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TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI Bin son: TS.

BI NGC TUYN

Bi ging

NG DNG CAD/CAM/CAE/CNC TRONG C KH

H ni, 2011
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Bi m u TNG QUAN V CAD/CAM/CAE/CNC Cc thut ng: CG= Computer Graphics CAD = Computer Aided Design CAM = Computer Aided Manufacturing CAE = Computer Aided Engineering CAPP = Computer Aided Production Process CNC = Computer Numerical Control I. Lch s pht trin ca CAD/CAM/CAE/CNC 1.1. Lch s pht trin ca CAD/CAM/CAE Nh s pht trin ca cng ngh my tnh, cc nh sn xut mun t ng qu trnh thit k v mun s dng c s d liu ny cho qa trnh t ng sn xut. y l tng cho ngnh khoa hc CAD/CAM ra i. CAD/CAM c hiu l s dng my tnh trong qu trnh thit k v sn xut hay theo thut ng ting Anh l my tnh tr gip thit k v sn xut. T s ra i ca CAD/CAM cc lnh vc khc ca vic ng dng my tnh cng pht trin theo nh: CG, CAE, CAPP,.. Tt c nhng lnh vc sinh ra u lin quan ti nhng nt c trng ca quan nim v CAD/CAM. CAD/CAM l mt lnh vc rng ln n l tri tim ca nn sn xut tch hp v t ng . Lch s pht trin ca CAD/CAM gn lin vi s pht trin ca cng ngh my tnh v k thut ho tng tc (ICG). Cui 1950 u 1960 CAD/CAM c nhng bc pht trin ng k, khi u c th ni l ti Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - M vi ngn ng lp trnh cho my tnh APT (Automatically Programmed Tools). Mc ch ca APT l lp trnh cho my iu khin s, n c coi nh l mt bc t ph cho t ng ho qu trnh sn xut. Nhng nm 1960 n 1970 CAD tip tc pht trin mnh, h thng turnkey CAD c thng mi ho, y l mt h thng hon chnh bao gm phn cng, phn mm, bo tr v o to, h thng ny c thit k chy trn mainframe v minicomputer. Tuy nhin kh nng x l thng tin, b nh v ICG ca mainframe v minicomputer hn ch nn cc h CAD/CAM thi k ny km hiu qu, gi thnh cao v ch c s dng trong mt s rt t lnh vc.
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Nm 1983 my tnh IBM-PC ra i, y l th h my tnh l tng v kh nng x l thng tin, b nh, ho cho CAD/CAM. iu ny to iu kin cho cc h CAD/CAM pht trin rt nhanh chng. Cui nhng nm 1990 l thi k CAD/CAM t n nhng thnh tu ng k, rt nhiu phn mm s c tung ra th trng v ng dng rng ri trong thit k v sn xut ca nhiu ngnh cng nghip. Hin nay cc phn mm CAD/CAM ni ting ang c mt trn th trng nh: CIMATRON- Israel DELCAM- Anh Pro-Engineer- M Uni-Graphics- M SURFCAM- M MasterCAM-M ... Phn mm CAE xut hin sau CAD/CAM, khi m nhng i hi v cht lng ca sn phm rt cao. Vic phn tch m hnh sau thit k c thc hin nh CAE. CAE lm cho cng vic phn tch tr nn n gin hn nhiu so vi ton hc thng thng v cho kt qu ng tin cy trong mt thi gian nhanh chng, nh vo kt qu m ngi thit k s hiu chnh li thit k cho ph hp. Tu theo tnh nng v yu cu ca chi tit m s phn tch c th l nhng qu trnh sau: Phn tch nhit, p sut, ng sut, bin dng, cong vnh, kh nng in y khun, qu trnh ng c... Phng php phn t hu hn (FEM) l mt cng c ton hc quan trong trong cc bi ton phn tch. Phng php ny chia t ng chi tit thnh nhiu phn nh hnh tam gic hay ch nht ni tip nhau ri phn tch tng phn nh . Kt qu ca qu trnh phn tch c th l mt bng bo co (report), mt bc tranh in y hay mt m hnh chi tit b cong, hay bin dng c t trng vi m hnh l thuyt, t ngi thit k s nhn thy nhng v tr bin dng cc i v iu chnh thit k. V d: Moldex (Taiwan) v Mold-flow (Australia) l cc phn mm CAE chuyn dng h tr cho tnh ton thit k khun nha. Cc phn mm ny s dng phn tch qu trnh in y khun, cong vnh, nhit, p xut. ANSYS l phn mm CAE chuyn dng cho phn tch ng sut v bin dng,.. h tr cho qu trnh tnh ton thit k cc chi tit, kt cu c kh,.. 1.2. Lch s pht trin ca CNC Vo cui nhng nm 40 hc vin cng ngh MIT Hoa K bt u thc hin n nghin cu v k thut iu khin s. Nm 1953 cng b sng ch my phay iu chnh theo chng
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trnh s NC. Vo nm 1959 trin lm my cng c ti Paris trng by nhng chic my phay NCs u tin ca chu u. Nm 1960 cc h iu khin s c ch to tng ng vi trnh k thut ca cc cng ngh bng n in t v rle (c/in/thu lc), my kch thc ln, rt nhy cm vi cc iu kin mi trng khc nhau v gi c th rt t . V vy my khng c s dng rng ri. T sau nhng nm 1960, bng n in t c thay dn bng cc phn t bn dn ri rc, i t, v tranzito ( n 3 cc), th nhng nhng linh kin n l vn i hi c th tch chim ch ln, cn rt nhiu mi hn v cc cm, cc ghp ni va tn km khi ch to va hn ch tin cy khi vn hnh iu khin. Nhng thng tin iu khin c ghi trn bng c l nn dung lng thp v phi c tng bc trong qu trnh gia cng, khi gia cng nhiu chi tit ging nhau vn phi c bng c l cho tng ln gia cng. Khi thay i chng trnh iu khin chng hn nh mun thay i ch ct cho ph hp i hi phi lm li bng c l. Vo nhng nm 70, k thut iu khin s nhanh chng ng dng cc tin b ca k thut vi in t, vi mch tch hp: nhng h NC s dng nhng bn mch lgc c thay th bi cc b nh c dung lng ln; do ni ghp cc cm vi tnh vo h iu khin s m nhng phn cng trc y c thay th bng nhng phn mm linh hot hn. Dung lng b nh ngy cng c m rng to iu kin lu gi trong h iu khin s trc ht l tng chng trnh n l, sau l c mt th vin chng trnh li c th sa i chng trnh lp mt cch d dng thng qua vic cp lnh bng tay, thao tc trc tip trn my. Cho n ngy nay cc chc nng tnh ton trong h thng CNC ngy cng c hon thin v t c tc s l rt cao do tip tc ng dng nhng thnh tu khoa hc k thut pht trin ca cc b vi x l P. Cc h thng CNC c ch to hng lot theo cc cng thc x l a chc nng dng cho nhiu mc ch iu khin khc nhau. T ch nhng vt mang tin l nhng bng c l, bng t, a t tin ti a compact (a CD) c dung lng nh ngy cng m rng tin cy v tui th ngy cng cao. Vic ci t cc cm vi tnh trc tip vo h NC tr thnh CNC (Computer Numerical Control) to iu kin thun li cho vic ng dng, cho chng ta c th ng dng c my cng c iu khin s CNC ngay c trong cc x nghip va v nh khng c phng lp trnh ring, iu c ngha l ngi iu khin my c th lp trnh trc tip trn my. Nhng d liu c nhp vo, ni dung lu tr trn my, thng bo v tnh trng hot ng ca my cng cc ch dn cn thit khc cho ngi iu khin my u c hin th trn mn hnh.
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Lc u mn hnh ca cc h iu khin s ch l mn hnh en trng vi cc k t ch ci v con s nay s dng cc mn hnh mu ho vi phn gii cao, bin dng ca chi tit gia cng, chuyn ng ca dao c u c hin th, c th m phng chi tit gia cng theo 3 chiu kch thc (3D). Trong nhng nm gn y s bng n ca ngnh cng ngh thng tin, s pht trin ca cng ngh High-Tech ngy cng to ra c nhng th h my cng c iu khin s ngy cng u vit hn, p ng c nhng yu cu cao ca th trng. Ngoi nhng u im c bn ca my v cng ngh CNC nh chnh xc cao ca sn phm, p ng nhanh v s lng v thch ng nhanh vi th trng v mu m sn phm th nhng u im ni bt ch c my CNC na l phng thc lm vic vi h thng x l thng tin in t-s ho, cho php ni ghp vi h thng x l trong phm vi ton x nghip to iu kin m rng vic t ng ho ton b qu trnh sn xut, ng dng cc k thut qun l hin i thng qua mng lin thng cc b (LAN) hay mng lin thng ton cu (WAN). Xt v bn cht ca cc my iu khin theo chng trnh s, t cc my NC u tin vi b x l l c p dng cng ngh n in t, rle n cc phn t bn dn ri rc, it, v tranzito ( n 3 cc ) v sau l p dng cc tin b ca k thut vi in t, vi mch tch hp v siu vi mch cng ch l s l cc h thng d liu u vo cho h thng iu khin s. II. Mi lin kt gia CAD/CAM/CAE/ CNC tm hiu bn cht mi lin kt gia CAD-CAM-CAE-CNC, ta c th kho st mt chu k sn phm in hnh. Chu k sn phm bt u t nhu cu sn phm c xc nh trn c s yu cu ca khch hng v th trng. Chu k sn phm c thc hin qua hai qu trnh chnh t s khi u ca n cho n sn phm hon thin: qu trnh thit k v qu trnh sn xut, ch to. Qa trnh thit k li bao gm hai qu trnh con l t hp v phn tch. Trit l, chc nng, tnh duy nht ca sn phm c xc nh trong qu trnh t hp. Trong qu trnh ny, thit k c thc hin dng cc phc tho v bn v m t quan h gia cc chi tit ca sn phm. Cc bn v v phc tho ny c th c to ra bng cc h thng CAD/CAM hoc v bng tay. Chng c thc hin thng qua cc trao i tho lun gia cc thnh vin trong nhm thit k. Qa trnh phn tch bt u vi vic c gng t thit k tng vo ng cnh khoa hc, k thut nh gi hiu qu ca sn phm mong i. Qa trnh ny i hi phi m hnh ha v m phng cng nh thc hin cc phn tch k thut (CAE) tm ra gii php thit k ti u. Phn tch k thut c th c thc hin bng chnh mo dun CAE tch hp ngay trong h thng CAD/CAM hoc bng cch s dng phn mm CAE chuyn dng khc.
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Qa trnh sn xut bt u bng lp k hoch qu trnh v kt thc l sn phm thc. Lp k hoch qu trnh c xem l xng sng ca qu trnh sn xut v n cho php xc nh c trnh t hiu qu nht ch to ra sn phm. Kt qu u ra ca lp k hoch qu trnh l quy trnh sn xut, tm kim c dng c, t n hng vt liu v lp trnh gia cng. Chng trnh gia cng NC c to ra bng h thng CAD/CAM l d liu u vo cho cc thit b CNC thc hin qu trnh sn xut, kim tra cht lng,.. Qua phn tch nh trn, c th thy rng CAE l mt phn ca qu trnh CAD v CNC l mt phn ca CAM. CAE v CNC nm trong tng th ca qu trnh CAD/CAM.
Qa trnh thit k
nh ngha thit k, cc tiu chun, quy nh v yu cu Thu thp cc thng tin thit k tng t v nghin cu tnh kh thi

Nhu cu thit k

Qa trnh CAD
Thng tin v ti liu thit k nh gi thit k Ti u ha thit k Phn tch thit k M hnh ha & m phng thit k tng ha thit k

Qa trnh sn xut Qa trnh CAM


Lp k hoch SX

Lp k hoch qu trnh

Thit k v tm kim dng c mi

Sn xut

Kim tra cht lng

Bao gi

Vn chuyn

t mua vt liu

Lp trnh NC,CNC,DNC Marketing

Hnh 1. Chu trnh sn phm Thng qua chu trnh sn phm c ng dng cng ngh CAD/CAM trn ta cng thy c vai tr quan trng ca CAD/CAM trong nn sn xut kinh t th trng hin nay trn ton th gii. Cc li ch c bn m CAD/CAM em n l:
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Nng cao nng sut Nng cao cht lng Nng cao kh nng trao i thng tin To ra mt CSDL dng chung Gim chi ph to mu p ng nhanh vi yu cu ca th trng

III. Cu trc chung ca h thng CAD/CAM Chu trnh sn phm trnh by trn l c s xc nh phm vi ca CAD/CAM, Qa trnh CAD l mt phn ca qu trnh thit k , cn qu trnh CAM l mt phn ca qu trnh sn xut. Ht nhn ca cc qu trnh CAD v CAM l m hnh hnh hc ca sn phm c thit k. Cc hot ng ca qu trnh CAD bao gm c thuc tnh khi lng, FEA, nh kch thc, dung sai,m hnh ha lp rp, to nh t bng, cc ti liu v bn v. Cc hot ng ca qu trnh CAM bao gm CAPP, lp trnh NC, ..

M hnh ha hnh hc CAD

ha my tnh

CAD CAM

T ng ha

Thit k Thit k

Sn xut

CAD

M hnh ha hnh hc

CAD/CAM

T ng ha

ha my tnh Sn xut

Hnh 2: Cc nguyn l CAD /CAM

Mt h thng CAD/CAM bao gm c phn cng v phn mm. Phn cng gm c mt my tnh (PC hoc Workstation) cng vi chut, bn phm,Phn mm l mt chng trnh my tnh c vit bng ngn ng C hoc C++. Mt vi ngn ng khc nh Schem, Java cng c dng vit phn mm. Phn mm c giao din vi ngi s dng dng ha(GUI) nhiu lp cung cp cho ngi s dng cc menu, biu tng thc hin cc hot ng CAD/CAM t xy dng hnh hc cho n thc hin cc phn tch v tnh ton. Cc h thng CAD/CAM u c cu trc ging nhau v u c cc m dun c bn sau: Mo dun hnh hc ha (geometric engine module) l tri tim ca h thng CAD/CAM. N cung cp cho ngi s dng cc chc nng m hnh ha hnh hc, xy dng, hiu chnh, iu khin cc m hnh hnh hc c, phc tho v kt xut ti liu, Mo dun ng dng (applications module) s dng m hnh hnh hc cho cc mc tiu thiit k v sn xut ch to. Mo dun ny khc nhau cc phn mm. Cc ng dng c kh y thng gm c: tnh ton khi lng, phn tch lp rp, phn tch v t hp dung sai, thit k tm mng, m hnh ha v phn tch phn t hu hn, phn tch c cu, cc k thut hot hnh v m phng, phn tch qu trnh c & p phun nha,..Cc ng dng sn xut bao gm CAPP, NC, CIM, m phng robot, cng ngh nhm. Mo dun lp trnh (programming module) cho php ngi dng s dng h thng bng cch lp trnh n theo cc yu cu nhim v thit k v sn xut, ch to.Lp trnh mt h thng CAD/CAM i hi c cc kin thc su v cu trc h thng, nh dng c s d liu ca n, ngn ng lp trnh bc cao nh C, C++, Java, Scheme,.. Mo dun kt ni,trao i thng tin (communications module) l cn thit cho tch hp h thng CAD/CAM, cc h thng my tnh khc, cc thit b, dy chuyn sn xut. Mo dun ny c dng truyn c s d liu CAD ca mt m hnh cho cc mc ch phn tch, thit k hay truyn c s d liu CAM ca n xung phn xng, thit b cho gia cng, sn xut. Mo dun ny cng c dng trao i c s d liu gia cc h thng CAD/CAM bng cch s dng cc tiu chun ha nh IGES hay STEP. Mo dun cng tc, phi hp (Collaborative module) c xy dng nh l kt qu ca pht trin mng ton cu (World Wide Web) v Internet. Mo dun ny h tr cho thit k c tnh phi hp. Nhiu nhm thit k cc v tr a l khc nhau c th lm vic ng thi trn Web trn cng mt chi tit, mt lp rp, hay mt file bn v. Mt nhm thit k c th thay i, iu chnh thit k, trong khi nhm khc c th xem v chp nhn hay ph nhn. IV. Phn loi h thng CAD/CAM C th phn loi cc h thng CAD/CAM ra thnh bn nhm cn c vo th trng m n phc v, cc cng c, chc nng v tnh linh hot m n cung cp. S phn chia ny c tnh
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tng i, do s pht trin khng ngng ca cc h thng CAD/CAM trong thi i kinh t th trng.C th nh sau: Cc h thng mc thp (Low-end systems) c xu hng hng ti ngi s dng c k nng bnh thng v sn phm ca h khng phc tp. Mt sn phm c bn ca h ch cu thnh t mt s lng nh chi tit vi hnh hc khng qu phc tp. Nhng ngi s dng ny hng ti m hnh ha hnh hc c bn v phc tho thit k. Thuc v nhm ny c cc phn mm nh AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor, CADKEY, Cc h thng mc trung bnh (Midrange systems) hng ti ngi s dng c nhu cu cn m hnh ha phc tp. S lng chi tit cho sn phm ln cho cc sn phm kh phc tp. Khc vi cc h thng mc thp, cc h thng ny h tr cho cc ng dng thit k v sn xut, ch to. Cac h thng ny hoc bao trm cc ng dng thit k v sn xut, ch to vi m hnh ha hnh hc ca chng, hoc phi hp vi cc phn mm i tc. C th xp vo nhm ny cc phn mm nh SolidWorks, Pro/E, MasterCAM. Cc h thng mc cao (High-end systems) l cc h thng CAD/CAM k tha. Cc h thng ny xut hin t nhng nm 1970 v c pht trin qua nhiu nm. Cc h thng ny h tr cho m hnh ha, phn tch, sn xut, ch to cc sn phm phc tp nh my bay. t,Thuc v nhm ny c cc phn mm Unigraphics, Parasolid, SDRC I-DEAS, CATIA,.. Unigraphics, Parasolid, v I-DEAS c cung cp bi hng EDS, cn CATIA v SolidWorks c cung cp bi Dassault Systems. Cc h thng chuyn dng (Specialized systems) bao gm ACIS (Spatial Corp.) v Parasolid (EDS),.. Mi h thng ny cung cp mt li (phn mm) m hnh ha hnh hc, ha tng qut v rt mnh cng vi license cho php xy dng cc h thng CAD/CAM vi y cc chc nng. Phn mm ACIS c dng nh mt li ht nhn ca cc h thng CAD/CAM ny. SolidWorks, Unigraphics, SolidEdge s dng ACIS lm li ca chng. Vic la chn mt h thng CAD/CAM ph thuc vo nhiu yu t, t tiu chun gi thnh cho n cc tiu chun th nghim nh gi hiu sut, kh nng ca phn mm. Tnh tng thch vi my tnh ang s dng, trin vng, tin cy ca h thng cng nh k nng,kin thc nn, quan im ca ngi s dng,.. cng l nhng yu t c xem xt n khi la chn. i vi cc cng ty, vic la chn h thng CAD/CAM thng chu nh hng ln bi quy m v phc tp sn phm ca cng ty. Cc cng ty nh, sn phm n gin thng la chn cc h thng d s dng nh AutoCAD, CADKEY, SolidEdge, hay SolidWorks,..Cc cng ty loi va thng chn cc h thng CAD/CAM nh SolidWorks, Pro/E, Unigraphics, I-DEAS, CATIA,.. khng c qun tr d liu sn phm (PDM) v cc mo dun phn mm bc cao.Cc cng ty ln vi sn phm phc tp cng thng chn cc h
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thng ging nh cc cng ty loi va, nhng yu cu c PDM cc b phn ca cng ty c th chia x v hiu chnh ng thi d liu sn phm v km theo l cc mo dun ng dng bc cao. Tri ngc vi s a dng cc tiu chun la chn h thng CAD/CAM ca cc cng ty, cc tiu chun la chn v mt k thut l thng nht. Chng c thit lp da trn l thuyt v cng ngh CAD/CAM hin c. Cc tiu chun ny bao gm: tnh d s dng h thng, cht lng ti liu kt xut, bo tr phn mm, h tr v dch v, kh nng m hnh ha hnh hc, cc ng dng thit k v sn xut, ch to, ngn ng lp trnh h thng,.. V. Cc tiu ch nh gi h thng CAD/CAM 1. V h thng: a. Phn cng: cu hnh, kh nng m rng h thng lin quan n cu trc m ca phn cng. b. Phn mm: - H iu hnh ca h thng - Giao din ngi s dng - Cht lng ti liu k thut c. Bo tr: sa cha phn cng v cp nht phn mm. d. H tr v dch v ca nh cung cp phn mm: o to, h tr k thut 2. Kh nng m hnh ha hnh hc a- Cc k thut biu din: Cc m hnh hnh hc: Wireframe, Surface, Solid Cc thc th hnh hc (entities) c cung cp nh th no? S tch hp gia cc biu din hnh hc khc nhau v cc ng dngchungs h tr H ta lm vic (WCS) D liu ta u vo: ta Decac (x,y,z), ta tr (r, , z), ta cu (, , z) dng xy dng, kim tra v hiu chnh cc thc th. d- Hiu chnh hnh hc v thao tc bng tay Cc chc nng hiu chnh hnh hc: giao, xn ta, chiu,.. Cc thao tc: tnh tin, quay, copy, mirror, offset, scale, thay i thuc tnh

