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Origin of Indians and their spacetime
Dr Suvarna Nalapat
Contents Introduction Ch 1 .Origin of Europeans in spacetime and evolution of language Ch 2. Indian culture and health concepts Ch 3 . Mathematics and Astronomical spacetime of Indians .Thrikonamithi of Indians and the Great Arc of Everest Ch 4..The Bead of Mnagalya and the Sindh seen by Mc Murdo Ch 5 .Discovering India through Susruthasamhitha , an ancient medical and surgical text
Introduction: I think,speak ,and write in two languages . Malayalam , my mother tongue and English , the contemporary global language and I do love both these languages . I read and analyse texts in two other languages –Tamil and Sanskrit –which too I love dearly. There is no difference in languages as far as I am concerned , just as there is no difference in human cells, and their functions and the diseases which they get , which as a Pathologist I am well aware of. Categorising people on such constructs and separating them on their differences is only a method of study and this morphological classification (Anthropology) should never mask the unity between human races .The long history of human race on earth ,if studied in entirety makes us feel its unity rather than differences .Even in the biodiversity of a tropical climate one can feel the Uniformity of all life and life forms –probably the biodiversity makes us aware of the unity better . Indian sciences ,arts and languages ,its philosophy have taught me only this science and art of Practical Advaitha . And in its fold I view everything and everybody as a universal whole . This Maha Advaitha of East and west , of ancient and modern wisdom ,emanating from 21st century India ,therefore is my message of world peace for all thinking minds .I start my journey with
2 English language which is the current global language of communication, and base my study on the ancient global language ,the Sanskrit ,the only living ancient language which has all texts on all arts and sciences ,giving us a glimpse into ancient human mind,consciousness,thought processes and intellectual and educational activities.These two languages provide the base for a wholistic linguistic approach to education .India and England , had together contributed to a world scenario of education. India through Sanskrit and Dravidian languages right from the last Ice age and England for the last 5 to 6 centuries . Therefore my journey starts with the modern global language English and its evolution and then back in spacetime to origin of Indians and their spacetime . At the beginning of this journey ,in my childhood ,when I read my grand Uncle’s book “Arshagnaana” I could not understand what exactly he meant by a statement : In the beginning human race had only one language and now it has so diversified and separated so that understanding another human being has become difficult .At the ned of my journey I understand the gravity of the problem and also that by the word language ,he didn’t mean just language ,but professional ,technical language as well . One who is wellversed in Medical language does not understand language of Astronomy and vice versa . The ancient Indian concept of wholistic understanding of all arts and sciences and cosmos within us (bioenergy and cosmic energy same ) was for the integration of the parts as a whole and this is essential for peaceful coexistence on earth ,as responsible enlightened world citizens .
Chapter 1. Origin of Europeans in spacetime and evolution of language Stephen Oppenheimer in his book Origin of the British depicts the differences between Englishmen,welsh,Irish and Scots and the roots from Celtic ,Viking ,Anglosaxons and Normans . The origin of British describes story of peopling of British Isles since their recolonisation after the end of last Ice age ,from about 15000 years ago.Genetics ,Climatology,Geology,Archeology ,Linguistics ,culture and history of a people help to reconstruct their roots and differences .Ethnic identity ,celtic versus English,Highland vs lowland etc are really myths .All have the same roots .So is the myths of Dravidian,Aryan and the Savarna vs Avarna labels in Indian subcontinent . It is just like the divide between the educated and uneducated that exist in present day societies . To understand it one has to go deep into the spacetime continuum of Indians and the roots of human race .This goes even beyond the last ice age and has several kalpa and yuga according to Indian spacetime ( which corresponds to modern time in light years)..While no hunter gatherers lived in British Isles before last Ice age India already had a welldeveloped Republican city state empire as evidenced from the historical records and proved by genetic study and archeoastronomy and archeology ,and numerous scriptural evidences . Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed through only our mothers and Y chromosome is passed through only our fathers .Studying these two , one can assess the male-dominated migration charts , and female dominated ethnic regional population. Indian women were zealously guarded from getting married to the foreigner and the Indian genes carry the mtDNA sequences which show pure ethnic races . The ancient males who travelled far and wide for trade,commerce had genes (Y chromosomes) transferred to different continents and the male dominated genetic patterns of these traders,travelers and even
3 warriors became widespread. In India such a spread started only very late in the history .The first invasion happened only with Alexander . For cultural reasons the natural route of explorers and traders through the ages was towards the west coast of Britain ,and not the east and the Celtic Atlantic coast had cultural links for the last 10000 years with such traders , and Cornwall was visited by them .The cultural geographical link directly across the Southern entrance to the Channel between Brittany and Cornwall ,and on to Wales ,Ireland and Scotland remained intact whether it was the introduction of styles of megalithic monuments of Ireland ,or Tristan’s seafaring between these places . The male gene markers among Atlantic celts show derivation from Southwest Europe ,best represented from people of the Basque country.The original Mesolithic hunter gatherer colonist of the Atlantic coast ,over 10000 years ago ,derived from the Ice age refuges of the Western MediterraneanSpain,Southwest France and Basque Country . In Iberia and British Isles shared genetic elements include show Mesolithic mtDNA lines originating in Basque country . Among Atlantic celts ,gene lines which arrived later in British Neolithic period was from the very first farming communities in Turkey . The British Neolithic period began 6000 years ago . ( BC 4000 ).Before that ,7000 years ago , a particular pottery (Cardial Impressed ware) arrived by sea routes and along with that migration of people to Cornwall,Ireland and Wales . This was along the western mediterranean sea.The genes of this Neolithic migration bypassed the Basque country . 5000 -3000 years ago the final break up of the Atlantic coast celtic language happened in the Neolithic period of British Isles. The southern celtic ancestors arrived earlier than the Neolithic ones. A noisy warlike people from Central Europe invaded British Isles during Iron age around 300 BC .(This was the time of Greek supremacy ). Central Europe in last millennium had a fierce Halstaatt culture and later the La Tene culture with iron age jewellery ,intricately woven swirls ,hoards of weapons some in gold . The grand Iron age shrunk to the western British isles during Roman times. The celtic diaspora still remain in former British Empire and America as evidence of lost Celtic glory . The successive Celtic waves came from somewhere in Western Europe –says welsh Antiquarian Edward Lhuyd.The Roman linguistic term Celtae refer to tribes somewhere in western Europe .It is a very illdefined term just as Asians ,observes Oppenheimer. Lhuyd in 18th century preferred Celt as a linguistic term or language label to the geographic Gallic for obvious nationalistic reasons. By 19th century archeology the term matured into a ethnic identity with great nationalistic overtones telling of ancient celtic invaders. Dark age clerical historians Gildas(6th century AD) and Bede (7th century) states the history of Angles,Saxons and Jutes .The ethnic root is from North west Europe and started long before the arrival of the Romans according to Oppenheimer .The first written poem (the only remaining complete saga in Old English) is Beowulf and it is using Germanic language ,not Roman or latin.The Angles,Saxons and Jutes arrived in 5th and 6th centuries AD according to Gildas and Bede. Sussex literally means south Saxons (with suffix sex to sus ).The occupants of England were celtic speaking during the Roman invasion .(linguistic view). All ancient Britons were celts and celtic speaking .In dark ages the celts were totally eradicated –culturally ,linguistically and genetically by Angles and Saxons. How do we know that preRoman England was celtic ? Strabo (Roman) exclude celtic affinities of English on grounds of greater size and yellow hair . By celt he meant southwest rather than central Europe. Tacitus said Britains near Gaol were physically and linguistically like gaols (Belgic Goals probably). He call some others as Atlantic celts .He sates welsh are naturally fierce people with dark complexion of the silures,curly hair and Iberians from opposite coast of Spain might have crossed over and occupied the area .Both Tacitus and Caesar report that between Britain and Gaol the languages differs but little. Caesar’s famous speech
4 (Gallic wars) says Gaol is divided into 3 parts –the Belgae in Northern Gaol,from Rhine as far south as Seine and Paris ; identify their language as Celtic . Caesar did not specify the language of the Belgae but states that they descended from Germany .The earliest coins to circulate in south east England was in 150 BC and were made in Gaol produced by the Belgae . The richest iron age treasure unearthed in Britain is in Snettisham in Norfolk .A burial date of 70 BC is suggested for coins in hoards of grave goods, along with bronze ,silver and gold torcs .Subsequently coins were produced throughout Southern England but not in Cornwall ,wales,Scotland or Ireland .The iron age culture in East Yorkshire (The Arras culture) is characterized by chariots ,square burial barrows and lasted for 400 years until Roman invasion and had cultural relation to Northern Gaol .The Romans called them the Parissii ,a name of a tribe who later found Paris . They were traders .The common language before Romans is possibly Celtic/ or even Belgae .Germanic type /and owe more to Scandinavian languages than any other .This is very important since the Scandinavian languages are closely linked to Dravidian languages and German is more similar to Sanskrit language . What I postulate is a development of Prakrith and Dravidian languages into Sanskrit and the waves of traders and immigrants carrying it across in successive periods. To that we will come later .Another thing we have to note is that the language was never completely replaced or wiped out but acquired new terms and modified in course of time . The similarities we see in world languages is because of this . There had been continuous trade relation between England and the North sea islands and substantial incoming genes flow back well over 5000 years before the saxon advent .A type of pottery Linearbandkeramik spread 7300 years from the North sea . Another type across North sea to Nortfolk and Cambridge by 6200 years ago.This possibly takes the roots of English identity back over 6000 years . The Nazi racial Anthropology has shocked scholars everywhere .Migrations were equated with Aryan Invasions and rifts created among minds of people all over the world by such unscientific autocratic thoughts politically motivated by powerful leaders . The impact has struck the Indian subcontinent as well. The concept that Aryans were a group of foreigners invading India ,and that the European white ancestors had been having genetic ,cultural ties with India were spread by a politically motivated propaganda masquerading as scientific thought . The fact that Dravidians developed from the Adivasi (most ancient population) of India and from them by a series of evolutionary changes the noble educated Arya was evolved and these people have migrated all over India is more tenable view .Probability of these noble group of Dravida,Arya to other parts of world considering , the roots of many other parts of the world come under the same root /geneology . The Paleolithic gene pool has migrated and evolved at several stages in several areas and in different timespans is what we have to understand .From our own experience of modern times ,the professional people migrating ,and marrying and creating new mixed gene pools is not an impossibility at all ,while the original root or adivasi (people of the land) remain a pure race Without gene mixing . Among the professionals those who migrate (the artisans,traders,warriors,teachers ,labour class ) are mainly males in ancient times and in modern times no such distinction occur .So that both Y chromosome and mtDNA pools are being transferred far and wide in present times.
Who were the Celts ,the ancestors of the British Isles people ? A great people with no written history,speaking archaic tongues ,brave,clannish,warlike ,disunited,makers of fine jewellery ,and beautifully decorated weapons ,poetic ,creators of legends of magic,bravery and tragedy and the Ireland fairies as in Yeat’s Celtic twilight .Webster’s dictionary(1913) :- Latin Celtae Greek Keltoi : One of an ancient race of people who formerly inhabited a large part of central and Western Europe,and whose descendents occupy Ireland, Wales and highlands of Scotland and northern shores of France This was an improvement on the 1828 edition of : one of the primitive inhabitants of the South of Europe.Dictionaries define ethnicity with reference to race and language ,and anthropologist with
5 concepts of perceptions,affiliations and selfidentification. Linguist Myles Dillon says the definition of celts is people who speak celtic dialect which is a branch of Indoeuropean languages .The myth of celtic origin from central Europe was from Herodotus who didn’t know the course of Danube and placed the celts in Central European homelands and this was repeated by several authors without criticism for several centuries. Himilco’s Periplus of the Northern sea : Himilco was a punic Carthagian admiral who explored the Northwest coast of Europe at end of 6th century BC .The coasts were at that time rich in tin and lead mining and people used curraghs (leather-covered coracles as we in India –like Andhrapradesh use ). The phonician traders Cassiterides (tin islands ) or Cornwall was called Oestrimnides islands at that time . There was long term trade with Cadiz (now Gadir) and North west spain . Brittany was a source of tin for the cassiterides or tin islands of the peninsula and tip of Breton peninsula near Cornwall (land end) is nearer to France than any other part of Brittany .The Atlantic coastal trade route from spain and Southern France and then along western fringes of British Isles was present but the lack of reference to English channel in the poem is striking (that was not used at that time ).From Oestrimnides (Cornwall) 2 days sailing takes one to sacred Island(Ireland) inhabited by the Hiberni ,with islands of Albions (Britain) nearby . The Himilco’s sea voyage is then mentioned by Avenius (4th century AD poem Ora Maritima)which goes further North . Himilco has reached the Irish sea and then the port by port Periplus (The Captain’s log) presumably se him moving north through Irish sea to west coast of Scotland. Away from Oestermnides Under the pole of Lycaon (in the Northern sky) Where the air is freezing ,he comes to the Ligurian land,deserted, By its people. For it has been emptied by the power of the celts a long time since in many battles. The Ligurians ,displaced ,as fate often does to people,have come to these regions. Here they hold on in rough country with frequent thickets and harsh cliffs ,where mountains threaten the sky . The country is Scotland and there had been former inhabitants before celts there . They were the Ligurians .They migrated to south to Ophiussa (Portugal) and Mediterranean and Sardinia . Nowadays the Italian Riviera is called Liguria . The Franco-Italic language is Ligurian. They jostled with Greek Marseilles for space in the 1st millennium BC .Avenius ,the Roman proconsul of North Africa has confused Riviera with Scotland .He knew something about the Ligurian and the celt but it was only myth he was creating with that and not history.Portugal and Sardinia being locations on the Phoenician network ,he just remark that the Lemurians migrated there .Or he meant that Phoenicians in Scotland were speaking a semitic language or people in Scotland (celts/legurian) were similar to Phoenicians in language . This theory fits in with that of linguist Theo Vennemaann about a preceltic people speaking semitic/Phoenician tongue in Scotland .The punic Phoenician consortium to which Himilco belonged the southern trade network which is older than its rival northern network. It stretched from Cadiz ,along the coast as far Northwest Spain . They controlled the straits of Gibralter and the Greek traders (other Mediterranean traders) were not allowed to us ethis route which is the gateway to the tin-producers. Therefore Marseilles Greeks used connections with the people of Keltike (Pythias ,2 centuries after Himilco) bypassing Gibralter .Pytheas was using a preexisting river-land-river-sea route worked out by the established local traders called Keltike to bypass monopoly of the phonicians .Pytheas made his trip in 4th century BC .Himilco 2 centuries before him say the celts were powerful . Strabo says Celts were ancient in region of Narbonne (the path of Pytheas) from where Pytheas started his jorney across Keltiike .Strabo says : This,then,is what I have to say about the people who inhabit the dominion of Narbonitis,whom the men of former times named celtae;and it was from the celtae ,I think,that th eGalatae as a whole were by the Greeks called celti-on account of the fame of celtae ,or it may also be
6 that the Massiliotes ,as well as other Greek neighbours ,contributed to this result ,on account of their proximity . Here Strabo defines the geographical and tribal origin of celt and how it spread by a process of inclusive labeling .Diodorus Siculus earlier than Strabo :-People who live in interior above Massalia (Marseilles) ,those on slopes of Alps and those on this (northern) side of Pyrenees mountains are called Celts (Keltoi).People establishe above the land of Celtica that stretch to north ,both along ocean and Hercynian mountain (Massif central) and all people who come after these ,as far as Scythia are known as Gauls (Galatai). The Romans however include all these nations under a single name ,calling them one and all Gauls (Galatai).That is celtic heartland is south and Galatai is north and central part .As early as 6th century BC CELTICI lived in south west of spain and CELTIBERI to east of Madrid . The information come from Herodotus,Erotosthenes and Ephorus who is cited by Strabo .Celtica of Ephorus extended upto Gades (Cadiz) and Iberia .Diodorus sicculus says Celtiberes were a fusion of 2 people and a combination of celts and Iberres took place after long and bloody wars .Parthenius of Apamea in his Erotica pathemata :- Heracles wandering through celtic territory ,returning after collecting cattle from Geryon of Erytheia (Cadiz) came to a king called Bretannos. The king had a daughter Keltine who hid heracle’s cattle.She insisted on sex in return for the cattle. Heracles stuck by her beauty had a double motivation .The union gave a twin-a boy and a girl. The boy keltos was ancestor of celts ;the girl Iberos of Iberia .The Irish mythical ancestor Eber is identical to this girl. From where did the celts come to Europe ? Caesar’s 3 Gauls: Belgae ,Aquitani called celts in their language and gaols in Roman language , the Gauls. Language ,customs and laws differ . River Garonne separates Gauls from Aquitani. Rivers Marne and Seine separates Gauls from Belgae . D’Arbois de Jubainville’s chronology and 4 phases of colonization;1 .First undated colonization of herders and hunters living in caves 2.Iberian empire dates from 6000 BC by hunters and herders from Atlantis forced to colonise when their lands submerged .They spoke a non-IndoEuropean language 3. BC 1500.By Ligurians (a la Himilco) the first IndoEuropean speakers bringing agriculture and colonizing from the Eastern hemisphere . They displaced the Iberians 4 Celts from southern parts 500 BC ,a second wave of IndoEuropean speakers from the East . This is the most interesting part which connects Indian and Englishspeaking world . The last British empire unearthed its historical and prehistoric roots when it came in contact with its root- the Indian subcontinent through a series of translations done by the Asiatic society of India . The ancient and the modern human history ,anthropology ,and knowledge systems have turned a full cycle when English Language emerged as a world language when it came in contact with its mother the Sanskrit . Therefore the origin of the Indian and the Britanny is linked in more than one way .The stonehenges and the megaliths ,the umbrella stones typical of Dravidian Kerala seen in Britain have to be viewed in a different perspective to grasp the gravity of the importance . Language : During Caesar’s time placenames of celts ended with –Briga .Briga means high and brigant is high position ./place/person in celtic language .In Indian musical repertoire this word is often used . The celtic languages of Island of Britain form a group known as Brythonic .Breton is the celtic language of Brittany .It is closely related to the Cornish tongue . Cornwaal (Kernow) ;Cornish ( Kernowek). Another Brythonic language now extinct is Cumbric similar to welsh. Pictish (in Scotland ) was also Brythonic .
