= 2,5 = 2500 m
+ Sai s cong vnh:

cv
= 0,7 = 700 m
vy
a
= 2596 700 2500
2 2 2 2
+ +
CV TL
(m)
Theo bng 5-1 sch s tay thit k cng ngh ch to
my ta c:
Trng lng phi: 0,25 2,5 ta c:
R
za
= 150 m
T
a
= 200 m
Chi tit c t trn trc g theo bng 38 sch thit k
cng ngh ch to my ta c:

k
= 0
Khi tin th
c
= 0
Vy
b
=
k
+
c
= 0
93
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Thay vo cng thc tnh lng d ta c:
2Z
b
min = 2{ } 5892 0 2596 200 150
2
+ + + m
- Kch thc tnh ton:
1

= 500 m; f

= 4000 m
D
f
= 181,3+5,892= 187,69 188
- Kch thc gii hn:
d
1min
= 181,3
d
1max
= 181,3+0,5 = 181,8
d
fmin
= 188
d
fmax
= 188+4 = 192
- Lng d gii hn:
Z
max
=192 181,8 = 10,02 (mm) = 100200 (m)
Z
min
= 188 181,3 = 6,7 (mm) = 6700 (m)
Bng tnh lng d:
Kim tra tnh ton: Z
0max
- Z
0min
=
1

- f

10200 - 6700 = 4000 - 500


3500 = 3500
Vy tnh ton ng.
2.2.2 Tnh ch ct:
My tin 1K62
Dao tin hp kim cng T15K6
Cc thng s ca dao: = 90
0
;
1
= 10
0
Tit din dao: 25x25
Phn nh: l= 100mm
Tui bn: T = 60
Chiu su ct: t = 3mm
- Lng chy dao:
Theo bng 1 sch ch ct khi gia cng c kh ta c:
94
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Khi t = 3; D = 192; S = 1,8 mm/vng
- Tnh tc ct:
Theo bng 28 sch ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
V
T
=
Yv xv m
v
S t T
C
(m/ph)
Tra bng 28 ta c:
C
v
= 340 X
v
= 0,15
Y
v
= 0,45 m = 0,2
Thay vo ta c:
V
T
=
45 , 0 15 , 0 2 , 0
8 , 1 . 3 60
340
= 113,5(m/ph)
Cc thng s iu chnh ch ct:
Vt liu c cng HB = 190 K

= 1
Vt liu phi c cng K
f
= 0,85
mn mt trc dao h
s
= 1,5 K
s
= 1,1
Gc nghing dao = 90
0
K

= 0,81
Gc trc m < 0 K

= 1,05
Vy:
K
v
= K
i
= 1.0,85.1,1.0,81.1,05 = 0,795
V = 113,5.0,795 = 90,23(m/ph)
Tnh s vng quay ca my:
n =
664 , 149
192 . 14 , 3
23 , 90 . 1000 1000

D
V

(m/ph)
Theo s vng quay ca hp gim tc my tin 1K62
ta chn
n
my
= 150 (v/ph)
Vy tc ct thc t ca my:
95
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
V =
4 , 90
1000
120 . 192 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(m/ph)
V = 90,4 v/ph
t = 3mm
S = 1,8mm
n = 150 v/ph
2.2.3 Tnh lc ct v kim tra cng sut ct:
Lc ct tnh theo cng thc sau:
P
zt
= C
pz
.t
Xpt
.S
Ypt
.V
Npt
.K
px
(kg)
Tra bng 17 sch ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
Vi thp gi
750
b

(N/mm
2
)
C: C
pz
=300 X
pt
= 1
Y
pt
= 0,75 n
pt
= -0,25
Theo bng 18 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c: K

= 1
Vy:
P
zt
= 300.3
1
.1,8
0,75
.90,4
-0,25
.1 = 422 (kg)
- Tnh h s iu chnh lc ct:
= 90
0
= 5
0
= -10
0
r = 1mm
Theo bng 17 sch ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
K
pz
= 0,89; K
pz
= 1; K
pz
=1; Kr
pz
=
0,89
vy h s hiu chnh lc ct:
K = K
i
= 0,89.1.1.0,89 = 0,792
96
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Nn lc ct thc t l:
P
z
= P
zt
.K = 422.0,792 = 334 (kg)
* Cng sut my:
N

= 93 , 4
102 . 60
.

V P
zt
(kw)
Cng cn thit ca ng c:
N
dc
=
td
N

Vi
td
: l hiu sut truyn dn t ng c ti trc chnh
my tin 1K62

td
=0,8
Vy: N
ct
=
16 , 6
8 , 0
93 , 4

(kw)
My tin 1K62 trang b ng c c cng sut N = 7,5 kw
s m bo tha mn thc hin nguyn cng ny.
2.3 Tnh ch ct - lc ct cho nguyn cng
khoan l chn rng:
2.3.1 Ch ct:
My khoan 2a125
Dao: mi khoan rut g 6 , P18
Tui bn: T = 25
Chiu su ct: t = 3mm
- Lng chy dao:
Theo bng 33 sch ch ct khi gia cng c kh ta c:
S
bng
= 0,2 mm/vng
H s iu chnh lng chy dao: theo bng 34 ch
ct khi gia cng c ta c: k
s
= 1
Vy lng chy dao khoan l s = 0,2 mm/v
97
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Tnh tc ct:
Theo bng 38 sch ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
v =
Mv
Yv m
zv
v
k
S T
D C
(m/ph)
Tra bng 28 ta c:
c
v
= 12,4 z
v
= 0,4
y
v
= 0,5 m = 0,2
Theo bng 40 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c: H s
iu chnh tc ct k
Mv
ph thuc b ca vt liu gia
cng:
k
Mv
=
999 , 0
75
7 , 48 7 , 48
9 , 0 9 , 0

b


Thay vo ta c:
v =
999 , 0 .
. 2 , 0 . 25
6 . 4 , 12
6 , 0 2 , 0
4 , 0
= 29,82(m/ph)
Theo bng 40 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c phi
thp : k
cv
= 0,9
Vt liu dao: P18 v
uv
= 1
Tui bn dao: T = 25 k
t
= 1
Chiu su khoan: L = 3D k
10
= 1
Dng mi khoan H: k
v
= 0,87 (mi thng)
Vy ta c h s iu chnh tc ct:
k = k
i
= 0,9.1.0,87 = 0,783
v =v.k = 29,82.0,783 = 23,34(m/ph)
Tnh s vng quay ca trc my khoan:
n =
1240
6 . 14 , 3
34 , 23 . 1000 1000