b- Cc h thng ta v d liu ta u vo

c- Cc thc th m hnh ha: cc thc th c th c cung cp bi phn mm? tnh d

e- H tr tiu chun ha: trao i d liu hnh hc gia cc h thng 3. Ti liu thit k: to cc bn v k thut 4. Cc ng dng a. Lp rp hoc hp nht m hnh b. Cc ng dng trong thit k (CAE): tnh khi lng, phn tch dung sai, FEA,
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c. Cc ng dng sn xut: sinh v kim tra ng dng c, lp trnh nc, postprocessing, lp k hoach qu trnh, CIM, m phng robot. 5. Ngn ng lp trnh c h tr: Cc mc ngn ng lp trnh h thng cung cp C php cc lnh ha.

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Phn1: Thit k c kh vi CAD Chng 1: Tng quan v ng dng phn mm CAD/CAM trong thit k c kh 1.1. Gii thiu 1.1.1. Thit k 2D vi CAD 1. Cc khng gian thit k 2D a. Khng gian giy v (Paper Space). Mt h thng CAD s dng khng gian giy v bit kch thc ca bn v. Hn na kch thc bn v c th ch nh h thng n v (inch, mm, ) v t l cn thit nhp d liu hnh hc vo bn v. V d nu kch thc bn v c A4 theo n v mm c s dng, th khng gian giy v c s s t 0 n 297 mm theo phng ngang v t 0 n 210 mm theo phng ng. Nh vy khng gian giy v khng khng ch xc nh ng bin ca bn v m cn thit lp c n v ca n. Vi khng gian ny, ngi s dng bt buc phi lm vic trong khun kh bn v xc nh. H thng CAD cng c th cung cp cc la chn (option) lm vic vi cc khung nhn (viewport). Cc khung nhn c ng bin ranh gii vi cc ta xmax,ymax, xmin,ymin, xc nh. Khi bn v thit lp khng gian giy v, cc khung nhn tng ng vi cc hnh chiu ca bn v. Lc c th d dng c h s t l cc khung nhn tng ng vi t l ca bn v. Mi khung nhn c th c h s t l ring ca n v khun kh thit k c th c thc hin trong ng cnh ca khun kh bn v c la chn. Nu vt th thit k c kch thc rt ln, cc khung nhn c th chn cc t l thu nh ln. V d nh khi chn t l l 1/32 nu ngi thit k nhp vo mt on thng c chiu di l 320 mm th h thng CAD c th t ng nhp t l 1/32 v v ra on thng c chiu di lam 10 mm. Khi ngi thit k o chiu di on thng ny trn bn v CAD th h thng CAD c th t ng undo hiu ng t l ca khung nhn, tc l lc kch thc on thng c o s l kch thc thc bng 320 mm. b. Khng gian m hnh (Model Space). Trong khng gian m hnh, s hnh thnh cc thc th hnh hc khng lin quan g n kch c bn v ang c to ra. H thng CAD xem tt c cc thng tin hnh hc ang c v l nm trong min phng 2D khng gii hn. H thng ch nh mt im gc (Origin) cng vi h ta m hnh (MCS). V khng c quan h g vi kch thc bn v, nn cc vt th thit k c th c kch thc ln, nh khng hn ch. Cc ta ca cc thc th hnh hc xy dng c th ln nh ty v khng quan tm n n v ang c dng (inch, mm,..). Do vy ngi thit k s dng cc kch thc thc thit k. Khi bn v c hon thnh, hnh hc thit k c trnh by trong khng gian m hnh. Khi in bn v, khng gian m hnh cn

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phi chuyn i cho ph hp vi khng gian giy v. iu ny d dng thc hin c bng cch ph (overlay) hay nh x kch c bn v n cc thc th hnh hc trong bn v . 2. Phng php thit k s dng cc bn v 2D. Thit k mt sn phm c kh cn thc hin qua mt h thng cc nhim v v vi mi mc ca n c thc hin vi mt kiu bn v nht nh. Hin nay hu ht cc cng ty ln trong cc ngnh t, hng khng, thit b c kh,.. u ang s dng qu trnh thit k 3D, nn phng php thit k 2D khng c s dng nhiu nh trc. Mc d vy, ngi thit k vn cn nm c cc nguyn l ca phng php thit k 2D c th p dng cho thit k 3D. a. c im k thut (Specifications) Mc trn cng ca thit k 2D l bn v chung ca sn phm (GA = General Arrangement). Bn v ny trnh by cc thng tin thit k chung nht ca sn phm. Bn v ny c dng nh gi marketing v cc c tnh k thut ca sn phm. Cc c tnh k thut l mt ti liu thng gn vi GA quy nh cc yu cu m thit k cn phi p ng. Bn v chung thng c to ra u tin. Giai on u ny ca qu trnh thit k thng c gi l thit k tng (Conceptual Design). giai on ny, cc nim c bn ca thit k c nh gi v c iu chnh p ng vi cc yu cu khc nhau ca th trng. b. Bn v lp (Layouts and Assembly) Sau giai on thit k tng, n giai on thit k s b (Preliminary Design). Kiu bn v s dng trong giai an ny c gi l Layouts. Cc bn v ny c dng bt u thc s nh kch thc v lp ghp cc h thng, cc b phn, cc chi tit vi nhau. Cng ging nh bn chung, layouts khng thc s c dng trong khi sn xut, ch to sn phm v ni chung khng c pht hnh (released) tc l chng khng c s dng ngoi phng k thut. c. Thit k chi tit v phc tho (Detailed Design and Drafting) Cui cng, cc layouts i n thi im hnh hc hay hnh dng ca cc chi tit thnh phn c xc nh. Lc ny ngi thit k layout nhn thy rng cc chi tit c nh v v c nh kch thc ph hp lp ghp v lm vic. Trn c s cc hnh chiu ca chi tit trn bn v layout, ngi thit k c th to ra bn v c th dng ch to cc chi tit n l c th. Kiu bn v ny c gi l bn v chi tit. V cc bn v ny c dng iu khin, ch dn cho qu trnh sn xut nn cc bn v ny cn c y kch thc, dung sai, 1.1.2. Thit k 3D vi CAD
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Thit k 2D c nhng hn ch trong nhiu ng dng. T nhng thp nin 90 ca th k trc vi s pht trin ca my tnh v cc b m phng 3D, thit k 3D c ng dng rng ri v ngy nay c th c xem l tiu chun thit k c kh. Sau y l lit k mt s u im ca thit k 3D: Hnh dung (Visualization). y l u im c bn nht ca thit k 3D. Ngi thit k c th quan st c thit k thc, khng cn phi nghin cu cc hnh chiu trn bn v. To ra cc bn v t ng (Automated drawing). Cc bn v thng cn dng trao i thng tin vi nh cung cp, khch hng, ngi sn sut,..CAD 3D c th s dng to ra t ng cc thc th hnh hc trn cc bn v. Thuc tnh hnh hc (Geometric properties). Khi m hnh 3D c to ra, c th phn tch n theo nhiu cch, diu m CAD 2D khng th thc hin c. Trn c s m hnh 3D c th tnh c th tch, nu gn vt liu cho n th c th tnh c khi lng, k c trng hp m hnh 3D ca mt lp rp gm nhiu chi tit bng cc vt liu khc nhau. C th o c cc khong cch trong m hnh 3D theo nhiu cch ( khong cch gia 2 im, gia im vi ng, im vi mt, ng vi ng,) Kim tra giao nhau (Interference checking). H thng CAD 3D c th t ng kim tra giao nhau ca cc m hnh hay ca cc phn trong m hnh. Nng cao cht lng (Improved quality). CAD 3D d dng chuyn i n s to thnh cc m hnh phn tch ( d on li). Cc bn v c t ng to ra t m hnh 3D t b li hn. Cc hnh chiu phi cnh trn bn v gip cho ngi c d hiu bn v m t g. Ngi c c th tm hiu nhanh chng bn v v t mc li hn. Ph duyt thit k thc s (True design view). Vic hp kim tra, xem xt ph duyt thit k sn phm mc cao nht bao gm c nh thit k, cc k s, nh qun l, khch hng, nh tip th, nhn vin sn xut,..). cn phi xc nh xem sn phm c p ng c yu cu hay khng. Mc d hu ht h c th lm vic vi cc bn v, nhng c rt t thng tin phn hi v khng phi tt c cc thnh vin u tinh thng bn v. Vn ny s c gii quyt nh h tr ca cc hnh nh m hnh 3D. M hnh thng minh (Intelligent models). Cc phn mm m hnh ha 3D kch thch cc nh thit k c nhng pht minh, ci tin thit k. iu ny c th thc hin dng to ra cc quan h tham s, nhp vo cc phng trnh, cc bng nhm sn phm, cc hn ch,..Nh vy cho php t mt m hnh chi tit tng qut c th to ra cc m hnh chi tit tng t mt cch t ng. Tiu chun ha. Mc d CAD 2D c th lu gi v t chc ra cc hnh hc tiu chun, nhng khi c a vo bn v th thng khng s dng li c. CAD 3D c th lu gi nhiu ln bn ghi cc m hnh chi tit 3D tiu chun c s dng trong mt lp rp.
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Phi hp, kt ni (Associativity). M hnh CAD 3D c th gi c cc quan h ca cc thc th hnh hc vi nhau. Nh c trng ny, khi m hnh 3D c hiu chnh li, hnh hc v cc kch thc trong cc bn v 2D s c t ng cp nht li. Cc quan h cng c th cho php dn n thay i trong mt lp rp hay m hnh phn tch ca chi tit. CAD 3D to ra mt c s d liu dng chung cho nhiu ng dng tip theo trong chu k sn phm, c bit trong giai on sn xut (CAM, CAPP,) Pht trin sn phm tch hp (Integrated product development). Vi nhng kh nng ca CAD 3D nh Visualization, Associativity, Intelligent vic to ra cc nhm hc thut cho pht trin sn phm tr thnh hin thc hn. 1.2. 1Lm quen vi phn mm CAD/CAM Cc phng php thc hin lnh:

a. S dng menubar: cc cu lnh c nhm li v t trong tng menu. Do vy khng tn khng gian m hnh ha. Ngi s dng cn nh cc cu ln c nhm hp vi nhau nh th no. b. S dng toolbar: cc cu lnh c m t bng cc biu tng (icons). Thao tc lnh nhanh, ch cn mt click l truy nhp c vo cu lnh. Tuy nhin ngi s dng cn phi kch hot cc toolbar cn thit v vic s dng toolbar cng lm cho mn hnh rm ri v lm gim khng gian m hnh ha . c. Nhp lnh trc tip t s dng v chm v ngi dng cn phi nh cu lnh 1. Cc ty bin (Customization) Ty bin h thng: Ngi dng c th thay i h thng sao cho ph hp vi yu cu m hnh ha ca mnh, vi mi trng lm vic v lu li. Cc thit lp ny nh hng n cc thuc tnh h thng CAD/CAM v p dng cho tt c cc m hnh. Cc la chn h thng bao gm thit lp cc mu ca c s d liu, cc thuc tnh ca bn v,..v cc ty bin h thng khc. Ty bin lp ti liu: Cc thit lp ty bin ti liu cho php ngi s dng iu khin c lp cc thuc tnh ca mi ti liu. Ngi dng ch c th truy nhp v thay i cc thuc tnh ny khi ti liu c m ra. Cc la chn ty bin ny bao gm: thit lp cc n v (units), li v (grid), cc thuc tnh hnh nh (image attributes), v nhiu ty bin h thng khc. 2. Cc phng thc (modes) ca h thng CAD/CAM Khi to mt file mi trong mt h thng CAD, h thng thng nhc ta chn phng thc m trong ta mong mun to file mi ny. Cc phng thc thng thy nht trong mt h thng l: phng thc to chi tit (Part mode), phng thc to bn v (Drawing mode), phng thc lp rp (Assembly mode). Cc phng thc khc c th c hay khng
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ty vo h thng nh: phng thc m phng (Simulation mode), phng thc hot hnh ( Animation mode), phng thc phn tch (Analysis mode), phng thc gia cng (Machining mode),.. 3. Cc h thng ta (coordinate system) v mt phng phc tho (sketch plane) Cc h thng ta v mt phng phc tho l nhng khi nim quan trng trong mt h thng CAD. Chng c dng nhp, lu v hin th hnh hc m hnh v ha. C ba h thng ta thc hin cc nhim v ny l: h ta m hnh (Model/Master Coordinate System = MCS), h ta lm vic (Working Coordinate System = WCS) v h ta mn hnh (Screen Coordinate System). Mt MCS l mt khng gian chun ca m hnh m tt c cc d liu hnh hc ca m hnh c lu trong . Trong mt h thng CAD MCS thng c ch ra bng cch hin th cc trc X, Y, Z. Cc mt phngvung gc c to ra bi cc trc ca MCS l cc mt phng chun, mt phng phc tho hoc mt phng dng hnh. Mt WCS c th c xem nh l mt h ta ng. N thng c dng khi mt phng cn thit phc tho khng c xc nh n gin l mt trong cc mt phng ca MCS. Ngi s dng c th nh ngha mt WCS (v nh vy nh ngha mt mt phng phc tho) cho trng hp nh vy v h ta ny c quan h vi h MCS bng cch s dng mt ma trn chuyn i hnh hc cho php d liu hnh hc c lu tng i vi MCS. Trong Solidwork hay Pro/E khng hin th vt l WCS. Khi to ra hoc la chn cc mt phng phc tho thc cht l to ra WCS. Mt SCS l mt h thng ta ph thuc thit b 2D vi gc ca n ti gc tri pha di ca mn hnh. N c dng ch yu trong khi nhp chut c lin h vi khung nhn, chng hn nh khi xc gc ca khung nhn v la chn cc khung nhn cho cc thao tc ha. Mt phng chun hay mt phng dng hnh l cc tn gi khc ca mt phng phc tho. y l mt trong cc khi nim quan trng nht trong CAD b sung cho cc h thng ta . Cc mt phng phc tho l cc mt phng vung gc to ra bi cc trc ca MCS hay WCS. Chng cng c th l cc mt phng khc theo mt hng no . To ra / la chn mt mt phng phc tho l bc quan trng u tin to dng mt m hnh CAD. Hn na, ta cng thng xuyn phi to ra / la chn cc mt phng phc tho trong sut qu trnh m hnh ha. M hnh CAD xy dng s c nh hng nh th no trong khng gian 3D ph thuc vo mt phng phc tho ta s dng phc tho. 4. Phc tho (thao tc v 2D) Nh trnh by trn, bc u tin khi m hinh ha CAD l to ra / la chn mt phng phc tho. Sau ta tin hnh v phc. H thng CAD cung cp nhiu cu lnh / cng c
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cho php ta to ra nhng hnh dng 2D khc nhau khi s dng cc thc th hnh hc nh line, circle, arc, fillet, rectangle, chamfer, 5. M hnh ha (thao tc v 3D) Sau khi to ra cc phc tho 2D bng cc cng c v phc cung cp bi h thng CAD, ta s dng cc thao tc 3D cho cc phc tho ny to ra cc c trng (feature) v cc mt (surface) m ta thng gi l cc m hnh CAD. Cc h thng CAD cung cp nhiu thao tc 3D p dng cho c khi rn (solid) v mt (surface) nh extrusion, revolve, cut, holes, ribs, chamfers, fillets, sweeps, lofts. Cc cu lnh ny c th c chn khi s dng menubar hay toolbar. Cng cn nhn mnh rng, giai on ny cc thao tc 3D c th yu cu nhiu hn mt phc tho xc nh hon ton feature hay surface. Cc m hnh CAD c th c phn ra thnh ba loi trn quan im xy dng hnh hc: cc m hnh 2 1 D, cc m hnh 3D, v cc m hnh t hp ca hai loi trn. 2