7 North country shepherds count their sheep : yan,tan,tether,mether,pimp,sether,hetehr,hother,dother,dick,yandick,tan dick,tether dik,metehr dick,bumfit,yana bumfit,tana bumfit,tetehrer bumfit,metherer bumfit,gigot. Lake district is called Cumbria and many counting systems exist there . Counting things in four tallies of 5 upto 20. Counting in 5 reflect fingers .After 20 a scratch or score made on stone or wood .Tally –Latin tallea ,a stick with notches. Cumbric scores are seen in a number of places in USA .In Cincinnaati : een,teen,tother,feather,fib,soter,oter,poter,debber,dick, Vermont:- eeni,teeni,tudheri,fedheri,fip,saidher,taidher,koadher,daidher,dik. Edinburgh Children’s rhyme: inty,tinty,tether,methery ; bank for over dover dink ;;; Eeny meeny miney moe;;; Roman writers about the tribes of Northern England : - The cumbrian celtic language speaking people. Known as Carvetti. Territory all of Cumbria or Lake district ,parts of Lankashire ,southwest Durham (Pennines),south east Dumfries and Galloway in Scotland . They were hill farmers with few large settlements apart from the numerous Roman forts in the area.They did not make coins .Their towns and cities were left out when Claudius Ptolemy (from second century Geographia ) wrote his second chapter Geography of Albion island of Britannia .Their Roman provincial capital was Luguvalium. The term Iyershire (Ayrshire )is specially noteworthy for its Indian language connection. Ancient British tribal names :Cornovii, Caereni,carnonaceae,decantae,smertae,creones,caledonii,vacomagi,Taexali,Venicones (These lived above the ancient Antoinine wall in the northernmost part) Votadini,selgovae,novantae (between the Antoinine and the Hadrian’s wall) Carvetii(carisle),brigantes(Aldborough ,N York) Parissii (Brough on Humber),in the middle part. Cantiaci(Canterbury),Trinovantes(widford),Iceni(Caister and St Edmunds),Corieltauvi(Leicester),cornovii(wroxester),Dobunni(cirencester )Catuvellauni(St albens),Atrebates(silchester)regni(chichester)belgae(Winchester)Durotriges(Dorchester)and dumnoni(Exeter) in south and east of the offa’s dyke . West of Offa’s dyke :- deceangi,segontii,gangaani,ordovices,demetae and silureans If we find similarity in names like Chera,Karna,Gangeya ,Takshasila(Taxila) Bharathaani, Athri puthra, and the like it need not be mere coincidence from a linguistic point of view.When Romans invaded Britain in AD 43 Athrebates of Belgica was occupying a territoty that covered Sussex,Hampshire ,Berkshire,West Surrey and Norteast Wiltshire.On the other side of the channel Gallic Athrebates situated well north of GaulWinchester (Venta Belgarum=market of Belgae)was the capital of the neighbouring Belgae . Cornovii –who lived east of northern welsh border in Staffordshire,shropshire,Cheshire with regional capital at wroxester (viroconium) shared name with a tribe in Scotland (northern tip) recorded by PTOLEMY .The name in Latin means people of the Horn. At time of Roman invasion southern England excluding Cornwall and west country made and used coins .They had imported coins from the northern rebellious Gallic region of the Belgae and not from Ceasar’s Gaul.But the welsh tribes,Cornish dummoni ,carvetti,brigantes,the cornovii did not use coins .Also in Scotland and Ireland this was the case . Celtic language inscriptions are seen in these areas .Thus ,Romans spoke mainly of the southern tribes ,who were not the celtic speaking tribes while the west country had mainly celtic culture and language and Romans did not have much contact with them . Picts are painted aborigines from north Scotland. St Columba (AD 692-7) spoke to them with a interpreter . Columba soke Irish gaol and Scottish gaol is similar to it .Therefore ,the Scotlanders spoke something different from Gaol . Bede say there are 4 indegenous languages spoken in British Isles: Gaelic,Brythonic,English and Pictish.He says Picts were people who arrived windswept in Northern
8 Ireland in long boats from northern Scythia ,east of Mediterranean .The long boats imply the picts arriving from Scandinavia . Scythia is north of India (modern Russia and neighbouring countries including Scandinavian highlands ).The celtic inscribed stones in Scotland are seen in the east coast .The first celtic inscription is 2500 years ago . Counting up the proportion of remaining shared cognate words between two languages is a measure of closeness of their relationship in time and by this general method a tree is reconstructed with dates on the branches and this method is called Glottochronology .There are several flaws in this method .Decay in different language groups may be at different rates and thus the dating may go wrong.Using Glottochronology along with comparative linguistics one can achieve some degree of correctness.Multilingual environment and interchange of content is natural and by borrowing of words and even syntax between languages ,the nature of inheritance is further complicated (by borrowing).Undetected borrowing distorts both kinds of language tree (comparative and lexicostatistical) and is the reason for structural differences between them . There are basic differences in methods of archeology and linguistics on one hand and sciences such as geology and biology on the other hand.Comparisons have to be made using measurements that may have some degree of error and theories of classification with a certain degree of uncertainty .A statistical approach is used to handle such uncertainty. If a method (say carbon dating) gives inaccurate results ,a scientist knows that attempts should be made to sort out problems of error and improve it by another method . A set of data by Linguist Isodore Dyen in 1990s on Indoeuropean languages ,a data of genetic studies have accumulated over the years .The oldest feasible estimate for arrival of celtic in British Isles is 5200 years and on a deeper scale the network tree of Forster yields a date for Indoeuropean fragmentation in Europe as a whole of 10,100 years .Grey and Atkinston arrives at 7300 years . While genes are a proxy for actual migration and marriage ties ,language is a proxy for cultural movement and unity of a people .But all people speaking the same language need not be people who came from the same geographical unit .A person born and brought up in America may be of Indian gene but may not speak an Indian language at all. Homosapiens in Europe – 50000 years Last glacial maximum(LGM) peak of last ice age 22000-17000 yrs ago. The north sea and English channel dried up. Britain,Ireland and France joined as alarge European landmass.Colonisation of Britain began after the LGM .Before the LGM the 2 national maternal genetic lines were U and HV . (U=Europa 50000 yrs ago and 30000 yrs before LGM ) U makes up 9% of the modern European maternal lines.HV a second wave 10000 yrs before LGM.HV split to 2 branches –the smaller one known to mitochondrial geneticists as pre-V and a much larger H both subsequently spreading all over Europe.H is Helina(Russian name) Pre-V ( Vera Latin for truth).Pre V is 26000 yrs old in a limited distribution from east to west from Transcaucausus through northern Balkans and central Europe to southern spain and Morocco.Helena is the most common female group in Europe about ½ of gene lines in west ,including British Isles but this matriarchal prominence and rank took place just after the LGM. The evidence for the trail of this younger female marker line is rather good.Helena has a panEuropan distribution. Vera –in western and northern regions in southern refuges,south to Morocco and east to central Europe .Highest rate in Scandinavia and Lapland . In saami,Basque and southwest France they are prevalent .Northern France and British Isles only 5 %. (falls above 53 rd parallel except in Scandinavia ).The pattern is due to the ice sheet divide that separated and prevented human migration.Hi ,a branch of H originated like her aunt Vera in west Iberian refuge(basque )and expanded to northwest Europe after LGM.(66 % of Helina;s lines inSpain and 45% of Helina in Northwest Europe (including British Isles) .H2 ,H3,H4,H5a,had similar history in Iberian refuge and expanding during Mesolithic account for 16.5 % of helina in UK .British Helina subgroups (total 60 %) is thus Helena .and come from Iberia .The 2 gene groups constitute ¼ of todays maternal gene lines.
9 Y group R (Ruslan ) closest equivalent to Helena ancestor.1/2 of Europe’s men belong to this. From Eastern to Central Europe 30000 yrs ago he moved and then to southwest Europe before LGM. The subgroup that emerged after LGM from this in the western refuge is the R1b.In Bosque country R1b (Ruisko)has 90 % frequency and is the only surviving southwest European gene group as a result of ice age drift. Ruisko is a Basque male name chosen for its similarity to Russkiye (Russian) .and indicate a preglacial origin with Ruslan as ancestor in eastern Europe. 90 % Basques.;70 % in dutch;60 % inFrench;50 % in German;36 % in Danish; 25 % in Norway and Sweden;21 % in North Russia;18% 16% 7% and 0% in Estonia,Poles,Latvians,and Finns around Baltic coasts . Northwest Europe Ruisko is replaced by R1 a1 distant relative of preglacial R1 group from Estern Europe ,Balkans and Asians . R1a1 arrived in west via Scandinavia and Poland well after the younger Dryas .He is called Rostov after cities of Ukraine and Russia where some of the highest rates are found. (Tolstoy’s famous character ). Exclusively European gene group in Scandinavia and North Germany originated in Balkan hence called Ivan (panslavic name ) and represented as I . Rostov and Ivan are absent in Iberian refuge .The northeastern and southwestern gene flows to west Europe and British Isles is thus relatively easily measured. Researches using STR (single tandem repeat sequences ) of Y chromosomes are attempted to get the finer break up of the subbranches .STR markers rapidly mutate than the group markers .With STR markers 3084 individuals studied and genes marked R1 –to R16 (16 subtypes). R1b 9 expanding north from Basque refuge 16500 yrs ago is labeled Basque haplotype.This differ from its nearest relative (Atlantic model haplotype) R1 b10 ,by just one mutation .Root male gene cluster R1 b 9 is called Rox and his son R1 b 10 as Ruy . 6 of the 16 British male clusters (R1 b 4-to R1b 6 and R1 b 14 to R1 b 16) descend directly from Rox and date from before 13000 yrs ago. 27 % of British men claim descend from the 7 clusters arriving in this post LGM period . 25 to 42 % of maternal descend is already mentioned. A 30 % contribution of Basque late Upper Paleolithic male and female ancestry for British , imposes a different balance on the rootperspective of the British. The younger Dryas event (when the Dryas flower pollen persisted even in the ice stage ) was followed by a culturl period of Hunter gatherer lifestyle in Europe called Mesolithic. The stone tools and microliths were used in Africa and India for 20000 years and preceded the Neolithic agricultural revolution (page 156 of Oppenheimer).The Mesolithic ancestors of Europe resembled their African ancestors who first saw the seafood ,and in Europe there was encroachment of Forests ,not deserts . The Mesolithic continentel shelf of great Britain was in the south of England ,where 2 distinct territories with different resources were apparent . Southwest(Cornwall,Devon,Dorset) stable coastal settlements sustained themselves by beachcombing,hunting small mammals in hinterland much the same in coastal North Ireland.The south east territoty of Island of Wight(which was not island then) and hinterland trade in prized stone materials thriving between the 2 regions.Similar coastal settlements down through Brittany to Spain and Portugal.British Columbia in British Isles and its counterpart in Canada are interesting . In Canada the people still have totem poles and totem clans under whale,bear,eagle and raven (compare with Indian ) and in British Isles the Stonehenge of 9000 years ago erected astronomically by the Mesolithic ancestors . Evidence of female gene flow to British Isles in Mesolithic :-H2,H3,H4 H5a account for 11 % Irish and 11 % UK and subgroup H3 which dates back to 9000 yrs by itself contributes to 7 % to Irish pool –a figure 2/3rd higher than in Uk . T ,T2and K whose estimated age brackets straddle the period of younger Dryas and found in Iberia and west Britain including Cornwall ,are other subgroups . Total maternal gene migration is about 22 % and they contribute to more than ½ of todays female population. The Neolithic revoltion in the western part of Eurasia started at least 10000 years ago but did not impinge on Britain and Ireland until 6500-5500 years ago . ( page 198 Oppenheimer .2007.Constable and
10 Robinson).The early domesticated plants and animals came from near east ,says the author and even the Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet) which came from South Hungary to Europe was first domesticated in China and Central Asia before it reached Neolithic hungary .One of the elements of the package was the pottery and its styles ,he adds (page 200).The linear band ceramic which appeared in Europe (In france it reached in 7000 yrs ago ) had reached lower Volga in 9000 yrs ago and also in Poland and western Russia at that time . The early Mesolithic preagricultural spread of pottery was taking place in north Europe and another type of ceramic flow sailed west nearly 9000 years ago. Attractive dotted and dashed impressions on wet clay with edge of cockle (cardium) shell called cardial ware 9cardial impressed ware ). None of the cardial ware sites show a full farming lifestyle. (cereals,animal domestication) apart from a few sheep. Cereals make appearance at the sites only 7500 yrs ago. The routes of Phoenician and Greek tin traders was the same . What does all this suggest ? The population migration from east via the transhimalayan route (Scythian/Russian) and the sea route of the Chera and Meluha country from India and history of the Ithihasa and Mooshakavansakavya come here for our help along with the modern archeological and genetic studies from Indian subcontinent .An independent nomadic life in the tropical rainforest withoutany interaction with outside world is an impossible myth for a nation like India which had far advanced seafaring activities ,traditional trade routes and relationships and the forest goods and other materials were made use of for such interaction right from prehistoric Paleolithic times and the timespan of Indian history spans beyond any other race or tribe in the face of earth .The other countries try to reconstruct their history which does not exist and Indian scholars try to negate a rich history which does exist and such a situationhas happened in modern world and it is our duty to see truth with a scientific perspective . A passage from Oppenheimer deserves special mention: The traditional forestdwellers maintain relatively high local population densities by mixing hunter gatheringwith rotation of crops and foodtrees on everchanging small forest clearings called swiddens. Marauding pigs and deer provide targets for keen hunters … In the tropics Governments and their under the counterpartners ,the logging companies are often keen to vilify and pass the blame to these modern mixed economy groups as forest destroying slash and burn agriculturists .As both sides know well.this is a lie. In fact the swidden farmers have managed and preserved the forest for thousands of years . Neolithic trail from Mediterranean:Male gene groups from Near east Neolithic are E3b and Male J with corresponding female J line both present in Mediterranean coast . Male J are rare in Germanic speaking mainland Northwest Europe(Germany and Denmark) unlike female J .E3 b originated in East Africa(25-30000 yrs ago) and between 14000 and 7000 years back moved to Southern Europe via Mediterranean. 5-10 % E3b is seen in Southern Britain(England,wales and channel Islands but excludes Cornwall),high point of 33 % in Abergele in Wales. J2 males has similar history like E3b and they moved from Mediterranean to Italy and southern spain and avoids the Basque country.J2 is wide in southern Britain and exclude Wales.Multiple J clusters dating to Neolithic periods and the distribution of E and J clusters in southern Britain show a long trail of Neolithic gene flow into mainland Britain from central and Eastern Mediterranean via Spain bypassing France . The commonest subgroup of E3b is the E-M78 which moved to Near East from East Africa shortly after the Ice age .The sole subculture of E-M78α is a Neolithic tailblazer .It arose in Anatolia ,where it is found at low rates,and it is strong in Balkans from where it moved to west along Mediterranean coast of south Europe via south Italy .From there to South west France,Catalonia,Valencia,round Gibralter to Galicia in western Spain ,reappears agin at rates of 5 to 10%in South Britain ( England,wales,channel islands,excluding Ireland and Cornwall) with high point of 33 %in Abergele in Wales. The link with Abergele in Wales has connections with coppermining in Neolithic. Thus the metallurgy link from Wales to the Balkans is traced .
11 Like I 1b2 the unique European E3b is also a putative human vector for celtic languages from Balkans with a slightly different trail.These two male lines from Balkans did not show any overwhelming intrusion into British Isles (range from 0-5.5 %) only exception being Abergele at 33 % and channel Island 7 %. Ireland has only I1b2 (0-2.6%).J male especially J 2 which is predominant subgroup of J in Europe has similar history to E3b .The center of neolihic expansion of J2 with highest frequency is Levant and Palestine rather than from Balkans .J2 might have originated in Levant before last Ice age .3 branches of J2 spread west along Mediterranean .One ( M102 )like I1b2 and E-M 78α took Balkan route via Albania to Nortehrn Italy and ends up in Bearnais in Southwest France without circuiting Spain .The other 2 ( M67 and M92)are traced to Italy with more southerly center of gravity .Starting journey directly from Levant and Anatolia ,bypassing Balkans spreading round Spain , one (M 67) to Catalonia ,Andalusia, and Galacia and the other M 92 ,to Valencia,Andalucia and Galicia .They both bypass the Basque country and are both represented in Southern England and Scotland.Ireland was missed out completely and it receives exclusive Ivan lines from Northwest Europe . Which languages those Neolithic boats were carrying ,as they travelled west along the Mediterranean via Italy and Spain ? The ancestor of a Celtic language is a strong possibility .The male lines E3b and I1b2 moving west from the Balkans would then be the most likely carriers of language than the J2 (from near East ).This is only a geo-linguistic speculation made by Oppenheimer.The similarity of several European languages is actually because of the distribution of J2 ( celtic,Romanic,Germanic,Greece,Turkey and Levant). This role we have to consider better . Why did some Anatolian females also take a trip to Europe with their Balkan male counterparts ? The high rate of drift of Y chromosome with loss of Near Eastern lines en route may be one reason .Drift effects can occur in maternal genes as well.Haak study of mtDNA from 16 neolithic sites was a remarkable one. 18 of the 24 mtDNA sequences showed lines that reached Europe in Mesolithic period (T2 and K) ,early Neolithic (U3 and T1 and J) and 7/18 were the older Helena or Vera groups. Mesolithic dated lines outnumber the Neolithic ones showing that the LBK associated expansion was ac ultural spread than a pioneering migration. Preexisting populations who carried Mesolithic genes received culture and may be some genes from their cousins farther down the Danube. The Neolithic maternal lines were actually joining their preexisting Mesolithic settlements.25% of lines Haak identified belong to the unexpected migrant newcomer N1a.She is found in scattered parts in Eurasia Red sea,south and central Asia .N1a made her appearance first in Scotland ,a supportive evidence for a North route Neolithic input .Two related subclusters one through Europe and one through central Asia are extremely uncommon even in these areas .Central Asian gene type was found in Neolithic graves of Hungary in lower Danube .N1a is virtually absent in Anatolia ,the putative source of migrating Near Eastern farmers but has been found in Scytho-Siberian burials in Altai region.They might even have come from Eastern Kazakhistan ,the reputed home of female Amazon warriors ,Herodotus speaks of .According to Herodotus they intermarried with Scythians to found a famous warlike pastoral nomadic tribe ,the Sarmatians. They were resuurected in a Hollywood movie to serve king Arthur .N1a is conspicuously absent in Germany .The modern picture in Germany and Austria is the Helena.The Near Eastern gene pool was there but it was not much as far as the female pool is concerned . The Balkan Ivan male outnumbers the female lines though some immigrant Balkan women are there among the first LBK settlements and possibility of the majority of males taking local wives and moving out to inhabit newer sites and settlements is suggested . The occasional female was possibly a princess offered to a chief to keep up the maternal line (as prevalent in Near East ) .Thus a cultural revolution was the process and never an invasion in such ancient times . Now the question of celtic language and culture without a invasion can be explained .Did the IndoEuropean languages spread from Near East on the back of agriculture or on trade ,commerce and mettullurgy ? Did it spread on landroute or on searoute ? These are the questions we have to answer
12 now.If the Mesolithic people had contact with their ancestors and continued it even in Neolithic times and accepted the cultural changes that were happening in their ancestral land ,the gene and the language and culture changes as common heritage of mankind can be explained and we need not search for rival races and bloody battles . The battles happen only when people become greedy and selfcentered and then it is not language and culture but hatred and fear that spreads . The spread of revolutionary cultural changes whenever Europe comes in contact with the East is a fact . We have seen it in the development of science and English language in the 16th century . The Mesolithic and Neolithic spread of culture was by searoute and landroute and never by wars .The Assyrian wars lead to a temporary stoppage of such free trade between India and the Mediterranean and yet people from east and west continued to have sharing of materials and goods .The neolithic period of Britain had its first cultural arrivals over 6000 years ago upto the elite Wessex bronze age cultures starting 4000 yrs ago (2000 BC) well after the arrival of the bell beakers . According to Oppenheimer if celtic arrived in Neolithic times,it came early and to Ireland and British Atlantic fringe first . The fresh Neolithic lines in tehse areas is small ,yet they had received the from the Iberian direction as did all the older lines. The new Neolithic maritime trade-net languages allowed people who already had ties of culture and genes to exchange prestige materials such as copper ,gold and beaker pots more easily (page 249 Oppenheimer ).And this happened 6000 years ago (beginning of Neolithic age in Britain). We have to now look back on the archeological evidences from Mehrgarh, IVC,Harappan and Babylonian ,Sumerian tradelinks both by land and sea and appreciate the origin of this Neolithic IndoEuropean trade languages and its spread . Did any other nonIndoEuropean language existed in Europe at the same time ? German Linguist Theo Vennemann’s theories puts forth a few speculations ,though controversial. .1. The ancient postglacial European language substratum on the basis of river names.This family is called Vasconic( Linguistically like the Basque spreading north,west and east).This was overlaid with Indoeuropean from south east Europe (7500 years ago) moving through central Europe and reaching Scandinavia by 6000 yrs ago. 2.Atlantic language.This is not the IndoEuropean Atlantean language. This spread west along Mediterranean through straits of Gibralter up Atlantic coast to British Isles and Scandinavia by 6000 yrs ago.This was associated with western European megalithic fringe and preceded celtic and Venneman thinks it as a semitic language. He also considers phonicians a semitic language and thinks Atlantic like phonician came from farther east in the Mediterranean.Its last relict survive in the now extinct Pictish.It gives a linguistic geographic partner to male line J2 but yet is an hypothetical one.The Scottish town with a Pictish place name Pitlochry is pointed out for the evidence.Pith or pithru (ancestor ) + Lok is a Sanskrit word and the corrupted Pitlochry is a telltale evidence of even this Atlantean to be an IndoEuropean language . 3 .Did any other branch of IndoEuropean language arrive in the North part of Britain with Norkolk Neolithic ? No linguistic relics are left whatsoever . Therefore Oppenheimer brings a default candidate – an ancestral Germanic branch.He quotes Forster for evidence of possibility of English diverging as a separate branch of Germanic during the Bronze age or even earlier . “….The analysis reveals a Scandinavian influence on English and apparently a pre-scandinavian archaic component in old English .All Germanic lexica spoken today appear to converge in the network on an ancestral common Germanic lexicon spoken at an unknown time ,but constrained to before AD 350 and probably after 3600 BC “.Forster’s view is consistent with Dyen’s lexicostatistical analysis in which English separates early from Dutch ,German and Scandinavian languages and forms a deep branch from core Germanic on a par with the Brythonic /Goidelic split . We have to seriously consider this statement . 1.The Scandinavian languages are related to Dravidian languages of India. 2.Brythoni or Brittany means Bharathaani -the people of Bharatha .
