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Essay Complex Analysis

Essay Complex Analysis

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Published by Khoa Võ
Complex Analysis in One Variable
Complex Analysis in One Variable

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This is an important section, so we show the exercise 5, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 because

we think that these are so necessary for solutions.

Exercise 2.8. (E. 5 P. 62)

Assuming the continuity of the functions f (z) = z and f (z) = c, where c is any constant. Prove

the continuity of the following function in the domain indicated. Take z = x + iy.

z4

+ 1 + i
z2

+ 3z + 2

, all z = −1,−2.

Solution.

In this exercise, we can break the function into smaller parts. We then determine two functions

which is defined for all z = −1,−2.

h(z) = z4

g(z) = 1 + i
z2

+ 3z + 2

We must notice that for any z = −1,−2, we can write down a denominator of g(z) which is

(z + 1)(z + 2). Of course, this denominator is continuous function. By applying respectively

theorem of products and quotient of continuous functions, we gain h(z) that is continuous

function. Thus applying theorem of sums of continuous functions, we can derive that h(z)+g(z)

is continuous function.

Completing the proof by using theorem of continuous functions.

Exercise 2.9. (E. 10 P. 62)

Prove that the following function is continuous at z = i.

f (z) =

z −i

z2

−3iz−2 ,z = i

i

,z = i

Solution.

Because f (i) is defined, we must determine lim

z→i

z−i

z2

−3iz−2. For all z = i, we have a
denominator of f (z) which is equivalent to (z−i)(z −2i). Moreover, we can state that

lim

z→i

z−i

z2

−3iz −2 = lim

z→i

z−i

(z −i)(z−2i)

= lim

z→i

1

z−2i

From this we might conclude that f (z) is a continuous function because of lim

z→i

f (z) = f (i) =

i.

Hence, we have the completed proof.

51

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.10. (E. 11 P. 62)

1. Consider the function f (z) = z2

−5z + 6
z2

−4 defined for z = ±2. How should this function

be defined at z = 2 so that f (z) is continuous at z = 2 ?

2. Consider the function f (z) = z4

+ 10z2

+ 9

z2

−4iz−3 defined for z = 3i and z = i. How should
this function be defined at z = 3i and z = i so that f (z) is continuous everywhere ?

Solution.

1. Consider this function f (z), we note that we can simplify it because of factoring numerator

and denominator.

f (z) = z2

−5z + 6
z2

−4
= (z −2)(z −3)
(z −2)(z + 2)

= z−3
z + 2

This function does not belong to one of first conditions. This is z = 2 because the

expression z −2 is cancelled. Hence this function is really defined at z = 2. Moreover,

the following conditions are both satisfied easily : f (2) is defined; lim

z→2

f (z) exists and

lim

z→2

f (z) = f (2). According to definition of continuity of the complex function, we assert

f (z) is continuous at z = 2.

2. In a similar way, it is easy to reduce this function, which is not defined at z = 3i and

z = i, to define for these points.

f (z) = z4

+ 10z2

+ 9

z2

−4iz−3

=

z2

+ 9

z2

+ 1

(z−3i)(z−i)

= (z −3i)(z + 3i)(z−i)(z + i)
(z −3i)(z−i)

= (z + 3i)(z + i)

At this point, we can observe that f (z) is continuous everywhere. In details, if we take

an arbitrary complex number z0, we obtain explicitly that both conditions of continuity

of the comlex function are satisfied.

52

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.11. (E. 12 P. 62)

In this problem we prove rigorously, using the definition of the limit at infinity, that

lim

z→∞

z

1 + z = 1

1. Explain why, given ε > 0, we must find a function r(ε) such that

1

z + 1

< ε for all

|z| > r.

2. Using one of the triangle inequalities, show that the preceding inequality is satisfied if we

take r > 1 + 1

ε.

Solution.

1. We present the following definition of the limit at infinity :

If for every real number ε > 0 there exists a real number r(ε) > 0 such that

1

z + 1 −1

< ε

for all |z| > r(ε).