Hnh 1.1: Cc dng m hnh 2 1 D, 3D, v cc m hnh phc hp 2

Cc m hnh 2 1 D l cc m hnh c tit din ngang v chiu dy theo phng vung gc 2 vi mt phng ca tit din ngang l khng i. Cc m hnh trn xoay cng thuc vo loi ny. Cc m hnh c to ra t nhiu i tng 2 1 D cng thuc loi ny. Ta c th gi 2 cc m hnh ny l cc m hnh 2 1 D phc hp. Cc m hnh 2 1 D d dng to ra bng 2 2 cc cu lnh n gin nh extrude v revolve. xy dng m hnh 2 1 D c th thc 2
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hin theo hai bc. Bc th nht l to tit din ngang ca m hnh trong mt phng phc tho. Bc th hai, ko ln (extrude) tit din ngang nu m hnh c chiu dy khng i, hoc quay (revolve) tit din ngang nu y l m hnh trn xoay Cc m hnh 3D l cc m hnh khng c tit din ngang khng i v / hoc khng c chiu dy khng i. Cc m hnh loi ny thng i hi nhiu phc tho trong cc mt phng phc tho khc nhau v cn dng cc cu lnh mnh nh l sweep, loft,..

6. Quan st (viewing)
Mi khi to dng mt m hnh bng cch s dng cc thao tc 3D i vi cc phc tho, hoc trong qu trnh to cc m hnh v cc phc tho, h thng CAD cho php ta quan st cc m hnh ny theo nhiu cch khc nhau. Hu ht cc thao tc quan st trong mt h thng CAD c th c phn thnh ba nhm: nh hng quan st (view orientation), cc phng thc quan st (view modes), cc thao tc quan st (view manipulations).

View orientation bao gm cc khung nhn tiu chun nh front, top, right v isometric.
Chng lm thng hng m hnh trn mn hnh theo cch hin th khung nhn chn.

view modes cho php thay i hin th m hnh theo cc kiu khc nhau nh theo kiu
khung dy (wireframe), n nt khut (hidden), t bng (shaded).

view manipulations cho php quay (rotate), ko (pan) v phng (zoom) hnh nh mt cch
ty ng nhm t c hiu qu quan st tt nht

7. Cc cng c tng hiu qu CAD (productivity tools)


Tt c cc h thng CAD u cung cp productivity tools/features nhm lm gim thi gian cn thit cho to dng m hnh v tng chnh xc ca m hnh. Cc cng c ny bao gm: cc cng c hiu chnh hnh hc (Geometric modifiers), cc mng hnh hc (Geometric arrays) v li v (Grids) a. Cng c hiu chnh hnh hc (Geometric modifiers) cho php ngi dng s dng cc thng tin hin c v m hnh hay phc tho m khng cn phi tnh ton cc thng tin ny. V d nh nu mun to ra mt ng thng mi bt u t im cui ca mt ng thng c, h thng CAD s lm sng (highlight) im cui cn thit khi con tr di chuyn gn n n. Cc geometric modifiers thng c cc h thng CAD l end, origin (center hay mid), intersection, tangent, quadrant, near, perpenticular, parallel. b. Mng hnh hc (Geometric arrays): l cng c lm tng tc v rt hiu qu ca cc h thng CAD. Mt s cc thc th ging nhau c t cc u nhau cc v tr quy nh trong mt mu hnh (pattern). Hai kiu mng hnh hc thng thy l mng ch nht (rectangular) v mng trn (circular).Cc mng ny c cung cp trong c hai giai on: phc tho v m hnh ha. giai on phc tho chng cho php ngi dng lp li cc phc
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tho trong mt mu hnh, cn trong giai on m hnh ha chng cho php ngi dng lp li cc c trng (feature) trong mt mu hnh. c. Li v (Grids): l mt h tr hu ch cho phc tho. Mt grid l mt mng cc im cch u. C hai kiu mng l rectangular v radial. Mt li c hin th cnhuw l mt chui cc im chm. Cc h thng CAD cho php thit lp cc thuc tnh li nh l khong cch mt li, kch hot li, v kiu hin th li.

8. Cc cng c qun tr (Management tools)


Cc h thng CAD cung cp cc cng c qun tr gip cho ngi dng c th nhm cc thc th c bn cht ging nhau vo mt nhm nhm h tr cho hiuchinh, quan st v truy nhp c hiu qu cc m hnh CAD. Cc cng c ny l lp (layer), nhm (group) v mu (color).

a. Lp (layer).
Cng dng chnh ca lp l nhm cc thc th CAD c cng bn cht. Cc lp c th c xem nh l cc trang knh trong sut, mi lp cha mt s thng tin v m hnh nh l cc phc tho, cc c trng, cc kch thc, hay l cc ghi ch. Cc lp cng c cc thuc tnh c lp nh l tnh cht trng thy c (visibility), mu (color) v tnh c th la chn (selectability). Cc lp trong cc h thng CAD cng c th tn ti tt c cc phng thc (mode) nh l m hnh ha, to bn v, lp rp, hay cc phng thc khc.

b. Mu (Colors)
Mu hu ch trong phn bit cc thc th hnh hc vi nhau. Trong SolidWork, color l mt trong cc thuc tnh c th ty bin c mc h thng v mc ti liu.

c. Nhm (group)
Cc nhm l cn thit khi yu cu x l mt s lng cc thc th c chn mt cch tm thi nh l x l mt thc th phc hp. Mt nhm c th c to ra bng cch chn cc thc th v nhm li thnh mt nhm.Mt nhm c th c iu khin bng cch chn mt thc th no trong nhm. Mt thao tc lnh thc hin trn mt nhm s nh hng n tt c cc thc th trong nhm. Khi khng cn na, ngi s dng c th delete hay phn r nhm thnh cc thc th c lp nh ban u.

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Chng 2: Cc h thng m hnh ha 3D 2.1. M hnh khung dy (Wireframe) 2.1.1. Gii thiu.
y l m hnh n gin nht gm c cc thc th phn tch nh point, line, arc, circle, fillet, chamfer, conic (ellipse, parabola, hyperbola) v cc thc th t hp bao gm cc loi spline (cubic spline v B-spline), Bezier,..M hnh ny tn t b nh v thi gian tnh ton, l c s xy dng m hnh b mt. M hnh ny thng i hi nhiu thi gian xc nh d liu v nhiu lnh xy dng. M hnh ny thng khng r rng, khng phn bit trong, ngoi, khng m t c y thng tin ca vt th nh th tch, khi lng,

2.1.2. Phng php nh ngha cc thc th hnh hc


S dng cc h thng CAD/CAM c th to ra cc thc th hnh hc ni trn bng cc phng php m t sau: 1. Phng php nh ngha im (point)

Hnh 2.1: Cc phng php nh ngha Point a) Phng php tng minh

Cc ta cac tuyt i (hnh 2.1a) Cc ta ta tr tuyt i (hnh 2.1b) Cc ta cac tng i (hnh 2.1c) Cc ta ta tr tung i (hnh 2d)
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b) Phng php khng tng minh

Nhy chut trn mn hnh. (hnh 2.1e) Cc im u, cui ca mt thc th ang hin hnh (hnh 2.1f) im tm (gc) ca mt thc th ang hin hnh (hnh 2.1g). im giao ca hai thc th ang hin hnh (hnh 2.1h).

2. Phng php nh ngha ng thng (line) a) nh ngha bng cc im (hnh 2.2a) b) Theo phng ngang (song song vi trc X ca WCS hin hnh) hoc theo phng ng (song song vi trc Y ca WCS hin hnh) (hnh 2.2b) c) Song song hoc vung gc vi ng thng c (hnh 2.2c) d) Tip tuyn vi cc thc th c (hnh 2.2d).

Hnh 2.2: Cc phng php nh ngha Line 3. Phng php nh ngha ng trn (Circle), cung trn (Arc). a) nh ngha bng tm v bn knh hoc ng knh. Trong trng hp cung trn cn c thm gc u v gc cui (hnh 2.3a). b) nh ngha bng ba im (hnh 2.3b). c) nh ngha bng tm v mt im trn vng trn (hnh 2.3c). d) Tip tuyn vi mt ng thng, i qua mt im cho trc v vi mt bn knh cho trc (hnh 2.3d).
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Hnh 1.3: Cc phng php nh ngha Circle v Arc 4. Phng php nh ngha Ellipse v Parabola a) Ellipse

nh ngha bng tm v chiu di cc trc (hnh 2.4a). nh ngha bng bn im (hnh 2.4b). nh ngha bng cc ng knh lin hp (hnh 2.4c). nh ngha bng nh v tiu im (hnh 2.4d). nh ngha bng ba im (hnh 2.4e).

b) Parabola

Hnh 2.4: Cc phng php nh ngha Ellipse v Parabola )

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5. Cc ng cong t hp a. ng cong spline bc 3 c nh ngha bng mt tp im d liu b. ng cong Bezier c nh ngha bng mt tp im d liu c. Cc ng cong B-Spline ni suy qua cc im d liu d. Cc ng cong B-Spline ngoi suy qua cc im d liu

Hnh 2.5: Cc phng php nh ngha cc ng cong t hp

2.2. M hnh b mt (Surface) 2.2.1. Gii thiu.


Thit k cc hnh dng v biu din cc vt th phc tp nh v thn t, tu thuyn ,my bay, khun mu,.. khng th thc hin c bng m hnh khung dy. Trong trng hp ny cn s dng m hnh b mt m t& thit k. Ta c th to ra cc b mt v s dng chng ct hay xn ta cc i tng solid (features) v cc primitive nhn c cc m hnh ca cc vt th phc tp. M hnh b mt to ra trn c s cc thc th khung dy c to ra trc , bt u bng cc im d liu hay cc ng.Cc thc th wireframe phn tch v t hp u c th dng to ra cc b mt. To dng b mt trn cc h thng CAD/CAM thng i hi d liu ban u l cc ng (curve). * M hnh b mt biu din hon thin hn, t nhp nhng hn m hnh khung dy. N cung cp cc ng khut, cc thut ton b mt (t bng,). M hnh b mt c th dng tnh th tch, m hnh ha phn t hu hn, to ng chy dao ( NC toolpath ), to ra cc tit din ngay, pht hin giao nhau. Tuy nhin m hnh ny cng phc tp v tn b nh, thi gian tnh ton lu hn m hnh khung dy v cn c nhng nhp nhng trong mt vi ng dng nh phn bit trong ngoi, cc mt no ca vt th, cha xc nh c y cc thng tin ca mt vt th nh khi lng, m men qun tnh,. * Cc thc th b mt cng gm c hai loi: phn tch v t hp. Cc thc th phn tch nh mt phng (plane), mt k (ruled surface), mt trn xoay (surfave of revolution), mt tr (tabulated surface). Cc thc th t hp gm c: Hermite Biculic surface, Bezier surface, Bspline, coons surface,
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Cn ch khi chn cc ng to b mt. Chn cc im u cui ca ng sai s to ra b mt xon. V dn nh khi xy dng mt k nu chn ng bng cch click chut vo ng gn im u cui sai s to ra mt k b sai. Cc h thng CAD thng s dng im gia ca ng bin dch nhy chut chn ng ca ngi s dng. Nu im nhy chut na bn phi ca ng th vic chn ng l ng. quan st b mt trn mn hnh my tnh, h thng CAD biu din b mt bng mt li (mesh) vi kch thc m x n. Mt ng ca li do ngi s dng thit lp. Thit lp mc nh ca h thng CAD l 4 ng cong bin ( mesh c kch thc 2 x 2). Ngi dng c th thay i gi tr mc nh ny. V d trn hnh 2.7 m t cc b mt trn xoay vi kch thc li l 4 x 4 v 20 x 20.

2.2.2. Cc b mt hnh hc c bn 1. Mt phng (Plane surface)


L b mt n gin nht, thng c xc nh bng 3 im khng trng nhau. C th dng mt phng to cc tit din ngang

a)Mt mt phng

b) Nhiu mt phng

Hnh 2.6: Cc mt phng

2. Mt trn xoay (Surface of revolution)


m hnh ha cc vt th trn xoay. Mt trn xoay c to ra bng cch quay 1 ng cong phng trong khng gian quanh mt trc tm mt gc no (hnh 1.9).

a) C li 4x4

b) C

li

Hnh 2.7: B mt trn xoay vi cc c li khc

3. Mt k (Ruled/lofted surface)
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Mt k l mt b mt tuyn tnh c to ra bng cch ni suy tuyn tnh gia hai ng bin (rails). Cc ng bin c th l bt k ng cong no. B mt ny l l tng biu din cc b mt khng c bt k ch no xon.
ng bin (rail)

ng cong phng

Trc quay

ng bin (rail)

Hnh 2.8: B mt trn xoay

Hnh 2.9: B mt k

4. Mt tr (Tabulated surface)
Mt tr c to ra bng cch tnh tin mt ng cong phng i mt khong no theo mt hng xc dnh ( trc ca mt tru hay ng chun) hay c to ra bng cch di chuyn mt ng thng dc theo mt ng cong phng. ng thng lun song song vi mt vecto xc nh, nh hng mt tr.

Hnh 2.10: B mt tr

5. B mt Bezier (Bezier surface)


B mt Bezier c xp x hay ni suy qua tp im d liu u vo cho trc. y l b mt t hp, l s m rng ca ng cong Bezier. B mt Bezier c ni suy qua 1 ma trn im. V d qua ma trn 16 im (4 hng x
P03 u=0 P02 P01 P11 P12 P23 P22 P21 P 25 u=1 P031 P P13 v=1 P33 P32

4 ct) ta c b mt Bezier bc 3. Ma trn im hnh thnh ra 1 a din iu khin b mt. B mt Bezier ch cho php iu khin ton cc.

6. B mt B-spline (B-spline surface)


B mt B-spline l b mt t hp c nh ngha bng 1 tp hp cc im iu khin. Tp hp cc im iu khin to ra 1 a din c tnh xp x & iu khin hnh dng ca b mt to ra cng ging nh b mt Bezier. B mt B-Spline c th l xp x hay ni quy cc im iu khin ny. B mt B-spline u im hn b mt Bezier ch n cho php iu khin cc b

b) D liu im

a) B mt B-Spline

Hnh 2.12: Cc b mt B-Spline

7. B mt Coons (Coons surface)


c to thnh bi 4 ng cong ni tip nhau to thnh mt ng bin kn khc vi cc b mt gii thiu trn c to ra bng cc ng bin h hoc cc im d liu. B mt coons l mt dng ni suy qua 1 s v hn cc im d liu.
ng bin kn

Patch

Hnh 2.13: B mt Coons

8. B mt trn (Blending surface)


y l b mt B-Spline hay Bezier dung kt ni 2 mnh b mt hay 2 b mt gn nhau, m bo tnh lin tc kt ni C0 & C1 . Fillet surface l mt dng b mt trn. Cc b mt ban u khi fillet c th b xn ta hay khng b xn ta.

26

Hnh 2.14: B mt Fillet

9. B mt Offset (Offset surface)


B mt c c th c offset to ra b mt mi c hnh dng tng t nh b mt ban u, nhng c th khc v kch thc. y l mt b mt hu ch tng tc to dng b mtd to mt hnh tr rng c th to ra hnh tr trong hoc hnh tr ngoi bng cch s dng lnh cylinder, hnh tr kia c to ra bng lnh offset. B mt offset c bit hiu qu khi b mt ban u phc tp.