13 3. Goidelic means Koidelic –the people of the Kotha/Goda or earth –a name of the Dravidians as rulers of the Bharatha progeny . 4.Even the name Germania is Cheramaania a Dravidian name 5.Scandinavia –The land of the Scanda or son of Shiva . Linguistically all such place names have roots in Indian languages .Or may be a proto Indo European language family and archeologically the distribution of the megaliths,the languages and the genes in Europe corresponds to Indian land and sea trade routes . Neolithic Megaliths :Around 5800 years ago megalithic portal tombs (blind gateways to the other world) appeared on coastlines of Ireland and Wales. Today they are seen as dolmens. Dolmens have at least 4 stones 2 large upright representing the gate a smaller upright at back and these 3 prop up a large flat slab on top .Dolmens were built for 600 years from its first appearance in British Isles. Similar structures are seen in India everywhere ,not only along coasts but also on hilltops showing that the builders were not merely travelers on seatrade but the inhabitants of Indian mainland .This is an evidence for the travelers who built the same type on British land to be Indians themselves. A contemporary but different type was an elaborate industrial type megalithic grave for repeated communal burials.:The passage tomb ,lined with massive ,flat slabs. Northern Ireland show a proliferation of local variants named court tombs (cairns) after the courtyard opening into the passge. Similar designs appear on short seagaps from Antrim (west Scotland) known as Clyde cairns. Pasage graves are simple but at Knoweth,Doweth,Newgrange in Boyne valley they are built on monumental scales. 85 meter diameter and 11 meter high with attention to celestial alignment and with decorations such as petroglyphs and quartz stones. Megalithic chamber stones along vast coastal belts during early Neolithic stretch from Corsica and Sardinia in Mediterranean along the south and west coasts of Iberia,through Brittany and Normandy to south coast of England and Atlantic fringe of British Isles.They appeared to east of Britain as far north as Frisia ,Northwest Germany ,Denmark on continental coast where between 5600-5200 years ago they went through their own megalithic evolution from simple ,then polygonal dolmens ,through passage graves, to complex chambered and gallery graves. These were associated with the Funnelnecked beaker (Trichterbecherkultur in German) derived ultimately from LBK .The dolmens of Northwest Europe evolved from earlier long barrows a tradition seeped into Eastern England during the earliest Neolithic phase . 5500 years ago people of Orkney Islands ,northeast of Scotland ,built variety of small chambered cairn graves. They were small but numerous . Orkney ,Caithness and Outer Hebrides later built teir own elaborate slablined chambered tombs.The genetic male and female inflow into these regions from nearby continent and Scandinavia point to a northern continental cultural influence . 5500 yrs ago a new type of megalithic grave (Gallery grave)with elongated slablined chambers joined the continental Atlantic scene both in Brittany and Normandy right upto Denmark.This heralded the use of animals for traction and first use of the plough in western Europe . ( Surprisingly this was the period of Balarama in India who has a plough for a symbol). From 5200 years ago wheeled vehicles appeared in Hungary .Later they were seen in Northwest Europe and Yorkshire. A new ritual style took place in Brittany and British Isles by arrangement of large standing megaliths. Their pattern was associated with astronomy and alignment with heavens. The stone circles ,stone alignments and large stones (Menhir ) rituals followed. The Dravidian structure of similar megaliths have to be compared and the name Druids with Dravidian to be linguistically analysed .Between 5200-3500 years ago large numbers of stone circles appeared across western half of British Isles. Stonehenge had stones aligned with midsummer and midwinter sunrise .Other stones aligned in lines found in Brittany the most famous being in Carnac ,also in Cornwall,south Wales ,southern
14 Scotland . Menhirs are found in cornwall and Brittany . Continuity of distribution of these from Pyrenees Brittany ad west ½ of British Isles is consistent with the southern Neolithic genetic input already discussed . Henges and timber circles evolved out of general enclosed earthwork known as a causeway enclosure appear in Germany and Alsace . Avebury and Stonehenge in wessex and in Orkney the stone circles are visible whereas henges are not so visible. They are constructed over a long period from very large circular ditched enclosures .Woodhenge ,wooden circle on sands of Norfolk (seahenge) had circles made of massive tree trunks .The latter had a tree upturned in center of the ring with its roots exposed ( seahenge represents the Oordhwamoolam Adhasaakham of Sanskrit ).Who made these is obvious from such descriptions and from the gene influx and language . Maes Howe in Orkney:- Found with 3 huge stone circles (henges) various menhirs ,chamber tombs ,it is 30-40 meter in diameter .There is a central vaulted corbelled chamber tomb originally 5 meter high and it is one of the finest prehistoric monuments in Europe .Orkney monuments are associated with a particular pottery 3200 years ago ,used only for ritual purpose called grooved ware .The henges and grooved ware spread as apackage .For the next 600 yrs it had a concentration in Wessex.The earliest Stonehenge similar in age and design to Orkney type with 110 meter diameter circular ditch –and-bank structure enclosing a large ring of 56 holes which probably held large wooden posts .The package of this type is seen in east and south coast of Britain. Hero cult :- 5000 yrs ago from communal to individual graves with males buried along with stone axes perforated to take a haft and a distinctive one litre drinking beaker decorated with impression from a twisted cord began . (The corded ware /Battle axe culture ).The cord decoratin was wellknown to eastern communities extending to steppes while stone battle axes were copied from metal forms established among themetalusing communities of East . Thus this culture reflected a mass scale migration or acceptance of a culture from the Steppes of Russia (The Scythians ) .But more plausible view is that this came from a forest dwelling tribe who built wooden structures and the culture reflects a tropical rain forest culture accepted by Europe through cultural exchange rather than an invasion.The fact that symbol of Kerala and of Parasurama is a axe has to be considered here .The seatrade of forest goods from west coast must have been the reason for this new wave and this corresponds to period of Dwaraka as the main port city n west coast of India .The cult of heroes from east with this peculiar axe and cord ware reaching Europe during Mahabharatah and Bhagavatha period of India is thus interesting .The kurgan homeland north of Caspian sea and the kurgan culture in Kudaku/Koorg adivasi belt is actually a continuous Bhaarath culture and its sea nd land route organized trade relations are seen all over the world in this period .More of it I have already discussed with history of the Mooshakavansa and Yadavas of west and south coast of India.Southern Scaninavia did share the in distribution of corded ware and traded copper with Balkans .During bronze age also Baltic amber was traded along the same routes used to trade tin from Britain and copper from Baltic. Britain did not have its own cordedware battle axe culture . Yet had several of such burials with typical all over corded (AOC) beakers which developed in netehrlands 4700 yrs ago. The beakers are seen in Rhyne valley ,netehrlands and Britain and have stepped feet and corded decoration .East and south coasts show them.The Rostov and Ian male gene culture is the reason for this Hero worship graves . Recently a set of grand beaker burials about 3 kms from Stonehenge and also from the great temple of woodhenge and durrington walls was unearthed. This was named the Amesbury archer ,the king of Stonehenge by media .six bodies which on bone analysis suggest to be the male relative of this archer hero was later obtained .Grave goods were :- 8 beakers 7 of them AOC ,6 with cord,one with plaited cord. Black sandstone wristguard (for archer’s forearm) a bone pin (to hold a clock)several copper knives ,boars tusks, a catche of dlints a shale belt ring ,2 gold earrings and tools including an antler spatula for working flints .The radiocarbon dates show the archer lived between 4400-4200 yrs ago .(About 2200 -
15 2400 BC).The archer did not belong to local and was from northwest Europe . The enamel on tooth (oxygen isotope analysis) shows he lived during childhood in a very cold climate as a child possibly in central Europe close to Alps or even towards the poles . The copper of his knife came from spain. 6 male relatives and a male archer had lived in the area where the Stonehenge stood and he was the leader of the troupe is certain .But that does not say that he was a warrior who invaded .More plausible is that he was a person who was appointed by a higher authority to watch and record the astronomical events at the Stonehenge . Which people would have had such a machinery to appoint a scholar with his retinue to watch celestial secrets and record it and pass on information with yearly seasonal travelers to his homeland ,what he has observed ? Which country had a astronomical calendar based on sun and moon and stars and which was trying to calculate the timeless time on such basis and classified it as yuga and kalpa ? There is no genetic evidence for an iron age migration into British Isles . The questions are : 1 .Why did the cultural exchange and migration stop at the stage of bronze age and why was it continuous till that date ? The answer I postulate is the change in the Assyrian policy by which Indian Harappan , IVC people cut all ties with the west through Anatolia and found new connections through Egypt . 2 .What language group was used by traders during Neolithic and bronze age ? And who spread the Indo-European languages for the sake of communication ? Documentary evidence of prehistoric British languages is fragmentary and rely upon indirect remarks of Caesar and Tacitus . Language is more important for a cultural identity than most genes .Probably except a mutant gene found in Northern Eurasia which interfere with the normal dark skin pigmentation of human beings.A single point mutation was recently discovered in Europeans responsible for their skin bleaching (Lamason R L ;Mohideen M A.P,Mest J R;Wong A C et al .2005 .SLC 24A 5 affects pigmentation in zebrafish and man ;scince ,310:1782-6)All languages spoken in British Isles are Indoeuropean in origin .IndoEuropean is the only language family in Europe as Oppenheimer rightly points out .The expansion of a language family signals mainly cultural spread rather than population migration.Conventional archeology is a recordof culture. Genetics adresses population migration however imperfectly.Language ,in between need to be treated on its own ,with its own internal dates.It should not be fitted up to any proxy for prehistory such as archeological record ,physical anthropology or genetics. In past archeologists stressed the migrational implications of language . For part of the last century their view was that a warlike battleaxe –wielding horseriding Kurgan nomads ride out of Russian steppes in late copper and early bronze age and they favoured an Aryan invasion. Language and genetic patterns and the trade goods and burial patterns together show that the Aryan invasion theory itself is a myth . The Turks are more distant genetically from English than they are from the Greeks . The decreasing statistical importance of three components :- First principal component ,second principal component etc each giving a composite measure of gene frequency maps is important in this regard.The first principle component of variation in European population in Cavalli-Sforza’s analysis gives a gradient of increasing genetic distance starting around Iraq,moving through Turkey and northwest towards Scandinavia. This fits the postulated northwestward spread of farmers from near east to Europe and farmers come for cultivating and developing the land and not for invading it .The 3rd principal component fit a similar pattern radiating from southern Russia which fit the Kurgan migration . Colin Renfrew in 1987 trashed the Kurgan invasion hypothesis along with theories based on the horse ,skull shape,neaker people and cord impressed pottery .The type of migrationism called wave of advance was there in his model for spread of IndoEuropean languages .But the language was carried from Anatolia by farmers in gradual fashion.But where was the homeland of the huge IndoEuropean language tree ?The branches reached from Ireland in west ,north to Arctic circle,east to central Asia and south to Srilanka . Large water bodies such as Mediterranean,Black sea and Caspian ,mountain ranges like
16 Caucasus ,Taurus,Zegroes limit the possible corridoers of travel in near East . So the kurgan nomadic hypothesis predict a very different language tree from Anatolian farmer hypothesis . Renfrew acknowledge the limitation of lack of information of dead languages like Hittites ,in his preferred homeland Anatolia . His book supports Anatolian homeland . But the possibility of Indian subcontinent as the homeland of Anatolian language has not been considered by him . It is the Indian people who moved to North ,to west and east with their forest goods and established a wide chain of trade and commerce centers and the part of Anatolia was as middlemen and this fact is the most important link which I want to bring out when I extend the origin of the British to Origin of the Indians and their spacetime . Neolithic language was older than the present IndoEuropean languages which we know of. Isidore Dyon’s glottochronology (dating sounds) is a dating technique which is used in Vedic and Thanthric texts of India . The broad relationship and the graphical expression of Indoeuropean languages in terms of proportions of shared cognates is a very interesting phenomenon which every linguist will find rewarding . The acceptance of a dead language (Hittite) made a bias of the root being Anatolia.To be nonbiased Gray and Atkinson rooted with Baltoslavic,GREEK,Indo Iranian and increased the estimated divergence from 8700 yrs BBP to 9600,9400 and 10100 years BP respectively . All these scholars thought that earliest of the Anatolian languages was Hittites and Lycians which anticipated the civilizations of the Greek and Cretan cultures. Greece and Turkey are noticeably low in their frequency of European Y gene Ian than the Balkan countries immeadiately to their north.(If Greece and Turkey did not get the language from Russia –Ian –males from where did tehse IndoEuropean languages come ?) Dyen’s Europeanbased IndoEuropean languages are 4 ,and among them 3 are called mesoeuropeic languages (Romance,Germanic ,Baltoslavic) and the 4th is Celtic .MesoEuropic speaking people have higher Y European Ian and this sets them apart from the Insular-celtic speakers and Greeks .In Atkinsons analysis the deepest split in Mesoeuropean baranch yields the Baltoslavic rather than celtic.This covers entire eastern Europe with exception of Rumania and Hungary’s latest language intrusions. This includes eastern Baltic languages Lithuanian and Latvian and Slavic group from Bulgaria and Balkans in south to Poland and Czech republic in west and Russia in east . The gene distribution representative is Rostov R1a1. I 1b fits the baltoslavik spread ,but does not fits strongly in Poland or in Eastern Baltic states.That is eastern Europe. In western Europe :- 3 remaining Indoeuropean branches ,all splitting apart in roughly the same millennium ,6100-5500 yrs ago ,the deepest being celtic ,with Germanic and Italic (Romance)branches showing a marginally closer relationship. The possibility of an Italoceltic branch which would have been Mediterranean also is suggested. Palimpsest:- A manuscript or papyrus written and erased repeatedly to describe a pattern overlaying.This applies equally to CavalliSforza’s principal component maps too. Climatologist /archeologist pair Joanthen Adams and Marcel Otte suggested Indoeuropean languages spread from Mesolithic age . Then where is the Indoeuropean farming hypothesis ? Was celtic in Ireland 10000 years rather than the conventional iron age (2300 yrs ago) or the bronze age (2nd millennium BC) or the Neolithic (6000 yrs ago) ? The grain domestication in Anatolia (farmers) is older than the Neolithic – more than 13000 yrs ago .8500 yrs ago fullycommitted farmers with knowledge of what they are doing and why they are doing that and what are the implications of food production in a society evolved. This is close to the first Neolithic evidence of the Balkans .This is not in line with the archeological dated cardial ware and LBK . But prior to that .That is language was earler than trade and commerce and was there in the hunter-gatherer and farmer groups who were primitive and it evolved through the urban and city dwellers with barter and trade relations and the world wide trade is an endstage and not a beginning stage .This is where Indian languages and its role comes in and the
17 archeological and genetic evidences so far discussed become important .The foreshortening effect ,resulting from undetected word borrowing netween related languages (as discussed by Linguist /geneticist team April and Robert McMahon) has to be carefully analysed as a dataset. The individual miscodings internal to subgroups ,but which could again have a foreshortening effect on individual branch (language) lengths helps a lot in analyzing data . Forster include all lexical changes within a chosen word set list including the borrowed ,the gentic changes from regular intrinsic sound changes etc. It is interesting to find that such an approach was done by the earliest Vedic and Thanthric codifiers of Languages in India and it is described in detail in Indian scriptures . So ,what is the antiquity of a language (here Sanskrit) which has reached such heights even at say before 4000 BC ? How can such a language be considered as a later development ?Borrowing is a language mutation .This has happened during time of Maithravaruni ,one of them being Agastya and the other Vasishta (Ramayana period) at the end of Thretahyuga . So Agastya was sent to study and codify all such sound variations and meanings and codify the flawless Sanskrit which includes all possible phonetic variations occurring in the south and North and thus a new Sanskrit vocabulary evolved at Agastya’s time . The earlier prakrit languages co-existed with a new systematic grammatically ordered lexicon with laws of sound and pronounciation which was taught in universities or Gurukula agrahaaraas and in each home (by a Kulaguru ) teaching own kula profession . It was this multilingual system which reached other parts of world through the artisans,farmers,warriors and other workers and this ahs happened several cylically ordained yuga and kalpa again and again according to Indian spacetime calculation .The very fact that modern views start only from last iceage while Indian view starts from innumerable such ice ages happening continually ,cyclically shows the antiquity of our knowledge system and educational system.While Indoeuropean languages has only a modern history of 10000 years it has an ancient history of kalpa and yuga ,as long as existence of human beings on earth and existence of cosmos in Indian scriptures. Old English is different from any other European language . The Saxons spoke a or were influenced by the Norse . The oldest possible example of Norse words in Old English comes from single Germanic words which Gildas himself interpolated when writing in latin in the mid 6th century AD .This is the first extant written clue to the Norse language . He applied it to Saxon invaders and their language in the famous line :- A pack of cubs burst forth from the lair of the barbarian lioness ,coming in three keels (Cyulas) as they call warships in their language .” These were highprowed sailing long boats like those of later Vikings . Forster argues from Oxford dictionary etymology for keel (cyulas) that it is not clear that a Scandinavian origin for this word can be ruled out . Keel : old English Ceol and old Norse Kjl.A rare English synonym for ship faer (from Norse word faer ,meaning journey –as in seafarer ). Ceol or ,cyulas, which is Keola/Kol /and kala (as in Marakkala =wooden ship) in Tamil and South Indian seafaring traditions has to be compared with the Norse word /Saxon word for ship here .Faer prounounced as paer (f changed to p as many dialects still do) makes the great Paari of western coast of sangam periods .It also has similarity to Parisees (see the people on east coast of England ) who were a trading community who established town of Paris in France .The trade via sea and the ship both have Norse /North and South/ South Indian similarities . Kola as in Kolathiri (Golaadri) the surname of Kerala ancient kings also is noteworthy . The comparison to children of a lioness shows they were matrilinear like Keralites and also that they had synonym of Simha which many a royal family in India still retain.Beowulf (Anglian) and Aelfred(Wessex) two dialects in old English has divergent patterns. Forster says the lexical diversity formerly existed in England ,1000 yrs ago is comparable to diversity in mainland Scandinavia or within Dutch/German language areas. Old English was only a dialect and not a language as the Indian prakrit and Sanskrit languages were .