D
V

(m/ph)
Theo tc quay ca my ta chn
98
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
n
my
= 1360 (v/ph)
Vy tc ct thc t ca my:
v =
6 , 25
1000
1360 . 6 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(m/ph)
Ch ct:
v = 25,6 v/ph
t = 3mm
s = 0,2mm
n = 1360 v/ph
2.3.2 Tnh lc ct:
* Lc chiu trc:
Theo bng 44 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
Cp = 98,8 Zp = 0,8 Yp = 0,9
Thay vo cng thc:
p = cp.D
zp
.s
yp
.k
Mp
(kg)
cc h s iu chnh lc ct theo bng 46 ch ct
khi gia cng c.
Vi vt liu gia cng:
b
= 75 kg/mm
2
Ta c: k
Mp
= 1
Dng mi khoan H kp = 1
Li ct mi khoan khi cn: k
fp
= 1
Vy lc chiu trc:
p = 90,8.6
0,8
.0,2
0,9
.1 = 97,32 (kg)
* M men xon:
Theo bng 44 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c: cng
thc tnh m men xon: M
x
= C
M
.D
2
.s
ym
.k
Mn
Theo bng 45 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
99
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Vi thp c:
b
= 75
C
M
= 39
y
m
= 0,8
k
Mn
= 1
Dng mi khoan HD nn kM = 1
Li khoan khi cn kM = 1
Vy M
X
= 39.6
2
.0,2
0,8
.1.1.1 = 387(kg)
M
X
= 3,87 Nm
2.4 Tnh ch ct - lc ct cho nguyn cng xc
rnh trn mt rng dao:
2.4.1 Ch ct:
My: my xc 7A420
Dao: dao xc rng lc gm 10 li ct.
- Chiu rng rng ct l 0,9mm
- Bc rnh o song song vi trc dao c t
x
= 1,8mm
- Vt liu xc P18
- Chiu su ct: t = 1mm
* Lng chy dao:
Dao c thng s: = 90
0
= 10
0
= 15
0
Khi xc rnh trn sn rng ng thi 10 li ct u tham
gia ct gt nn lc ct tng i ln nn lng chy p dao s
cng ln th lc ct s cng ln do vy chn s = 0,1mm/htk
- Tc ct:
100
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Theo bng 31 ch ct khi gia cng c th tc
ct khi xc tnh nh tc ct khi tin rnh, sau iu
chnh bng h s hiu chnh khtk.
v
xc
= v
tin rnh
.k
hc
v
tin rnh
=
Mv
yv
v
k
s
c
Theo bng 23 ch ct khi gia cng c
Theo bng 24 v 26 ch ct ta c:
k
Mv
=1
c
v
=0,77
y
v
=0,33
Vy: v =
5 , 14
468 , 0
77 , 6
1 .
33 , 0
77 , 6

m/ph
H s dch chnh tc ct:
Theo bng 27 ch ct khi gia cng c : phI qua
gia cng
k
f
= 1
Gc nghing = 90
0
k

= 0,87
Bn knh nh dao r=1 k
r
= 0,9
Tit din thn dao 20x20 k
td
= 0,97
mn trc dao h
s
= 1,5mm k
s
= 0,97
Vy: k = k
1
= 1.0,87.0,9.0,97.0,97 = 0,74
Do : v = 14,5.0,74 = 10,8 (m/ph)
Ta c: v
xc
= v
60
.k
hc
M k
hc
= 0,71
Vy v
xc
= 10,8.0,71
v
xc
= 7,7m/ph
Chn theo my: v
xc
= 8m/ph
101
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Ch ct khi xc: v
xc
= 8m/ph
t = 1mm
s = 0,1mm/htk
2.4.2 Tnh lc ct:
Lc ct cng c tnh nh khi tin rnh cho trong bng 16
ch ct khi gia cng c:
p
z
= c
pz
.t
Xp
.s
Yp
.k
Mpx
(kg)
Tra bng 17 sch ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
c
pz
=247 x
pz
= 1
y
pt
= 1 N
pz
= 0
Theo bng 18 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c: k
Mn
= 1
Vy:
p
z
= 247.1
1
.0,1
1
.8.1 = 24,7 (kg)
Tm h s hiu chnh lc ct:
k = k
1
= 0,9.1,1.0,89 = 0,881
Nn lc ct thc t l:
p
z
= 24.7.0,88 = 21,76 (kg)
Lc ct cho c dao xc:
p
xc
= 21,76.10 = 217,6 (kg)
2.5 Tnh ch ct - lc ct cho nguyn cng mi
l tm:
2.5.1 Ch ct:
My: my mi trn trong 3A228
Dao: dao mi 50x20x16 A10-12CM2K
Tc ct:
Theo bng X.92 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c:
v

= 35m/s
102
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
v
ct
= 50m/s
Chiu su ct:
Tra bng X.92 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c lng d
chy dao dc theo chiu rng ca :
s

= 0,25B (m/ph)
s

= 0,25.20=5 (m/ph)
2.5.2 Tnh lc ct:
Cng sut ct: theo ch ct khi gia cng c ta c
cng thc tnh lc ct nh sau:

N
= C
N
.
r
u
V
.t
x
.S
y
.d
z
(kw)
Tra bng 157 ch ct khi gia cng c ta c:
C
N
= 0,36 x= 0,4 q = 0,3
r = 0,35 y=0,4
Thay s vo ta c cng sut mi:

N
= 0,36.50
0,35
.0,005
0,4
.5
0,4
.63,2
0,3
= 1,43 (kw)
Lc ct khi mi: theo ti liu tham kho l thuyt mi
cc vt liu:
q
z
=
856 , 2
50 . 736 , 0
43 , 1 . 5 , 7 . 8 , 9
. 736 , 0
. 5 , 7 . 8 , 9

ct
v
N
(kg)
3. Tra l ng d - ch ct cho cc nguyn cng cn
li:
3.1 Tra lng d ch ct cho nguyn cng 4 v 6:
Tin mt u, mt rnh, tin rnh, khoan l tm 30,
tin rng v vt mp l tm.
103
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Bc 1: tin tinh mt u
t = 1,05mm
s = 0,5mm/v
V = 58,4 mm/ph
n = 100 v/ph
Bc 2: tin tinh mt vnh:
t = 1,05mm
s = 0,5mm/v
V = 58,4 mm/ph
n = 100 v/ph
Bc 3: h rnh trn mt u:
Chiu su ct: t = 0,5mm
Tra bng 363 s tay cng ngh ch to my tp 1,2 ta c
lng chy dao:
s = 0,1mm/vng
n = 100 v/ph
V =
82 , 40
1000
100 . 130 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
Bc 4: khoan l 30:
Dao: mi khoan 30P18
Tra bng 111-2 s tay thit k cng ngh ch to my ta
c:
s = 0,16mm/v
Tra bng 113-2 vi s = 0,16 mm/v li ct dng H ta c:
V
bng
= 43 m/ph
Cc h s iu chnh tc ct khi khoan:
104
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Mi khoan c tui bn T = 50 c k
T
= 1
Chiu di L = 22 < D = 30 nn k
l/d
= 1
thp sau rn k
u
= 0,9
H s ph thuc vt liu mi khoan k
L
= 1
Vy: k = k
1
= 1.1.0,9.1 = 0,9
Vn tc khi khoan c iu chnh l:
v= 43.0,9 = 38,7 (m/ph)
S vng quay trc chnh ca mi khoan:
n =
828 , 410
30 . 14 , 3
7 , 38 . 1000
.
1000

D
V

(v/ph)
theo my ta chn: n
my
= 420 v/ph
Vn tc ct thc t:
V
tt
= 56 , 39
1000
30 . 14 , 3 . 420
1000
. .

