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Essay Complex Analysis

# Essay Complex Analysis

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Complex Analysis in One Variable
Complex Analysis in One Variable

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06/05/2013

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This book is intended as our English essay for students who study in university. In speciﬁc,

the essay consists of some exercises which are chosen and solved by us; and these exercises is

taken from A. David Wunsch, Complex Variables with Applications, 3rd ed. To read this essay,

the readers need some knowledges of Functions of One Complex Variable (such as second - year

students or higher), but if the reader is a student in high school, still he or she can reads some

exercises which is shown in chapter I. Then, we submit an essay to our tutor who is Prof. Dang

Duc Trong, that is also our lecturer.

Remark. We will present the following chapters :

1. Chapter 1 : Complex Number.

2. Chapter 2 : The Complex Function and Its Derivative.

3. Chapter 3 : The Basic Transcendental Functions.

4. Chapter 4 : Integration in the Complex Plane.

5. Chapter 5 : Inﬁnite Series Involving a Complex Variable.

6. Chapter 6 : Residues and Their Use in Integration.

Acknowledgement. We thank the collaborators for all their helps. These include :

Name

University

Mai Thanh Nhat Truong HCMC University of Science

Tran Hong Tai HCMC University of Science

Vu Tran Minh Khuong HCMC University of Science

Ngo Thanh Ha

HCMC University of Science

http://anhkhoavo1210.wordpress.com/

hambienphuck10@gmail.com

Note. Although this essay is free on sharing, we do not accept an arbitrary case

that relates to the copyright of it.

3

Bibliography

[1] A. David Wunsch (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Complex Variables with Applica-

tions, 3rd ed, 2005.

[2] Dau The Cap (Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy), Ham Bien Phuc & Phep Tinh

Toan Tu, 2006.

[3] Terence Tao (University of California Los Angeles), Lecture Note of Complex Analysis.

[4] Dang Duc Trong - Dinh Ngoc Thanh - Pham Hoang Quan (Ho Chi Minh City University

of Science), Giao trinh Giai Tich 2, 2008.

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Contents

PREFACE

3

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

7

1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.2 MORE PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX NUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.3 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND THE ARGAND PLANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

1.4 INTEGER AND FRACTIONAL POWERS OF A COMPLEX NUMBER . . . . 27

1.5 POINTS, SETS, LOCI, AND REGIONS IN THE COMPLEX PLANE . . . . . . 39

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

41

2.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

2.2 LIMITS AND CONTINUITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

2.3 THE COMPLEX DERIVATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

2.4 THE DERIVATIVE AND ANALYTICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

2.5 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

74

3.1 THE EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

3.2 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

3.3 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

3.4 THE LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

3.5 ANALYTICITY OF THE LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

3.6 COMPLEX EXPONENTIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

3.7 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC AND HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . 105

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

109

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO LINE INTEGRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

4.2 COMPLEX LINE INTEGRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

4.3 CONTOUR INTEGRATION AND GREEN’S THEOREM . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

4.4 PATH INDEPENDENCE, INDEFINITE INTEGRALS, FUNDAMENTAL THE-

OREM OF CALCULUS IN THE COMPLEX PLANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

4.5 THE CAUCHY INTEGRAL FORMULA AND ITS EXTENSION . . . . . . . . 124

4.6 SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE CAUCHY INTEGRAL FORMULA . . . . . . 127

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

131

5.1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF REAL SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

5.2 COMPLEX SEQUENCES AND CONVERGENCE OF COMPLEX SERIES . . 135

5.3 UNIFORM CONVERGENCE OF SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

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Contents

5.4 POWER SERIES AND TAYLOR SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

5.5 TECHNIQUES FOR OBTAINING TAYLOR SERIES EXPANSIONS . . . . . . 155

5.6 LAURENT SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

169

6.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF THE RESIDUES . . . . . . . . . . . 169

6.2 ISOLATED SINGULARITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

6.3 FINDING THE RESIDUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

6.4 EVALUATION OF REAL INTEGRALS WITH RESIDUE CALCULUS I . . . . 180

6.5 EVALUATION OF INTEGRALS II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

6.6 EVALUATION OF INTEGRALS III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

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