If we have lim

z→∞

z

1 + z = 1 firstly, we can say the above definition. But if we need prove

lim

z→∞

z

1 + z = 1 as the mention of this exercise, we must alter the phrase “for every” into
“given” and the phrase “there exists” into “find”, to see some works need to be make the

proof. For concretness let us write down

Given real number ε > 0, find a real number r(ε) > 0 such that

1

z + 1

< ε

for all |z| > r(ε).

2. If we take r(ε) > 1+ 1

ε, we obtain |z| > 1+ 1

ε. We need verify that this r(ε) is used in this

proof, which is either true or false. It means that the inequality

1

z + 1

< ε is satisfied.
In explicit, we have the triangle inequality |z + 1| ≥ |z| − 1; so if we want to have the

inequality

1

z + 1

< ε, then we must have the inequality 1

|z|−1 < ε or |z| > 1 + 1

ε. This

fact is true because this inequality obtained.

Hence, we prove successfully that the preceding inequality is satisfied if we take r(ε) >

1 + 1

ε.

Exercise 2.12. (E. 14 P. 63)

1. Knowing that f (z) = z2

is everywhere continuous. Explain why the real function xy is

everywhere continuous.

2. Explain why the function g(x,y) = xy + i(x + y) is everywhere continuous.

Solution.

53

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

1. The form of z must be x+iy, where x,y are real numbers. Thus we have z2

= x2

−y2

+i2xy.

Because f (z) = z2

is everywhere continuous and 2xy is an imaginary of this function, the

real function v(x,y) = 2xy is obviously everywhere continuous. Hence it is explicit to end

the explaination.

2. The continuity of complex function belongs to the continuity of both parts of that complex

function. We have that xy is really a continuous function. We observe that function x+y

is also a continuous function because it does not belong to an arbitrary condition. Thus

the function g(x,y) must be continuous everywhere.

Exercise 2.13. (E. 15 P. 63)

Show by finding an example, that the sum of two functions, neither of which possesses a limit

at a point z0, can have a limit at this point.

Solution.

Firstly, we take z0 = 1 for the following example. Then, we will choose two functions which

have no a limit at z0 = 1, witth assuming existent condition of denominator. These are

g(z) = z
z2

+ z−2

h(z) = −1
z2

+ z−2

The reader can see easily these limits at z0 = 1 that do not exist by factoring these denomi-

nators. But the function f (z) = g(z)+h(z) can have a limit exactly at z0 = 1. For concretness

let us write

lim

z→1

z−1

(z−1)(z + 2) = lim

z→1

1

z + 2 = 1
3

Finally, we show the exercise by finding an example.

Exercise 2.14. (E. 16 P. 63)

Show by finding an example, that the product of two functions, neither of which possesses a

limit at a point z0, can have a limit at this point.

Solution.

In a similar fashion, for the exercise 2.13 (E. 15 P. 63), we show that the product of two

functions, neither of which possesses a limit at a point z0, can have a limit at that point by

finding an example. This fact is not only true for the sum of two functions, but also the product

of two functions.

At this time, we take z0 = 0, and choose g(z) = |z|

z ;h(z) = |z|

z with z = 0 as the initial
condition. Although |z| is really a real number and is not relate to limit of the considering

functions, its effect is important for our proof. In details, we consider

lim

z→0

g(z)h(z) = lim

z→0

|z|2
zz = 1

54

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

We see that the limit of this product exists and is always equal to 1. But it is easy to show

that g(z) and h(z) have no limit at z0 = 0.

Then, we prove this exercise completely.

Exercise 2.15. (E. 17 P. 63)

Show that, in general, if g(z) has a limit as z tends to z0 but h(z) does not have such a limit,

then f (z) = g(z) + h(z) does not have a limit as z tends to z0 either.

Solution.

By showing mathematically, we must present the definition of limit and unlimitedness at a

point z0. We need analyse the assumption and conclusion in this needful proof. And we consider

three definitions of three clauses respectively.

• “g(z) has a limit as z tends to z0”
Let g0 be a complex constant.

If for every real number ε > 0 there exists a real number δ(ε) > 0 such that|g(z)−g0| < ε,

for all z satisfying 0 < |z−z0| < δ(ε).