18 Forster observes that in 1200 years English changed 10 words and according to oxford Dictionary all these 10 changes happened before 1300 AD. Only 5 changes happened in 1200 yrs between heliand (AD 825) and modern low german and 2 changes in 1000 yrs between Icelandic and Old Norse . Therefore the 2 English dialects has wide differences means they are not ancestral to the other but a separate stock. English is neither directly descended from old saxon nor from Scandinavian (old Norse) according to Forster.All Germanic lexica came in existence from spoken dialects after 3600 BC and before AD 350 according to him . The modern English dialect of the lowland Scots or Lallans have norse and teutonic vocabulary than far south . bairn (child)burn(stream)ken(know or suspect) kirk(church) are words in it . Lallans is Germanic,distinct from Scottish gallic and is attested back to late Medieval times. In the 8th century Picts was a vigourous nation and that was time of Northumbrian Bede’s time. But they did not speak a language which bede recognized –celtic or Anglian. Bede could have identified a Germanic tongue being an Anglian. Pictish has disappeared completely .Therefore ,language in Britain was only a mixture of dialects from elsewhere and they had only Latin and Greek Bibles , and no scripture of their own . Romans in 3rd century AD was partially germanised . Bede’s ecclesiastical history says during AD 286 ,Maximian ,surnamed Herculius was Emperor Augustus nominee in British Isles.Carausius ,of mean birth ,but an expert fortbuilder and ble soldier was guard of seacoast ,infested with Franks and Saxons and he was put to death by Maximian .After 7 years of strong rebellion he was killed by treachery of his own associate Allectus and he ruled for 3 yrs and vanquished by Asclepiodotus ,the captain of the Pretorian band ,at the ned of 10 yrs restored it to Roman empire.Carausius ,if he was nonceltic ,could dominate Britain for 7 yrs and had good contacts with all traders and had support from all , and that is interesting . His network of huge forts in 3rd century AD along the saxon shore (11 to 12 ) from Brancaster or Branodunum in Norfolk round east Anglia ,essex,thames estuary ,kent to portchester in wessex opposite Isle of Wight show his expertise in warfare and administration and defence and his name Carausius (Kareesa as in sangham literature ) shows the expertise in construction as well.His forts are now considered as the finest Roman monuments in Europe while it is not by Romans but by Carausius ,the one defeated by Romans .The interior contained no military barracks ,granaries or headquarters buildings but was a civilian settlement and not well organized .By end of Roman rule the saxon forts were abandoned and at that time Gildas and Bede tell us that Saxon raids were becoming a problem to the Romans !! A 6th century western Runic trophy from Wtchfield ,of an early Norse type ,is a copper alloy with a runic script reading HARIBOKI according to Oppenheimer . The script seems Brahmi to me and I will come to my own reading later on. According to him Hari means army and it is seen in a battlesite and the H is in Norse singlebarred form . A confusing text which puzzled British historians is obtained from Angles ,who were part of a Frankish delegation to Constantinople in 5th century(c 553).This says three very populous nations inhabit Island of Britta, and one king is set over each of them. The names of the nations are Angles,Frisians,and Brittons who have the same name as the island.In every year they migrate with women and children and go to the Franks. They occupy the desolate parts of land to gain possession of land. King of Franks sent his friends to Justinian in Byzantium and dispatched with them the men of the angles claiming that Britta also is ruled by him. This piece shows that every year new wave of Frisians were arriving on coasts with family and they were moving to inlands and claiming that Britain belongs to the Frisians .Brittia is the term the text uses and in 6th century the Historian and commentator Procopius of Caesarea uses the term Britania. He identifies 6th century Britan as an aboriginal nation .It echoes Bede’s distinction of Britania and the 6th century Brettones. The intimate family contactbetween and across the channel is implied in this story. Bede includes Picts as a 4th nation in his accounts. The 3rd nation(other than Angles and Britain) should be Saxons in 6th century and not Frisians. Saxons are not mentioned in the 6th century . And Angles in their story to Procopius is not adding Frisians as a nation ,they just have two
19 nations (Anglles and Britains). They substitute Saxons as invaders ,instead of Frisians. The reason for this anomaly could be Angles conflated Saxons and Frisins as culturally and linguistically similar. This echo Caesar’s comment about links between southern coastal tribes of Britain and Belgic Gaul 600 yrs before. During 6th century Angles were different linguistically. Why did Saxons not use Runes ? Runic script before 650 was a proxy marker for 5th-7th century Germanic invasions ,it was limited geographically. There are no securely dated runes in English saxon kingdoms except a couple of finds in London ,before or after 650.During Roman times the south of England enjoyed a literacy ,yet it soon descened to illiteracy (page 380 Oppenheimer).When Runes spread to AAnglian and Jutish areas in 5th century its practical use did not spread to the southern illiterate Saxons .When the first postRoman writing reappeared in saxon kingdoms ,after 650,it was the Roman script . Cruciform brooch :- In Germany they are seen in both Angeln and old Saxony homelands at base of Cimbrian(Danish) peninsula ,but not in Lower Saxony in hinterland south of Friscia. In England they are found exactly the same limited to Anglojutish distribution and absent in Sxon kingdom. This also help to delink old Saxony homeland from the Anglian and British .In Anglian regions the cruciform brooches ,like early runes are limited in distribution when we consider the great political distribution of Anglians in AD 600. The first spread of runes was in Kent (Jute) East Anglia ,east Midlands and a couple of sites in Northumbria. (Deira and Lindsey).The center of gravity of later Runes (after 650)moved north to Mercia (North)missing south Mercia.They spread throuout Northumbria and featured the double barred H . The density of runic finds is not intense as in Anglen homeland at any period . This shows only an elite limited expansion and does not support any population replacement . The slow wave of cultural movement implied by runes suggest receptive acculturation as the elite migrators moved up the eastern rivers ,rather than rapid conquest or genocide. Ethnicity : How would we like to be identified ? Do we like to be identified as a nation or a linguistic family or on a genetic race or on basis of a religion which is a human construct ? This question is of paramount importance in present sociocultural and political scenario and in world peace . Ethnic group and ethnicity have loose or spurious implications of genetic differences and purity of race ,and anthropologically ethnicity stresses an individual ‘s own perception of identity and group membership in addition to externally imposed cultural or genetic definition.I am Indian ,means I consider myself as an Indian. I am a world citizen means I consider myself as a world citizen. When the perception of a person who makes a statement and that of the one who hear it are different ,this may cause misunderstandings. This is what is happening in the current scenario of the world .This biased view is seen in many historians and philologists who learn Roman and early medieval history of Latin,Celtic and Old English use words like British and English ,in a similar sense to Bede and Procopius ,to indicate Brythonic celtic as opposed to Anglian and other nonceltic languages. They use term GEN (Latin) to indicate tribes or people. That means a nationhood or a tribal grouping . In Tamil old Tamil is Chenthamil (Che pronounced as Gen make a similar meaning ) or Chemmozhi .(Gemmozhi ).Similar way Germania can be pronounced Chermaania as well .Bedes text excludes not only Britons but also Saxons in its title ( Historia ecclesiastica gentic Anglorum). Bede calls Gilda’s as Britain’s own historian and Britain for him is an island which belonged entirely to celtic speaking Brithani .Then who invaded whose area ,where and when ,and which becomes clear to the nonbiased observer.The subjective view of group affiliation ( to political,social ,language groups or religious groups) makes us fanatically one-sided and the only way to get out of this is to keep a search for truth ,devoid of groupism of any sort .How much each individual succeeds in this ,makes us an evolved nation ,a world of nonbiased enlightened world citizens. How does the current Anglosaxon rulers viewed ethnically by historians? Did they ever regarded themselves as Scandinavian in origin or as a continental western Germanic folk ?One can choose friends and spouse but not our parents or blood relatives .The elaborate royal and Gurukula lists of India traces
20 the geneology of entire population of Indi a.The Germanic king list is creative ,legendary and mythical stretching back to Biblical Noah .Scythia and Asia Minor claimed as homelands ,Scandinavian God Thor as prime ancestor ,sometimes descend from Priam of Troy suggested.Recent trees from Germany ,Scandinavia ,Iceland and England show concordance with one another and their deeper roots tending to move the Anglian and even Saxson identity away from lower Saxony to Scandinavia. Some of the earliest documents of Germanic royal tree is from England . The earliest such geneology is Bede’s history written in Latin. 150 yrs after Bede ,in late 9th century the first series of versions of Anglosaxon chronicles came. This was commissioned in old English by King Aelfred ,of Wessex and subsequent editions compiled by generations . This continued till middle of 12th century and by that time Language matured to Middle English.Germanic royal houses in England (saxson,Anglian and Jute) claim descend from one ancestr : Woden. The Essex kings claim descend from him by marriage of Sledd to Riccula ,sister to King Ethelbert of Kent in 6th century but their male line goes to ancestry of legendery saxon ancestor Seaxnet.Woden is from WEDNES (Wednesday /Budha/which is the descend of Chandravansi kings of India ,including Pandava,Krishna,entire Yadava clan and the present Travancore dynasty of Kerala ).In book 1 of Anglosaxon chronicle : From this woden arose all our royal kindred .Jutish leader Whitgils (the Isle of Wight is in his name) was Woden’s great grandson through Wecta and then Witta . Wihtgills is claimed to be father of 5th century and earliest semilegendary Hengist and Horsa ,which makes him already resident of British Isles when (if at all) they invaded !!! Icelandic bard Snorri Sturluson’s Prose Edda say Denmark ,Norway and Sweden descended from other sons of Woden. His offsprings in Northwest Europe ,the houses of East Saxony ,Westphalia and Volsungs kingdom of Franks is mentioned by Snorri. 2 of his royal lines are recognized in pre-invasion lines of Anglosaxon chronicle. House of East Saxony (jutes and Northumbrians) and Westphalia (king Aelfred’s wessex )line for 10 generations . The 3 male generations preceding Woden are very similar in the 2 texts.Thor Hyderdahl says this parallelism is not due to copying or due to coincidence . Was Woden a Scandinavian ?During Roman times (2000 yrs ago) the area was ruled by descendents from Woden possibly from Scandinavia is the suggestion made by Oppenheimer. Woden or Odin (the search for Odin of Thor Hyderdahl) figures in later medieval text Gesta Danorum (Danish history).This is Latin text by Saxo Grammaticus .(Saxo the lettered ).This came in late 12th to 13th century .He got information from a mixed manuscript collection,myths,legends and sagas.He was Danish and Christian and his patron was a Bishop and he had his own agenda related to his views ,says Oppenheimer.The first of his 16 books defines brothers Dan and Angul as the stock of Danes and identifies Anglian race which took possession of Britain as descendents of Angul. For him the royal saxon named lines ,interact with but are not part of mainstream Danish ,Swedish,Norwegian and English history. But by the time of his writing Saxony had a different location and his views are always separatist .He has unfavourable views on sexual and sociopolitical antics of Odin ,his wife Frigga and their origin and descendents .As a Christian he adopts the practice of Anglosaxon chronicles in referring to Oden as a historic person. He says he was credited all over Europe as Godhead ,which was false and sed more continually at Up(p)sala.He considers Odin not as a deity ,but a successful Swedish chieftain –warlord who managed to induce a Godhead cult in his name .This also points that Woden/Oden from South Scandinavia was a preferred ancestor and homeland for all Anglosaxon kings and even though objecting to the Royal God theory even Christian authors accepted his historicity and ancestry of European kings.A 18TH Century genealogy calls him Wotan and attributes him to 3rd century AD and says he descended from a very long list of Saxon kings before him ,all with nonscandinavian Low German names.In a 8th century Christian text which renounce all pagan cults (Formel pagan renouncements) we find : I forsake Thor and Woden and the Saxon odin.The convert had to take this vow .Hence this has Roman sociopolitical and religious agenda over the people and geneology of their kings .All evidences show that AngloSaxon kings had a common ancestry from Scandinavian Oden/Woden (The son of Chandra ,Budha according to Indian languages ).
Aathan (the first) is a name common among the kings of Dravidadesa . This pronounced in Bengali is Othen and othen means one who knows Oth or language (spoken Veda). The addition of V to this makes Wothan /Woden /Oden and a person who is learned is called a Budha (Scholar ) in Sanskri.Thus both in Dravida and Sanskrit language the term has cultural and linguistic meanings and as all of us are aware the Scandinavian countries speak a language very close and similar to Dravidian languages .The unity of all human races is evident from their languages and roots and that is what makes the origin of British linked with origin of Indians . I am searching for a unity ,not in differences between us . The earliest and most famous of English poems written in Anglian ,possibly in 8th century AD in Northumbria praises the Scandinavian saga .Why should an English poem praise Danish and and Scandinavian ancestors at a time of Viking invasion ?The simplest explanation is that Vikings and Norsemen from Scandinavia were their roots and ancestral stock and were not strangers and they were coming not as invaders but as rescuers from the invading Romans .The 4 major invasions which historians say have occurred in Britain are Roman,Viking,Norse /Norman and Anglosaxons and of these the first 3 are better documented than the 4th .Among these if the Viking and Norse and anglosaxons have a common Scandinavian ancestry ,the only real invasion was tha.t of Romans . The extermination of one culture and one population rapidly happened only after the medieval period with advent of Guns,Germs and steel ,according to Jared Diamond.The Geat royal hero Beowulf sails to help a Danish king Hrothgar ,deals with 2 monsters (Grendal and his mother). He sails back to his homeland southern Sweden and is acclaimed by king of Geats Hygelac ,whom he helps in wars and eventually he succeeds him to the throne. Hygelac from many historical sources had his raid on Frisians in 521. The identity of English with southern Sweden ancestry is very clear from the poem. The Winchester MS ,oldest of the Anglosaxon chronicles say five generations before Woden ,the ultimate ancestor of English king Geata was from Eastern Sweden.East Anglian royal family is called Wuffingas and the king Wuffa. Bede’s chronology:- King Redwald ,son of Tytilus; Tytilus’father Uuffa, from whom kings of East Anglia are called Uuffings. Wuffa ruled from around 570. The wuffingas were offshoots of Scylfings ,the royal house of Uppsala. The boat burial in Scandinavia is an archeological evidence of England being the successors of Scandinavians.Sutton Hoo burial show archeological evidence for this.Many grave goods of Sutton Hoo come from all over the world including Byzantium ,but a significant proportion point to Scandinavia. The king’s helmet and shield style confirm the connection. Gilda’s accusation that Saxons were children of barbarian Lioness and of wolves now requires lot of reconsideration as being biased .There are only 3 British male founder lines in historical period for the past 2000 years and two of these originated in Scandinavia ,one from South and the other from North. None were from Ptative homelands of Saxon (Northwest Germany) or Schleswig Holstein (Anglein) as sources or with Norfolk in particular as target. 75 to 95 % of British Isles matches derive from Iberia and this is the most important source area .No English sample has less than 58% Iberian type(STR Gene type).5 to 10% only from the Angeln and Northern Germany is found. Anglosaxons and mtDNA maternal markers and women intruders are a different question.Except for Procopius report of families with women and children reaching as migrants no dark age historian has mentioned about women travelers. But historians and archeologists imagine that large populations from Germany moved and occupied the depopulated England and made it populous. This does not seem true from genetic evidence . Of The 2 key maternal lines ,one, J1a is linked with Germaic speaking areas of Europe with England but is not found in other parts of British Isles except for lowland Scotland. Cambridge geneticist Peter Forster says this line entered Britain in Neolithic period ,not in dark ages . (around 5000 yrs ago). English females have a low rate of specific Saxon mtDNA marker. Their main crosschannel maternal links are considerably older .So if only a few Saxon males came in dark ages ,they would have been matched by
22 similarly few females.The STR matching suggest immigration from putative Anglosaxon homeland is only 5.5 % of ancestors of modern English people. The message of genetic story is that ¾ of British ancestors arrived before the first farmers ;-88 5 Irish,81%welsh,79%cornish ,70 %scots and associated islands (over 2/3rd).The celtic ,Anglosaxon ethnicity were later and nonviolent immigrations each leaving a genetic signal but no not contributing even a 10th of modern genetic mix.The genetic difference between welsh and English(on either side of Orff line)is not due to Anglosaxon ,Viking or Norman invasions but a recent succession of waves of cultural and genetic influx from Northwest Europe ,going back to the first generation of farmers. The first settlers fromBasque Ice age refuge left genetic traces on east and west coasts of Britain. The concept of celts as Iron age Bohemians came from archeologists while early philologists correctly linked them to languages of Brittany and British Isles to languages spoken in Caesar’s time among Gauls living south of Siene. Celtic inscriptions on metal and stones are found in France Italy and spain from first millennium BC .To early historians celts were not barbarians but a real defined continental nation. They had linguistic and cultural connections to former continental celts.They were in Southwest (not central) Europe –France south of Seine,Iberia and Italy .Gaulish ,Celtiberian and Lepontic inscriptions are found in these regions from a few centuries BC showing linguistic relationship with insular-celtic languages.The inferred location and language spoken by people the ancients called celts and this is not the central Europe .When and with which culture celtic language moved from European mainland to British Isles and carried by how many people ? Oppenheimer’s answers are respectively:-1 .When ? Neolithic. 2.With what culture ? Neolithic .3 Carried by how many people ? Not many . Bary Cliffe suggest celtic language developed during the 1st 4 millennia of maritime trade spanning from Neolithic to Bronze age and was carried north into Ireland and Wales by maritime Bell Beakers ,by early metal prospectors from south from 4400 yrs ago.This is supported by archeology and with legendary Irish king lists.Early copper mining colonies existed from 3700 yrs ago in North wales.This is the date of celtic arrival (most probable) as a cultural revolution.There is a common heritage link between the celtic ancient areas of Southwest Europe and celtic speaking western side of British Isles. Gildas story generate the view that celts were aboriginal people of Briish Isles and Britain was 100 % celtic when Romans invaded .Aboriginal means Neolithic people /immigrants .There never had been any celtic replacement ,or of Anglosaxon replacement and till Roman invasion the culture had a continuous genetic and sharing economy which is more or less similar to lifestyle of Indian seafaring people.The lifestyle of Scandinavia and Orkney as we see in Orkneyinga saga says: In spring they had more than enough to occupy them,a great deal of seed to sow which they do carefully themselves.(with no labourers).When that job finishes ,they go off in Herbrides (Western Isles) and Ireland ,plunder and this is the spring trip.Then they return home just after midsummer and stay till corn is ripe and reap it and keep it safely in (granaries).Then go again raiding ,and come back only at end of first month of winter .This is the autumn trip (for trade ).May be they marry there too and leave a male gene stock wherever they go ,and return to them every year .the mtDNA make a mutation every 1000 generation and this point mutation is transmitted to all subsequent daughters.These are neutral with no functional or health relevance. This is a rare event in a single family line ,and overall rate of mutation is increased by number of mothers having daughters (population size).So within one generation a million mothers could have more than a thousand daughters with a new mutation ,each different from the rest . This is why ,unless we share a recent maternal ancestor over the past 10000 yrs or so,we each have a slightly different code from every one else around us. Over a period of 20000 yrs a number of random tiny mutations accumulate on different human mtDNA molecules passed down to daughters of the Eve around the world.In our personal eve record this represents 7 to 15 mutations.This is cumulative of our maternal genetic maternal prehistory. We can logically reconstruct our family tree back to our first mother .The oldest changes of our mtDNA took