Hng

Hnh 2.15: B mt Offset

2.3. M hnh khi rn (Solid) 2.3.1. Gii thiu


M hnh solid l biu din y nht cho php t ng ho chc nng v tch hp, cho php xc nh y cc thuc tnh ca vt th nh khi lng, m men qun tnh, to ra mt li t ng (FEM)... c trng c bn nht l tnh cht m t y v khng nhp nhng. C s d liu (CSDL) m hnh solid bao gm c d liu hnh hc (Geometry) v thng tin Topo (Topology). D liu hnh hc l cc kch thc thc xc nh cc phn t (ontity) cu thnh nn vt th. D liu hnh hc thng l thy vi ngi s dng. Thng tin Topo l thng tin v s kt ni v phi hp gia cc phn t ca vt th y l thng tin quan h, khng ho v trong sut vi ngi s dng. Hai s biu din m hnh solid ph bin nht l CSG v B-rep.
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1.2.3.2. M hnh CSG (Constructive solid geometry)


M hnh CSG da trn khi nim Topo l mt vt th c th c chia ra thnh 1 tp cc phn t hay hnh dng c bn c gi l primitive v chng c th kt hp vi nhau theo mt th t no nh cc ton t Boolean. Mi Primitive c xem nh l mt m hnh CSG hiu lc. Cc phn t c s ca m hnh CSG (primitives) Cc primitive c xem nh l cc solid tham s, c xc nh bi 2 tp d liu hnh hc. Tp th nht l tp cc tham s cu hnh tp th hai l cc tham s chuyn ng cng vng. V d, nh tp cc tham s cu hnh ca block l b 3 gi tr L,H,D v tp cc tham s chuyn ng cng vng l v tr ca im gc P ca block so vi h to MCS hay WCS, hoc l cc tham s chuyn ng cng vng tng minh (tnh tin v quay). Cc primitive c bn nht l: * Block c xc nh bi cc d liu hnh hc W,H,D v im P xc nh im gc ca h to . M t v mt ton hc c th xem nh block l 1 tp im chnh quy ca cc b 3 c th t (x,y,z)

(x,y,z) 0<x<w, 0<y<H v 0<z<D


* Cylinder: D liu hnh hc l bn knh R v chiu di H.

(x,y,z): x 2 +y 2 <R 2 v 0<z<H


* Cone (hoc nn ct) xc nh bi bn knh y R (bn knh nh i vi nn ct ) v chiu cao H.

(x,y,z): x 2 +y 2 <[(R/H)z] 2 v 0<z<H


YL XL YL R XL YL XL

ZL

YL R P XL H ZL

ZL YL XL D W

ZL RL ZL

R YL R1X RI
L

ZL

R0

Hnh 2.16: M hnh khi rn c s

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* Sphere c xc nh bi bn knh y R hay ng knh v c xc nh tm gc ca h to a phng.

(x,y,z): x 2 +y 2 +z 2 <R 2
* Wedge xc nh bi chiu cao H, chiu rng W, chiu su y W

(x,y,z): 0<x<W, 0<y<H, 0<z<D v yW+xH+HW


* Tours c to ra bng cch quay 1 ng trn xung quanh mt trc nm trong mt phng ca n. Hnh hc ca Tours xc nh bi bn knh hay ng knh R 1 ,R 2 hay bn knh trong R Iv bn knh ngoi R0
2 2 (x,y,z): (x 2 +y 2 +z 2 - R 2 -R 1 ) 2 < 4 R 2 ( R 1 -z 2 ) 2 2

Cc ton t boolean v cu trc d liu cy CSG. Ba ton t c bn: Union( ): php hp Difference(-): php tr Intersection( ): php giao

AB

A B

AB

Hnh 2.17: S Venn xc nh v phn tch solid cu trc CSG ngi ta thng biu din cu trc d liu CSG dng cy nh phn; trong mi nt l l mt primitive, mi nt bn trong l mt ton t boolean V d:
C1 C4 C2 C3 B1 B3 C1 C2 C3 C4 B2 B4

B3 B1 B2

B4

Hnh 2.18: Cy CSG

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Kt lun: Cu trc CSG cho php d dng xy dng m hnh t cc pimitive v cc ton t boolean mt cc chnh xc v tn t b nh. Tuy vy n khng cho php biu din cc vt th c b mt t do.

2.3.3. M hnh biu din bin B-rep


M hnh B-rep c xc nh trn c s nim Topo l mt vt th c bao kn bi mt tp cc b mt (faces). Cc face l cc vng hay l cc tp con cc mt hnh hc(surface) kn v c nh hng. Mt mt hnh hc kn l mt hnh hc lin tc khng b t, h mt mt hnh hc c nh hng l mt hnh hc c phn bit 2 pha bng cch s dng php tuyn ca mt xc nh trong ngoi ca m hnh solid khi xy dng. Mi b mt (face)c gii hn bi cc cnh(edges) v mi cnh c xc nh bi cc nh (vertices). CSDL ca m hnh B-rep cng gm cc thng tin v Topo v hnh hc. Topology ca m hnh ny l s kt hp ca cc faces, edges v vertices c to ra nh cc ton t le. Geometry (thng tin hnh hc) ca m hnh gm to cc nh cc chuyn ng v chuyn i cng vng (tnh tin, quay), cc thng tin v khong cch, gc din tch, th tch... Cc h thng B-rep ch lu cc mt trn ca solid trong CSDL, c kh nng ln trong m hnh ho cc vt th. Cc mt hnh hc c s (primitive surfaces) nh planar, curved, suclptured surface c th c h thng B-rep chp nhn to ra cc b mt ca m hnh vt th. Cc vt th k thut c th phn thnh 2 loi a din (polyhedral) v vt th c b mt cong (curved object) Cc a din (polyhedral) c cc b mt l mt phng, ni kt vi nhau theo cc cnh thng (linear edges) v cc cnh ni vi nhau ti cc nh (vertices). Cc vt th c c cc b mt l nhng mt cong v cc cnh cng l cc ng cong.

1. Cc phn t c s
Mt nh (vertex) l mt im duy nht (gm 3 to ) trong khng gian. Mt cnh (edge) l mt ng cong khng gian c gii hn, khng c im ta v gii hn bi 2 nh (c th trng nhau). Mt face l mt vng b mt c nh hng, kn, khng t giao, gii hn bi 1 hay nhiu loop. Mt loop l mt ng cong khng gian kn gm cc nh v cc cnh k tip nhau. Mt handle: 1 l xuyn hon ton qua vt th. S lng handle trong vt th c gi l genus.
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Body (shell) l mt tp hp cc b mt (face) bao kn ly mt th tch kn c hnh khi n gin. Nh vy body l mt thc th gm c faces, edges v vertices. Body nh nht l mt point (ch gm 1 face, vertex). Lut Euler: F-E+V+L=2(B-G) F: S face E: S Edges V: S vertices L: S vng trong ca cc b mt (facesinnerloop) B: S body G: S handles (genus). V d: 10-24+16-2=2(1-1)

to ra cc m hnh B-rep ca 1 vt th phi xc nh gi tr thch hp cho cc bin trong phng trnh trn. Cc lnh h thng (ca ton tEuler) c s dng to ra m hnh c hiu lc.

2. Cc ton t Euler v cu trc d liu


* Cu trc d liu winged-Edge: Topology object body genus
E2 E3 F1 E1 E4 E7 E5 F2 E6

Geomerty

face surface Edge

underlying equation loop equation Verlex coondinates

underlying curve point

* Cc ton t le MBFV: to body, face, vertex MEV: :to edge, vertex

KHFV: loi b body, face, vertex KEV: loi b edge, vertex


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MEF: to edge, face

KEF: loi b edge, face

V d, to m hnh B-rep ca vt th sau:

V6 V1

V5 V4 V3 F1 MME V2 MEF F7

V11 V7

V10 V9 F2 V8 F3 MEF(t oF3) MEF(t oF2)

F6 F5 F4

MME

MEF,MEF,MEF, MEF

Kt lun, cu trc B-rep thch hp cho xy dng cc m hnh solid c dng t do kh xc nh nh cc primitive. M hnh ny cho php bin i sang dng wireframe. Nhc im chnh l i hi b nh ln, biu din di dng hn CSG.

2.3.4. Biu din qut (Sweep representation)


Thng c s dng to ra cc i tng 2

1 D 2

Qut y c th l dch chuyn tnh tin (translationnal sweep) hay quay (rotation), (qut tuyn tnh) hay l qut phi tuyn (nonlinear sweep)

Qut tuyn tnh


Translational sweep: tp im ng phng m t bi ng bin kn c tnh tin 1 khong cch theo phng vung gc vi mt phng cha tp im . Rotational sweep: tp im ng phng m t bi ng cong kn quay xung quanh 1 trc quay mt gc no .

Qut phi tuyn


(tp im ng phng biu din bng ng bin kn ca n di chuyn theo mt ng dn khng tuyn tnh (bc 2,3 hoc cao hn). Cc thc th nh line, arc, cirle v B-spline thng c s dng to ra ng bin kn ca thc th s dng trong php qut. Biu din qut hu ch trong cc ng dng nh m phng ly i vt liu t phi khi gia cng ct gt hay kim tra giao nhau cc vt th trong khng gian.
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2.3.5. Cc thao tc vi solid ( Solid Manipulations) Hin th (Displaying)


Hin th solid c thc hin theo 2 cch: hin th dng khung dy v hin th dng hnh nh t bng. Hin th dng khung dy i hi m hnh biu din bin (B-rep) ca solid, v cc cnh v cc nh c dng to ra khung dy ca solid. Khung dy ny c th c hin th, hiu chnh, hoc dng to ra cc bn v 2D. Nu nh cc mt c bn ca cc b mt solid c s dng, mt mt li (mesh) c th c b sung vo cho hin th cho d hnh dung vt th. Hin th dng hnh nh t bng cung cp cc hiu ng hnh dung thc cho ngi s dng. T bng c th thc hin trc tip t m hnh CSG ca solid.

nh gi (evaluate) cc im, cc ng, cc mt trn solid.

nh gi cc im v cc ng trn solid c xem nh gii bi ton v giao nhau. Gii cc bi ton giao nhau curve/solid, surface/solid s tng ng to ra cc im v cc ng trn solid. Giao ca plane/solid s to ra tit din ngang ca solid. nh gi cc mt trn solid c th c xem l chit xut ra mt hnh hc c bn ca b mt solid. Cc mt hnh hc ny c th c gii hn bi cc cnh ca solid. gi cho thng tin Topo v hnh hc ca solid khng b thay i, hnh hc v cc thng tin lin quan khc ca cc b mt ny phi c copy li. Cc phng trnh tham s ca cc mt hnh hc c lu trong b m phng solid cho php thc hin hiu chnh cc mt hnh hc chit xut ra. Bi ton ngc y gm c kim tra xem im, ng v mt cho trc c nm trn b mt solid hay khng. H thng CAD s dng cc thut ton phn loi thnh vin tp hp v ln cn gii quyt.

Phn tch (Segmentation).

Khi nim v segmentation dng cho cc ng v cc mt c th p dng cho solid. Phn tch solid tng ng vi chia solid ra thnh 2 hay thnh 4 solid hiu lc con ty theo php chia ny c thc hin bi mt mt phng hay mt im. Cc solid con to ra c y cc thng tin hnh hc v Topo ca n. Trong m hnh B-rep, cc nh, cc cnh, cc mt mi c to thnh.

Xn ta (Trimming) v giao nhau (Intersection).

Trimming mt solid to ra bng cch giao solid vi cc bin xn ta thng l cc surface. Kt qu l loi b i cct phn ca solid nm ngoi cc bin ny. Khi trimming mt solid kt qu l chia solid thnh 2 solid con, trong mt solid con s b loi i. Intersection s dng ton t Boolean giao nhau.

Bin i hnh hc (Transformation)


33

Cc php bin i thun nht, hay cc chuyn ng cng ca solid bao gm : tnh tin (Translate), quay (Rotate), t l (Scale). Cc bin i ny c th thc hin trong hai trng hp. Khi xy dng solid, c th cn phi nh v v nh hng cc solid thnh phn cho ph hp trc khi p dng cc ton t Boolean. Sau khi xy dng xong m hnh solid cng c th phi thc hin cc tha tc bin i ny.

Bin tp (Editing)

Editing mt solid gm c thay i cc thng tin Topo v hnh hc hin hnh ca n. Mt phng php hiu chnh solid hiu qu l s dng cy CSG ca n. Cc h thng CAD cung cp co ngi s dng cc phn hi th gic nhanh chng khi solid c hiu chnh, tc l biu din bin ca n phi c cp nht v hin th nhanh chng.

34

Chng 3: M hnh ha Solid3D 3.1. Gii thiu


Mc tiu u tin khi s dng h thng CAD/CAM l to ra c m hnh hnh hc ca mt vt th. M hnh ny c biu din s ha trong my tnh v ta c th s dng n cho cc nhim v v k thut sau ny nh phn tch (CAE) v sn xut (CAM). Biu din m hnh cu trc ha trong CSDL ca n v c lu trong part file. Nh ta bit, m hnh hnh hc biu din hon thin, duy nht , khng nhp nhng l m hnh khi rn. y thc s l m hnh cn thit cho cc ng dng ca cc h thng CAD/CAM hin nay. Trong qu trnh xy dng m hnh solid ca mt vt th ta cn s dng cc khi nim m hnh ha 3D. Thng thng ta cn phi nh ngha v s dng cc WCS khc nhau iu khin qu trnh m hnh ha. Khi ta xy dng cc thc th hnh hc, chng nm trong mt phng phc tho (mt phng XY) ca WCS hin hnh. Vic to dng m hnh solid bt u bng vic to ra cc im, ng v mt. T hp ca cc thc th ny cng vi cc thao tc lnh 3D nh extrude hay revolve , s to thnh m hnh solid. Ngi ta cng s dng khi nim v tham s (parametrics) to ra cc m hnh solid. Khi ta ch cn to ra cc hnh hc phc tho mt cch t do, tng t nh ta v phc bng tay. Ta c th gn nh kch thc cho n ngay lc to dng hay sau ny. y l mt khi nim rt hu ich gip cho ngi thit k khng phi lo ngh n cc kch thc trong khi ang thit k hnh dng cc vt th v m hnh. C s d liu CAD/CAM c xy dng lu tr y nh ngha 3D ca mt m hnh solid. Nh vy CSDL hon ton l 3D, lin hp, tp trung v tch hp. Tnh cht lin hp (associativity) ng rng thng tin mi c th c sinh ra t d liu vo ca ngi thit k. V d nh nu hai im ca mt on thng (line) c nhp vo th chiu di v hng ca n trong khng gian s c tnh ton. Tnh cht tp trung c ngha l mi thay i hay b sung vo m hnh hc t mt khung nhn no ca n s c t ng cp nht vo khung nhn hin hnh hay vo bt k mt khung nhn no c nh ngha sau ny. Tnh cht tch hp ng l m hnh hnh hc ca vt th c th c s dng tt c cc giai on ca chu trnh sn phm.

3.2. Cc phng php m hnh ha


Trong khi tt c cc h thng CAD/CAM to ra cc m hnh solid tham s, ngi thit k CAD c th to ra cc m hnh ny bng nhiu cch khc nhau. Ngi thit k c th s dng ba phng php sau to dng cc m hnh solid. Cc phng php ny l: phng php s dng cc khi c s (primitives), phng php s dng cc c trng
35

(features) v phng php phc tho (sketching). S tn ti ba phng php ny gn vi s pht trin qua nhiu nm ca cc b m phng solid.

a. Phng php s dng cc khi c s (primitives)


Phng php ny xem m hnh solid nh l s kt hp ca cc khi c s c hnh dng n gin, ph thng v tiu chun c th kt hp vi nhau. Cc khi c s y l : hp (block / box), tr (cylinder), cu (sphere), cn (cone), nm (wedge), xuyn (torus). Cc khi c s c th kt hp vi nhau bng cc ton t Boolean nh php hp (union), php tr (subtraction), php giao (intersection).

b. Phng php s dng cc c trng (features)


Tng t nh phng php trn, phng php ny s dng cc c trng thay cho cc khi c s v nhng cc ton t Boolean vo trong cc nh ngha feature. Ta c th so snh hai phng php ny bng v d sau y: Khi to mt l (hole) trong mt khi (block), nu theo phng php u, ta cn thc hin qua ba bc: 1. To mt khi hp bng cch s dng khi c s block. 2. To khi tr (cylinder) v tr v nh hng ng so vi khi hp 3. Ly khi hp tr i khi tr. Nu theo phng php th hai ta cn thc hin qua hai bc sau: 1. To khi hp bng cch s dng c trng block. 2. To l trong khi hp bng cch to ra c trng hole v tr v nh hng ng so vi khi hp. Trong phng php th hai, bc hai gp c hai bc 2 v ba trong phng php th nht.

c. Phng php phc tho (sketching).


Phng php ny tng t vi phng php th hai (s dng cc c trng), vi mt s thay i sau ay.Thay cho vic ch s dng cc hnh dng c nh ngha trc nh l cc l (hole), cc gn (rib), phng php ny cho php ngi thit k to ra nhiu cc c trng phc tp hn, tng qut hn bt u t mt phc tho. V d nh extrusion,

revolve, linear sweep, nonlinear sweep, loft, spirals, helicals. Ngi thit k CAD s
dng cc thao tc lnh 2D phc tho mt vng (region) hay mt tit din ngang (cross section). Sau s dng cc thao tc lnh 3D nh l revolve, extrusion, to ra c trng. Trong ba phng php trn, phng php phc tho c dng nhiu nht, v n c y cc u im ca c ba phng php. N cho php to ra nhiu c trng hn so vi phng php th hai. N cng cho php cc nh vit phn mm CAD/CAM tng min
36

m hnh ha ca h thng m khng cn nh ngha trc v lu nhiu c trng trong cc th vin h thng. Phng php th ba cho php to ra cc c trng theo yu cu. Khi no cn mt c trng ta c th to ra n bt u bng mt phc tho. Phng php s dng cc khi c s t c s dng nht. Cc nh thit k CAD khng thch phng php ny v thut ng ca n bt ngun t l thuyt tp hp vi cc ton t Boolean. Hn na hiu chnh cc solid to ra bng cch ny khng thun tin. V d nh loi b mt l cn cng (add) vo l mt khi tr bt li, tr phi ta hiu chnh cy solid v loi b nhnh hole v ti to li solid. Cc h thng CAD/CAM lu i nh CATIA, Unigraphics, I-DEAS h tr c ba phng php trn. Cc h thng mi hn nh Pro/E v SolidWorks ch h tr phng php phc tho.