• For the clause “h(z) does not have such a limit”, we must negate the definition of limit.
Let h0 be a complex constant.

There exists a real number ε1 > 0, for every real number δ1 (z,ε1) > 0, have one z which

is satisfied 0 < |z−z0| < δ1 (z,ε1), such that |h(z)−h0| ≥ ε1.

• We also negate the definition of limit for the conclusion “f (z) = g(z) + h(z) does not
have a limit as z tends to z0”.

Let f0 = g0 + h0 be a complex constant.

We need find a real number ε2 > 0, for every given real number δ2 (z,ε2) > 0, have one z

which is satisfied 0 < |z−z0| < δ2 (z,ε2), such that |f (z)−f0| ≥ ε2.

We look at the inequality |f (z)−f0| ≥ ε2 and do not forget that f (z) = g(z) + h(z) and

f0 = g0+h0. We deduce that |h(z)−h0 −[g0 −g(z)]| ≥ ε2. If we want to have this inequality,

we must have the inequality|h(z)−h0|−|g(z)−g0| ≥ ε2 because of|h(z)−h0 −[g0 −g(z)]| ≥

|h(z)−h0|−|g(z)−g0|. According to the first and the second clauses, we have |h(z)−h0|−
|g(z)−g0| > ε1 −ε. Hence, we can take ε = ε2

2 , ε1 = 2ε2 and δ(ε) = δ1 (z,ε1) = δ2 (z,ε2) to

clarify the proof.

55

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.16. (E. 18 P. 63)

This problem deals with functions of a complex variable having a limit of infinity (or ∞). We

say that lim

z→z0

f (z) = ∞ if, given p > 0, there exists a δ > 0 such that |f (z)| > ρ for all

0 < |z−z0| < δ. In other words, one can make the magnitude of f (z) exceed any preassigned

positive real number ρ if one remains anywhere within a deleted neighborhood of z0. The radius

of this neighborhood, δ, typically depends on ρ and shrinks as ρ increases.

1. Using this definition, show that lim

z→0

1

z = ∞. What should we takes as δ?

2. Repeat the previous problem, but use the function 1

(z −i)2 as z → i.

3. Consult a textbook on real calculus concerning the subject of infinite limits and explain

why one does not say that lim

x→0

1

x = ∞. What is the correct statement? Contrast this to

the result in (1).

4. The definition used above and in parts (1) and (2) cannot be used for functions whose

limits at infinity are infinite. Here we modify the definition as follows : We say that

lim

z→∞

f (z) = ∞ if, given ρ > 0, there exists r > 0 such that |f (z)| > ρ for all r < |z|. In

other words, one can make the magnitude of f (z) exceed any preassigned positive real

number ρ if one is at any point at least a distance r from the origin. Using this definition,

show that lim

z→∞

z2

= ∞. How should we choose r?

Solution.

1. To show lim

z→0

1

z = ∞, according to the definition, it says that :

Given p > 0, we must find a δp > 0 such that 1

|z| > p, for all 0 < |z| < δp.
At this point, we observe that inequality 0 < |z| < δp can be conclude a distinct form

1

|z| > 1
δp

. This fact is the same as 1

|z| > p if we compare these. Hence, the δp, which we

need find, is obviously p.

Thus the proof is completed by choosing δp = p.

2. We still use the above definition for proving lim

z→i

1

(z −i)2 = ∞. We have the following

clause

Given p > 0, we must find a δp > 0 such that 1

|z−i|2 > p, for all 0 < |z−i| < δp.
If we unchange this clause to see the similarities, we cannot find out δp. We note that

0 < |z−i| < δp can modify into 0 < |z −i|2

< δ2

p. Then if we put γp = δ2

p > 0 and

|z−i|2

=

(z−i)2

= |w(z)|, we will see clearly that the clause is really the definition.

For concretness let us write again

Given p > 0, we must find a γp > 0 such that 1

|w(z)| > p, for all 0 < |w(z)| < γp.

At this point, we only prove this clause in a same way of part (1).

56

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

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