23 place in Africa between 190,000 -150,000 yrs ago.The next mutation appeared in Asia about 80000 60000 yrs ago. The Adam gene or Y chromosome is uncorrupted by recombination with each passing generation except for random point mutation and is traced back in unbroken line to original male ancestor.It has more geographical specificity than individual specificity.Y chromosome is more mobile and show long distance intercontinental migration while mtDNA is seen within a cultural region.Phylogeography(tree geography) from statistical study of history of whole human populations is now called classical population genetics.Phylogeography is study of prehistory of individual DNA molecule. Population genetics study the prehistory of populations and both are based on mendelian principles. The 2 agreed non-African daughter and granddaughter lines of Europe and Western Eurasia is named N.(Nasreen of Arabian origin) African line : L3.(Eve) Her daughter R. (Rohani of Indian subcontinent origin) All Europeans ,Eurasians and Scandinavians originated from the Rohini Indian group and Rohini from the African line of females is the current concept . Ref : 1.Achilli.A.,Rengo ,C,Magri,C ,Battaglia ,V.A et al (2004) The molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge was a major source for the European gene pool. American Journal of Human genetics ,75:910-18 2.Ammerman A.J and Cavalli-Sforza L.L(1984).The Neolithic transition and the genetics of populations in Europe .princeton Uty Press. 3.Atkinson Q,Nicholls G,Welch D and Grey R (2005) .From words to dates :water into wine ,mathemagic or phylogenetic interference ? Transactions of the Philological society . 103(2):193-219 4. Barton. R.N.E(1999)Colonisation and resettlement of Europe in the late Glacial. A view from the western periphery .Folia Quarternaria ,70:71-86 5.Bellwood P and Diamond J (2005) On explicit replacement models in Island Southeast Asia :A reply to Stephen Oppenheimer .World archeology ,37:503-6 6.Bosch ,E,Calafell F,Comas D,Oefner ,P J et al (2001) High resolution analysis of human Y chromosome variation show sharp discontinuity and limited gene flow between Northwestern Africa and the Iberian peninsula .American journal of human genetics. 68:1019-29 7.Capelli ,C, Wilson ,J.F, Richards M,Gratrix F et al;(2001) A predominantly indigenous paternal heritage for the Austronesian speaking peoples of insular southeast Asia and Oceania .American Journal of Human genetics 68:432-43 8.Cavalli Sforza , L .Luca ,Menozzi,Paolo and Piazza ,Alberto (1990)The history and geography of human genes .Princeton Uty Press 9.Collis,John (2003),The cells :origins ,Myths ,Inventions .(Stroud:Tempus) 10.Cowgill ,Warren (1970) .Italic and Celtic superlatives and the dialects of IndoEuropean ,in G .Cardona et al(eds) Indoeuropean and Indoeuropeans ,Papers presented at 3rd Indoeuropean conference .Philadelphia :Uty of Pennsylvania press pp 113-53 . 11Cunliffe arry (1997) The ancient celts (Oxford Uty press) 12 Daniels ,G (2002) Human blood groups . Oxford:Blackwell. 13.Diamond J and Bellwood P (2003) Guns ,germs and steel :The fate of Human societies 9London:Jonathan Cape) 14.Dyen ,Isidore ,Kruskal,Joseph B and Black ,Paul (1992) An IndoEuropean classification :A lexicostatistical experiment .Transactions of the America nphilosophical society 82 :part 5 15 Forster, Peter and Toth ,Alfred (2003) .Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish ,celtic and Indo European . Proceedings of the National Academy scinces of the USA ,100:9079 -84
24 16 Gimbutas M (1970) ProtoIndoEuropean culture :The kurgan culture during 5th ,4th and 3rd Millennia BC ,in G Cardona et al(eds) IndoEuropean and IndoEuropeans .Philadelphia :Uty of Pennsylvania Press pp 155-95 17 Gray ,Russell and Atkinson ,Quentin (2003) ,Language tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of IndoEuropean origin ,Nature ,426:435-9 18 Mc Mahon ,A and McMahon R (2003) Finding families :quantitative methods in language classification ,Transactions of the Philological society ,101:7-55 19 Oppenheimer Stephen .(2007 )The origin of the British .,Constable and Robinson Ltd ,London 20.Rees J.L (2000)The melanocortin 1 receptor MC1R ;More than just red hair .Pigment cell research .13:135-40 21 Renfrew Colin (1989)Archeology and language :The puzzle of IndoEuropean origins ,London,Penguin 22.Zerjal T,Dashnyam B,Pandya A,Kayser M et al(1997) Genetic relationship of Asians and Northern Europeans revealed by Y chromosomal DNA analysis ,American Journal of Human genetics 60:1174-83
Chapter 2 Indian culture and health concepts
“ A culture’s self-awareness in terms of its law ,Medicine and Grammer is an important precondition for awareness of its aesthetics. The knowledge of Medicine-A system of management of pain,anaesthesia,of birth and death- is interrelated to poetry ,-a system of management of pleasure ,of aesthetics and of creation.” ( G.N.Devy.After Amnesia :Orient Longman. 1995;pp.64-65). India through ages –from prevedic /vedic -Indus Valley Harappan times India is the only Living ancient culture in the world today and it has a vast collection of literature on its 64 arts,and sciences and philosophies for the new generations to read,analyse and understand how the early human ancestors thought,spoke and acted to manage human problems . History of Medical science in India is the history of human beings in this sub-continent with its biodiversity ,and geographical features which allowed a culture to flourish for more than 50000 years. The oldest gene (DNA) so far analysed from South India is 50000-60000 years old ,belonging to a person from Tamil Nad (Perumal Kallar lineage) .The cultural phases in human evolution proceeded from forest and mountain dwelling cavemen,wandering nomads,settlers in agricultural villages ,urban settlements .Each of these phases might have extended for thousands of years ,and several of them co-existed . The earliest urban settlements of Indian sub-continent ,so far excavated is Mehrgarh period (7000-8000 BC .Mahaagriha is the correct Sanskrit word .) which continued to the Harappan,Indus valley periods( 4000-3500 BC).This urban phase is postvedic and shows several evidences for Vasthuvidya(as described in Veda) and fire altars for Yajna . Health concepts of Indus valley /Harappan people :
25 The townplanning in India is depicted in these cities. The closed water channels and sewages tell us how the people were concerned with purity of their water supply and premises. The great bath shows their habit of purifying the body for preventing many diseases. The great granary shows the people were having awareness of nutrition,about storage principles of grains for periods of famines or natural calamities. The presence of protected trees on seals show how they worshipped plant life and nature and how this helped in the environmental protection . The countless names of herbs,plants and trees mentioned for domestic cultivation, and wildly growing in fields and forests and utilized by human beings for eating and sharing as trade goods and products, the wild and cultivated fruits,leaves and flowers and spices they knew tell us their sense of Taxonomy ,plant and animal physiology,pharmacopoeia and their daily lifestyle depending on the geographic nature of the country.The seal of Sapthamathruka and Saraswathy with a horned Upaasaka show how they worshipped Language ,and Oushadhivanaspathy (herbal medicines as Somalatha).Veda and Vasthu ,townplanning and language ,trade and commerce flourished continuously from BC 8000 to BC 3000 (Ramayana and Mahabharatha periods respectively) and continued to Budhist and Sathavahana times and beyond until Vijayanagara empire . This continuous history and literary and archeological evidences suggest antiquity of Indian culture and its role in teaching and educating other continents . The statue of the Dancing girl (Mohenjodaro) tell us the concept of their aesthetics, body measurements of a young female in the eye of a sculpture,the posture,the ornaments and ofcourse that since dance existed ,a system of music and drama(Bharatham) with a language also existed . The literary sources tell us kings and administrators,and common people arose with music and slept with music and had their own folk music for each festivals apart from harvesting seasons and bhajans which helped in mental health and wellbeing of population . The posture of the Pasupathi seal show Yoga was practiced in India thousands of years before Pathanjalayogasuthra .The yogic padmasana of the figure in it is unmistakably recognized by all scholars .Thus Ayurveda, Yoga ,Music and arts,worship of herbal remedies and rivers as lifegiving mothers existed at least from BC 4000-3500(archeologically) in Urban India which had its roots in preurban and cavedwelling stages of human habitation. Use of kanmada (asphalt),yoga seals ,toys for children and healthoriented townships layouts –points to the development of health concepts in India as early as 5000-6000 BC Maithreya: medicines are not the causes of recovery ,they are an aid;their role is as friend who lends a helping hand to the fallen to get up. Mental health depending on quality of sathwa,rajasa,thamasa and mixed leading to profession,behavior etc –modern psychology .jungle tribes are the main source of herbs and spices and it was these medicines which was reaching the Babylonian Sumerian turkey and Egyptian coasts which made Indian way of culture spread there. We will consider the salient points of this most ancient culture and its health concepts under the following :
1.Nutritional concepts of Ancient India . How Geographic peculiarities were utilized to maximum benefits without damaging natural resources . slash and burn and punam type of agriculture was practiced by all ancient people and they were blamed for destroying forests by the administrators of the 17th to 18th century .As Oppenheimer points out rightly ,slash and burn cultivation never destroyed forests ,but helped to protect it .The forests of the world were protected by this type of cultivation .The exploitation of nature and forests started with large scale industrialization and is still continuing at alarming speed which however is not our topic of discussion here. India had enough forest goods /food ,spices and trade goods for self-sufficient economy of the nation – and this they shared with global contemporaries both through seatrade and landroute and enough evidences are accrued over the years for this factual truth .The only other tropical forests with great biodiversity were in the Americas,Africas and South East Asia but as we all know ,Americas were unknown to the ancient Western culture (except for the Phoenicians as Heradotus suggests) and Africa never had long distance trade relations or archeological or literary evidence of any urban civilization or organized Governments to carry out such wide trade relations , and South East Asia was unapproachable to west ,just as India was .Yet Indian spices reached Europe and western world which itself is telltale evidence. Arabia did not have the biodiversity to supply the forest goods and grains and depended on food sufficiency on their cousins ,the Indians and acted as intermediaries as well.Their scattered cities were resting points and entrepots in trade routes of Indians .Thus the Iberian and Turkey connections of Europe as we saw in the first chapter is actually a contact of trade through middle East ,from India to Europe .This is where the sparse practical trade language ,the celts use come in and we will deal with it later on. During Famines.:- People thrive on forest goods and roots ,tubers and biodiversity of the land .In Andhra : the primitive chenchu people use Gaddha,magachiri or Magashree /Margasheershakanda,which they call by different names ..In Nallamala it is Bhoochakragandha/kanda.In Kadappa it is Dharigummad;Adilabhad Nelagummadhi;Sanskrit Bhookooshmaandi,and Vrishavardhini .Hindi Budan/surul .It belongs to the Fabaceae (bean) family in Latin Penvaria tuberose.Seen all over India near forest streams ,and mountain slopes with blue inflorescence and three forked leaf (sreevalsa /trefoil) .It is interesting that the male figurehead from Mohenjo Daro is wearing a cloth with trefoil (Srivalsa) the sign of Vishnu . In February to July leaves fall. There are 5-7 Roots for each plant with 20-30 KG weight for each at the bottom .It Resembles a cucumber in shape placed one above the other . At the top it has a 2 Kg smaller one.It tastes sweet and is oily .Property : a good nutrient and used for routine consumption. Increase fertility of males(for infertility) increase urine flow and remove toxins from body,increase breast milk of nursing mothers,for throat pain,harsh voice,anaemia,jaundice,blood disorders,swellings on body,- the chenchu tribes use them.It is Boiled in cow’s or goat’s milk.dried,powdered,add nutmeg and elam ,taken every night before sleep .The essence of root fried in
27 ghee ,root put in it ,or powder is mixed with honey for consumption.Kaavath,a similar root in Malayalam has similar functions . Tropical biodiversity of India is the real reason for its ancient knowledge systems and cultural milestones .Indian daily food itself is medicine . The South Indian dishes are all medicinal dishes used daily as well as for special festival occasions .The biodiverse nature demanded naming of each variety which naturally lead to classification , morphologically and physiologically.Thus Development of Ayurveda in India was natural and so was Its impact on life style and health . Ayurveda is The oldest living healing system with inherent capacity to interact with any other system of science –an accumulated wisdom and practical experience of several generations of forestdwelling and wandering tribes,farmers and scholars of Indian subcontinent – prathisamskaara being the process of evolution of scince according to Charaka.The prathisamskara of Medicine in India is as old as human habitation in the subcontinent .Western medical science and classification of plants and theories of evolution on the other hand is only 400 years old and if we add Greek attempts ,it is only 2500 years old (That is from time of Budhist historical India). Daily baths, sucheekarana of house and premises,quarantine of impure /infected persons for prevention of diseases/epidemics , fasting for cleansing digestive system on prescribed days, prescribed special foods on special occasions (like festivals ) for getting all nutrients (in month of karkitaka,in rainy seasons,in spring etc ), seasonal foods naturally produced by the earth mother characterize the geographic health pattern.The congcept is that the earth mother knows what is needed for the children at specified times .Along with Seasonal food, associated music and dance with festivals and seasons ,special raga for day and night and hour and for for chakra (cosmic and body wheel) By this both physical,mental and intellectual and spiritual health are cared for simultaneously.Geographic practices are prathisamskaara as Charaka said ; not religion .Those who live in a particular area are benefitted by them .Indegenous practices of healing is the lifestyle of a people .The word religion attached to such scientific practices unfortunately started with the first census during 18th century . Four basic lines : samsodhana (sudhikarma) , for unmoolana or destruction of root causes ;samsamana of thridoshakopa which is temporary only;Achaara of pathya and /sadachara or dharma for protection of body,mind and intellect ; and of person and environment Contribution of kerala: the tropical rainforest of Sahya mountains with its great biodiversity and the early man’s observations and practices of the edibility,properties and healing power of natural herbs around them was later codified in atharvaveda which is the first Veda to appear .It belongs to the oldest human races living in South India ,the Angirasa and Atharva ,continued in Brighu and Bharadwaja lineages . There is a story of a king –Maheeranabhara who entered a cave and tried kuteechaka for regaining his vigour and youth .He belonged to the Mooshaka vansa and was very ancient ,several thousand years before Krishna . The Mooshakavansa kings belonging to Karthaveerya lineage , and having Athreya (Dathaathreya) and Bhrighu as ancestral Gurukula were Vice chancellors of Uty of valabhi –Valabhi had two famous branches established by its Vice
28 Chancellors the Sivanandins who were sons of King Valabha of Kerala-One was uty of nalanda and the other ,a branch of Nalanda ,the Uty of udanthapuri. In 5th century valabhi kings lost its vicechancellorship and nalanda was taken over by Bengal kings and gradually Nalanda and udanthapuri lost charm and collapsed due to lack of good teachers . It was from Valabhi ,the influx of good Teachers coming to Nalanda since Valabhi was sending 3000 scholars every year to various parts of the world as teachers . Prof M.G.S Narayanan remarks ,when Nalanda and Udandapuri fell in 10th centuru AD ayurveda also withered as a scientific branch of study.When Valabhi fell in 5-6th century ,all branches of sciences withered and the influx of scholars to Nalanda and Udantapuri also stopped and that was the reason for the fall of Nalanda .It is not surprising that the the first pharmacopeia and morphological classification came to the west from atransaltion of Itty Achuthan ,and three Bhatts from Karnataka and it was after this Linnaeus made his famous work . It is evident that India taught science to the world . Yoga as lifestyle and its health implications:At present Yoga is used as a physical exercise .But it is not. It is a wholistic health training in which the healing is spiritual,intellectual ,mental and physical in that order . The importance of psychological healing is recognized by Indians through Yogic practices. The terms grahabaadha /grahana :-Grahana is cognition and grahabhaada means maladies in cognition.These maladies create split personalities,dubious behavior ,self torture and guilty consciousness (caraka).Disequilibrium of thridosha and thriguna imbalance will upset the balance of mind .To prevent this ,from early childhood the children are taught yogasadhana which sustains a sathwik state of mind ,prevent emotional deviations through control of senses and defy temptations from outside . There are three famous positions used in ancient India -Padmasana as in the Pasupathi seal of Mohenjo Daro, .Savaasana as in the case of Vishnu in Yoganidra ,and also the adept position which we see in Dakshinamurthy position( and also in Egyptian sculptures ) . The scholar epigraphist sankaranarayana ,former director of theosophical society Library of Chennai asked me a question while we were discussing the Pasupathi seal. Is not Mahavishnu a yogi ? Is not Krishna a Pasupathi ? Then why does the western scholars go on saying that the seal of Pasupathi is a Shiva figure ? The same is applicable to our modern archeologists who brand every ancient site as Budhist or Jainist simply by looking at the yogic posture,the elongated earlobes and the umbrella of a serpent hood above . These are symbols of wisdom and yogic Samadhi . While all over the world ,including British Isles (see 1st chapter) scholars are trying to take their history backward in time ,even without any literary or historical evidence for it , here in India scholars try to bring it forward to Greek and Roman times(and Budhist) while the literary and science evidences show that it is far more ancient than Budhist times. This paradox of history is noteworthy. Here we will deviate a little to the psychological development of children as described by Lev Semenovitch Vygotsky (1896-1934).He said children develop first as social beings and then only as cognitive beings ,and children’s egocentric speech is not really egocentric and children flourish when
29 helped at the zone of proximal development .These ideas of thought and language development of Vygotsky is applicable here in the development of cultures/people .At the zone of proximal development (ZPD) all children and people can be helped by a teacher/parent to develop cognitive skills .Till then they remain as social beings trying to develop a ZPD of their own in their plays .Play (Leela) stretches the imaginative power .Piaget thought language come out of cognition. It comes at the end of sensory motor period when child is capable of Symbolic representation ,he said. Only then the child starts to think and speak like an adult. Vygotsky argued that initial babblings of infants is neither symbolic nor immature attempts to represent anything .They are rather,social emotional signals. They are comparable to cries of apes .Following this several psychologists tried to teach Apes how to speak .Nim Chimpsky ,named after linguist Noam Chomsky ,for its extraordinary ability to learn language managed to learn two word combinations (Banana please; Red triangle etc) which is equivalent to a 1824 month old human infant .But no chimp has ever uttered a full sentence which a 2-3 or 4 yr old human child utters :Like I am so and so and am bigger than you . This is not egocentricity.Toddlers are social creatures and are happy to be with others ,and wants others to attend his/her needs and they cry,croon and babble as the emotional signals of social needs. Language is a discovery a child makes later when he/she is able to point at a object or person and say or name it . The child here learns words supplied by others (parents/siblings/neighbours ).Before that he/she uses its own special words.And with the turning point of language acquisition the child actively tries to learn signs attached to questions .It is at this stage ,the child is going through a ritual of Vidyarambha (Upanayana) at the Guru’s hermitage and starts cognitive learning from him .Vygotsky’s four major stages in development of thought and language are : 1. Primitive stage: pre-intellectual ,and nonverbal intelligence comparable to the chimp’s speech 2. Practical intelligence when child counts on fingers,use memory with aids of pictures . 3. Stage of external symbolic representation :Speaks for themselves and struggle to master symbolic representation.Egocentric speech or babblings are learning aids or tactics (Thanthra in Sanskrit). 4. Mature enough and do not need any external symbols .Child can internalize symbols .A girl of 8 does not do a running commentary of her actions like a 4 yr old . She is used to silent inner speech(thoughts).This is vital. We make all our plans with silent inner speech .In India the silent inner speech has three stages –Para,madhyama,and Pasyanthi . The spoken word is the 4th Vaikhari. The prevedic Indians had passed through all these stages of Vak as we learn from the Vedas and the archeological evidences. The language and systematic teaching and codification of different types of knowledge systems had happened by the last Ice age itself in india .(This is the story of the Malsya avathar of Vishnu in Dravidadesa .It was this codified educational material being transferred in small packages withnames ,articles attached to them etc for practical reasons .This is reflected in language development in other continents but without literature or educational material as vast as India has produced .