Phng php phc tho thc hin theo cc bc sau to ra mt c trng:


1. La chn hoc nh ngha mt mt phng phc tho. Ta cn mt mt phng phc tho v phc hnh hc trn . Mt phng phc tho iu khin hng ca hnh hc phc tho trong khng gian m hnh ha 3D. 2. Phc tho profile 2D. Profile ny thng c trng l mt tit din ngang ca m hnh 3D cn xy dng. Profile in hnh c to ra bi cc ng nh line, arc, chamfer, spline. Hnh hc phc tho nm trong mt phng phc tho kch hot hin hnh. 3. Thay i (modify) kch thc phc tho v cp nht vo phc tho. Ta thay i kch thc ca profile tng ng vi kch thc cui cng ca m hnh solid cn xy dng. Phc tho th c cung cp bc hai v c lm tinh bc ny. Sau khi thay i kch thc, cp nht vo phc tho phn nh kch thc mi. 4. To c trng. S dng mt thao tc lnh 3D no , chng hn nh extrusion to ra c trng. Mt phng phc tho c chn hay nh ngha bc 1 thit lp hng ca m hnh trong khng gian 3D. V d nh nu ta chn mt phng trc , profile ta v bc 2 tr thnh hnh chiu ng ca m hnh 3D xy dng. Nu ta chn mt phng trn thay th, profile ging nh vy s tr thnh hnh chiu bng ca m hnh. iu ny tng t nh quay m hnh 900.

3.3. Phc tho (sketching)


Khi ngi thit k nh ngha mt phc tho, h cn vin n b phc tho (sketcher) ca h thng CAD. Sketcher cung cp cho ngi thit k cc thc th v cc cng c phc tho khc nhau nh lines, circles,Ngoi ra Sketcher cng cung cp cc hn ch hnh hc (constrains) v cc quan h (relationships)
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Trng thi phc tho l mt vn quan trng i vi Sketcher . Nu mt phc tho (profile) khng c nh ngha ng, mt solid hiu lc khng th c to ra t n. Sketcher dng m mu hin th hnh hc ca phc tho thng bo cho ngi thit k. Sau khi mt phc tho c to ra, n c th tn ti 3 trng thi. Mt phc tho khng xc nh (underdefined/underconstrained c hin th mu xanh.Cc kch thc b sung hoc cc quan h c yu cu. Mt phc tho c xc nh y (fullydefined/ fully-constrained) c hin th bng mu en, v khng yu cu b sung kch thc hay quan h. Mt phc tho b nh ngha vt qu (overdefined/ overconstrained) c hin th mu . Khi phc tho cha cc thng tin, cc kch thc hay cc quan h hoc c hai b xung t. Chng cn phi loi b.

3.4. Cc tham s v kch thc


Hiu chnh m hnh solid d dng l yu cu quan trng trong khi thit k sn phm. S d dng trong hiu chnh nh vy c ngun gc t khi nim tham s, khi mt m hnh c tham s ha mt cch t ng bi h thng CAD/CAM trong qu trnh xy dng. Ngi thit k c th thay i gi tr ca cc tham s mt cch d dng v yu cu h thng CAD/CAM phc hi hay ti to li m hnh.V d nh trn hnh v sau m t mt m hnh solid n gin. H thng CAD/CAM theo di kim sot tt c cc hn ch hnh hc cn thit duy tr tnh hiu lc ca Topo m hnh, P1

P2 P4 P3

Hnh 3.1: Cc tham s ca m hnh Trong khi to dng phc tho, b m phng solid a ra yu cu v tp tham s cn thit yu cu nh ngha y phc tho. Ngi thit k cn nhp vo cc kch thc cho cc tham s ny. V d trn hnh v l mt khi vi vi mt l trong. Cn c 5 tham s P1, P2, P3, P4, R nh ngha y phc tho. Ngi thit k c th nhp cc gi tr cho cc tham s ny v phc tho c v li t ng khi s dng chc nng ti to li ca h thng CAD.
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Cc tham s kch thc tham s ha phc tho khng phi l cch duy nht. C th c nhiu cch tham s ha cng mt phc tho. Chng hn nh dng cc hn ch v hnh hc v Topo hay cc quan h gia cc thc th ca phc tho. v d trn ta tp tham s yu cu gm ti thiu l 5 tham s. Ta c th b sung thm cc quan h , chng hn nh: P3 = 0,5P1 ; P4 = 0,5P2; v R= 0,25P1 . Ta cng c th b sung cc hn ch vung gc, hay song song gia cc thc th ca phc tho. Phng php m hnh ha solid tham s c thc hin qua 3 bc sau:
To cc tham s (thng qua phc tho Gn nh kch thc Ti to li

3.5. Cc c trng c s (basic features)


Cc h thng CAD/CAM cung cp mt tp cc feature. Cc feature c bn gm c: extrusion, revolution, hole, cut, sweep, loft, chamfer, rib, shell, draft, patterns, spiral, helix.

Extrusion c dng to ra m hnh c chiu dy khng i. to ra c trng ny


cn phi c mt tit din ngang v mt vec t extrusion (hng v ln).

Revolution c dng to ra m hnh trn xoay. to ra c trng ny cn phi c


mt tit din ngang, mt trc quay v mt gc quay.

Hole c dng to ra cc l trong m hnh. to ra c trng ny cn phi c


ng knh (hay bn knh) l, chiu di l v mt trc nh hng l.

Cut c dng ct vt liu t mt feature khc ang tn ti. Cc h thng CAD


thng dng cc tn gi khc nhau cho feature ny. Cc kiu thng c thc hin nh

extruded cut, revolved cut, slot,.. Sweep c dng to ra mt m hnh vi tit din ngang khng i dc theo mt trc
phi tuyn. y l tng qut ha ca Extrusion feature . to ra c trng ny cn phi c mt tit din ngang v mt ng dn (sweep curve).

Loft c dng to ra mt m hnh vi tit din ngang thay i dc theo mt trc


tuyn tnh hay phi tuyn. y l tng qut ha ca sweep feature. to ra c trng ny cn phi c mt tp cc tit din ngang. C th c ng dn (guide curve) trn cc tit din ngang. Khi khng c ng dn, trn tuyn tnh c thc hin.

Fillet v chamfer c dng thay i gc ca mt m hnh. Fillet c dng v


trn gc, trong khi chamfer c dng gii hn cc cnh sc ca n.

Rib c dng tng cng cho m hnh. Cn phi c mt ng thng, cc mt cn


tng cng, v chiu dy to ra rib.

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Shell c dng khot vt liu ra khi mt m hnh theo kiu khot rng shelling.
Cn phi c mt mt shell v mt chiu dy.

Draft c dng to ra vt cn cc mt ca m hnh. Cn phi c mt gc cn


(thng t 50 n 100) v cc mt cn vt cn.

Pattern l mt mng hnh hc c dng to ra cc m hnh lp li theo mt quy lut.


Mt pattern c th c mu hnh ch nht hay hnh trn. Mu hnh ch nht cn phi c mt feature cn lp, khong cch gia cc v tr lp, s ln lp. Mu hnh hnh trn cn c mt feature cn lp, mt gc gia cc v tr lp.

Sprial c dng to ra cc ng xon vt phng. Cn phi c mt tit din ngang v


mt ng xon vt phng. ng xon vt cn c bc v s vng xon.

Helix c dng to ra cc ng xon vt khng gian. Cn phi c mt tit din


ngang v mt ng xon vt khng gian. ng xon vt cn c bc, s vng xon v c th c gc cn .

3.6. Cc c trng chun (datum features)


To dng m hnh solid bt u nh mt phc tho c kt hp vi thao tc lnh to thnh feature. Cc feature ln lt c to ra cho n khi m hnh hon thin. H thng CAD thng gi nh rng bt k mt hnh hc no c to ra trong khi phc tho l mt phn ca profile trong qu trinh xy dng. Ta cng cn to ra cc hnh hc nh ngha cc thao tc lnh to dng. Cc hnh hc ny khng phi l thuc v profile, v c gi l hnh hc chun (Reference geometry).

Reference geometry l mt dng hnh hc c bit c dng nh ngha hnh hc


khc. V d nh ta s dng mt tit din ngang v mt trc to ra feature trn xoay. Tit din ngang l hnh hc thng thng, trong khi trc quay l hnh hc chun. Hnh hc chun l mt phn ca nh ngha feature v khng th b xa b tr phi xa feature trc. Hnh hc chun c xp vo dng cc feature chun. Cc h thng CAD cho php ngi thit k to ra cc kiu feature chun nh sau: plane, axis, curve, point, coordinate system

Datum plane c dng khi ta cn c mt mt phng to dng phi tiu chun (cc mt
phng tiu chun l Top, Front, Right). C nhiu cch to ra cc mt phng chun, ty thuc vo cc h thng CAD.

Datum axis c dng vi nhiu mc ch khc nhau bao gm nh ngha trc quay cho
cc feature quay hoc trc cho cc mu hnh (pattern) trn,

Datum curve hay datum point c dng khi c nhu cu to ra cc ng hoc cc im


trong c s d liu m hnh cn thit nh ngha mt phc tho. V d nh khi cn mt
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tp im nh nga mt ng spline. Ta c th to ra cc im mt cch tng minh trc, trc khi s dng chng to ra spline.

Datum coordinate system hu ch khi ta cn h thng ny s dng mt cch tm thi


trong mt vi tnh ton nh l o chiu di thc th hay tnh ton cc thuc tnh khi lng thay cho s dng MCS.N cng c th c dng export ti liu sang cc nh dng IGES,STL, STEP,Cc thng tin cn thit to ra mt h thng ta l truc X, trc Y v gc ta

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Chng 4: Cc c trng (Features) 4.1. Gii thiu


Feature c nh ngha nh l mt hnh dng (shape) v mt thao tc lnh (operation) to dng thnh cc chi tit. Mt hnh dng l mt phc tho 2D. Cc hnh dng v d nh cc vu li (bosses), cc phn ct b i (cuts), cc l (holes). Phc tho c nh hng trong khng gian m hnh ha 3D thng qua nh hng ca mt phng phc tho. Cc thc th phc tho l cc ng (curve) v/ hoc cc mt (surface) ph thuc vo phc tp ca chi tit cn xy dng. Mt thao tc lnh (operation) l mt hot ng sao cho bin i phc tho thnh mt hnh dng 3D. V d cc thao tc lnh nh extrude, revolve, fillet, shell, chamfer, sweep. Cc ton t Boolean c ci t sn trong cc thao tc lnh feature. Cc h thng CAD/CAM mi trn c s feature nh Pro/E v SolidWorks khng cung cp cc ton t Boolean tng minh, trong khi cc h thng lu i nh Unigraphics , CATIA,.. h tr c hai dng primitives v features. Khi nim feature c th m rng, chng hn nh cc feature gn vi cc thuc tnh sn xut nh cc feature sn xut (Manufacturing features). V d nh feature l gn vi qu trnh khoan, feature v trn (fillet) gn vi qu trnh phay,Trong chng ny ch trnh by v cc feature hnh hc bao gm hnh dng, dung sai, cc feature lp rp. Vic s dng cc cy feature (m t qu trnh hnh thnh chi tit) cng tng t nh cy CSG. Ngi thit k c th sp xp li cc feature trong cy thay i lch s hnh thnh solid. S dng cc feature to chi tit thng c thc hin qua ba bc nh sau: 1. To cc phc tho. Mt phc tho l mt profile 2D hay l mt tit din ngang. Ta c th iu khin hng ca phc tho thng qua mt phng phc tho. 2. To cc feature. S dng thao tc lnh vi phc tho to ra feature. Cc phc tho c th c ko ln (extrude), quay (revolved), trn (lofted), qut (sweep) dc theo mt ng dn to thnh feature. Thao tc lnh feature bin cc phc tho 2D thnh cc hnh dng 3D. 3. S dng cc feature xy dng chi tit. Kt hp cc feature li to thnh chi tit. Thng s dng cc ton t cng (Add) hay tr (Subtract) cc feature t feature c s (base feature) trong qu trnh to dng Cc h thng CAD/CAM cung cp cho ngi thit k rt nhiu cc feature. iu ny cho php m rng phm vi m hnh ha hnh hc hn rt nhiu so vi cc primitive.

4.2. Cc feature thng dng


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Cc h thng CAD hin nay u cung cp cc feature c bn trnh by sau y. Mi h thng c th c mt vi feature c bit. Nu trong mt h thng CAD khng c mt feature no , khi cn ta c th d dng to ra feature theo 3 bc trnh by trong phn trn.

1. c trng ko ln (Extruded/protruded feature).


y l feature c bn nht. Ta s dng n to ra m hnh solid ca vt th dng 21/2D vi chiu dy khng i. to dng feature ny cn c mt profile (tit din ngang) v mt vc t extrusion (chiu di v hng). Hng extrusion lun vung gc vi mt phng phc tho.
Vec t Extrusion

Vec t Extrusion Mt phng phc tho trc (front)

Hnh 4.1: c trng Extrusion

2. c trng quay (revolved feature)


Ta s dng feature ny to ra m hnh solid ca vt th dng 21/2D trn xoay. to dng feature ny cn c mt profile (tit din ngang) v mt vc t quay (trc quay v gc quay). Trc quay lun nm trong mt phng phc tho profile.
Trc quay

Mt phng phc tho trc (front)

Hnh 4.2: c trng quay


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3. c trng qut (Sweep feature)


Qut l tng qut ha ca extrusion. C hai dng qut: tuyn tnh v phi tuyn. Qut tuyn tnh l qut mt tit din ngang dc theo mt ng thng. Qut tuyn tnh v extrusion to cc feature ging nhau. Qut phi tuyn c hai dng. Dng th nht l qut mt tit din ngang dc theo mt ng dn (khng phi l ng thng) (hnh a). Dng th hai l trn hai tit din ngang mt cch tuyn tnh (hnh b), hay trn hai tit din ngang mt cch phi tuyn dc theo mt ng dn (khng phi l ng thng) (hnh c). Tt c cc lnh qut u yu cu ng dn phi vung gc vi mt phng phc tho ca tit din ngang c qut. trn nhiu hn hai tit din ngang, ta cn dng feature trn (loft feature)

a) Qut mt tit din ngang dc theo mt ng dn

b) Qut tuyn tnh qua hai tit din ngang

c) Qut hai tit din ngang dc theo mt ng dn

Hnh 4.3: c trng qut

4.

c trng trn (Loft feature)

Loft l tng qut ha ca sweep. Ta s dng loft trn nhiu tit din ngang to dng mt solid. Ngi ta cng phn cc c trng loft thnh hai dng tuyn tnh v phi tuyn. Loft tuyn tnh trn hai tit din ngang mt cch tuyn tnh dc theo mt ng thng ni cc im gc ca hai tit din ngang (hnh a). Loft phi tuyn c hai dng. Mt dng trn hai tit
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din ngang dc theo mt ng dn (khng phi l ng thng). (hnh b). Dng kia l trn mt tp cc tit din ngang dc theo mt ng dn (hnh c).

a) Loft tuyn tnh ni hai tit din ngang

b) Loft phi tuyn ni hai tit din ngang dc theo mt ng dn

b) Loft phi tuyn ni nhiu tit din ngang dc theo mt ng dn

Hnh 4.4: c trng Loft

5.

c trng vu li (Boss)

Boss l mt feature dng extrusion hay revolution c ccoongj vo mt feature c s hay cng vo mt solid ang c.

6.
7.

c trng trc (Shaft) c trng ng (Pipe)

Shaft l mt feature dng extrusion vi tit din ngang trn. Pipe l qut mt tit din ngang trn (c hoc rng) dc theo mt ng dn (ng trc ca ng). Cc tham s ca ng l ng trc ca n, ng knh ng (hoc chiu dy ng).

8.

c trng ct (Cut)

Hnh 4.5: c trng Pipe


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c trng ny i lp vi c trng boss. Cut l ct b i mt c trng extrusion hay mt c trng revolution t mt c trng c s hoc t mt so lid ang hin hnh.

9.

c trng l (Hole)

c trng ny tng ng vi tr i m khi tr t mt solid. C 5 dng c trng l c trnh by trn hnh v.

L thng

L khng thng (khoan)

L khng thng (phay)

L khot bc

L khot bc cn

L khot bc tr & cn

Hnh 4.6: c trng Hole

10. c trng rnh (Slot)


Rnh tng t nh l. N ct b vt liu t mt solid. C 5 dng c trng rnh c bn c trnh by trn hnh v.

Rectangular Slot

Ball-end Slot

T- Slot

U- Slot

Dovetail Slot

Hnh 4.7: c trng Slot

11. c trng hc (Pocket)


Pocket l mt khoang, hc trong mt vt th ang hin hnh. C th xem pocket nh l mt slot b bt kn mt pha.

12. c trng v (Shell)


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Lnh shell c dng to ra solid rng (c v, thnh mng) bng cch ct b i vt liu trong khi i. V bn cht shell l s dng lnh offset khot rng mt solid. D liu ban u cn c shell l cc b mt cn khot v chiu dy thnh (v). Chiu dy ny c th khng i hay thay i. shell vi nhiu chiu dy khc nhau, cn phi la chn cc mt v quy nh chiu dy yu cu cho mi mt.

Trc khi shell

Sau khi shell

Hnh 4.8: c trng Shell

13. c trng fillet.


Fillet c dng lm trn (v trn) cc cnh sc ca solid. C nhiu dng fillet nh: fillet vi bn knh khng i (mc nh), fillet vi bn knh thay i, fillet the dng setback, fillet v trn gc. Fillet the dng setback l to ra s chuyn i trn gia cc b mt trn, dc theo cnh ca chi tit cho n tn gc. D liu u vo to ra c trng fillet l chn cnh cn fillet v bn knh fillet.

Fillet vi bn knh khng i

Fillet vi bn knh thay i

Fillet dng Setback

Hnh 4.9: c trng Fillet

14. c trng vt gc (Chamfer)


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Chamfer c dng loi b cnh sc (hoc gc sc) khi chi tit bng cch to ra cc cnh xin trn cnh, mt chn. D liu u vo to chamfer l khong cch - gc, khong

cch khong cch, hay vt gc nh.