D n
M

(m/ph)
Ch ct:
t= 15mm s = 0,16 mm/v
v = 39,56 m/ph n= 420 v/ph
Bc 5: tin l rng:
Lng d tin 30

62,97
Vy lng d tin tng cng s l:
z
b
=
485 , 16
2
30 . 97 , 62

(mm)
Vi lng d ny ta chu lm 9 ln n dao tin:
8 ln u c chiu su ct t =2mm
1 ln cui c chiu su ct t= 0,485 mm
Trong bc ny ta c hai chiu su ct t = 2mm cn vi
chiu su ct t = 0,485mm th ta chn theo ch ct
nh cho t = 2mm thun tin cho vic gia cng chi tit.
105
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Dao: dao hp kim cng T15K6
Cc thng s ca dao:
Dao thn trn D = 20
Chiu di phn nh l = 100
Tui bn ca dao T = 60
- Lng chy dao:
Theo bng 11-2 s tay thit k cng ngh ch to my
ta c lng chy dao s = 0,3mm/v
- Vn tc ct:
Theo bng 21-2 s tay thit k cng ngh ch to my
vi t = 2mm; s = 0,3
v
bng
= 186 m/ph
H s iu chnh tc ct
Theo bng 22-2 vi dao c tui bn T = 60 th K
T
= 1
Theo bng 25-2 phI qua gia cng K
r
= 1
Dao c = 45
0
Vy K = K
1
= 1
Tc ct iu chnh:
V = V
bng
.K = 186.1 = 186
S vng quay ca trc chnh my tin.
N =
940
97 , 62 . 14 , 3
186 . 1000
.
1000

D
V

(v/ph)
Theo chui s vng quay ca my 1K62 ta chn s vng
quay ca my:
n
my
= 1000(v/ph)
Vy tc ct thc t khi tin:
v
tt
= 7 , 197
1000
1000 . 97 , 62 . 14 , 3
1000
.

n
D
(m/ph)
106
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Ch ct:
t = 2mm s = 0,3mm/v
v = 197,7m/ph m = 1000v/ph
Bc 6: vt mp l tm
Dao tin 25x25x250xT15K6
iu chnh thun tin, trnh nhm ln ta chn s vng
quay vt mp bng bc 5.
n = 1000v/ph
Tc ct: v =
4 , 199
1000
5 , 63 . 14 , 3 . 1000
1000
. .

D n
(m/ph)
Ch ct: t = 1mm s = 0,04mm/v
v = 199,4m/ph n = 1000v/ph
3.2 Nguyn cng 5 - tin th ng knh ngoi:
phn tnh lng, ch ct, lc ct v cng sut ct
tnh t m:
t = 3mm s = 1,8mm/v
v = 90,4m/ph n = 150v/ph
3.3 Nguyn cng 7 - mi hai mt t:
My: my mi phng 3x722
Dao: dao mi 450x40x208 16 -25CM2K
- Tc ct:
Theo bng X.92 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c:
v

= 35m/s
- Chiu su ct:
Tra bng 397-2 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c tc
di chuyn ngang ca bn my:
S
ngang
= 0,4B

= 0,4.40 = 16 (mm/htk)
107
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Tc di chuyn dc ca bn my:
S
d
= 6 (m/ph)
S vng quay ca :
n
d
=
1486
450 . 14 , 3
35 . 60 . 1000
.
. 60 . 1000

D
v

(v/ph)
Vy tc thc t ca :
n
d
=
4 , 34
1000
1460 . 450 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(m/ph)
- Ch ct:
t = 0,03mm s
d
= 6mm/v
v

= 34,4m/ph n
d
= 1640v/ph
3.4 Nguyn cng 9 - mi l:
My: my mi trn 3-22R
Dao: dao mi 50x20x16 A10 -12CM2K
-Tc ca :
Theo bng X.92 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c:
v

= 35m/s
-Chiu su ct:
Tra bng X-92 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta chn
chiu su ct:
t =0,01mm
- Lng chy dao:
Theo bng X-92 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c:
v
ct
= 25m/ph
S vng quay ca chi tit:
n
f
=
13375
50 . 14 , 3
35 . 60 . 1000
.
. 1000

D
v
ct

(v/ph)
Chn theo my: n
m
= 13375 v/ph
108
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Ch ct:
t = 0,01mm s
d
= 10mm/v
v

= 35m/ph n
d
= 13370v/ph
v
ct
= 25m/ph n
ct
= 125v/ph
3.5 Nguyn cng 10 - tin tinh ng knh ngoi:
My: my tin 1K62
Dao: dao tin hp kim cng T15K6
=
1
=45
0
Tit din dao: 25x25
Phn nh ca dao: l = 100
Tui bn ca dao: T = 60
- Lng chy dao:
Theo bng 13-2 s tay cng ngh ch to my t R
a
= 2,5mm dao c =
1
=45
0

ta c :
s = 0,25mm/vng
- Tc ct:
Theo bng 13-2 s tay thit k cng ngh ch to my
ta c:
V
bng
= 130m/ph
- Chiu su ct: t = 1mm
S vng quay ca my:
n =
73 , 227
8 , 181 . 14 , 3
130 . 1000
.
. 1000

D
v

(v/ph)
Theo chui s vng quay ca hp gim tc my tin
1K62 ta chn s vng quay ca my l 200v/ph
109
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Vy tc ct thc t:
v
c
=
17 , 114
1000
200 . 8 , 181 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(v/ph)
- Ch ct:
t = 0,25mm/v t = 1 mm
v = 114,17m/ph n = 200v/ph
3.6 Nguyn cng 11 - xc rnh then:
My: my xc 7A420
Dao: dao xc rnh then P18, b =8
Tui bn ca dao: T = 60
- Lng chy dao:
s
bng
= 0,18mm/htk
V dao lp trn cn chiu di rnh < 100mm nn ta gim
s I 20%.
- Tc ct khi xc rnh then nh khi tin rnh ri nhn
vi h s va p
k
v
= 0,71
Theo bng 26 s tay thit k cng ngh ch to my ta
c: k
mv
= 1
Theo bng 24 ch ct khi gia cng c:
c
v
= 6,77 y
v
= 0,33
Vy:
N
9 , 12
505 , 0
77 , 6
14 , 0
7 , 66
33 , 0
60

t
v
(m/ph)
v
xc
l: v
xc
= 12,9.0,71 = 9,2
- Ch ct:
s = 0,144mm/htk
v = 9,2m/ph
110
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
3.7 Nguyn cng 12 - Phay rng:
My: my phay rng ZFWZ
Dao: dao phay ln rng m = 4; p = 18
Khi phay rng tap hay lm 2 bc: th v tinh.
3.7.1 Phay th:
- Lng chy dao: theo bng 508-2 s tay thit k cng
ngh ch to my:
Vi N = 3,5kw
Ta c: s
bng
= 2,8mm/v
H s iu chnh lng dao.
Vy lc c HB = 207

255 c k
vl
= 0,7
Gc nghing =

.k
i
= 0,75.0,75 = 0,525
Lng chy dao thc t:
s = s
bng
.k = 2,8.0,525 = 1,47mm/v
- Ch ct: Theo bng 313 s tay thit k cng ngh
ch to my ta c:
v
c
= 42m/ph
3.7.2 Phay tinh:
- Lng chy dao: Theo bng 508 chi tit my ta c:
v
bng
= 2mm/v
H s iu chnh:
k = k
vl
.k = 0,7.0,75 = 0,525
Vy lng dao thc t:
s
bng
.k = 2.0,525
s = 1,05mm/v
- Tc ct:
111
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Theo bng 313 s tay thit k cng ngh ch to my ta
c:
v
bng
= 2m/ph
Cc h s iu chnh tc ct:
k
v
= 0,6 k

=1 k
s
= 1,4
Vy h s iu chnh tc ct:
k = 0,6.1.1,4 = 0,84
Tc thc t:
v
tt
= v
b
.k = 20.0,84 = 16,8 (m/ph)
- Ch ct:
Phay th: s = 1,47mm/v
v = 42m/ph
Phay tinh: s = 1mm/v
v = 16,8m/ph
3.9 Nguyn cng 16 - Mi s b profin rng:
My: my mi rng 5831
Dao: mi 3250x20x40 AN14 3k
- Tc ct:
v = 30m/s
- Lng chy dao:
s = 13(htk/ph)
- Chiu su ct:
t = 0,001mm/htk
3.10 Nguyn cng 17 - xc rnh trn ca rng dao.
Nguyn cng c tnh ton phn tnh lng d, ch
ct cho mt s nguyn cng phn trn.
- Ch ct:
112
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
t = 1mm
s = 0,1mm/htk
v = 8m/ph
3.11 Nguyn cng 20 - Mi hai mt t:
My: my mi phng 3-722
Dao: dao mi 500x40x208 12 CMK
- Tc ct:
Theo bng X.92 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c:
v