30 Imitation of adults by children starts just 30 minutes after birth .Piaget (1952) and C.W.Valentine said the first imitation is vocal. Meltzoff and Moore (1983) found newborn babies can imitate an adult opening the mouth,pursing lips and protruding tongue at 30 minutes after birth.When a 4year old pretends to be a superman or a Train driver ,and imitating the actions ,he may be thinking that this weird adult person is someone great and I will do what he does and become like him. But what about the 30 mts old infant? Does that newborn baby also has a thought process like that ? They have thoughts,ideas of their own even at birth ,surprised western psychologists by 1980’s. When a child of 1 or 2 years say I want this,or I like this the child expresses a wish or a desire to possess or love a object or person .But at the same time the child has its own internal reasons or thoughts for loving or liking it .The hide and seek games parents and children play together,the make-belief plays with engines,cars etc they play pretending to be station master and Engine driver etc also has such meaningful ideas which a child teaches a adult parent rather than a parentteaching an adult .At the age of one,my son was able to give blabbering sounds with exactly the tune and pitch ,so that he could convey which lullaby he loves and which he wants me to sing for his sleep ,as lullaby. This shows how accurate the babies are in conveying their inner thoughts to adults , even in their prelanguage stages.The development of internal thoughts had already started before the external expression of it as language .If Paget thought children are logicians ,the current studies show they are also superb psychologists ,understanding their own as well as other’s minds . Is intelligence hereditary and genetically inherited from parents ?Cyril Burt (1883-1971) produced data to prove that it is. But it was later found that he was cooking up data and his results were all false. No one had suspected of the very respectable Professor Burt doing the unforgivable sin of faking his data and Hans Eysenck at first relied too much on Burt’s data ,just as many other scientists of the time.In 1995 Mackintosh (The Burt controversy)proved that his data were false and faked .Plomin(1998) found environment has impact on intelligence .Lynn(1997)found the social intelligence scale is due to heritability. In 1998 David Cohen claimed parents have no impact on intelligence of children. Peers (teachers) have more to do with cognitive development .Indian Gurukula system and health concepts of Susruthasamhitha says both are important .The key questions : Do parents who read more to children improve children’s IQ? Do children’s genes make them brighter ,insist that their parents read or tell stories ,sing lullabies to them so that they get what they wish for ?Does nutrition,pollution of atmosphere affect intelligence ? These questions show that the system of townplanning and education ,system of marriage etc followed by Indian sages was an attempt to practically implement a method of increasing the intelligence Quotient and the enlightened citizenship and efficiency of nation .If this has started ( from evidence of Harappa/Mehrgarh periods) very early , and the 4th mature state of cognition has been attained by that time ,what is the timespan of the 3 other stages (starting from preintelligent stage) that India had gone through ? Soderberg (1977)showed if the child is given reading materials before the age of 3(say 2 ¼ yrs age) ,word cards for first 6 weeks ,then they assembled as a small booklet,and over the next 3 months the child reads 150 words and was acquiring 5- 10 words/day. The child read and reread the book and it was practice that make them read faster and understand meaning . Jeanne Chall(1983) had a 4 stage programme for reading skills.From birth to 5 yrs child master
31 preparatory skills for reading. (learn to identify letters of alphabet, write names,read a few words. Identify their favourite logos (signs) before they start to read ,and learn that words are made up of letters and sounds and that one can break them up and join in different ways so that manywords with rhyme can be made from rearranging different letters. Chall found that phonetic talent is important in learning skills. This is interesting as Sanskrit as an educational language developed in prevedic era and speaks of this Varna (letters) and their rearrangement and vocabulary with a dhwani(phonetic) and sruthi(pitch )importance . The Piaget /Vygotsky controversy that children had to mature to learn (Piaget) and children are thoughtful and could be helped by sympathetic teachers and parents (Vygotsky) were never controversies in an Indian Gurukula which integrated the two theories in its practical fold. Studies on great genius like Shakespeare show that the parent need not be a genius for the son to be one. His father was a puffed up tradesman who wanted to be the Mayor of Stratford. You can breed fast horses but not composers ,writers,painters ,scientists,musicians ,mathematicians of genius . Eysenck studied the background of 28 great mathematicians and found only one had a family of mathematicians ( Bernoullis). Fermat,Pascal,Gauss ,Monge and other s(27 ) were having no genes for mathematics. His favourite was Ramanujam of India . His mother knew his mathematical genius quite early ,suggesting her knowledge of the subject herself. But being a poor woman she didn’t sent him to school. He was a drop out at 18 from Madras Uty and failed his high school diploma. He was met by the Founder of the Indian mathematical society who was astonished seeing his notebooks . Meeting with G.H Hardy changed Ramanujam’s fate . In Triity they worked together for 4 years. Ramanujam ,the most intuitive and magical mathematical genius of our times was not related to any eminent or famous mathematician ,says Eysenck. But ,one has to understand he comes from a very rich heritage of Brahmins whose genius in maths and magic squares (Thanthric Srichakra) is not surpassed by any other race . And the fact that Ramanujam said his knowledge came from a dream of Namakkal Paradevata (Devi) is evidence for his genius which Susrutha calls the genius of the Karmapurusha (Jeevathman) and is related to previous vaasana (previous births).This genetic inheritance of thousands of years is being manifested even in children whose direct parents need not be genius or famous.In Music,related to mathematics , the genius do not run in families. Not even in Bach family ,says Eysenck. He argues that every million human beings does not produce 280 true geniuses .True genius is very very rare ,since genius is defined as one who makes a lasting contribution to a field or many fields .In my study of multiple intelligences ,for Musical genius I studied K.J.Yesudas and find that though hi sfather and son are also musicians they are not geniuses themselves . The father had influenced the son (Jesudas) in his ZPD stage . But even with a genius father ,the son of Jesudas (Vijay) who has adopted a singing career is not at all a genius and has not contributed anything to field of music so far and is not likely to do so in near future (unless some miracle happens)!!Newton,Einstein,Shakespeare, Beethoven,Kalidasa,Varahamihira,Valmiki ,Vyasa and many many rishis of India we have as geniuses who contributed to their fields (single as well as multiple fields). Eysenck points out that though compositions of 250 classical composers are played today ,the work of just 16 composers accounts for ½ the performances. (Beethoven,Bach,Mozart,Hayden,Chopin and Verdi tops the list).For Eysenck genius is like a genetic rarity or accident . To understand this
32 freak we have to look at 3 factors:- the cognitive style,the psychic symptoms,and the growing knowledge of brain biochemistry and neurological physiology. Genius produce more of neurotransmitter dopamine and less of serotonin but not always so. A combination of independent polygenes leads to a huge quantitative change. This is called Emergenesis or the freak or the miracle. This makes it possible for geniuses both to have unlikely ,even mad ,creative associations and to hve critical acumen to weed out the too bizarre and useless ones. Eysenck argue this is the root of the genius. And it has nothing to do with family inheritance .But it has every thing to do with social inheritance or the common inheritance of humanity and thus emergenesis or an incarnation is not a freak ,but a necessity for humanity ,according to Indian sciences .One cannot manufacture such an incarnation. It will show its genius by its contributions to society in more than one field . Just as Krishna did . True genius is a matter of biological luck which can be predicted by a able teacher and then nurtured to grow to its full stature by appropriate training at correct times . What is the difference from padmasana and shavasana from point of view of modern concept .? In Shavaasana the weight on the 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebra is only 25 % while that of Padmasana is higher . The lullabies while going to sleep and morning raga on waking up are heard in shavasana position . The Padmasana is for jagrad state when one sits for dhyana ,and meditates with concentration and is consciously reflecting on various subjects –sciences and arts and integrating them in his consciousness .To have Samadhi experience always ,in jagrad,sleep and in all periods (past,present and future) is what is meant by Vishnu’s Yoganidra in shavasana and he is therefore Yogayogeswareswara according to VyasaBharatha . The integrated Yoga,Ayurveda and Music ,arts ,sciences for intellectual,mental,spiritual and physical health is thus based on cosmic and body chakra or plexuses . Surgery /medicine /based on Susruthasamhitha Ayurveda as auxiliary to Atharvaveda. Before creating man Brahma created the science of Ayurveda (1 lakh sloka in 1000 chapter ). Prajapathi learnt it from Brahma ,Aswins from Prajapathy,Indra from Aswins and Divodasa from Indra . Dhivodasa is Dhanwanthari . From dhanwanthari – susrutha,Oupadhenava,Vaitarana,Aurabra,Pushkalavatha,Kara,Virya,(karaveerya),Gopurarakshitha,Nimi, Bhoja,Kaankaayana the Bahleekabhishak(foreigner),Galava and Garga learnt the science with emphasis on surgery and surgical pathology .Susrutha’s real name was Krishna and he was son of Viswamithra ,the sage during Ramayana times and he was sent to Kasi to Divodasa by Viswamithra to learn Ayurveda. Charaka: at end of krithayuga revealed to Bharadwaja through a meeting of the Angirasagothra rishis at foots of Himalaya .The sages sent Bharadwaja to Indra to learn ayurveda and from him Atreyaagnivesa,Bhela,Jatukarna ,parasara ,haaritha and ksaarapaani learned it . (These are mainly the medical part ) Kasyapa: vasishta,Atri and Bhrighu learned it from Indra.Through several generations it passed on and during Budha’s period it was Jeevaka who compiled Kasyapasamhitha. Jeevaka ,parvathaka and
33 bhandhaka composed pediatric (Koumarabritya) which is considered as a work by legendary Ravana ,of Angirasa gothra. Divodasa on surgery,Atreya on medicine and Kasyapa on paediatrics –is an authority . Brahmavaivarthapurana: prajapathy revealed to Sun which surya taught to 16 disciples. Treatment of birds,animals,plants .salihotra (aswayurveda) mathanga(hastyaayurveda)surapaala(vrikshaayurveda).Dhanwanthari taught all these to susrutha (agnipurana) Alchemy The oath of Susrutha.The nursing care in Susruthasamhitha after and before surgery . Hippocratic oath .(BC 639-544) Susrutha oath: Guru after testing the disciple for his ability to undergo the course makes him take an oath.Only after that the student is allowed into the temple ,where the university/Gurukula functions .Samadamaadi,Yamaniyamaadi are to be strictly followed .Suchi(sudhi),prathigna,sacred pilgrimage to the hill temples in Hemantha and sisira seasons (prathikrama/parushan parva) upavaasa etc . Panchadharma: ahimsa,sadhaarmikabhakthi,kshamaaapana,upavaasa,chaityaparipathi. Swapnamaanavaka: the student learning dreams .( Before Freud and Jung ). Oath: Thathognim thri:parineeyaagnisaakshikam sishyam brooyaath Kaamakrodhalobhamohamaanaahamkaarershyopaarushya Paisoonyaanrithaalasyayasasyaani hithwaa neechanakharomanaasuchinaa kashaayavaasasaa satyavrathaBrahmaharyaabhivaadanathathparenaavasyam bhavithavyam madanumathasthaanaanagamanasayanaasana bhojanaadhyayanaparenabhoothwaa mathpriyahitheshuvarthithavyam athonyathaa the varthamaanasaadharmo bhavathi aphalaa cha vidyaa na cha praakaasyam praapnothi .(soo 2.6)
Anatomy and dissection:was practiced .Instead of Formalin tanks lakes of pure water in forests were used and body was rolled in a cage of medicinal plants and well protected from attack of aquatic animals and worms ,and earliest men used the sharp roots of grass and other plants to do incision of skin layers (which they classified as 7 layers ) of the swollen dead body after 7 days taken out of water.Later on metal instruments were used . Susruthasamhitha speaks of the roots of grass showing its antiquity to pre-Atharvaveda period.
34 Vyadhi classified as 4 : Aganthuka (due to external causes),Sareera (due to internal causes from body itself),maanasa(psychosomatic),swabhaavika (due to natural phenomena like old age,congenital problems etc ) According to curability 3 types: sadhya (curable),Yapya(which can be reduced in intensity /severity but cant be cured ),asadhya (prathyaakhyeya) which have no partial or total cure (only palliative treatment possible). Sadhya is of 2 types : with medicines and with surgery . Another classification: adhyathmika due to physical and mental causes; adhibhouthika due to environmental causes /pollution etc; adhidaivika due to unnatural phenomenon like calamities ,like an earthquake etc .Congenital anomalies come under adhyathmika called janmaphalapravritha and chromosomal anomalies under Adhyathmika Aadiphalapravritha .All psychosomatic diseases come under adhyathmika doshaphalapravritha .Adhibouthika due to seasonal changes are prevented by seasonal food and seasonal music for each geographic region. Classification of diseases based on sites (organs) and on disease types were both prevalent .Classification of Arbudha (cancer) is just as we Pathologists ,now classify it . Gross appearance of squamous cell carcinoma : cauliflowerlike in western medicine and swethapundareeka like in Susrutha samhitha needs to be understood on geographic availability of the comparative material . Swethapundareeka is a better term for indigenous medicine .Use of rsenic and knife for cancer treatment is seen in Ramayana and in Vasishtasamhitha and in susruthasamhitha the cautery (ksharakarma ) and agnikarma ( with fire) and different types of extractions of growths ,incisions for it and the pre and postoperative care for each is given in detail. Surgery : Poorvakarma, pradhaanakarma and paschaathkarma (preoperative,operative and postoperative procedures and care ) Qualities required for doctors and nurses (paricharaka) : To take care of the sick is a noble profession. Therefore youth who enter this should be noble ,healthy in body ,mind and intellect ,interested in learning ,patient in words and deeds and have a happy countenance and communication skill .For this control of senses and mind ,courage,patience,kindness,purity of character ,concentration ,intellectual faculties,memory ,power of observation and interpretation etc should be cultivated from the beginning . Only if these are there the Guru accepts a student . Guru has to develop excellent teaching skills and impartial to all life forms (advaitha),and he knows all other branches of sciences .Unless one knows wholistically ,and integrate with other branches of sciences Ayurveda cannot be grasped fully.The disciple after learning from such a guru by own study and observation,research and with discussions from colleagues and other learned people should increase his/her knowledge (soo .4.3-8)If the client is a female paricharika should be a female too ( soo 34.12 ) showing that the medical universities had both women and men as students ,doctors and nurses .before using the science on clients independently the student has to go through a test in a sabha/Rajyasabha of scholars from different regions and disciplines .This licencing and permission makes him a Vaidya for public . But after that a lifetime study ,furthering
35 experiences and discussions needed for getting the acclaim from the public ( soo 4.6-7) and this happens only when he becomes old and a Guru in his own rights . 6.Budhist period . Jeevaka and his concepts on health . Jeevaka went to learn Medicine at Taxila Uty . After studies when he was about to leave his Guru gave him an axe and told him to go around the hermitage and find out a herb that is not a medicine.Jeevaka searched and searched and came back saying that he could not find a herb that had no medicinal properties. Jeevaka’s principle is that every plant ,the earth produce some or another medicinal/healing property.So is every raga in music therapy . Mukkutty,thumba,thottaavaadi,Manathankaali,kaaakkappo,karimkadali,poovamkurunnila,krishnakraant hi,kurunthotty,kaithonni,keezharnelli,karuka ,muthnga grass, adampu –dasapushpa .How many see these biodiversity now ? how many can identify them ? The biodiversity of tropical India is rapidly being destroyed by us and the ayurvedic herbs are now seen in botanical gardens of some ayurveda hospitals only . 7.Modern townplanning , modern concept of health . Multispeciality hospitals with all facilities which are unapproachable to common man /middle class people who are the majority of India . Catering only to the rich people . Not a costeffctive ,peopleoriented approach . People now believe that all diseases can be cured by such hospitals . Modern science has created a superstitious belief in its ability to find solution to any problem ,which is an absolute myth. Unless environment is protected from pollution,unless better sewage facilities,rules of cleanliness of each city and village are not practiced, different types of new diseases and infections will appear which are resistant to all treatments and medicines and superspeciality hospitals will fail to control them.Pure water supply . The water that come from Coovam river –can you expect that to be clean? Polluted Ganga water and Yamuna water ? Rivers ,rain water and well and ground water –all being lost due to deforestation. If we spend more on such ,and less on superspeciality hospitals ,it would be the better . The duty of doctors to the nation and community is to advice Governments on such policy matters and help the nation achive what we,as a unified nation,strive to achieve .Not mere individualistic selfish goals –I honestly believe. References :Asko Parpola ..(Ed) Proceedings of the Finnish Academy on ancient Civilizations 1993. Athula ‘s Mooshakavansakavya ,translation :Chirakkal Balakrishnan Nair .Introduction by Dr K R aghavan Pillai Chall .J (1983) Developing literacy in adults and children. London:Pergamon Press. Cohen D. How the child’s mind develops (read from British Council Library ); Cyril Burt (18831971)discussed by David Cohen1998 ): Psychologists on Psychology 2nd edition .London :Routledge.
36 Devy. G.N.After Amnesia :Orient Longman. 1995;pp.64-65 Eysenck .H.J.1995 : Genius ,the natural history of Creativity ,Cambridge :Cambridge Uty Press. Flavel ,J.H. (1962) The Developmental psychology of Jean Piaget .Princeton ,NJ,Van Nostrand. Gardner H. (1992) Multiple Intelligences . New York,Basic Books. Itty Achuthan of Chokavarna ,Kollada house ,Karappalli ,Cherthala (1678-1693): Hortus Malabaricus of Henry Van Rheede. This was translated into English by Kerala Uty . (K.S.Manilal). Krishnan kutty varier .N.V. (2005): History of Ayurveda.Kottakkal Ayurveda series -56. Lynn.R.(1997) Geographical variation in intelligence . in H.Nyborg (ED) The scientific study of Human nature ,Hillsdale ,NJ :Erlbaum. Mackintosh .N.J (1995). The Burt controversy :Oxford Uty Press . Meltzoff A.N and Moore M K (1983):Newborn infants imitate adult facial gestures ,Child development 54(3):702-9. Nalapat.S. (2008 ):Music therapy in administration,management and Education. Readworthy Publications .New Delhi Oppenheimer Stephan (2007): The origins of the British: Robinson ,London . Piaget J.(1952) Play ,dreams and imitation of childhood ,London.Routledge and Kegan Paul . Plomin R.,De Fries ,J,C and Fulker ,D.W (1998) : Nature and nurture during infancy and early childhood. Cambridge .Cambridge Uty Press Radhakumud Mukherjee .Ancient Indian Education .Brahmanical and Budhist .Motilal Banarasi das Reprint 1989 Soderberg. R (1977):Early childhood reading .Georgetown : Georgetown Uty Press 1977. Valentine E.W (1942) :The normal child. Harmondsworth :Penguin Vygotsky .L.(1962) Thought and language Cambridge ,MA:MIT Press . Wood C and Terell C (1997) Preschool phonological awareness and subsequent literacy development , Educational Psychology: 18.253-774 Perumal kallar gene Herodotus Susruthasamhitha:Susruthasamhitha .PriyadaRanjan Ray .Indian National Academy .