Trc khi chamfer Sau khi chamfer

Hnh 4.10: c trng Chamfer

15. c trng vt cn (draft)


Draft thng c dng trong cc khun p nha. Draft l gc gia hng y sn phm ra khi khun v b mt chi tit. to draft ta cn chn mt c vt cn, gc vt cn, v mt phng chun xc nh gc cn.

Feature khi

Draft y

Draft mt phn

Hnh 4.11: c trng Draft

16. c trng gn (Rib)


Rib c dng tng cng vng. Rib l mt dng c bit ca c trng extrusion. N b sung thm vt liu vo mt feature ang c.C th to rib t mt phc tho (contour) h hoc kn. D liu nhp vo to rib gm c mt contour v mt chiu dy

contour Chiu dy

Hnh 4.12: c trng Rib

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17. c trng mt bch (Flange)


y l c trng revolution c b sung vo phn cui ca ng hoc ca mt c trng Revolution khc.

Hnh 4.13: c trng Flange

18. c trng c (Neck)


Neck l phn rnh i din vi mt bch. N c ly vt liu i t mt c trng Revolution ang tn ti. Neck c xem nh l mt c trng cut trn xoay.

19. c trng mu hnh (Pattern)


c trng pattern da trn khi nim mng hnh hc. Pattern c th c dng mng ch nht (tuyn tnh) hay mng hnh trn. c trng Pattern c th cch u hay khng. N cng c th c kch thc khc nhau.

Pattern dng trn, cch u

Pattern dng trn, khng cch u

Pattern tuyn tnh, kch thc khc nhau

Hnh 4.14: c trng Pattern

20. c trng xon vt (Spiral)


Spiral l mt trng hp c bit ca c trng sweep. D liu cn c to ra Spiral l mt profile qut v mt ng (dn hng) qut. ng (dn hng) qut l mt ng xon vt. Ging nh qut, ng dn phi vung gc vi profile ti giao im ca chng.
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Hnh 4.15: c trng Spiral

21. c trng l xo (Spring)


Spring cng ging nh Spiral ngoi tr profile (tit din ngang) l hnh trn.

Hnh 4.16: c trng Spring

22. c trng Dimple


Dimple l mt vng p nh li trn mt mt solid. Ta thng to mt dimple trong mt tm kim loi hay tm vi chiu dy nh. to mt dimple trong mt solid mng, cn phi cut i mt extrusion, to ra mt profile ca ch p v quay n to thnh mt boss.

Hnh 4.17: c trng Dimple

23. c trng ren (Thread)


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c trng Thread to ren trn mt tr ca l, phn li, tr, hoc qut mt ng trn. Ren c th l phi hay tri. Cc tham s ca ren bao gm chiu di, gc profin ren, ng knh ngoi, ng knh trong, bc ren.

24. c trng xon (Tweak)


Tweak l mt c trng lm thay i b mt

25. c trng giao (Intersect)


c trng ny thc hin ton t Boolean-php giao. Cc h thng CAD trn c s feature nh Pro/E cung cp ton t ny, cho php ngi thit k giao cc feature vi nhau.

4.3. Biu din feature.


Mc ch chnh ban u khi xut hin khi nim feature l lu gi cc thng tin nh ngha sn phm bao gm c cc d liu thit k v d liu sn xut c b sung vo thng tin hnh dng hnh hc ca sn phm. Biu din feature cung cp y cc d liu ny. Tuy vy, cc h thng CAD cung cp phn ln l cc feature v hnh dng hnh hc. Cc feature ny ch lu gi cc thng tin v hnh dng. V vy ch gii hn phm vi kho st y l cc feature hnh dng. Biu din ca cc feature hnh dng thng cha cc thuc tnh v d liu sau: 1. Hnh dng (shape). Hnh hc v thng tin topo ca mt feature l d liu quan trng nht. C hai loi thng tin ny u cn thit v cc feature ny thc cht l cc m hnh solid. Hnh dng ca cc feature khng b hn ch nh l cc primitive. 2. Cc tham s cu hnh. Tt c cc tham s v gi tr ca chng nh ngha y mt feature l mt phn biu din ca n. 3. Cc gi tr mc nh. Cc gi tr ny tr thnh mt phn ca giao din ha ngi s dng (GUI = Graphics User Interface) m ngi thit k CAD s dng to ra cc feature. Ngi thit k c th chp nhn hay thay i cc gi tr ny. Cc gi tr mc nh hu ch khi ngi thit k th nghim thit k tng v khng mun dnh qu nhiu thi gian cho nh kch thc feature. 4. Cc tham s nh v v nh hng. Tng t cc primitive, cc tham s nh v v nh hng cu feature nh v v nh hng h ta a phng ca n i vi WCS trong qu tnh xy dng. 5. Cc quan h. Cc tham s feature c th quan h vi cc tham s khc thng qua cc Cc quan h v phng trnh (trnh by chi tit trong mc 4.6) 6. Cc hn ch (Constraint). C nhiu dng hn ch hnh hc v hn ch sn xut. Trong mc 4.7 trnh by chi tit cc hn ch hnh hc.
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7. Cc feature phc hp. Cc feature c th c kt hp to ra cc feature phc hp. Feature u tin m cc feature khc c kt hp vi n gi l feature c s (base feature) 8. Biu din tng trng (symbolic) v dng s (skeletal). Cc h thng CAD khng cung cp cc dng biu din ny. Tuy nhin chng l cn thit trong giai on u ca thit k v phn tch. V d ta c th s dng cc ng tm v cc khp ni phn tch cc c cu v cc cu trc. Ta cng s dng mt bao cc i tng thc hin phn tch mt cch nhanh chng i ti cc quyt nh thit k. 9. Hiu lc ca feature. Khi ta xa (delete) hoc b sung (add) cc feature t hoc n feature ang hin hnh, feature phc hp to ra phi c hiu lc. Hiu lc ca feature ny bao gm hiu lc ca cc feature thnh phn, xc nh cc kch thc v gii hn v tr, hiu lc tng tc vi cc feature khc.

4.4. Phc tho 3D.


Tt c cc feature u cn phc tho 2D. Ngi thit k c th cn gi n b phc tho (sketcher) ty theo tng h thng CAD. Ngi thit k chn mt phng phc tho v bt u v phc profin ca feature. Qa trnh ny c xem l phc tho 2D. Cng c th s dng phc tho 3D khi cn. Tt c cc h thng CAD, k c cc h thng trn c s feature nh SolidWorks hay Pro/E u cho php ngi thit k to ra cc phc tho 3D. Cc phc tho 3D c th c dng nh l ng dn qut, cc ng dn hng cho trn (loft) hay qut (sweep), hay l cc ng tm cho loft v pipe. Cc h thng CAD c th cung cp biu tng (icon) phc tho 3D, hoc ngi s dng c th nhp mt cch n gin cc im bng cc ta (x,y,z) trong WCS. Cc thc th phc tho 3D bao gm cc point, line, B-spline, fillet, centerline, chamfer,..

4.5. Cc tham s
Tham s l mt c tnh hiu qu ca feature. Biu din tham s cung cp cc kh nng m hnh ha khng gii hn. N to ra cc h chi tit. T ham s h tr cho khi nim v thay i v hiu chnh cc solid feature khi cc thay i thit k xy ra trong chu k tui th sn phm. Tham s cng h tr cho nim v s dng li m hnh. N cho php ngi thit k thay i kch thc trong mt m hnh ang hin hnh s dng li n. Nhiu hot ng thit k trong thc t lin quan n vic chnh sa li m hnh ang hin hnh. Hn na, nu thit k l phc tp v cn u t thi gian ng k to dng, tham s c th tit kim thi gian v cng sc bng cch to ra mt vi thay i chnh sa m hnh ang hin hnh, thay cho xy dng li ton b m hnh. Cc h thng CAD ni chung thc hin xy dng cc feature tham s theo cc bc nh trn hnh 4.18. tng c bn y l tham s ha feature trc tin, sau mi nh cc kch thc (gi tr), cc quan h, v cc hn ch vi cc tham s. Mt vi h thng CAD c th to ra cc tham s ca feature v nh kch thc
52

cho chng ngay khi ngi thit k to ra cc feature, trong khi cc h thng khc li ch cho ngi thit k xc nh cc tham s mt cch tng minh. Ba tp d liu kch thc (dimensions), quan h (relations), hn ch (constraints) c quan h vi nhau, v c th c s xung t vi nhau theo cch ny hay cch khc ti thi im no trong qu trnh m hnh ha. Ngi thit k cn phi thay i d liu gii quyt cc xung t ny.
To phc tho

nh ngha cc tham s

nh kch thc (gi tr) cho cc tham s

Lp cc quan h

Lp cc hn ch

To feature

To dng tht bi Thnh cng ?

Feature c to dng Tip tc m hnh ha

Hnh 4.18: To dng cc feature tham s

4.6. Cc quan h (relation)


M hnh ha trn c s cc primitive c nhng hn ch. Ngi thit k khng th phi hp tnh thng minh ( nh thit k) nh l cc quan h v cc hn ch vo trong m hnh. Thay i mt primitive khng c nh hng g n cc primitive khc. Vi tham s th khc hn. V d nh, ngi thit k c th to mt chi tit vi mt l c nh v cch u 2 cnh l 20 mm. Nu thay i m hnh bng cch di chuyn cc cnh hay thay i ng knh l, quan h tham s s nh v li l m bo nh thit k ban u (tm l cch u cc cnh 20 mm). Vi m hnh trn c s cc primitive, ngi thit k phi thao tc bng tay iu chnh v tr l, iu ny c th nh hng xu n ton b m hnh, c bit l i vi nhng m hnh phc tp. Cc chi tit c cc quan h i s hay cc
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quan h khc gia mt vi kch thc c trng l thch hp i vi m hnh ha trn c s feature v cc gi tr mi c th c dng iu khin v thao tc m hnh ti mi thi im. Mt quan h l mt phng thc ton hc m t cc tham s phc tho c quan h vi nhau nh th no. Quan h s dng cc bin (variable), tn kch thc, biu thc, phng trnh i s. Tng t nh trong ngn ng lp trnh, mt bin l mt tn c th c th c nhiu gi tr ti mt thi im. Mt tn kch thc l mt tn tham s trong khi m hnh ha feature. S khc nhau gia mt bin v mt tn kch thc l: bin khng phi l tham s phc tho, cn tn kch thc l tham s phc tho. Mt biu thc l mt tp hp nhiu bin v tn kch thc c t hp vi nhau bng cc ton t. Mt phng trnh l mt php gn mt bin bng mt biu thc. Biu thc cn phi c nh gi tr bng s v c lu trong bin. Biu thc cng c th c cc bin trong . V d: variables: input1, input2,.. dimension names: length, diameter, expression: 3*length 1,5*diameter/3 equation: height = 3*length 1,5*diameter/3 Quan h l cc phng trnh. Ta cn phi nh ngha cc bin v cc tn kch thc sau y s dng chng nh ngha cc biu thc. Ta gn cc biu thc cho cc tham s phc tho to ra cc quan h. Mt h thng CAD to ra cc quan h n mi khi ngi s dng nhp cc thng tin vo h thng nh kch thc mt feature hy quy nh v tr cho n. Cc quan h cng c to ra khi ngi s dng nh kch thc mt phc tho hay thay i v tr ca n. Cc quan h c c php ring ca chng bt chc cc ngn ng lp trnh. Chng hn nh tn ca cc bin v tn kch thc khng c cha du cch, v thng l cc ch nhy cm. Cc quan h c th tham chiu n cc quan h khc.V d nh: length = 2+3*p1, vi p1 cng l mt quan h. H thng CAD cung cp cc hm ton hc cho php ngi s dng nh ngha cc quan h. Cc hm ny to ra cc th vin h thng. Cc hm mu nh: gi tr tuyt i (abs), cc hm lng gic (sin, sin-1,), logarithm (log), Ngi s dng CAD cn mt phng tin vit ra cc quan h. Mt s h thng CAD s dng trnh son tho ca h iu hnh ang ci phn mm CAD. V d nh Pro/E s dng vi editor ca h iu hnh Unix. Ngi s dng cng c th cu hnh li h thng ca h s dng mt trnh son tho la chn. Cc h thng CAD khc nh SolidvWork s dng cc trang (spreadsheet) ging nh Microsoft Excel. Cc trang ny s dng nh cc bng quan h. Ngi s dng c th dng
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cc ct ca trang nh ngha cc bin v cc quan h gia chng. Ngi s dng c th quy nh cc gi tr mi trong trang v cp nht vo m hnh. C th a ra mt trnh t chung to v s dng cc quan h v cc bng ca chng trn cc h thng CAD nh sau: 1. Thay i tn cc feature. 2. Thay i tn cc tham s ca feature. 3. Lin kt cc gi tr ca cc feature. 4. Thay i gi tr v to dng li chi tit 5. To cc quan h. 6. To cc bng quan h.

4.7. Cc hn ch hnh hc (Geometric constraints).


Cc constraint b sung tnh thng minh cho phc tho, gip cho duy tr c mc ch thit k khi ngi thit k iu chnh m hnh. Chng hn nh, hn ch hnh hc phc tho v tnh i xng gip cho ngi thit k hiu chnh chiu di v chiu rng ca phc tho mt pha, th pha i din s c t ng cp nht ging nh vy. Ngi thit k c th hiu chnh cc hn ch thng minh ny bt c lc no. Cc hn ch c p dng cho cc thc th phc tho, v vy v bn cht chng c thuc tnh hnh hc. Cc hn ch bao gm: trng nhau (coincident), ng tm (concentric), song song (parallel), vung gc (perpendicular), tip tuyn (tangent), bn knh bng nhau (equal radius), khong cch bng nhau (equal distance), trung im (midpoint), i xng (symmetric), phng ngang (horizontal), phng ng (vertical). Mt constraint c nh ngha nh l mt iu kin hnh hc lin kt hai hoc nhiu thc th phc tho. Cc h thng CAD cho php ngi s dng c th thc hin phng thc hn ch t ng. Hn ch t ng l mt cng c hu ch cho nhp vo hnh hc phc tho cc chi tit hin hnh v n s gip cho nhanh chng nh cc hn ch n cc thc th phc tho mt cch logic. Hu ht cc hn ch hnh hc i hi chn hai thc th phc tho, trong mt thc th c xem nh l chun. Trn bng 4.1. trnh by ngha hnh hc ca cc hn ch thng dng nht. Bng 4.1. Cc hn ch hnh hc

TT
1 2

Hn ch hnh hc
Coincident

Trc khi dng hn ch

Sau khi dng hn ch

Cc v tr khc nhau

Cng mt v tr L1 L2

Collinear

L1

L2

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Cc v tr khc nhau

cng trn ng thng

Concentric
Cc tm khc nhau ng tm

Constant angle

Gc c th thay i

Gc khng th thay i

Constant length

Chiu di L c th thay i

Chiu di L khngth thay i

Coradial

Khng cng bn knh Cng bn knh

Equal

L1 =L2 ; 1 = 2

L1 L2 ; 1 2

Fix

P1 c th chuyn ng

P1 khng th chuyn ng

9 10

Horizontal
Line khng nm ngang Line phi nm ngang

Intersection
L2 L1 L2 L1
L1 v L2 c th hay khng giao nhau L1 v L2 phi giao nhau

11

Merge points

P1 v P2 l hai im khc nhau

P1 v P2 l hai im trng nhau ti P

12

Midpoint

P l mt im no

P l im gia M ca Line

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13

Mirror

Hai vng R1 v R2

Vng R2 phi i xng vi vng R1

14

Parallel

L1 v L2 khng song song

L1 v L2 phig song song vi nhau

15

Perpendicular

L1 v L2 khng vung gc

L1 v L2 phi vung gc vi nhau

16

Pierce

ng cong C1 v ng trn C2 va chm nhau im p

ng cong C1 v ng trn C2 chm nhau im p v vt qu 1 cht

17

Symmetric

Hai na c th i xng

Hai na phi i xng

18

Tangent

Cc i tng khng tip tuyn

Cc i tng tip tuyn

19

Vertical

Line khng thng ng

Line phi thng ng

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Chng 5: M hnh ha lp rp 5.1. Gii thiu


Trong hu ht cc thit k c kh, sn phm cui cng thng l tp hp nhiu chi tit to thnh lp rp (assembly). M hnh ha v biu din lp rp cng nh phn tch lp rp l nhng vn thuc v m hnh ha hnh hc v cng ngh CAD/CAM. Cc chi tit (part) v/ hoc cc b phn (subassembly) ca mt sn phm cho c th c m hnh ha mt cch c lp bi nhiu ngi thit k, thng l trn cng mt h thng CAD/CAM. Cc bn sao (instance) ca cc chi tit ny sau c th lp vo mt chi tit c s to thnh m hnh lp rp. M hnh lp rp c xem nh m rng ca m hnh ha chi tit. Cc h thng CAD/CAM cung cp cho ngi s dng phng thc lp rp to cc lp rp . M hnh ha lp rp ny sinh hai vn v m hnh ha khng c khi m hnh ha mc chi tit l: h thng th bc (hierachi) v lp ghp (mating). i vi mi lp rp hay sn phm, cc chi tit n l v cc b phn phi c lp rp vi nhau theo mt trnh t ng v h thng th bc ny c lu li trong mt cy lp rp. C th c nhiu cy lp rp cho mt lp rp, v c th c nhiu trnh t khc nhau to ra cng mt lp rp. Cc iu kin lp ghp c dng xc nh lp ghp (quan h khng gian v nh hng) gia cc chi tit ca lp rp. V d nh cc ng trc ca trc v l lp ghp vi nhau phi trng nhau. Khi cn phi c iu kin lp ghp ng trc (concentric). Hai mt phng ca hai chi tit phi trn cng mt mt phng. Khi cn s dng iu kin ng phng (coplanar).