= 35m/s
- Chiu su ct:
Tra bng 399 s tay cng ngh ch to my ta c
Lng chy dao ngang (bn my)
S
ngang
= 0,2.40 = 8 (mm/htk)
Tc di chuyn dc (bn my):
S
d
= 5 (m/ph)
S vng quay ca trc:
n
d
= 1440(v/ph)
Vy:
v =
7 , 37
1000
1440 . 500 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(m/s)
3.12 Nguyn cng 22 - Mi l:
My: my mi trn trong 3A228
Dao: mi y50x20x16 5 A10-12 CM2K
- Chiu su ct:
Vi ng knh l 63,5. theo bng 303 s tay thit k
cng ngh ch to my ta c:
113
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
t = 0,005m/s
- Lng chy dao:
Tra bng 364 chi tit my ta c:
Lng chy dao ngang (bn my)
S
ngang
= 0,012 (mm/htk)
Tc di chuyn dc (bn my):
S
d
= 0,25.20 = 5 (m/ph)
3.13 Nguyn cng 23 - nh bng l.
My: my khoan 2h125
Dao: bc nh bng ch C v bt mi M5
- Ch ct:
v = 6m/ph
- Lng chy dao:
s = 1,6 mm/v
- Chiu su ct:
t = 0,0015mm
Tc quay trung bnh:
n =
300
5 , 63 . 14 , 3
6 . 1000
.
. 1000

D
v

(v/ph)
3.14 Nguyn cng 26 - Mi hai mt vnh
My: my mi 3740
Dao: mi 350x40x127 16-25CM2K
Tnh b rng mi:
B
mp
=
cp
D
F
.

Trong :
114
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
D
cp
: ng knh vng lm vic trung bnh ca bn
my
D
cp
=
155
2
130 180

+
(mm)

F
: tng din tch mi.

F
= 5 , 12167
4
130 180
2 2

(mm
2
)
Thay vo ta c:
B
mp
=
25
155 . 14 , 3
5 , 12167

(mm)
Theo bng 392-2 s tay thit k cng ngh ch to my
ta c tc quay ca chi tit.
n =
8 , 65
155 . 14 , 3
32 . 1000
.
. 1000

D
v

(v/ph)
Chn theo s vng quay tiu chun ca my:
n
m
= 65 (v/ph)
Tc quay thc t ca chi tit:
v =
6 , 31
1000
65 . 155 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(m/s)
- Ch ct:
t = 0,008mm
s = 0,015mm
v

= 50v/ph
3.15 Nguyn cng 28 - Mi ng knh ngoi:
My: my mi trn ngoi 3 151
Dao: mi 400x40x127 16 CM2K
- Chiu su ct: t = 0,003 mm
- Lng chy dao:
115
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Theo bng 357 s tay thit k cng ngh ch to my ta
c lng chy dao: s = 1,06 mm/ph
- Tc ct:
S vng quay ca trc chi tit:
n = 75 v/ph
Vy tc ca chi tit:
v =
366 , 42
1000
75 . 9 , 197 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(v/ph)
S vng quay ca trc :
N n

= 1240 (v/ph)
Tc ca :
v =
26
1000 . 60
1240 . 400 . 14 , 3
1000
. .

n D
(m/s)
- Ch ct:
t = 0,003mm s = 1,06 mm/ph
v
ct
= 42,366 m/ph v
d
= 26 m/s
3.16 Nguyn cng 27 - Mi profin chn rng.
My: my mi rng 3831
Dao: mi 3T250x20x40 9AN14CM2k
Tc ct:
v = 30 m/s
Lng chy dao:
s = 13 htk/ph
Chiu su ct:
t = 0,002 mm
CHNG IV :
116
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
THIT K G
1.Thit k g khoan l chn rng:
1.1 Kt cu g:
g gm c thn hn. khoan c l nghing 14
0
10 mt
bn ca g cn nghing vi dy mt gc 14
0
10. Trn thn c
khoan l thot mi khoan. mi khoan khng b trt khi khoan
nghing trn mt chi tit cn c bc dn hng, lp trn tm gi.
Tm bc lp trn thn g bng bu-lng v nh v bng 2
cht nh v v mt bng ca tm.
Chi tit c lp trn g nh v 6 bc t do nh mt t 3
bc ln mt ca g, 2 bc bng mt l ln bc nh v v 1
bc xoay nh cht nh v ln mt rng. Cht c lp trn tm
gi bc dn khoan. m bo tip xc tt ca cht v mt
nh v cn c l xo. gi 1 u ca l xo cn c tm gi lp
ln tm gi bc dn khoan nh 2 bu-lng.
Chi tit c lp trn g nh bu-lng thng qua m ch
C11. bu-lng lp trn g nh 2 bu-lng. nh v 5 bc t do
nh tr ngn v mt mt bng.
Bc nh v 12 c nh v lm thn g 5 bc t do nh
tr ngn v mt phng.
Trn cht nh v lp tay ko.
1.2 Nguyn l lm vic ca g.
Tho lng bu-lng, tho m ch C11, lp chi tit ln g
khi ko cht ra. nh v 6 bc t do cho chi tit, ta lp
cht bu-lng sau khi lp bc ch C11.
Tin hnh khoan l th nht:
Sau khi khoan l th nht ta tho bu-lng phn chi tit i
1 rng nh cht nh v, lp cht bu-lng li tin hnh khoan l
th 2. C tin hnh nh vy ta khoan tt c cc l ca chi tit gia
cng.
Sau ta tho lng bu-lng, rt bc ch C11 tho chi tit ln.
Cc chi tit cn li ta tin hnh lp, gia cng, tho nh chi tit th
nht.
1.3 Tnh lc kp.
Nh tnh phn tnh lng d, ch ct phn trn ta c:
M
X
= 3,87Nm = 387 kg/mm
P
Z
= 97,32 kg
1.3.1 Tnh cho trng hp chng xoay quanh 8 chi tit.
iu kin chng xoay Mms > KMx
117
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Tnh Mx: do lc chiu trc P khi khoan nghing i mt gc 14
0
10
nn m men xon do P sinh ra l:
Mxp = Psin14
0
10 . 77,892
= 97,32.0,2425.77,892
= 1839 kgm
Mxp = 1830 kg m
Vy momen xon Mx l:
Mx = Mx + Mpx = 387 + 1838 = 2225kh mm
Ta c : Mx = 2225 kg mm
Mms = n.fms.Pk.
63, 4 110
2
+
# K
Trong : n: s mt tip xc n=2
Fms: h s ma sat gia cc b mt tip xc, ly Fms
= 0,2
K: h s an ton tng hp:
K = K
0
.K
1
.K
2
.K
3
.K
4
.K
5
.K
6
K
0
: h s an ton K
0
= 1,5
K
1
: h s tnh n lng d khng u K
1
=1
K
2
: h s tnh n lng cn ca dao K
2
=1,1
K
3
: h s tnh n s ct khng lin tc K
3
=1
K
4
: h s k n s lp khng n nh. Do lp bng tay
nn ly K
4
= 1,3
K
5
: h s k n s thun li ca tay quay v # = 90
0
nn
K
5
=1
K
6
: h s k n momen lm quay phi quanh im ta
v mt t tip xc ln K
6
= 1,5
Vy h s an ton tng hp: K= 1,5.1.1,1.1.1,3.1.1,5 = 3,22
Thay vo cng thc ta c :
n.fms.Px.
63, 4 110
2
+
3,22.Mx
Suy ra:
P
k
=
3, 22.225
206, 6
63, 4.110
2.0, 2.
2
kg =
1.3.2 Tnh ng knh bu lng.
T cng thc bng 5-9 sch Chi tit my tnh bu lng, ta c:
a = 2
1
1, 3.
4
Pk
d
p
< []k
Trong d
1
l ng knh bu-lng.
Suy ra :
118
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
d
1
>
1, 3 .4
[ ]
Pk
k d
Vi []k ng sut cho php khi ko ca vt liu lm bu lng.
Vi thp 45 tra bng 5-3, ta c:
ch = 250 N/mm
2
Vy:
[]k =
5
ch d
=
350
5
= 70 N/mm
2
Thay vo ta c: d
1
>
1, 3.4.206, 6.10
3,14.70
d
1
> 28,87
d
1
> 6,99
Theo tiu chun ph hp vi kt cu, ta chn bu lng M16.
1.3.3 Tnh lc xit bu lng khi vn bng ren.
Pk =
tb 1
.
r . ( ) '
Q L
tg R tg a z j + +
Trong : L: chiu di tay n. Vi M16 th L = 190mm
Q : lc xit khi vn bu lng
r
tb
: bn knh tring bnh ca bu lng
: gc nng ca ren
tg =
S
Dtb p
=
2
3,14.7, 35.2
= 0,0433
Vy = 2
0
28
:gc ma st gia aic v bu lng: = 6
0
34
R: bn knh trung bnh ca ming m
R =
2
2
d d +
= 1,5d = 1,5.16 = 24