37 Susruthasamhitha (sanskrit text) with commentary named Kavyatheertha by Acharya Narayana Rama. Published by Satyabhama Bhai Pandurang 1945. Printed at Nirnayasagar press Bombay . Yogasuthra: Sadharana Hindi Bhashaa teeka Harikrishna Dasa Goyandhaka Geetha Press 1982.Pathanjalayogadarsana: With Vyasabhashya and Thathwavaisaradhi . Bharatheeya vidyaprakasna .Varanasi (Ed) Pandit Sri Ramasankara Bhattacharya .1966.
Chapter 3 Mathematics I have dealt with Astronomy and related Mathematics and the sea routes which ancient Indians used in an exhaustive manner in my previous book “Corridors of Time”.Therefore ,instead of repeating the same arguments ,I approach the problem of Mathematics in a different way here.Plato thought Mathematics originated from the Latin word Mathesis .It was thought by the ancient Greeks and early Christians ,just like the Indians ,that the mathematical wisdom comes from previous births . Socrates even tried to prove this by showing that an uneducated boy can understand principles of Mathematics,since it is his immortal soul which is capable of deciphering laws of nature mathematically ( Plato .Meno in Dialogues of Plato .B.Jowett.Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago .1996.P 179-180).Until 4th century AD ,the Christian church had the same belief because they were taught by the Greek . The question is who taught the Greek ? The 3rd century Archemedes and Aristotle were in contact with Indian teachers and manuscripts ,before and after invasion of Alexander ,as history tells us.Therefore the discovery o and of Archemedes principle ,as we now attribute to Archemedes came from Indian Mathematicians is an accepted fact .The great Guru Yajnavalkya ,who lived as teacher of King Janaka during Ramayana was aware of the value of and for Varahamihira and other ancient astronomers it lies between 223/71 and 22/7 and it was this Archemedes found out by drawing polygons inside and outside a circle ,and with more and more sides (with 96 sided polygon) he found out this value.But Indians also had a more accurate value of 355/113 which was not known to Archemedes.(see Panchasidhanthika of Varahamihira).The sphere and cylinder problem which we attribute to Archemedes occur in a 15th century manuscript of Euclid and C.K.Raju has raised a question of existence of its validity as that of Archemedes and also doubt about existence of a person called Euclid . Did such a mathematician ever exist ?He says the word was derived from the Arabian word Ucli des meaning “Key to Geometry” .By translation ,this word became a Greek name ,he says.(C.K.Raju .Teaching Mathematics with a different philosophy. School of Mathematical sciences Uty .Sains Malayasia .) The Madhava series (Madhava-Gregory) which is trigonometric series was used by Indian sea farers and by agriculturists and royal guards from time immemorial. The series π/1-1/3+1/5-1/7+….and a variant of it used by Madhava in 14th century to find π,was used during Indus valley times, not only in Astronomy and navigation but also in Music (Nalapat 2008).Madhava found the value correctly upto 11 places which is the most ancient astronomical values used in India rediscovered and taught by him in 14th century .
38 Before 3rd century ,Pythagoreans knew numbers and mathematics. Can we say the Greek were the original discoverers of Pythagorean mathematics and music of spheres ?Dr Robert Solomon ,in his work ,The little Book of Mathematical principles (page 19) gives an interesting story .The Pythagoreans ,when they were taught that their belief -everything can be explained in terms of whole numbers ,their ratios and fractions – was not true and irrational numbers like √2 which are not ratio of two whole numbers do exist were highly intolerant to that learned Guru . The Guru’s name is not mentioned .But the Pythagoreans who were appalled by the impudence of a strange Guru to question /or even refute what they thought right,drowned him for his wisdom,in the Aegean sea.So in 6th century BC Greece Mathematics and philosophy was still in a very unscientific and fanatic state .The Greeks had 3 great problems . 1. How to trisect an angle ? 2. How to double a cube ? 3. Given a circle, how can one construct a square of equal area ? Squaring a circle was considered impossible .They took 2000 years to solve that problem !! But it is what the simplest rule a mathematician of India uses in all his Vaasthu ,Yanthra ,and Thanthra texts .It is the method by which we convert the Geodesic spherical geometry to the Square earth (for plot) and make a Mercator map with longitude and latitude .Europeans did not know how to solve the problem of Loxodromes .Indians never had that problem .Because ,their astronomical navigation charts were always geodesical and their Trigonometry was celestial Trigonometry ,converted onto a square map which they knew was for practical purposes of time zone determination. Until 16 th century Europe was using Julian Calendar which was 10 day off ,and Columbus had problems with that calendar . To solve problem of Loxodromes one should know Trigonometry and 16th centry Europe was totally unaware of it . Several countries announced prize for discovering it and the last prize was announced by Britain in 1712 and it was partially given in 1760. We all know Everest for scaling the highest mountain peak in Himalaya ,which lost its name Saagaramaathaa (mother of ocean) to accept his name Mt Everest.But ,why did Everest come to India ? It was to learn Trigonometry . Scaling Everest was the last step he made , but he and the mount are known by his name for the wrong reason .We will see the role Everest ,the man played in Trigonometric survey of India in this chapter . In India ,the uncultivated forest land is known as Jaangaladesa and all the ancient dwellers of the land knew the exact distance and way through these jungles.(Jungle is an English word which is borrowed from Sanskrit Jaangala). Colonel Lietneant Lambdon ,the Superintendent of Trigonometric Survey of India had been learning and scaling the jungles and forests of South India from 1802.He had asked for an Assistant and in 1819 Everest ,a 28 year old young man was sent to help him scale the jungles between Godavari and Krishna in Andhra,which every native (from at least the day of Ramayana) had scaled and travelled . In the monsoon of 1819, one of his Adivasi guides told Everest that it is dangerous to do it in Monsoon ,and since Everest thought he was being lazy he didn’t listen to it. The guide just disappeared knowing the dangers of travelling through Godavary –Krishna districts in monsoon. Everest was angry .He caught him and punished him ordering to give thrashing with whip. Thus a group of guides about 40 natives rebelled agaist Everest and the British army whipped them and even fired at them (in which the Nizam of Hyderabad assisted the British). But soon Everest was to get his chastisement from mother nature.
39 At that time the natives called the surveyors in their language the “Kumbhaswallah”. Kumbha is the top structure of a high temple ,which acted as a signpost for observatories and trigonometric surveys. It is from this word the English word Compass derived. Everest ,who was totally unaware of the language or the system of measurement prevalent in India was annoyed ,thinking that the natives have given him a nickname and made them ask for forgiveness for such lack of reverence to a superior officer.He was teaching them how to behave !!The first observation post itself showed him the fury of July monsoon .When the signal men had gone to Panchapanthal (a ridge 60 KM away)to raise a flagpost,and others with Everest moved towards south of river Krishna ,a great floods occurred in Musi,Krishna’s tributary.The troupe had to take the other route (50 miles beyond Vijayawada) through a boat.The ancient vessel of Krishna (a circular vessel bowl called coracle) was first seen by Everest on that occasion.It was made by weaving Rattan ,belonging to a grass family. The other vehicle he had was elephant which can travel in forest . When they reached Sarangapally mountains it was twilight and there was a great thunderstorm and heavy rains. The belief then was Malaria spread through air and water (partially true about the breeding place of mosquitoes ) till 70 yrs later,Ronald Ross isolated the parasite in the mosquitoes of Begam Pet ,which lies in the suburbs of the Hyderabad Uty .From Sarangapally ,Everest had to recross Krishna ,north towards Godavary.The survey was on secondary triangulation.Krishna-Godavary district is imagined as a network of imaginary triangles(as we do in Srichakra )whose sides connected intervisible observation posts.Thrikonamithi ( English word for it is trigonometry –derived again from Sanskrit) uses 3 mutually visible points (reference points)on hills as corners of the triangle . Distance is calculated between two hills as base points.This is the baseline.The angle of these 2 points with the third hill is is calculated by sighting with a Theodolite.By this method the distance between the 3 points is calculated and for proof ,they actually measure it with a Rajju (rope) which is never made of metal since metal contracts and expands depending upon temperature and in tropics with temperature variation this will give false results. The distance from the third point and a 4th point(another hill) and a 5th is similarlycalculated and a web of chain of triangles are thus measured and they make a square,as well a spherical or geodesic circle (globe) for Indians. The position of the Reference points have to be established by careful observation of stars. To make such astronomical observations accurate ,months,years and whole lifetime,and even generations of Gurukula had toiled in Indian subcontinent before the Great Trigonometric survey of India .These methods were being taught to the new enthusiasts from Europe by the natives –both Sanskrit scholars and the adivasis who had practical knowledge of the methods by prolonged life in the same place. The Indian sages had well equipped and professionally established observatories throughout India. To prove trigonometry ,geometry(Jyaamithi in Sanskrit ) is needed. It is more simple to understand for a beginner ,but is not quicker ,and nor is it more accurate. It gives a proof,a mathematical certainty ,a scientific acceptability to astronomical understanding of Thrikonamithi and Geodesics. The Thrikona (triangles ) had to be located and oriented in terms of the earth’s grid of latitude and longitude. And occasional measurements with Rajju (sulbasuthra) was mandatory.All this existed in india centuries before the Great Trigonometric survey of the British Government began . When Everest did his secondary triangulation between Krishna and Godavari ,the baseline measurement was not needed. Astronomical observations also were not needed.These were already there.
40 The trigonometric stations along the east coast with primary triangulation was already done about 100 miles inland into the west by Lambton. Roughly following 78 degree meridian for NS line of longitude,a continuous chain of triangles from Cape of Comorin(Kanyakumari)upto Hyderabad (700 miles)was already measured and called the Great Arc of the Meridian.The entire trigonometric survey depended upon this . Everest born in Greenwich ,which by 17th century was called the Midday Meridian . From that the west had started to calculate long distances and from which maps and grids were calculated . But only in 19th century Greenich got the International approval of the NS equivalent of the EW equator at 0 degree Latitude. Till then it was the Indian Great Arc ,with Lanka as the NS equivalent and closest to the EW equator which was the Great Arc of the meridian for all global calculations . Lambton is forgotten by both British and Indian scientists while Everest is venerated by both. His tomb lies in Hinghanghat (50 miles South of Nagpur) where a congregation of Kerala immigrants live.He was born in Yorkshire in a very poor family in 1760. In 1796 he was posted to the Indian army by Arthur Wellesley. Arthur Wellesley met Lamton only in 1798 ,while both of them were travelling from Calcutta to Madras in a ship. Wellesley was going to participate in a Mysore war. By that time Lamton had only one eye. He had directly oserved a solar eclipse from Canada ,and lost his left eye. He was proficient in Mathematics, Mechanics and Astronomy. In 1799-1800 Field survey of Col.Mackenzie ,and his visit to India for learning the Hindoo system of logarithms ,and his subsequent Mysore survey and large collection of manuscripts,coins ,inscriptions and records are famous. Wellesley understood Lambton was not proposing a map,not just a measurement,not an exercise in geography ,but a proposal for Geodesy-a study of the earth’s shape ,which was new to the western world . Triangulation with all its equations and theories like that of Pythagorus is strictly two-dimensional-on a level surface. The angles of any angular triangle on earth’s horizontal but round surface do not on a plane add to exact 180 degree ,instead slightly opened by the curvature and so slightly more than 180. This difference is known as the spherical excess. It has to be deducted from the angles measured. The first observation of this we find in the oldest of the Indian Astronomy text “Paithaamahasidhantha” in which Paithamaha calculates it as 183 ,and hence the year as 366 days .Subsequent sidhanthas have based their assumptions on this .(See Panchasidhanthika ;and Corridors of Time by the author ). The old method of working out radius and circumference of earth ,and then deduce from them the standard correction for spherical excess ,and then apply this throughout triangulation was not understood either by Euclid or by the Gregorian calendar( which thought of reducing number of days and made great errors in calculation).The problem is that earth is not perfectly round. It is an ellipsoid /sheroid. It is compared to a grapefruit by new scientists. The grapefruit has an oblate spheroid. Indians had called the earth a Jambudweepa ,which means it is having the shape of a Jamboo fruit which is in plenty in South India ,especially Kerala .It is also compared to fruit of Aamlaki .It is more curved at equator and flatter at poles. How much flat it is? How oblate a sphere is ? The trigonometric surveys in Europe ( Spain,France,British Isles) were giving inconsistent results because ,the measurements cannot be understood correctly in Northern Hemisphere . Lambton understood this and he found that the best Tropical latitude (roughly between equator and North Europe) is India and India alone . This was why he was in India and his taking up an army post was just to be in India ,to take up this great task.
41 The importance he understood : 1. To determine actual measurement of magnitude and figure of earth –the most sublime reason. 2. For navigators to improve their charts .3 Importance in branches of mechanics 4. In physical astronomy . His 3rd Mysore survey in 1800 was thus approved and its name was “The Trigonometrical survey of the peninsula.”.When he used steel chains ,he found that the extreme heat of Tamil country in April May caused a variation of recordings .The reason for Rajju was explained thus .At that time the hills of Karnataka were called the Durgh (Durgha in Sanskrit) which the British pronounced as Droogs and confused with military forts . In Jinji and Trichy where no great mountains exist ,they found small forts,temples or even lighthouses and stone piles above small hillocks in the center of fields which people used as observation posts and for trigonometric survey (a double purpose).It is interesting that the Malabar coast was never measured ,because the kings and merchants never allowed them to do so. 1 The first baseline was from Bangalore base extending to north about 100 miles ,to territory of Nizam of Hyderabad and then south to Kanyakumari. 2.The next baseline from Coimbatore 140 miles south of Bangalore in 1806 . 3. The next baseline was Thirunelveli ,kaveri delta .And hopping from one temple Gopura to another he spent time till 1808. West of Kumbakonam was ruled by Thanjavur kings and there he found the Rajeswara temple tower. He moved there instead of south.There he found that the topmost capstone of a south Indian temple was called an Amlaka (due to resemblance to that fruit) and that is the shape of earth ,the wife of Vishnu . He tried to attach his theodolite to that and a catastrophe happened .Theodolite fell down and broke. By that time ,he was called to participate in a war with Raja of Travancore with whom British had scores to set. He came back in 1809 and completed his task upto Kanyakumari. Stargazing is as important as ,and more demanding than triangulation,he had understood by this time. Triangulation simply fix the survey’s points of observation in relation to one another and to the baselines but to orientate triangles and to establish the position of the trig points on earth’s surface in term of longitude and latitude and to detect the earth’s variable curvature ,it was essential that the survey be anchored by astronomical observations. Made by measuring the angles at which planets and stars pass through the zenith as seen from the earth was more important ,and that was actually done in the series of Doorgs or trigonometric stations of India .The entire peninsular India had such stations and offered a readymade area for trigonometric survey of the British . The number of observations made from a single point(station) for several thousands of years makes the calculations better .For this each Gurukula had people stationed for visualization ,and the results computed and analysed and codified every year ,year after year,thousands of generations . Lambton sat in observatory of Thirunelveli for 27 consequtive days and nights and made 200 observations for latitude at just that one point .This was considered a precise value ,which was compared with the previous values of Indians .He was taught that to establish distance between 2 points several thousand miles apart -say at 100 miles apart ,at extremities of the great Arc it was important to observe the same star at each place ,at same time ,with identical methods and instruments for a long time. He remarked that the observatory at Madras was in effect the Indian Greenwich. And from it all other studies and researches started. The actual statement should have been ,Greenich was the Lanka of Indians and
42 from Lanka as zero point had started all studies of the Graet Arc and continued in the western astronomy ,with Greenich established in 1600AD .Repeating and reviewing the past work done by generations of scientists and learning from on hand experience was what was going on.India was teaching science to the west for the sake of a new era of knowledge and wisdom. Coming back to story of Everest ,the 150 member crew which he had taken to Yellapuram in Godavari got typhus (The yellapuram fever) and 15 died .The rest seemed a crowd of corpses recently torn from the grave ,wrote Everest himself. His fellow European Dr Voysey did not recover from fever and after 4 years succumbed to recurrence of Yellapuram malaria.Everest came back for survey next year but got another recurrent jungle fever. And another Asst Joseph Olliver completed the work. Everest was crippled by the new and recurrent old fevers and at 35 yrs he went back the second time to England on sick leave . He could not come back to India for next 5 years. Everest had written about his achievements : He did not think that the survey of India,or the Trigonometric survey were great achievements.But he thought among his experiments the “Great Indian Arc of Meridian “ was the greatest . And as we have seen already that was not his achievement ,but of Lambton. In 1822 ,Everest came back and started his work on the Poona Bombay Arc. It is very interesting that he wrote highly of the Mahratta people and indirectly against the aborigines of the South Indian peninsula whom Lambton found very friendly and co-operative .He wrote :-The face of the country is quite devoid of trees ,here are no jungles to foster fevers,no mosquitoes to torment ,no bandits to infest the path,no roaming rivers to cut off communications,but a fertile welldeveloped country inhabited by the Mahratta tribes ,who are the best natured and kindest of all the natives of India”. His first station was at Achola,a drooglike eminence. He understood that by construction of stone cairns (which the ancient inhabitants did) and piling stones as 20 ft high towers one can see the tower and the entire hill in a clear dawn .The construction of a mast or dwajasthambha on the tower,and above it a light (Deepasthambha) which is covered with a mudpot having holes so that the lightray is seen from far away was atechnique that the natives did to measure the astronomical angles. The refraction ,its hourly variations at night etc he had tried at Cape of Good hope as taught by Lambton ,earlier .(The short arc of cape of Goodhope). The fact that the north pole is flattened and south pole is pointed as an egg ,Able De La Caille had observed using night lights for observation . The Adivasins use bonefires and later on the Deepasthambha ,to measure the astronomical angles. Bonfires are diffuse ,unpredicatable as sighting objects but indicate the general location of a sighting object . When an oillamp is lit and a holed mudpot used as its cover the hole let out lightray (and Everest found the village potters were experts in making such holed mudpots!) light is seen as far as 40 miles away except on a windy weather . The refraction helped in predawn hours ,the time when all sages start their morning observations.Night lights (deepaaraadhana)impervious to the ( which proved during the day ) can be seen from 40-45 miles away .In days just before and after the rainy season the visibility is more. In cool dry seasons-November to February –and in Hot dry seasonsFebruary to June-it was ideal for night observations. If there are bonefires on either side of the Deepasthambha ,it is the best . Therefore the dry season is best than monsoon .The scientists (sages) do their Chathurmasya and take rest during rainy season in caves ,because of this . The cavedwellers of India had started this at a very early age.