5.2. M hnh ha lp rp
Mt lp rp l mt tp hp ca nhiu chi tit. Cn phi hiu c bn cht v cu trc ph thuc gia cc chi tit trong lp rp vi nhau c th m hnh ha ng lp rp. Trn hnh 5.1. trnh by s m hnh ha lp rp. Ngi thit k trc tin cn to ra cc chi tit. C th phn tch cc chi tit ny mt cch ring r. Sau khi thit k xong cc chi tit, ngi thit k c th tin hnh to lp rp v phn tch n. To mt lp rp t cc chi tit i hi phi quy nh cc quan h khng gian v lp ghp gia chng vi nhau. Phn tch lp rp c th bao gm kim tra giao nhau, xc nh thuc tnh khi lng, phn tch ng hc v ng lc hc, FEA. H thng CAD xc lp kt ni gia mt lp rp v cc chi tit ca n sao cho khi ngi thit k hiu chnh thit k cc chi tit thnh phn th h thng s t ng cp nht vo m hnh lp rp.
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H thng CAD

M hnh hnh hc chi tit 1

M hnh hnh hc chi tit 2

..

M hnh hnh hc chi tit n

Phn tch chi tit

Phng thc lp rp

M hnh lp rp

Phn tch lp rp

Hnh 5.1: To m hnh lp rp

5.3. Cy lp rp
Phng php biu din quan h th bc gia cc chi tit ca mt lp rp l s dng mt cy lp rp (hnh 5.2). Mt lp rp c chia thnh nhiu lp rp nh (b phn) cc mc khc nhau (tng ng vi cc mc chiu cao ca cy). Mi lp rp nh mt mc (n-1) li c cu thnh t nhiu chi tit khc nhau. Cc l ca cy biu din cc chi tit c th hoc cc lp rp con. Cc nt ca cy biu din cc chi tit v/ hoc cc lp rp con, cn bn thn gc ca n biu din c cm lp rp. Lp rp c t gc ca cy tc l mc cao 0 ng vi mc cao nht n ca trnh t lp rp.

Hnh 5.2: Cy lp rp
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Khung Bu long R to Phn ng Cun dy Vt liu chu ma st Moay Bnh rng

ng c in

Bnh rng nh

Trc r to

Trc ti

Hnh 5.3: Lp rp ly hp in
Ly hp

Trc ti Khung

Bu lng

Moay

R to Trc R to

ng c in

Phn ng

in trng

Vt liu chu ma st

Bnh rng

Bnh rng nh

Bnh rng nh

Hnh 5.4: Cy lp rp ly hp in

5.4. Lp k hoch to lp rp
Lp k hoch lp rp l c s quan trng to thnh cng lp rp, c bit l vi cc lp rp ln, phc tp thng gp trong thc t. Vn quan trng y l khng ch to thnh lp rp m lp rp ny cn phi c cp nht sau ny khi thay i thit k cc chi thit thnh phn. Vic cp nht ny phi c thc hin t ng, v chnh xc v cc m hnh lp rp l cc m hnh tham s v linh hot. iu ny c ngha l quan h gia cc chi tit ca lp rp cn d dng thay i v cp nht. Khi mt ngi thit k thay i mt s tham s ca lp rp, cc ngi thit k khc cn cp nht theo. Trc khi xy dng mt lp rp cn xem xt mt s vn sau:
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1. Nhn dng s ph thuc gia cc thnh phn ca lp rp. Cc thnh phn ca lp rp l cc chi tit c th, hay l cc cm lp rp nh hon chnh, v bn thn cc cm ny li gm nhiu cm lp rp nh hn v/ hoc gm cc chi tit. Nhn dng cc ph thuc ny s gip ta quyt nh chn trong cc phng php bottom-up, top-down, phng php kt hp, phng php no l tt nht to ra lp rp. 2. Nhn dng s ph thuc gia cc feature ca mi chi tit. Cc ph thuc ny bao gm tnh i xng (symmetry) v cc mng hnh hc (geometric array/pattern) 3. Phn tch trnh t lp rp cc chi tit. Trnh t ny s quyt nh n tnh d dng ca qu trnh lp rp trong thc t, cng nh quyt nh n gi thnh trong vic to lp rp, v nh hng n qu trnh sn xut cc chi tit

5.5. Cc iu kin lp ghp


Khi s dng h thng CAD/CAM, cc chi tit c th ca mt lp rp thng c to ra mt cch ring r, sau c lp ghp vi nhau bng cch s dng lnh merge hay insert. Mi chi tit u c c s d liu ring vi mt MCS ring ca n. Thng thng ngi thit k thng chn mt chi tit c s (base /host part) v lp cc chi tit khc vo n. Mt khc cng c th bt u vi mt chi tit rng (blank part) nh l chi tit c s. MCS ca chi tit c s tr thnh h ta chung, mt MCS ca c lp rp. Mi MCS ca mt chi tit tr thnh mt h ta a phng i vi chi tit ny. V tr chnh xc cui cng ca mi chi tit trong lp rp nhn c bng cch nh v v nh hng thch hp MCS ca n i vi h ta chung ca c lp rp. Trn hnh. Trnh by mt v d. H ta chung ca c s d liu m hnh lp rp l XYZ. im gc O ca n l im (0, 0, 0). Cc h ta X1Y1Z1, X2Y2Z2, X3Y3Z3, X4Y4Z4 l cc h ta a phng ca 4 chi tit thnh phn ca lp rp. Cc im gc ca chng O1, O2, O3, O4 c nh v ph hp vi im gc O ca lp rp.
Z2 O2 Y2 Y1 Y X2 O1 O X Z X4 Z1 Z4 X1 Z3 O3 X3 Y3

Y4

O4

Hnh 5.5: Cc h trc ta khi lp

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nh hng ca cc h ta ny tng i vi h XYZ cng phi th hin ng nh hng ca cc chi tit trong lp rp. nh v v nh hng cc chi tit trong lp rp ca chng t c bng cch quy nh cc iu kin lp ghp chng vi nhau. Cc iu kin ny quy nh cc quan h khng gian gia cc chi tit. Cc iu kin lp ghp c tnh tng tc v d dng v chng s dng cc thc th hnh hc n gin nh cc mt (face) v cc ng tm (centerline). Chng hn nh iu kin lp ghp c th l cc mt ng phng v i tip vi nhau, hay cc ng tm ca hai chi tit phi thng hng, Cc iu kin lp ghp thng dng nht l: coincident (trng nhau), concentric (ng tm),

tangent (tip tuyn), coplanar (ng phng), parallel faces (cc mt song song) v perpendicular faces (cc mt vung gc). Khi s dng cc iu kin lp ghp lp hai chi
tit vi nhau, cn ch rng c 6 bc t do trong khng gian E3: 3 bc tnh tin dc theo cc trc ca MCS chung ca lp rp v 3 bc quay quanh cc trc ny. Mt chi tit cn phi c hn ch y cho php to ra lp rp ng. V d cc iu kin lp ghp gia hai chi tit c th yu cu iu kin coincident ca hai mt v hai im trn hai mt . Nu chng ta lp hai mt ch s dng iu kin coincident ca hai mt th chng c th quay tng i vi nhau. iu kin coincident c p dng gia hai mt phng hoc gia mt mt phng v mt mt tr (trc). iu kin ny c m t trn hnh 5.6. Chi tit 1 v chi tit 2 c cc MCS tng ng l X1Y1Z1 v X2Y2Z2. Cc b mt c gch mt ct l cc mt lp ghp. Mi b mt ny c quy nh bi vc t php tuyn n v v mt im no trn b mt ng vi MCS ca chi tit. B mt phng ca chi tit 1 c quy nh bi vc t php tuyn n v n1 v bi im P1 ng vi h ta X1Y1Z1. Tng t, b mt phng ca chi tit 2 c quy nh bi vc t php tuyn n v n2 v bi im P2 ng vi h ta X2Y2Z2. iu kin coincident c tha mn bng cch buc n1 v n2 hng ngc nhau v hai b mt tip xc vi nhau sao cho P1 v P2 l trng nhau.

Hnh 5.6: iu kin coincident

62

iu kin concentric c thc hin gia hai mt tr: Mt b mt tr ca trc, v mt b mt tr ca l nh trn hnh 5.7. iu kin ny c thc hin bng cch buc cc ng trc ca trc v l phi trng nhau. Mi ng trc c quy nh bi 2 im. ng trc ca l c quy nh bi 2 im P1 v P2 xc nh trong MCS X1Y1Z1. Tng t nh vy, ng trc ca trc c quy nh bi 2 im P3 v P4 xc nh trong MCS X2Y2Z2.

Hnh 5.7: iu kin concentric iu kin tangent c p dng gia mt phng v mt tr hoc gia hai mt tr. Nh m t trn hnh5.8. iu kin ny c thc hin bng cch buc b mt tr phi tip tuyn vi b mt phng.

Hnh 5.8: iu kin tangent iu kin coplanar c thc hin gia hai mt phng, buc chng phi nm trn cng mt mt phng. iu kin ny c m t trn hnh 5.9. Tng t nh iu kin

coincident , ngoi tr iu kin cc im P1 v P2 c chn nm trn hai cnh c ghp


trng vi nhau. iu kin coplanar ngc vi iu kin kin coincident. iu kin ny buc hai php tuyn n1 v n2 phi ng hng.
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Hnh 5.9: iu kin coplanar Cc iu kin coincident, concentric, tangent, coplanar nh m t trn cho php c hai bc chuyn ng t do tnh tin v quay gia hai chi tit lp ghp. Trong iu kin lp ghp

coincident trn hnh5.6 chi tit 2 c th trt trn chi tit 1 hoc quay tng i vi nhau sau
khi 2 mt c ghp vi nhau bi 2 nh hng php tuyn n1 v n2 . Tng t trn hnh 5.7 trc c th trt hoc quay trong l. Cc chuyn ng ny c th b hn ch bng cch b sung thm cc hn ch (constrain) cho cc iu kin lp ghp . iu kin parallel faces tng t nh iu kin concentric, ngoi tr iu l 2 b mt lp ghp khng tip xc vi nhau. iu kin ny c thc hin bng cch buc php tuyn ca 2 mt phi song song v ngc chiu nhau. iu kin perpendicular faces quy nh 2 mt phi vung gc vi nhau. Hai mt t bng chi tit 1 v chi tit 2 trn hnh 5.8 vung gc vi nhau bng cch buc 2 php tuyn n1 v n2 vung gc vi nhau.

5.6. Phng php lp rp Bottom-up


y l phng php thng dng nht v n l phng php truyn thng v logic nht. y, chng ta to ra cc chi tit cc th mt cch c lp, ri nhp (insert) chng vo thnh mt lp rp vi vic s dng cc iu kin lp ghp nh v v nh hng chng trong lp rp theo yu cu thit k lp rp. Qa trnh m hnh ha lp rp bt u bng vic to ra mt m hnh lp rp rng khi m phng thc assembly ca h thng CAD. Sau ta nhp (import/
64

insert) ln lt cc chi tit ca lp rp vo trong m hnh. Chi tit u tin nhp vo c xem nh l chi tit chnh (c s), v cc chi tit khc c lp vo n. Ta s dng cc iu kin lp ghp thch hp t v nh hng ng cc chi tit nhp vo trong m hnh lp rp. Khi ta nhp cc chi tit vo trong lp rp, thc cht l ta nhp vo cc bn sao ca chng. Cc bn sao ny c gi l cc instance. Ta c th dng nhiu instance ca mt chi tit, nu lp rp yu cu. Phn mm CAD duy tr kt ni (link) gia mi instance v chi tit gc ca n. Nu ta thay i chi tit gc, ta c th thay i tt c cc instance ca n trong mt lp rp bng cch cp nht (update) li lp rp. Kt ni trong lp rp l 2 chiu: ta hiu chnh chi tit v cp nht li lp rp, hay ta thay i cc instance trong lp rp v cp nht li chi tit. Vic quy nh cc hn ch gia cc chi tit trong lp rp c thc hin bng cch quy nh cc hn ch gia cc instance ca chng trong m hnh lp rp. Phng php ny c mt s u im nh sau. y l k thut a dng nu nh cc chi tit c xy dng xong. N cng cho php cc nh thit k tp trung vo cc chi tit c th. N cng lm cho d dng v n gin trong duy tr cc quan h v ng x ti to li ca cc chi tit. Phng php ny thng thch hp vi cc lp rp c nh vi s lng thnh phn c th n mt trm, thm ch c th n mt nghn.

5.7. Phng php lp rp Top-down


Phng php lp rp Top-down c th p dng vi mi c lp rp, c bit thch hp vi lp rp c ln vi hng chc nghn thnh phn. N cung cp mt cng c hiu qu v phng php t chc tt qun l qu trnh thit k cc lp rp c ln. N cho php ngi lnh o d n c th phn tch cc c tnh k thut ca sn phm, phn nh cc nhm thit k, Phng php lp rp Top-down thc y tip cn k thut h thng khi thit k sn phm, trong s lp rp truyn t tiu chun thit k n cc nh pht trin h thng con, k c cc nh cung cp. Phng php ny bt u bng mt phc tho s lp rp (cn c gi l phc tho lp rp hay m hnh khung). S ny xc nh cc thnh phn trong ng cnh ca mt lp rp. Cc thnh phn ny l rng v chng cha tham chiu n cc file chi tit v cc file b phn thc. S lp rp xc nh khung xng, yu cu khng gian v cc thuc tnh vt l khc c th c dng xc nh hnh hc ca cc thnh phn v quan h gia chng (cc chi tit hay b phn). Yu cu khng gian l thuc tnh quan trng nht ca mt s lp rp v s ny cho bit mi thnh phn ca lp rp s t u. Khi ngi thit k sp t khung ca tt c cc thnh phn lp rp trong s , anh ta c th thy c s giao nhau, h hay chng nhau ca cc thnh phn ny. Khi c th thay i v tr ca cc thnh phn tng i vi nhau trong s nhm p ng tt hn yu cu thit k.
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Qa trnh xy dng mt lp rp theo phng php Top-down c thc hin theo cc bc nh sau: 1. Log in v khi ng h thng CAD/CAM 2. Chn phng thc assembly 3. M mt file asembly mi 4. To mt phc tho, trong cc thc th biu th cho cc thnh phn ca lp rp. Ch nh v tr s b cho mi thnh phn trong khi nm c tng thit k chung ca lp rp. 5. To thm cc phc tho khc nu cn. Mt lp rp phc tp c th i hi nhiu phc tho, tng t nh to dng cc feature phc tp ca cc chi tit. Chng hn nh ta c th dng cc mt phng phc tho Front, Top, Right to s lp rp. 6. S dng (cc) phc tho xc nh kch thc thnh phn, hnh dng khung xng, v v tr trong lp rp. 7. Hiu chnh (cc) phc tho nu cn cho n khi c c s lp rp hon thin. Chng hn nh thay i v tr hay kch thc ca mt vi thnh phn lp rp. 8. To dng cc chi tit v lu chng trong cc file tng ng. Cn m bo l mi chi tit u tham chiu n (cc) phc tho lp rp. 9. nh gi lp rp sau khi cc chi tit xy dng hon thin. Nu cn c th hiu chnh phc tho lp rp ri cp nht cho lp rp v cc chi tit. 10. Lu file lp rp v thot ra khi h thng CAD. Phng php Top-down c nhiu u im. u im chnh ca phng php ny l nu ta thay i s lp rp, lp rp v cc chi tit ca n s t ng cp nht khi ta thot ra khi mi trng phc tho. Ta c th to ra tt c cc thay i mt cch nhanh chng ti mt ni l phc tho s lp rp.

V d: To lp rp pu li-ai theo phng php Top-down.


Cc bc thc hin nh sau: 1. Log in v khi ng h thng CAD/CAM 2. Chn phng thc assembly 3. M mt file asembly mi. 4. To mt s lp rp nh hnh 5.10. nh ngha cc kch thc nh trong s . Cc ng thng ni 2 pu ly l tip tuyn vi chng (p dng cc hn ch thch hp to ra cc ng thng tip tuyn). Lu file lp rp vi tn l topdown.asm 5. M mt file chi tit mi, xy dng chi tit pu ly ln v lu n vi tn file pulley1.prt 6. M mt file chi tit mi, xy dng chi tit pu ly nh v lu n vi tn file pulley2.prt
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Hnh 5.10: V d lp rp pu li-ai 7. M mt file chi tit mi, xy dng chi tit dy ai v lu n vi tn file belt.prt 8. M file lp rp topdown.asm v nhp vo cc chi tit thnh phn: pulley1.prt,

pulley2.prt v 2 instance ca belt.prt. Thc hin cc lp ghp cn thit (cc hn ch


h thng y khng c chuyn ng tng i) lp cc thnh phn vo vi nhau. 9. Thit lp cc kch thc tham kho ca cc thnh phn ng n cc kch thc tng ng trong phc tho s lp rp. Cc bn knh ca cc pu ly nh v pu ly to , chiu di ai c thit lp bng cc bin tng ng trong phc tho nh sau:

Pulley1 diameter = Layout Sketch Big Circle Diameter Pulley2 diameter = Layout Sketch Small Circle Diameter Length of the belt = Layout Sketch Distance between the Circles.
10. Thay i cc tham s trong phc tho s xem nh hng nh th no n cc thnh phn lp rp v trong lp rp. Ti to (cp nht) li lp rp nhn c cc kt qu mi.

5.8. Mt s thao tc vi lp rp 5.8.1. Th cc iu kin lp ghp


Cc iu kin lp rp l cha kha thnh cng to ra cc lp rp. Cc iu kin ny c th lp ghp qu (over- mate) hay lp ghp thiu (under -mate). kim tra ngi thit k c th ko (drag) v di chuyn cc hnh phn ca lp rp. Cc h thng CAD cung cp cc lnh move hay rotate hay cc lnh tng ng khc cho php thc hin cc thao tc ny.