1
: gc ma st gia vt gia cng v ming m:
#
1
=5
0
10
Thay vo cng thc ta c:
Q =
tb 1
[r ( ) ' Pk tg R tg
L
a z j + +
=
0 0 0
458, 348.[7, 35 (2 28 6 34) 24 5 10
190
tg tg + +
= 3,6kg
Vy lc xit bu lng khi lp Q= 3,6kg mt ngi cng nhn c sc
khe trung bnh c th thao tc c d dng. Vy g ny c
kh nng thc hin c.
1.4 Tnh sai s ch to g.
119
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Theo cng thc tnh sai s ch to g trong Thit k v tnh
g, ta c:

ct
=
2 2 2 2 2
' 0 /
[ ]
ga m k d c
e e e e e - - - -
Trong :
[
ga
]: sai s g t cho php theo yu cu nguyn cng.
[
ga
] = (0,2

0.5)
: dung sai ca nguyn cng ng vi kch thc thc hin.
V phng ca lc kp vung gc vi phng kch thc thc hin
nn #
0
= 0

m
: sai s do mn c cu nh v:
m
= 0

k
: sai s kp cht:
k
= 0

a/0
: sai s iu chnh g trn my.
Theo kinh nghim ly:
c
=8 mm
Vy
ct
=
2 2
3, 5 8 - = 6mm

ct
= 0,006mm
Vy sai s ch to g l 0,006mm
1.5 iu kin k thut ca g.
1. Gc nghing ca mt nh v chi tit (mt trn) ca g v
mt y nh v ln bn my khoan c dung sai l 3 (1/3 dung
sai l).
Sai lch l t 1
0
30
2. khng vung gc gia ng tm bc dn hng v mt di
ca g l 0,006mm..
1. cng bc ln khoan 60

