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Malaysian Studies The expansion and downfall of the Malay Malacca Sultanate

THE MALAY MALACCA SULTANATE MALACCA AND ITS EXPANSIONS INTRODUCTION Malacca Sultanate started in the era of archipelago empires where it came together with a few empires around peninsular on the Land of Melayu Nusantara. They were situated in peninsular of Tanah Melayu (Semenanjung Malaysia), Sumatera (Indonesia) and also Borneo until the Irianjaya Island. There were big and small empires around the archipelago era in the Nusantara. Those early kingdoms are: Srivijaya Tan Tan Tun Sun Funan Gangga Negara Chih Tu Old Kedah Langkasuka Mataram Majapahit

FOUNDER OF THE MELACA SULTANATE. The beginning of Malacca Empire started in the year of 1400 where Parameswara and his troops came to Temasek. A short explanation about the founder of Malacca his commonly known as Parameswara a young prince who ran from the Majapahit Empire. He was from Palembang. Theres a long and different versions of this young Javanese man background who wanted to release the Palembang state from the Majapahit Empire which became weaker as its downfall arrived. There are a few information saying that he is from the Hindu Noble family around Srivijaya. They claimed that Parameswara was the rebel leader who tried to release the old Palembang from Majapahit. His rebellion was failed in Majapahit, so that he ran to Temasek. As he

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Malaysian Studies The expansion and downfall of the Malay Malacca Sultanate

ran with his associated army and avoid from the attack by the ruler of Majapahit, he went to a few islands including Temasek. Today the island known as Singapura. He led to Temasek and found Malacca. The rebellion of Parameswara against Majapahit was failed and this is the start of Malacca Sultanate Empire by the great Parameswara (Raja Iskandar Shah) a Hindus who convert to Islam after several years of MALACCA Sulanate era. The Ancient Empire Of Malacca. Parameswara@Sang Nila Utama@ Raja Iskandar Shah founded Malacca. Parameswara was a prince from Majapahit. Majapahit is the empire along Sumetera, where is Palembang one of its territory. Disintergrated among the states under the government asscociates in Majapahit. Parameswara took actions (rebellion against Majapahit) He failed against the Majapahit Kingdom. He fled with his led army to the Temasek (Singapura) Arrived in Temasek in 1390. Temagi the ruler of Temasek welcomed him. Temagi was a representative of Ayuthia, a Siamese Kingdom. Parameswara killed him and siege Temasik. He took over Temasik management. He was attacked by the Siamese Government in Temasik. He fled with his associated army tu Muar. He was safe and reached Bertam River. The area located between India and China traders routes. He named the place Malacca (name of a tree).

Since then the great Empire Of Malacca Sultanate began and spread as Parameswara the Javanese Malay a great pioneer of the Javanese Malay develop an extraordinary in history of colonization in the Kingdom Of the Malays Malacca Sultanate empire.

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Malaysian Studies The expansion and downfall of the Malay Malacca Sultanate

1. FACTORS RISE OF MALACCA

Major Factors Of the Malacca Expansion

THE STRUCTURE OF THE SYSTEM

THE GOVENRTMENT SYSTEMS

REGIONAL CONTRIES RELATIONSHIP

GEOGRAPHICAL

THE ISLAM

TRADERS

1.1 THE STRUCTURE OF MALACCA SULTANATE SYSTEM. The head of highly organized municipal government. Four minister system systematic administration. Sultan was assisted by organization that was structured with a hierarchy and their respectatives functions. Called Sistem Pembesar Empat Lipatan.

BENDAHARA

PENGHULU BENDAHARI

TEMENGGUNG

LAKSAMANA

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Malaysian Studies The expansion and downfall of the Malay Malacca Sultanate

1.2 THE GOVENRTMENT SYSTEMS (ROLES OF THE SULTAN AND MINISTER This system contributed the stabilize of internal trader and also the traders came from outside of Malacca. Stability of management in a country ensured the best business oppurtunity in Malacca itself. 1.3 CENTRE OF TRADES / GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Situated in the midway along trade routes between India and China. Between Sumatera and Peninsular of Malaysia. Control traffic of the traders-Malacca as a port. Deep sea contributed foreign vessels from other country. The harbour sheltered from winds of the southeast and northeast monsoon. The monsoon allows Arabic and Indians traders travel to Malacca. The sultan is the leader. Chief of arm forced. Coordinates the economy. Symbol of diplomatic unity. Head of diplomatic relations.