5.8.2. Cc option v ti ca lp rp.


Khi ta nhp mt thnh phn lp rp vo mt lp rp, mt chun gia lp rp v thnh phn ny c to ra. Nh vy thng tin ca thnh phn c ti vo m hnh lp rp. Cc h thng CAD cung cp 2 option ti thng tin vo: ti y hay ti mt phn. Trong la
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chn u, thng tin thnh phn c ti y vo b nh. Trong la chn sau: ch mt phn thng tin c ti vo b nh. Phn cn li s c ti vo nu thnh phn c chn hay nu nh n c thay i khi hiu chnh. Cc option ny nh hng n hiu qu lp rp. Vi nhng lp rp ln, cc thao tc v cc lnh thc hin c nhanh cn chn option ti mt phn.

5.8.3. Qun l lp rp
Khi ta nhp cc thnh phn lp rp vo mt lp rp, ta c th thc hin nhiu tc v qun l chng. Ta c th n (hide), ng bng (freeze/suppress), copy hay delete chng. Cc h thng CAD cng cung cp cc cc b qun l thuc tnh lp ghp qun l iu kin lp ghp. B qun l ny cho php ngi thit k c th n nh cc iu kin lp ghp, nhm chng li, copy chng hay delete chng

5.8.4. Lm vic vi cc b phn (subassembly)


Khi mt lp rp l mt thnh phn ca mt lp rp khc, n c gi l mt b phn hay mt lp rp con. C 3 phng n to ra cc lp rp con: To mt ti liu (file) lp rp, ri nhp n vo mt m hnh lp rp mc cao hn. Nhp mt subassembly mi v rng vo mt mc ca m hnh lp rp (file) ang m. Sau b sung cc thnh phn vo n. To mt subassembly bng cch chn mt nhm cc thnh phn ang hin hnh t mt lp rp.

5.8.5. Phn tch lp rp


To cc bn v lp rp To danh mc chi tit To hnh nh cc chi tit ca lp rp ri ra (exploded view) To cc mt ct Thc hin kim tra giao nhau Thc hin kim tra va chm Thc hin tnh ton khi lng

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Chng 6: Phn tch k thut trong thit k (CAE) 6.1. Xc nh cc thuc tnh c bn.
y l mt trong nhng ng dng k thut u tin c thc hin trong cc h thng CAD/CAM. . Cc tnh ton k thut ny ph thuc nhiu vo hnh hc v topo ca cc vt th thit k. Chng bao gm: tnh ton cc thuc tnh khi lng, xc nh trng tm, m men qun tnh. y l c s nghin cu v phn tch cc c ch (tnh v ng) ca c vt rn v vt c th bin dng. Cc tnh ton ny thng lin quan n xc nh cc tch phn khc nhau. Vi nhng hnh dng n gin c th tnh chnh xc cc tch phn ny. Vi nhng hnh dng phc tp thng s dng cc phng php gn ng xc nh cc tch phn. Cc thut ton ci t trong cc phn mm CAD/CAM s dng cc phng php ny v c thc hin t ng m khng yu cu thm thng tin u vo, tr khi tnh ton khi lng th cn nhp vo mt ca m hnh. Cc thuc tnh ny gm c: Chiu di ng cong (curve length). Tnh ton chiu di ca mt ng cong cho trc gia hai im hu ch trong nhiu ng dng. V d nh khi phn tch c cu ta c th cn xc nh chiu di ca qu o mt im no trong khng gian. Tit din ngang (Cross-Sectional Area). Mt tit din ngang l mt vng mt phng gii hn bi ng bin kn. ng bin ny c to ra bi mt tp cc ng cong lin tc C1 ni ghp vi nhau. Cn xc nh 3 thuc tnh ca mt vng phng l: chiu di ng bin (length of boundary), din tch (area) v trng tm (centroid) ca n. Din tch b mt (Surface Area) Th tch (Volume) Khi lng (Mass) Trng tm (Centroid) Cc m men qun tnh (Moment of Inertia): M men qun tnh bc mt i vi mt mt phng ca ti trng tp trung hay ca ti trng phn b M men qun tnh bc hai i vi mt trc ca ti trng tp trung hay ca ti trng phn b

6.2. Gii thiu v FEM v FEA


M hnh ha phn t hu hn (FEM) v phn tch phn t hu hn (FEA) l mt trong nhng ng dng k thut c kh ph bin nht c cung cp bi cc h thng CAD/CAM. y c
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th c xem l phng php k thut s hiu qu nht gii quyt cc vn k thut trong c kh bt k hnh dng hay hnh hc ca i tng phc tp, thuc tnh vt liu, cc iu kin bin, cc iu kin ti trng.

Phng php phn t hu hn( FEM):


gii quyt cc bi ton c min lin tc bng FEM, c th thc hin theo trnh t c bn nh sau: 1. To cc phn t hu hn. Bn cht ca FEM l phn chia mt min lin tc (min cn gii quyt ca bi ton) thnh cc phn t ghp ni lin tc vi nhau & khng giao nhau. iu ny thc hin bng cch thay th min lin tc bng mt tp cc im c s (key point) c gi l cc nt. Cc nt ny li c ni vi nhau theo mt trnh t hp l to thnh cc phn t (element). Tp hp cc nt v cc phn t to thnh li (mesh) phn t hu hn. C nhiu hnh dng v kiu phn t. Nh phn tch hay thit k c th s dng nhiu kiu phn t gii quyt mt bi ton. Cn quyt nh s lng cc nt v cc phn t c s dng gii bi ton. Thng thng, s lng nt v phn t cng ln th chnh xc ca FEM cng cao nhng chi ph v b nh v v thi gian tnh ton cng ln.
P=500N

a) Dm cng xon xem nh lin tc

b) To cc nt v nh s

Cc phn t 4 nt

Cc phn t 6 nt

b) To cc phn t v nh s

Hnh 6.1: Li phn t hu hn ca mt dm 2. Xp x li gii trong mi phn t. S khc nhau ca cc n s (c gi l bin trng) trong bi ton c xp x trong mi phn t bng mt a thc. Bin trng c th l v hng (v d nh nhit ), hay mt vec t (v d nh cc chuyn v ngang, dc). Cc a thc thng c dng xp x li gii cho min mt phn t v chng d tch phn v vi phn. Bc ca a thc ph thuc vo s nt trn mt phn t, s n s (s thnh phn ca bin trng) ti mi nt v cc yu cu v tnh lin tc no dc theo cc bin ca phn t. 3. Xy dng cc ma trn phn t vcc phng trnh. Bc ny cn thit lp cc cng thc phn t hu hn chuyn cc phng trnh cn bng c trng t min lin tc v
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min phn t. Khi cc nt v cc thuc tnh vt liu ca mt phn t c xc nh, cc ma trn tng ng ca n (ma trn cng, ma trn khi lng,) v cc phng trnh c th c xy dng. C 4 phng php xy dng cc ma trn phn t v cc phng trnh l: phng php trc tip, phng php sai phn, phng php khi lng d, phng php th nng. Trong phng php th hai thch hp cho cc bi ton c cu vt rn, phng php th ba thch hp cho cc bi ton cht lng). 4. Xy dng cc phng trnh ma trn h thng chung. Cc ma trn phn t c hp li vi nhau bng cch ly tng ca cc phng trnh cn bng ca cc phn t nhn c cc ma trn chung v h thng cc phng trnh i s. Trc khi gii h thng cc phng trnh ny, cn phi hiu chnh n bng cch p vo cc iu kin bin. 5. Gii h thng phng trnh tm cc n s cc nt. H thng chung cc phng trnh i s c gii bng cc phng php gii hn Gauss cho kt qu cc gi tr ca bin trng ti cc nt ca li phn t hu hn. Ga tr ca cc bin trng v cc o hm ca chng ti cc nt to thnh li gii y phn t hu hn ca bi ton lin tc ban u. C th nhn c cc gi tr ti cc im khc nhau trong min lin tc khc vi cc nt, mc d iu ny thng t gp. 6. Bin dch cc kt qu. Bc cui cng l phn tch li gii v cc kt qu nhn c t cc bc trc i ti cc quyt nh thit k . bin dch ng cc kt qu ny, cn c kin thc c bn v k thut v FEA.

Phn tch phn t hu hn (FEA):


FEA thc hin trn c s gi thit sau: Thay cho gii trc tip cc phng trnh cn bng vi phn c trng, phng php phn t hu hn gii cc phng trnh ny dng tch phn. Li gii ca dng tch phn ny l xp x. nhn c li gii ny, FEM gi nguyn cc ton t o hm v xp x khng gian bi ton bng cch s dng cc hm ni suy. FEA bt u vi cc phng trnh vi phn ca mt h thng v kt thc bng vic gii gn ng cc phng trnh ny. Qa trnh ny c thc hin qua mt s bc c bn nh sau. Trc tin l bin i cc phng trnh vi phn thnh cc phng trnh tch phn bng cch s dng cc phng php sai phn hay phng ph trng lng d,.. Sau n phn chia min bi ton thnh cc phn t v thit lp cc phng trnh phn t. Cc phng trnh phn t ny li c t hp li to ra phng trnh ma trn h thng chung. Cc iu kin bin v ti ngoi c a vo h thng trc khi gii phng trnh ma trn h thng chung. Cc kt qu ca li gii bi ton c c ti cc nt ca cc phn t. Chng c hin th dng ha phn tch v a ra ra cc quyt nh thit k.

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Cc h thng CAD hin nay thng c ci t cc gi FEM/FEA trong chng. Cc gi ny tch hp vi c s d liu CAD t ng ha c FEM v FEA, v cung cp cho ngi dng cc kt qu dng ng cong, con tua hay hot hnh.

6.3. Cc phn t hu hn

Phn t 1D
2 nt (tuyn tnh) Phn t tam gic 3 nt (tuyn tnh) 6 nt (bc 2) 10 nt (bc 3) 3 nt (bc 2) 3 nt (bc 3)

Phn t 2D
Phn t t gic 4 nt (tuyn tnh)

4 nt (bc 2)

10 nt (bc 3)

Phn t t din 4 nt (tuyn tnh) 10 nt (bc 2) 20 nt (bc 3)

Phn t 3D

Phn t dng lng tr 7 nt (tuyn tnh) 16 nt (bc 2) 29 nt (bc 3)

Phn t dng 6 mt

8 nt (tuyn tnh

20 nt (bc 2)

32 nt (bc 3)

Hnh 6.2: Cc kiu phn t v kch thc ca chng

6.4.

Ti ngoi tc dng ln cc nt.

Nh trnh by trn, khi thc hin FEM , min lin tc c thay th bng mt tp cc nt. V vy vi mi thuc tnh lin quan vi min lin tc (nh l khi lng, ngun nhit bn trong, gim chn,) hoc cc ti tc dng t bn ngoi cn phi t tp trung cc nt. C hai dng ti ngoi: ti tp trung (v d nh lc tp trung, m men tp trung,..) v ti phn b (v d nh lc phn b, m men phn b, dng nhit, dng cht lng,).
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t lc tp trung vo mt m hnh phn t hu hn, cn phi to ra mt nt ti im t ti. V d nh trn hnh 6.1, nt s 21 chu ti P=500N, hay l ti P c t vo m hnh thng qua nt 21. Trong nhiu trng hp, ti phn b c t tp trung ti nhiu nt

6.5.

M hnh ha phn t hu hn

Mt m hnh phn t hu hn gm c cc nt, cc bc t do, cc iu kin bin, cc phn t, thuc tnh vt liu, ti tc dng t bn ngoi v kiu phn tch. Cc k s cn phi chn cn thn tt c cc thuc tnh m hnh ha ny c c cc kt qu FEA ng. Trong thc t, trc tin cn quyt nh s li bao gm s cc nt v cc phn t. Cc vng c thay i t ngt bin trng (v d nh tp trung ng sut quanh cc l) i hi mt cc nt v cc phn t cao hn cc vng c s thay i dn dn. Sau khi chn xong s li, cn chn dng phn tch (tnh /ng , tuyn tnh/phi tuyn, l thuyt v dm, ng sut phng/ ng sut 3D,), kiu bi ton phn tch (bin dng un, xoay, nhit , dng chy,), s bc t do ti mi nt, cc iu kin bin, thng tin v phn t (kiu, s nt trn mt phn t, bc cu phng Gauss), cc thuc tnh vt liu, ti ngoi tc dng ln cc nt. Khi m hnh phn t hu hn c thit lp bng cch chn cc tham s ph hp vi li (mesh), n cn phi c nhp v vo m ha thc hin FEA. C th nhp vo di dng file d liu vi nh dng quy nh i vi tng phn mm FEA. Cc file d liu ny thng gm c 5 phn chnh l: iu khin, nt, phn t, vt liu v ti . Thng tin trong phn iu khin thng bao gm m t bi ton (tiu ), tng s nt, kiu phn tch, u ra ca FEA thng dng s ha. N thng bao gm cc gi tr nt ca bin trng v cc o hm ca n. V d nh i vi bi ton c hc vt rn u ra l cc chuyn v nt v cc ng sut phn t. Vi bi ton truyn nhit, u ra l nhit ti cc nt v dng nhit qua phn t. Cc kt qu cabin trng c th hin th hoc in ra di dng ng cong, contour,..Hnh dng b bin i c th c hin th so snh vi hnh dng khi thy. Cc phng thc rung ng cng c th c hin th. Cc b tin x l (Preprocessor) v hu x l (Postprocessor) dm nhim hu ht cc nhim v ca FEM. Preprocessor gip cho ngi s dng c th to ra file d liu u vo mt cch t ng. Khi ngi s dng khng cn quan tm n nh dng ca file ny. Postprocessor thng l t ng v khng cn tr gip ca ngi s dng. Chng to ra cc kt qu s ha v hin th chng theo yu cu ca ngi dng.

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Bi ton

FEM (To cc nt, cc phn t, cc iu kin bin, thuc tnh vt liu, ti, file d liu)

Preprocessor

FEA (To cc ma trn phn t, tnh ton cc gi tr nt v cc o hm, lu kt qu)

Phn tch kt qu (Hin th cc ng cong, con tua, hnh dng bin i)

Postprocessor

Hnh 6.3: Preprocessor v Postprocessor phn t hu hn

6.6. To li (Mesh Generation)


To li l ct li ca FEM.To li gn lin vi to ra cc to nt v cc phn t. N cng bao gm c t ng nh s cc nt v cc phn t trn c s khi lng d liu nh nht c cung cp bi ngi s dng. To li t ng lm gim cc li v tit kim c thi gian do vy lm gim chi ph qu trnh FEA. Trc khi c cc Preprocessor, li phn t hu hn c to ra bng tay. Trong , ngi s dng ri rc ha hnh hc vt th thnh cc nt v cc phn t. Cc nt c nh ngha bng cch quy nh cc ta ca chng, trong khi cc phn t c xc nh bng cch ni cc nt li vi nhau theo mt nh dng. To li bng tay thng khng hiu qu, d b li c bit vi cc vt th phc tp, vt th 3D. Cc Preprocessor cung cp cc thut ton, s v phng php cho to li t ng. C nhiu mc t ng theo yu cu u vo ca ngi s dng. C th phn thnh 2 mc: to li bn t ng v to li t ng hon ton. mc t ng hon ton, hnh dng ca vt th (bao gm c hnh hc v to po) c to li vi d liu u vo l cc thuc tnh li (mt li, kiu phn t, iu kin bin, ti,..). mc bn t ng, c th yu cu thm d liu u vo nh l phn chia vt th thnh cc vng hay min con, Tiu chun quan trng nht trong to li l m bo tnh hiu lc v tnh chnh xc ca li to ra, m bo tnh chnh xc ca cc kt qu FEA. Sau y l mt s yu cu c bn khi to li:

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1. V tr cc nt. Cc nt phi nm bn trong hoc trn bin ca m hnh hnh hc c to li. Cc nt rt gn vi bin cn phi c ko vo nm trn bin to l m hnh chnh xc. 2. Kiu phn t v hnh dng. Mong mun s a dng ca cc phn t (th vin cc phn t ln) cung cp cho ngi s dng tnh linh hot cn thit, p ng cc yu cu tng thch v tnh ton vn 3. Tnh trn ca li. iu ny lin quan n iu khin trn v mt li. Thng thng cc vt th thc hin FEA thng c cc l v cc gc sc. cc vng ny thng i hi mt li(s nt v s phn t) tng ln p ng vi s thay i nhanh va bin trng (v d nh s thay i ng sut xung quanh l v cc gc sc). Cc vng ny c xem nh l cc vng chyn tip 4. Tnh d chuyn i li. Mong mun c th chuyn i t li vi kiu phn t ny sang li vi kiu phn t khc. V d thng c th d dng chuyn i t mt phn t dng tam gic thnh ba phn t t gic, hay t phn t t din c th chia thnh bn phn t su mt, hay c th kt hp hai phn t tam gic to ra mt phn t t gic, 5. T s mt phn t. Mong mun t s mt phn t gn vi 1, tc l tt c cc mt ca mt phn t l bng nhau 6. Hnh hc v to po ca li. Khi mt vt th hnh hc c y hnh hc v to po, n c th c to li. Hnh hc ca li lin quan n ta ca cc im nt v thng tin kt ni cc phn t. To po ca li lin quan n nh hng ca n i vi to po ca vt th. To po ca vt th lun xc nh to po ca li. 7. Tnh tng thch vi cc s biu din. Mt phng php to li vn d lun lin quan n m hnh hnh hc cn to li. Cc m hnh solid h tr cho to li t ng ha hon ton. 8. Hiu qu v chi ph. Thi gian cn thit to li v thi gian cn thc hin FEA l ct yu. gim c hai thi gian ny cn c phng php to li ti u v gim t nht s nt, s phn t cng nh l p ng c cc yu cu v chuyn i

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