62 HRC
2. cng bc nh v 45

48 HRC
2. Thit k g xc rnh trn mt rnh dao:
2.1 Chn rnh:
Cng c v phn loi rnh
2.1.1. Cng dng.
Khi gia cng dao c n khp vi bnh rng c c l s trt t-
ng i vi nhau, do nu trn mt rng dao c khng c rnh
to thnh cc li ct th ch xy ra hin tng mi mn ln
nhau. to c hin tng ct gt ta ohair to ra li ct trn mt
rng dao c bng cch x cc rnh trn mt rng dao. Khi gia cng
cc rnh ny to vi b mt bn thnh li ct v ht i nhng lp
mng trn b mt bnh rng gia cng.
Trong qu trnh ct gt, mt bn ca rng dao c v mt
bn rng bnh rng l 2 b mt tng i nn vn tc ct l vn
tc tng i nm trn b mt tip tuyn chung ca 2 b mt
120
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
. Do , ti im tip xc gc sau trong qu trnh ct lun
bng 0, = 0, cn gc trc dao c lun thay i trong qu trnh
gia cng v vn tc ct (vn tc trt gia hai b mt) lun thay
i phng khi im to hnh di chuyn t im u rng n
im chn rng.
2.1.2. Phn loi.
Nu xt n v tr tng i ca rnh vi trc dao th ta c
cc loi rnh sau:
- Rnh song song vi mt u.
c im ca loi rnh ny l gc trc 2 bn mt rng khng nh
nhau v vn tc ct nm dc theo hng rng.
Gi s mt thi im no vn tc ct c phng nh
hnh v th gc trc cc li ct nm trn mt rng bn phi s d-
ng
p
>0, cn cc li ct nm trn mt rng bn tri s m
t
<0.
Do chnh xc gia cng s khng cao v 2 mt bn ca
rnh bnh rng c gia cng s khc nhau.
u im ca loi rnh ny: do rnh vung gc vi trc ca dao
nn trong qu trnh gia cng s iu chnh s n gin hn v
vic phi hp cc chuyn ng trong qu trnh gia cng cng
n gin.
Trong thc t ngi ta thng s dng loi rnh ny.
- Rnh vung gc vi hng rng:
c im ca loi rnh ny gc trc 2 bn rng dao lun bng 0
v bng nhau v mt trc lun lun vung gc vi vecto vn tc
ct (ta coi nh mt trc lun vung gc vi b mt dao c)
Nh vy
p
=
t
= 0.
Do loi rnh ny khi gia cng chnh xc bnh rng t
c cao hn khi rng c gia cng bng dao c c rnh vung gc
vi mt u dao.
Nhng loi rnh ny c c im: qu trnh ch to dao phc
tp, iu chnh phc tp, g phc tp v phi hp vn tc ct
phc tp. Nng sut gia cng thp, do tnh kinh t khng cao.
Trong thc t ngi ta t s dng loi rnh ny m thng s
dng loi rnh song song vi mt u. Nhng khc phc nhc
im ny ca loi dao c rnh vung gc vi hng rng v lm tng
tui bn ca dao ta c th cho dao lm vic 2 chiu. Sau khi lm
vic theo chiu ny, ta i chiu quay ca dao c v cho dao
lm vic theo chiu ngc li.
y rnh dao cng c nhiu loi.
121
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- Loi rnh cong: loi co 2 rnh cong: cung trn v thn khai.
Thng thng ngi ta ch to loi thn khai m bo cho
chiu su rnh khng i theo 2 mt rng.
u im ca loi rnh ny l chiu dy rng u do tui bn
ca dao cao.
Nhc im: ch to g phc tp, chuyn ng ct phi hp
phc tp do nng sut gia cng thp, tnh kinh t khng cao.
Thc t ngi ta t s dng loi ny.
- Loi rnh thng: loi ny y rnh l mt phng v phn
loi theo s lt xc to thnh rnh:
+ Loi rnh thng xc 1 lt: khi gia cng ta xc 1 ln t nh rn
n chn rng do chiu su rnh khng u, u rng v
chn rng th nh, vng vng chia th ln.
u im ca loi rnh xc 1 lt: do y rnh thng nn d
ch to g hn loi rnh cong. Chuyn ng trn qu trnh
xc rnh n gin, nng sut cao, hiu qu kinh t cao.
Nhc im: chiu su rnh khng u nn tit din rng
dao gim i, do tui bn ca dao s gim i.
Loi rnh thng xc 1 lt ny thng ch dng cho m un nh
vi n < 3mm.
Vi bnh rng n > 3,5mm ta dng loi rnh thng c 2 lt xc.
+ Loi rnh thng xc 2 lt: loi rnh ny khc phc nhc im ca
2 loi trn v n cn mang u im ca 2 loi trn.
Chiu su rnh tng i u nhau nn tui bn ca dao
cao.
g ch to n gin, phi hp chuyn ng ct khi xc
rnh n gin v nng sut gia cng cao.
Qua phn tch trn, dao c cn ch to c rnh xc 2 mt
bn xung gc vi trc ca dao (song song vi mt u) v y
rnh thng xc 2 lt.
2.2. Tnh - Thit k g.
2.2.1. Kt cu g.
g c thn hn gm 2 ming phng hn vi nhau, cn
m bo vung gc gia 2 tm phng thng ng v nm
ngang. Cn gn gn tng cng gia 2 tm. Trc g lp
chi tit gia cng c lp trn tm nh v 6 bc t do. Cn m
bo song song ca tm trc v tm phng ngang ca thn
v vung gc ca trc vi tm ng ca thn.
nh v trc g: tr ngn 2 bc, mt phng 3 bc v then
ngang 1 bc.
122
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Chi tit c nh v ln trc g 6 bc t do: mt t 3 bc,
mt l 2 bc v cht nh v 12 ln rnh rng 1 bc quay.
Kp cht bng ai c c tn 1 thng qua m ch C19 v
vnh chia 18.
Trc gi c kp cht ln thn nh ai c thng qua m.
Cht nh v c lp, tay ko c lp trn tm gi cht nh
v 4 bc t do bng trc di d > L, cht nh v c th t la
m bo ng hng rng v nh l xo m bo tip xc tt vi
b mt nh v l mt bn ca chi tit. Tm gi cht c lp
ln thn nh 2 bu lng thng qua m v c nh v ln thn
g nh rnh c h < b.
Vnh chia c lp ln trc g nh v bng tr di v
cht quay.
g c lp then dn hng nh vit.
gi l xo c tm gi ln tm nh 2 bu lng.
2.2.2. Nguyn l lm vic.
Trc khi gia cng ta nh du mt ng rnh gia mt rng.
Khi gia cng chi tit, bu lng c tho lng, ko cht, lp chi tit
ln trc g, ng ng du c chnh trng vi ng nh du
th nht ln vnh chia .
im nh du ny hng vo tm chi tit, bo m xoay chi
tit 1 gc
1
gia ng nh du trn bnh rng dao v phng
ng. Ta kp cht chi tit li. Xc nh v tr cht t v kp
cht 2 bu lng. Ta tin hnh xc lt th nht ln mt rng dao.
Sau khi xc xong 1 rng ta vn lng ai c 1. Ko cht t, xoay
chi tit phn i 1 rng, kp cht ai c 1 v cho g li li
1,45mm ti cht nh v lp trn my.
Xc cho tt c cc rng, ta ni lng bu lng xc nh v tr
chi tit gc
2
(nh t gc
1
) ta kp cht bu lng 1. Xc
nh v tr ca cht t. Vn cht bu lng, tin hnh gia cng
nh ln 1.
Sau khi gia cng xong tt c cc rng dao ta tho lng bu lng
1. rt bc ch C19, tho vng chia , tho chi tit.
Lp chi tit khc ln g, tin hnh thao tc nh chi tit trc
, ta tin hnh gia cng c lot chi tit.
2.2.2.1. Tin hnh tnh gc
1
,
2
2.2.2.1.1. Tnh gc
1
Qua hnh v ta thy gc
1
l gc to bi ng thng qua 2
im M
1
, M
2
v trc Oy (trc Oy song song vi phng vn tc
Oy//V
xoc
).
123
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Cc im M
1
, M
2
c ta (coi gn ng) nh sau:
M
1
(
2
Se
; r
e
)
M
2
(
2
Sc
; r
c
)
Phng trnh ng thng i qua 2 im M
1
, M
2
c dng:
2
2 2
Se
x
Sc Se
-
-
=
e
e
r
r r
c
y-
-
Suy ra :
Y =
2(Re ) Rc
Se Sc
-
-
(x-
2
Se
) + Re
ng thng ny c phng trnh biu th n to vi strucj Oy 1
gc
1
cn phi tm.

1
= arctg
e
e
2(r r )
c
S Sc -
-
= arctg
6, 512 3, 930
1, 79, 941.169, 79
-
Thay vo ta c:
1
= arctg0,25438
Vy
1
= 14
0
18
2.2.2.1.2. Tnh gc
2
Tnh tng t nh gc
1
, gc
2
to bi trc Oy v ng thng i
wua 2 im M
2
v M
3
. Cc im M
2
v M
3
c ta ( ta coi gn
ng) nh sau:
M
2
(
2
Sc
; r
c
)
M
3
(
2
Si
; r
i
)
Phng trnh ng thng i qua 2 im M
2
v M
3
c dng:
2
2 2
Sc
x
Sc Si
-
-
=
c
c
r
r r
i
y -
-
Suy ra : y =
c
2(r r )
i
Sc Si
-
-
(x-
2
Sc
) + r
c
Thay vo ta c:

2
= arctg
c
2(r r )
i
Si Sc -
-

2
= arctg
7, 981 6, 512
169, 79 160
-
-
= arctg 0,15056
vy
2
= 8
0
34
2.2.2.1.3.Tnh khong cch gia cng OH.
124
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
OH gi l khong cch gia cng do chnh l cnh tay n ca
lc gia cng to ln momen xoay chi tit quanh trc ca n hay
quanh trc g.
Qua hnh v ta thy OH chnh l khong cch gia cng ni
trn. Nhng chnh l bng OH.
T hnh v trn, ta c:
OH =
2 2
. b c
b c +
(hnh v)
T phng tnh ng thng qua 2 im M
1
v M
2
2(r
e
-r
c
).Se
y =
e c
2(r r )
Se Sc
-
-
(x-
2
Se
) + Re
Ta tm c cc gi tr b v c nh sau:
Cho y = 0
c= x =-Re
e
2(r r )
c e
S Sc -
-
+
2
Se
Thay s ta c:
c= -80
3, 93 6, 512 3, 93
179, 941 169, 79 2
-
+
-
c=22,314
Cho x = 0, ta c:
b=y= -
2
Se
.
2(r r )
c e
Sc Se
-
-
+ Re
Thay s ta c:
b= -
3, 930
2
.
109, 79 179, 941
6, 512 3, 930
-
-
+ 80
b= 87,725
Thay cc gi tr ca b v c vo phng trnh:
OH=
2 2
. b c
b c +
=
2 2
22, 314.87, 725
22, 314 87, 725 +
Ta c OH = 21,625
OH chnh l c s dng tnh lc kp.
2.2.2.3. Tnh lc kp.
2.2.2.3.1. Tnh cho trng hp chng xoay quanh tm chi tit.
iu kin chng xoay: Mms > Kms
Trong : Mx = 21,625.Pc
Pc: lc ct khi xc
Ta tnh phn tnh ch ct c:
Pc = 217,6 kg
125
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
M Mms = n.fms.Pk.
63, 4 110
2
+
# K.Mc
Trong :
n: s mt tip xc n=2
fms: h s ma st ti cc b mt tip xc fms = 0,2
K: h s an ton tng hp:
K = K
0
.K
1
.K
2
.K
3
.K
4
.K
5
.K
6
K
0
: h s an ton K
0
= 1,5
K
1
: h s tnh n lng d khng u K
1
=1,05
K
2
: h s tnh n lng cn ca dao K
2
=1,1
K
3
: h s tnh n s ct khng lin tc K
3
=1
K
4
: h s k n s lp khng n nh. Do lp
bng tay nn ly K
4
= 1,3
K
5
: h s k n s thun li ca tay quay v # = 90
0
nn K
5
=1
K
6
: h s k n momen lm quay phi quanh im
ta v mt t tip xc ln K
6
= 1,5
Vy h s an ton tng hp:
K = 1,5.1,05.1,1.1.1,3.1.1,5 = 3,378
Thay tt c vo cng thc, ta c:
Pk>
.
63, 4 110
.
2
K Mc
m fms
+
=
3, 378.217, 6.21, 625
63, 4 110
2.0, 2.
2
+
Pk = 458,348kg
2.2.2.3.2. Tnh cho trong trng hp chng trt theo phng lc gia
cng.
Do chi tit c nh v ln trc g, nn chi tit khng th trt c
do c trc g gi li. Vy ta khng cn tnh cho trng hp trt
theo phng lc gia cng.
2.2.2.3.3.Tnh ng knh bu lng kp.
T cng thc (5-9) sch Chi tit my, ta c:
Td = 2
1
1, 3.
4
Pk
d
p
= []k
Suy ra:
d
1
=
1, 34.
.[ ]
Pk
k p d
Trong :
[]k: ng sut ko cho php ca vt liu lm bu lng vi thp
45.
126
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Tra bng 5-3 sch Chi tit my, ta c:

ch
=350 N/mm
2
Suy ra:
[]k =
ch
5
d
=
350
5
= 70 N/mm
2
Thay vo ta c:
d
1
>
1, 3.4.458, 34.10
3,14.70
d
1
> 108,43
d
1
>10,4mm
Ta chn theo tiu chun ly bu lng kp cht l M16.
2.2.2.3.4. Tnh lc xit khi vn bu lng.
Theo tnh v thit k g, ta c:
Pk =
tb 1
.
r . ( ) '
Q L
tg R tg a z j + +
Trong :
L:chiu di tay n. Vi M16 th L = 190mm
Q: lc xit khi vn bu lng
R
tb
: bn knh trung bnh ca bu lng
: gc nng ca ren
tg=
S
Dtb p
=
2
3,14.7, 35.2
= 0,0433
Vy = 2
0
28
: gc ma st gia ai c v bu lng
= 2
0
28
R: bn knh trunh bnh ca ming kp
R=
2
2
d d +
= 1,5d =1/5.16 = 24
Pk: lc kp cn thit Pk = 458,348 kg
Thay vo cng thc, ta c:
Q =
tb 1
[r ( ) ' Pk tg R tg
L
a z j + +
=
0 0 0
458, 348.[7, 35 (2 28 6 34) 24 5 10
190
tg tg + +
Vy Q = 8,059kg
2.2.2.4. iu kin k thut ca g
Do khng yu cu cao v vung gc ca rnh trn b
mt ca rng, nn ta quy nh vung gc ca ng
tm trc g v mt lm vic ca then dn hng 0,01 mm.
127
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Do khng cn m bo cao v vung gc trn b
mt bn rnh xc trn mt bn rng dao v trc tm ca l
g dao ta quy nh:
khng song song ca ng tm trc g v mt y
ca thn g 0,01 mm
cng ca trc g ti t 4548 HRC
cng ca vnh chia 4548 HRC
Cht nh v v tm gi cht ti t cng 4548
HRC
3. Thit k g mi l.
3.1. Kt cu g.
g c thn 1 lp trc phi ca my mi c ui
cn mooc s 4 lp ln my.
nh v chi tit ln g c trc mu phn nh
v chi tit cn 1:50. Phn nh v ln g l tr nh v
4 bc t do.
kp cht chi tit c 2 vt cy s 2 c lp ln thn
1 nh 2 ai c 3, c cc bu lng 4 lp t ln n kp 6
nh 2 ai c 5. cho n kp kp cht c chi tit cc
ai c 8 thng qua 2 ming m 9 v 10.
y n kp khi tho chi tit c cc l so 7.
truyn momen xon cho g c tc s 12 kp
cht ln g nh bu lng 11.
3.2. Nguyn l lm vic ca g.
Lp chi tit.
Lp chi tit ln trc mu, sau a tt c ln g
cho n khi mt t ca chi tit tip xc vi mt
phng nh v ca g ta quay 2 n kp 6 vo v
vn cht cc ai c 8 li. Khi ta rt trc mu ra tin
hnh thao tc gia cng. Sau khi gia cng ta tho chi tit
ra. Lp chi tit khc v tin hnh gia cng cho c lot.
Tho chi tit.
Khi chi tit gia cng xong ta tho lng 2 ai c 8 v
l xo 7 s y n kp ln. Quay 2 n kp 6 ra hai
bn ta tho c chi tit ra khi g.
3.3. Tnh bu lng kp cht.
chng xoay chi tit ta tnh theo iu kin:
Mms > KMx
Trong :
128
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Mx = Pz.
Pz: lc ct khi mi tnh phn tnh ch ct, lc
ct.
Pz = 2,856 kg
Vy:
Mz = 2,856. = 90,856 kg
Ta c:
Mns = n.fms.Pk. > KMx
Trong
n: s mt tip xc n=1
fms: h s ma st ti cc b mt tip xc fms=0,2
K: h s an ton tng hp:
K = K
0
.K
1
.K
2
.K
3
.K
4
.K
5
.K
6
K
0
: h s an ton: K
0
= 1,5
K
1
: h s tnh n lng d khng u K
1
= 1,05
K
2
: h s tnh n lng cn ca dao K
2
=1
K
3
: h s tnh n s ct khng lin tc K
3
= 1
K
4:
h s k n lc kp khng n nh. Do kp bng tay
nn ly K
4
= 1,3
K
5
: h s k n s thun li ca tay quay v # = 90
0
nn K
5
= 1
K
6
: h s k n m men lm quay phi quanh im ta K
6
= 1
Vy h s an ton tng hp :
K= 1,5 . 1,05 . 1 . 1 . 1,3 . 1 . 1 =2
Thay tt c vo ta c:
n.fms.Pk. 2.90,678
Pk
2.90, 678
63, 5 110
1.0, 2.
2
+
Pk 10,45kg
Ta kp p 2 v tr c lc kp l:
Pk =
''
2
P k
=
10, 45
2
= 5,225 kg
Do kt cu ca n kp c 1 u chng vo chi tit cch
tm bu lng kp l 55mm mt u li chng bng bu lng
cch tm bu lng kp cht l 25mm. Vy lc kp cn thit
ti mi bu lng kp cht l:
129
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Pk
ct
= 5,225 +
4, 5.55
25
= 15,125 kg
T lc kp cn thit Pk
ct
ta tnh ra ng knh bu lng cn
thit theo cng thc:

td
= 2
1
1, 3.
4
Pk
d
p
< []k
Suy ra: d
1
=
1, 34.
[ ]
Pk
k p d
Trong : []k: ng sut ko cho php ca vt liu lm bu
lng vi thp 45. Tra bng 5-3 sch Chi tit my, ta c:
ct
=
350N/mm
2
Suy ra: []k =
ct
5
d
=
350
5
= 70 N/mm
2
Thay vo ta c:
d
1