1.4 MALACCA AS THE PORT OF TRADERS The harbour master (Syahbandar) supervised and cater needs of merchant. They distributed duties depends on the traders country. 4 habour masters managed 4 regions countries) Provide warehouse to store their goods. Welfare of foreign traders. Supervised the merchant nicely. Port facilities. Role of Laksamana control the fleet and Orang Laut safeguarding the Malacca straits. Malay as lingua franca.

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Malaysian Studies The expansion and downfall of the Malay Malacca Sultanate

1.5 RELATIONS TO REGIONAL CONTRIES Pasai based on marriage of Sultan Malacca Megat Iskandar Shah with Princess of Pasai. China 1404 Admiral Yin Ching visited Malacca. Malacca was a soverign empire. Ryukyu Nowadays known as Japan. Sultan Mansor Shah wrote a letter to King of Ryukyu about the misbehaviour among traders. Siam Supplied teak, rice and food. Represented by Tun Telanai and Jana Putera Siam to Malacca. Gujerat Get silk, spices gold, cloves and ornamental works from china in return of cotton fabrics, incense, medicinal wood. They helped to spread Islam in Malacca. Arab The traders bought gold and spices of South East Asia and tea from China. 1.6 THE COMING OF THE ISLAM Arab traders brought Islam to Malacca. Parameswara married the Pasai Princess and convert to Islam. He changed his name to Megat Iskandar Shah@Raja Iskandar Shah. As the sultan was a muslim Malacca became The Center Of Development Of Islam. Spread teachings of Islam in Malacca. A few evidence such as grave stone at Tanjung Inggeris / Inscribed stone in Terengganu. During 13th century Kedah and Terengganu were the early kingdoms accept Islam from the empire of Parameswara. FALL OF MALACCA 2. FACTORS FELL OF MALACCA. Major Factors Of the Fall of Malacca Sultanate.

WEAK LEADERHIP

DISUNTITY

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Malaysian Studies The expansion and downfall of the Malay Malacca Sultanate

WEAKNESS OF DEFENCE

THE ARRIVAL OF PRTUGUESE

2.1 WEAK LEADERSHIP The replacement of Tun Mutahir to Tun Perak as Bendahara of Malacca. Tun Perak biased during his administration. Conspire plot to Sultan Mahmud Shah Tun Mutahir being accused that he wanted to overthrow the king. Sultan Mahmud executed Tun Mutahir and his family. Sultan Mahmud handed reign to Raja Ahmad who was weak and inefficient. Tun Mutahir successor where Tun Pepatih Putih as very old and ill. Traders were not happy with high rate tax and started to divert to other ports. 2.2 DISUNITY Tun Mutahir appointed as Bendahara caused jealousy among Malays (Raja Mendeliar and Laksamana Khoja Hassan) Execution of Tun Mutahir and his family but exception of Tun Fatimah. Contributed disunity among the citizen of Malacca.

2.3 THE WEAKNESS OF MALACCA DEFENCE Malacca soldiers used traditional weapons. Portuguese used modern weapons. Well trained among Portuguese army. Best equipped weapons. Mercenary soldiers were attacked by the Portuguese.

2.4 THE ARRIVAL OF THE PORTUGUESE Portuguese wanted to control the spice trade. Control the important trade route to the east. Discovery of the sea route east through Cape of Good Hope.

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Malaysian Studies The expansion and downfall of the Malay Malacca Sultanate

Since 1511 Malacca has fell down and moved into the Colonial era. The Portuguese took over Malacca. The sultans were still there, but they had no power and to rule the Malacca as the traders port. The colonial took over the trader business and controlled the tax. They used many ways. The colonial era started with Portuguese, Dutch and British until the revolution of weapon and the machine revolution. Then, the Malacca Sultanate Empire became smaller until it reached the end of Malacca Sultanate Empire. CONCLUSSION. Based on the assignment topic and research that Ive done, I can make conclusion that the Malacca Sultanate Empire had gone through three phases of era. The phases are the beginning, the middle and the fall of the empire. For those three factors, I can conclude that the smooth and effective of administration and management ensured the best outcomes for an empire. The leader himself is the best role to make the empire whether to be good or worst. The conspiracy of course was the major factors contributed the downfall of Malacca. Traders and merchandise opinions should be hear by the ruler of the empire. Citizens' power influenced the rise and the fall to any empire in the world. End 1551 words

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