1, 3.4.15,125
3,14.70
d
1
1,892
m bo cng vnh cu ca c cu kp, tnh n
lc y l xo ta chn bu lng kp l M10.
Nh vy th lc xit bu lng khng cn phi ln lm, mt
ngi cng nhn bnh thng c th thao tc c. Vy g
l hp l.
3.4. Tnh sai s ch to g.
Theo cng thc tnh sai s ch to g trong Thit k v
tnh g, ta c:

ct
=
2 2 2 2 2
' 0 /
[ ]
ga m k d c
e e e e e - - - -
Trong :
[
ga
]: sai s g t cho php theo yu cu nguyn cng.
[
ga
] = (0,2 0.5)
: dung sai ca nguyn cng = 7m

0
: sai s chun. Do mt nh v trng vi gc kch thc nn
0
= 0

m
: sai s do mn g:
m
= 0,05. 400 = 1 m

k
: sai s kp cht:
k
= 0

dc
: sai s iu chnh g:
dc
= 1 mm
Vy:
ct
=
2 2
3, 5 1 - = 3,35 m
Vy sai s ch to g l 3,35m
g c kim tra li sau khi gia cng.
3.5. iu kin k thut ca g
130
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
- khng vung gc ca ng tm l nh v trc mu ln
g l 0,001 mm so vi mt chun nh v ln mt t ca chi
tit gia cng.
- o mt l nh v trc mu ln g v ng tm chui
cn ca g # 0,001mm
- cng chui cn moc, mt l nh v trc mu ln g v
mt chun nh v ln mt t ca chi tit c cng
4548HRC.
4. Thit k g kim tra:
4.1. Kt cu ca g.
g gm c 6 trn c lp tm ng mang c v khi V7
bng cc bu lng thng qua m, chng c nh v bng cc
cn.
Trc g c dt ln hai khi V7 v V19 mt u trc c
t ln mt khi V19 c lp bc chn l xo y ton b trc
g v pha tay tri lm cho chi tit v bc nh v lun t st
sang tri.
m bo kp cht chi tit ln g c ai c 16 y 3
thp cn 14 to ra lc kp.
iu chnh song song ca tm trc g v mt
phng th tm trt mang c c th trt trn tm ng c khi
V. Khi iu chnh c song song ca tm trc g v mt
t kp cht tm ng mang c v khi trt nh bu lng.
kim tra dng ng h o c chnh xc n m 2
lp trn gi 1.
Chi tit c nh v 5 bc t do ln trc g: mt t nh v
2 bc v mt l nh v 3 bc. Nh vy kim tra vung gc
ca ng tm l c khng ch 3 bc t do nhiu hn mt
t.
Vy v mt nh v chi tit kim tra l tha mn.
4.2. Nguyn l lm vic ca g.
Khi lp chi tit ln trc g ta nhc trc g ra khi hai khi V7
v 19 a chi tit vo trc g. ai c v li st cn c vu mc vo
nhau khi vn ai c vo th ai c y li st cn tnh tin
sang tri. ai c v li st cn c lp vo nhau trc khi a chng
vo trc g vn cht ai c, ai c y li st cn sang tri.
Nh kt cu li st cn c mt vt nh hnh chm. Khi vn ai
c tin vo li st s y 3 con trt ra u nhau nh tm
v kp cht lun chi tit gia cng bng mt chun trong ca n.
131
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
t ng h o cho mi oca n tip xc cng vi chi tit
ti vng trn 100.
Nu kim ng h dch chuyn trong gii hn cho php th
chi tit m bo cung gc vi ng tm l v mt t.
Khi xong 1 chi tit, mun kim tra chi tit tip theo ta vn
ai c, ai c s ko li st tnh tin sang phi. Khi l xo l s
y 3 con trt ra khi b mt l ca chi tit, ta tho chi tit ra
khi trc g, sau khi a trc g ra khi 2 khi V.
4.3. Tnh sai s ch to g.
Theo cng thc tnh sai s ch to g trong Thit k v tnh
g, ta c:

ct
=
2 2 2 2 2
' 0 /
[ ]
ga m k d c
e e e e e - - - -
Trong :
[
ga
]: sai s g t cho php.
[
ga
] = (0,2 0.5)
: dung sai ca nguyn cng = 7m
Vy: [
ga
] = 3,5 1,4 m
Chn [
ga
] = 3,5 m

0
: sai s chun. Do chun nh v trng vi gc kch thc nn
0
=
0

m
: sai s do mn g:
m
= 0,05. 400 = 0,5 m
Sau khi kim tra cho lot chi tit N = 100 ta phi kim tra li
iu kin k thut ca g.

k
: sai s kp cht. V kim o ca ng h t iu chnh c
i vi tng chi tit khc nhau nn
k
= 0

dc
: sai s iu chnh g ly
dc
= 1 mm
Vy:
ct
=
2 2 2
3, 5 1 0, 5 - - = 3,15 m
Vy sai s ch to g l 3.15m.
4.4. iu kin k thut ca g
- vung gc ca mt nh v cho mt t ca chi tit v
ng tm l # 0,001mm.
- ng tm gia 2 khi V v tm trc g 0,001mm
- song song gia ng tm trc g v trc lun o ca
ng h 0,001
- cng ca trc g sau nhit luyn t 4852HRC.
132
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Kt lun
Vn gia cng tinh bnh rng hin nay l mt vn
ng vai tr tng i quan trng trong ngnh ch to my. Do
vy n cng quan trng trong vic gia cng cc cp bnh rng yu
cu chnh xc cao cho cc hp tc , ca cc my cng c,
trong ngh thut ch to my bay, trong ngnh giao thng vn ti.
Hin nay c 5 phng php gia cng tinh bnh rng. Trong
mi kim v mi tinh rng l cc phng php gia cng tinh bnh
rng sau nhit luyn. gia cng bnh rng trc nhit luyn ngi
ta thng dng v u rng, dng bnh rng mu ln p v dng
phng php c rng.
Trong cc phng php gia cng cc bnh rng c chnh
xc kh cao nh mi khin v mi rng. Tuy chnh xc ca bnh
rng gia cng bng nhng phng php c cao nhng nng sut
thp. Xt v tnh kinh t th ngi ta thy phng php c rng l
mt phng php cho nng sut rt cao v t c chnh xc
cng kh cao, c khi ti cp 1-2 v hin nay phng php ny ang
c p dng rt rng ri trong cc nh my ch to bnh rng nc
ta.
133
n tt nghip
Thit k dao c rng
Trn y l ton b phn thuyt minh tnh ton thit k
v quy trnh cng ngh ch to dao c rng ca chng em.
Qua cun thuyt minh ny chng em c gng trnh by
b cc n mc ngn gn nht, tuy nhin vn m bo c s v
mt nguyn l v kt cu mt cch chnh xc.
C s quan trng nht tnh ton thit k dao c l ti
liu tham kho.
Do kh nng v ngoi ng cn hn ch nn khng trnh khi
nhng sai st, chng em rt mong c s b sung v ch dn ca
cc thy c gio trong b mn
Cui cng chng em chn thnh mong c s gp ca cc
thy c gio trong b mn v cc bn gip chng em hon
thnh n tt nghip ny.
Chng em xin chn thnh cm n.

134