43 In Kerala we find the astronomical observation of Agastya (Canopus) from the southern hills like Sabarimala ,where all these ancient methods instituted by sage Mathangha ,one of the astronomers( who lived before Ramayana) had started .The modern political and social activists who are totally unaware of both modern and ancient sciences and their comparisons ,go on creating controversies about this . The ageold adivasi cult of making bonfires on either side of a shrine with a lamp burning is not just a superstition and neither is it religion. It is the scientific culture of ancient inhabitants of India still continued through generations of human beings . I wrote about this in middle 90’s in a journal from Hyderabad , but I do not think that its importance was grasped either by public or the scientists . While Everest was measuring his first step from Dharoor to Chorakully hill ,Lambton died on his way to Nagpur in his 19th camp at Hinghanghat ,in his sleep. He died tranquilly and calmly .Before death he had written that if someone who is learned recognize his efforts for 20 years in protecting science that would be his greatest award. He said he has never experienced a bad moment during his learning spell and being always busy with work ,time had passed emotionless. He says he always remembers his most blissful years in India which was more than 20 years. This shows the differene between the two personalities –Lambton and Everest. After Lambton’s death for next 20 years Everest was in charge of the great Arc . From Ellichpur ( Achalpur) to Sironj he had 20 trig stations for 2 years survey. The Thapathi and Godavari are intertwined by tributaries creating a east-west watershed ,a catalogue of contradictions and north of Tapathy is Narmada the Rubican of Indian history .Everest surveyed till Hoshangabad till 1824 Monsoon. From there the 78 degree meridian pass the city of Bhopal ,the stupa of sanchi in Vidisha and Sironj beside Bhetwa south of Jhansi .Betwa join Yamuna before Yamuna join Ganga ,then to Agra and Delhi.Sironj is 200 miles south of Agra .Everest lived 30 years in India but he never saw a tiger ,he wrote but was well aquainted with scorpions. In 1825 typhoon he lost his tent and Theodolite was crushed before redumption . Thus using the doorgs,temples,hills,deepasthambha and masonry towers and cairns which the natives had been using for thousands of years ,the members of the Trigonometric survey learned several things from Indians .Everest had his last observation post near Mussorie at Hathi Paon (Elephant feet)and watched Gangothri ,the origin of Ganga . The stone temple near Kedarnath ,which existed near Gangothri for several thousands of years bear testimony to the astronomical measurements of Indians .Near Shortugai ,the northernmost Indian post of ancient traders and in the northern most point of Kashmere we find areas designated as Durga or dhoorg . Varahamihira when speaking about the astronomical measurements have said that the calculations are accepted from Saagara (ocean) to Himadri( Himalaya) . If we know the latitude and longitude of the Himalayan peaks ,and that of the ocean routes of the southern people which depends on the great Arc of geodesic one has known the principles of astronomy . And the British did that when Everest finished his survey ,scaling saagaramaathaa (the mother of oceans) and they renamed it as Everest . The weight and measures of ancient Indians : 1 Gunja (seed of Abrus precatorius)= 1.83 grain( .118 gm)
44 The goldsmith’s weight according to Manusmrithi: 5 rakthika= 1 maasha 16 maasha=1 karsha(1 tholaka)/or suvarnam 4 karsha=1 pala (1 1/3 oz or 37.76 gm) 10 pala=1 dharana 16 pala =1 prastha (21 oz or 600 gm) 1 drona=21 pounds or 9.6 gms The measuring of a woodworker: 8 yava= 1 “ ( 2 cm) 12 “=1 vithasthi (23 cm) 2 vithasthi= 1 hastha or arathni(47 cm) 4 hastha=1 danda or dhanus (1 dhanu is 6 ft ) 2000 dhanus =1 krosa or Gorutha (a cowcall which incorporates the distance sound travels. 3.6 km) 4 krosam= 1 yojana (14.5 km or 9 miles) In Arthasasthra 1 krosa is 1000 danda and others say it is 2000 danda 1 yojana = 7.2 Km (4 ½ mile) .2types of yojana are used .The smaller one for Vasthu construction and the largest for the stars in lightyear distances . Time measurement :18 nimesha=1 kashta (3 1/5 sec) 30 kashta =1 kala(1 3/5 mts) 15 kala =1 naadika (24 mts) 30 kala (2 nadika)=1 muhurtha (kshana) 48 mt 30 muhurtha =1 ahorathra Yama=1/8 of ahorathra (3 hrs) 1/3 of a yama =1 hora (hour in English) 1/8 X 1/3 =1/24 of ahorathra is Hora The Ho of Aho and Ra of Rathri makes Hora . (This is translated as Hour in English language from Greek ,and Greek got it from india )
45 I read a book by Basham recently which says India’s many gifts to the world is the Gypsis (page 51415).For several years it was thought that an Egyptian soldier had progeny in a Yahooda girl ,while Moses was leading Russian gipsies through the red sea. In 1763 a protestant theology student Stephan Valye from Hungary , studied the language of Hungarian gypsies and language of three Indian students he knew from Uty of Leyden and a brief paper was published . He and several others after him proved that the Romanian language is the language of the Gipsis from India . The list thus published :Romani Ek Duyi Thrin Sthaar Panchi sho Ephtha Ohtho Eenniya Desh Beez Sel Manush Bal Kaan Nak Yak Kalo Chakko N.Indian/Sanskrit Eka,Ek Dwaa,do Thri,theen Chathwara,chaar Pancha ,paanch Shashta,che Saptha,saath Ashta,aadt Nava,now Dasa,das Vimsa, Bis Satha Manushya Baala/baal Karna /kaaan Naasaa /naak Akshi Kaalaa Satya/sach English One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Twenty Hundred Man Hair/child Ear Nose Eye Black Truth Malayalam Onnu Randu Moonnu Naalu Anchu Aaru Ezhu Ettu Ompathu Pathu Irupathu Nooru Manushya Baala, vaala Chevi /karna Naasa/moook Kannu Karuppu Satya Tamil Onru Irandru Moonru Naanku Anchu Aaru Ezhu Ettu/atta /attha Ompathhu Pathhu Irupathhu Nooru Manitha Vaala Chevi Mook Kannu Kari Unmai
The language of the Gypsi is the mix of Prakrith and Sanskrit ,and is not Tamil .It is an apabramsa of the Indian language of Sanskrit,Hindhi and Malayalam (which also has a mix of Tamil). The Dravidian and Sanskrit mix is Gypsi language . In 3rd century BC during Asoka’s time they moved north according to philologists. They were the musicians and entertainers who were moving with people .Indian Dom and Thomara tribes (Rom or gypsies as they are universally designated is from Thomra) and they talked a Romania language and in Syrian Romani language it is called Doum ,which is very close to Indian Dom (Thom).Even before that musicians and entertainers had moved to west .Sassanians ,Babylonians and Assyrians had contact with Indian entertainers and musicians who accompanied caravans and gifts from India is seen right from IVC Harappan times.It is from them the Persians and Babylonians and Sumerians and Assyrians learnt culture and language of India .About this we will discuss later. The gypsi were a group from lower strata of society and had several characters which are not noble .Careless,lazy,dirty,cheerful,skilled in metalworks,and tinkering,splendid musicians and dancers,bedecked with bright garments and jewellery ,menfolk being cunning .They were horsedealers,and womenfolk telling fortunes .Both sexes loosing no opportunity to pilfer from the
46 unsuspecting gorjo. In 3rd Reich gas chambers many of them perished .Even they knew Sanskrit words though they were apabramsa. Since they were living for a long time in Balkans South Slavonic and many Greek words were included in their vocabulary . Spanish gypsies came from 2 directions :- 1st via Egypt and North coast of Africa and second over the Pyrenees .This descriptions of A.L Basham (wonder that was India ) and his statement that in 2000 BC Benghal ,in “Pandurajan Dibhee” metalusing settlements a seal and pottery resembling Minoan crete was obtained has to be viewed with due importance . Indian jungle fowl was domesticated by Indians and they reached China through Burma ,and also Egypt (where it was known as a rare bird) .Clearly India wass ending gifts –both living and nonliving- including people with different knowledge systems to both sides of the globe,knew the secrets of geodesics and searoute and landroute,shape of earth and timescale of cosmic dimensions in lightyears and was never cut off from the other parts of the world . It is interesting that archeologists noticed the resemblance of Kulli clture to Middle east culture but also noticed that though Indian goods reached Middle east but no middle east good was accepted in India . Cassites of Iran destroyed the Babylonian dynasty with which India had ancient contacts . Even after that Mesopotamia and India had contacts .Only in BC 1500 did the Babylonian dynasty fell forever . Even after that we see the contacts maintained by sea routes through Phoenicians ,who are the Naga people of Southern India . References : A.L.Basham . Wondder that was India. John Keay .(2000): The great Arc . Harper Collins
47 Chapter 4 The bead of Mangalya and the Sindh seen by Mc Murdo
When I moved to Chennai in 2005 , I got a very good housemaid,belonging to the Mudaliar caste.I was surprised to understand that though she was illiterate , she knew the symbols and the meanings of each of them on her Mangalyasuthra ,some of them being as old as Harappan civilization. The symbol of the middle pendant which we call Thaali or mangalyasuthra, she said represents shiva ,which says she belongs to Shiva gothra . (If it is a leaf like structure ,like that of a banyan tree , Gothra is Vaishnava). The front (Muyapp she called it) and the back showed Patta +Vriksha ,which are symbols of fertility. These are seen in Harappan seals. The elongated beads she called Gnaanakkuzha ,the bead of wisdom .The coconut(Thenkay) and the Nellikkaay( fruit of aamalaki) which she called a Gundu ,and 7 banana tree shoots,and round structures with leaf and swan on either side, and Mahalakshmy ,a fruit of pineapple (kaitha) and mangoes and black beads and figure of 8 like structures . All she explained with detail ,saying that all represent wisdom,fertility of races,and of earth and the life force or sakthi with shiva .That was a revelation . Look at her gold chain and the bead chain from Harappa and see the similarity . Mehrgarh is not far from Mohenjodaro and there was a bead manufacturing center in that place.Period 1 A and B from 7000 BC to 5800 BC manufactured small black cylindrical beads in large numbers (the gnaanakkuzha of modern women). In period 2 between BC 5800 -4500 was Neolithic period and a black steatite bead worshop existed there. Pieces of raw steatite ,large quantity of small waste fragments ,irregular fragments with abrading traces,discoid fragments abraded on 2 faces which are blanks or imperfect blanks ,broken blanks with traces of drilling . Period 3 C was between BC 4500-3800 BC. Periods 1 and 2 were chalcolithic and preceramic Neolithic and first phase of occupation . There had been continuous occupation after BC 7000 . The fact that Mehrgarh is a purely urban phase shows that whatever they were having as cultural relics were having an age beyond BC 7000 ,in the Indian subcontinent .
48 The 1st change was 91 % beads steatite ,and heating process was the rule. Colour change due to heating was noticed. Necklaces,bracelets and headdress were made . The second change was change in shapes of beads ,but the size standardized in periods 1 and 2. Average diameter was 3.8 mm and height 2.7 mm. Average diameter of the hole is 0.9 mm. Cylinders with both edges beveled ,spheroids,ellipsoids,small rings with curvilinear and biconical profile and conical were made . Manufactring process remained the same as in Period 1 with the same working marks.The 3rd change was the emergence of the first glaze.A blue shade typical of the glaze is difficult to see even with a magnifying glass. Micro Xray fluorescence showed traces of copper as the evidence of the glaze . 100 chalcolithic beads analysed showed both copper and iron. That is,they all have been coated with glaze.Study of 10 beads with well preserved glaze was done to know structure of material and chemical composition. The beads were enclosed in resin (after glazing)to allow good slicing and a perfect polishing with diamond powder . chemical analysis showed body rich in Si and Mg (in lamellar structure of spherical zone) and in interphase Mg more than Si and appearance of Na and Ca. In glaze Si was main component associated with Cu ,Fe,Ca,K,Ti,Al,Mn,Cr,Na,Mg .Each phase of glaze had specific compositions. The glass:- Na,Si,Al,Ca,Ti,K,Cu,Fe Grey short crystals:- Mg,Si Acicular light grey crystals:- Mg,Si,Ca Dendritic high relief crystals :- Cu, or Cu +Si So an alkaline glaze to which large amounts of lime added. The fine elements are Na and K. Al,Ti,and Fe and traces of clay minerals in raw natural was used for glazing .The colouring agent was Cu oxide and Cu silicate (Chrysolith) .This shows the people knew Copper mettullurgy right from BC 7000.They were melting and glazing the mixture at 1000 degree C and then cooling very slowly. It is evident that this temperature cannot be achieved in open air fire but only in a klene (Kilns).In chalcolithic age the copper mettullurgy and also developmebt of ceramics was there in Indus valley Harappan civilization ,according to this findings . 3 oven bases were excavated in chalcolithic period sites ,circular in diameter less than 1.2 m built in mudbricks which become red under heating .3 small apertures (tuyerers /duayara or dwaara ) regularly prepared on base and were filled with thick layers of glazed ashes. Ovens included powdered red earth,and great quantity of sherds . In them 1000-1200 degree is easily obtained. Steatite beads could be fired in them. Egyptian beads were glazed green blue ,alkaline,crystalline like Indians but with no calcium ,therefore mineralogical composition also differ.The two people –Indians first and Egyptians several millennia after that ,used different ways of glazing to obtain similar results .(South Asian Archeology 1993. 1.pp 4759.Ed Asko Parpola ).So not only languages but also mettullurgy and crafts travelled from east to west . The wandering tribes as tradespeople definitely had a role in this and the genetic and linguistic proofs given in first chapter also point to this direction. The copper industry and workshop in Ganeswar show that India was a great manufacturing site of copper weapons during and before Mahabharatha period .
49 We will see how a British official Mc Murdo saw Sindh in North west India and its geography and history .(McMurdo’s account of Sindh .James McMurdo OUP 2007).Captain McMurdo was an army officer who spent time in Sindh (Now Pakistan) and carried out a investigation into the course of Sindhu river,history and geography of Sindh .He also published a history of the Kalhora dynasty of Sindh. In the Introduction Sarah Ansari says the Talpur Amirs ,a confederacy of related Baoch chiefs ,seized power from the Kalhora Lords in 1783 and their Government was a unique kind of family co-operation without company rules or balance sheets .Sindh was annexed by Sir Charles Napier and Captain James Outram ,the British Political agent in Sindh since 1839 criticized the policy of annexation .Outram’s defence was published in 1846.Eastwick,Nathan Crowe,Sir Henry Pottinger,Dr James Burnes,Lt Thomas Postans wrote in defence of the annexation on the ground that the rulers were inefficient and not able to exploit the economic potential of the area.McMurdo also had the same opinion but his accounts are a mix of professional duty, inherent curiosity to know India and a scholarly enthusiasm too. Whether his views are right or not is not our point of discussion.We will see how a person of British birth saw Sindh at that time .He says the value of Sindh as economic and strategic resources ,lying at Gateway to a “short and easy route to Northern countries of India and Persia “,the fertility in the flood exposed parts exceeded by that of no tract of the country on earth.But about the Sindhian people he wrote very harsh words: “With most ,if not all of the vices common to the Asiatics,Sindhians appear to possess few or none of their virtues.Ignorance,bigotry,arrogance and self-pride ,….treachery is a national vice in Sindh Less addicted to assassination when compared to other military Governments ,Sindhis have a high idea of duties of hospitality.No Asiatic country ,in proportion to the number of population ,sends forth so many needy vagrants as Sindh.But he also observes that the Talpurs, though very inefficient in collecting revenue,developing industry and agriculture , have no prejudice against Sunni or Shia and other faiths and protects all faiths.Outram’s report about the Talpur Amirs is in sharp contrast .He says they are “Superior to most of the princes in India I have ever known with regard to morality and personal respectability (. Outram to Napier .1843. January 26th .Additional Manuscripts 40864 f. 37 British Library Q .) McMurdo says the earliest name Sindhudes means the country of the Ocean, and was governed by a Xhuthi ( This term is seen in later history as Chuthu Sathakarni clans), named Jayadratha who fought in a civil war of Pandus and the people are descendents of him .The Greek called the capital of the province Sindhumana. The boundaries are illdefined .To the North is Kabul (Kubhaathata of Veda)and west and east lie lands of the Dravidaputhra . To south is Kutch and ocean,and on western boundary is the Rocky mountains. On east are deserts . Greek recorded that several sovereignties possessed and had powerful resources both in men and riches ,but McMurdo thinks in such a small space,this must be an exaggeration . How can so many people,names,rituals ,and languages ,and kings exist in such a small space as Sind and what Alexander’s army wrote is ridiculous ,he thinks. Such a variety does not exist in Sindh or its historical documents . (The record of Alexander was about the huge combined army of entire Indian subcontinent which met him in union ).McMurdo then gives the people’s account of their land . The sindhians told him that from prehistoric times their land had two parts –one north and one south. The north Bhaker to parallel of Modern Halakandi(Halakhand)below Schwann is called Sierra (Sikhara) and the south upto ocean is the Lar (Lata) In Roman geography this is called Laryia near mouth of Indus. Lar is Laribunder of Rome which McMurdo could not identify and he says it is a general name
50 for any port on the delta. Its capital was Alor in Sierra ,and Brahmanabad in Lar.Lakkana ,a word derived from Lalaarasa (saliva) gave rise to the name ,since the oozing Sindh had the appearance of a watered mouth .Alor and Brahmanabad were the first and second cities of their ancient kings. Each Khanda had several provinces and some of the old names were still in use. To the East of the river were : Sirra,Jam Tumachi,Battora,Rupa,Odhijahi(Odhijahi is described in Valmiki Ramayana as a place where red cotton plantations existed and Prince Bharatha of Kekaya inspects that ),Samavathi,Tranda ,Mir Ella Yarkhan,Mattaloi,Shehdadpur,Halakandi,Dim,Kandiara, Rani Gumbat Lakavat, Hallam,Behlani, Lohri,Moraguchira, Khairpur ,Mattila On the west : Koteri,Khondo,Sun,,Sehwan,Thehri,Bobuk,Samathani,Khodabad, Kulla,Kacha,Bagban,Thiggar,Chandka, Gora(Karnalla) Do Aba (Hyderaabad)Karachi with its country to the west of Thatta called Chaapper .There are 3 large districts called Jow,Baddin and Mandra (Manthara in name of a character in Ramayana ) .Thatta has several pargana in which Druk is very ancient ( Druk is in name of Druhyu ,son of Yayathi of Chandravansa,Budha lineage )From this word ,came the name Thurukka for western tribes of India(means children of Druhyu).The author of Toh fatul Kiram finds the climate of Sind fine ,delightful and notes that North is cold and south is warm . McMurdo has a different opinion. He says the province is unhealthy in areas of annual inundation,with intermittent fever,asthma and rheumatism.Due to severity of climatic change in North and South ,he observes,only natives will survive there for long . The south upto Thatta has south west monsoon and climate is almost similar to Gujrat ,but west of it in Chappaer and places where Joghias live several years elapse without a drop of rain. In Sewi (Sibi kingdom) hot winds in March ,April ,May makes travel dangerous. Deserts between Sewi and N F of Sindh is absolutely impossible for travel at that time. Soil in areas of inundation is rich clay ,fine loam ,and elsewhere loose sands. This is extremely fertile land and without tillage luxuriant crops of grains are grown. When soil is wet after floods grain is scattered on surface and without doing anything(no need for adding manure etc) people get enough food . In the lower parts of Lar water submerge land for 3 months . The quantity of rice production is beyond anything ever heard of,says McMurdo. The people of Kakralla and Kutch sow seeds when water rise. When the water level rise the rice plant also rise .(This is what we in South Malabar do ,with Pokkali rice).The grain is harvested by people ,from a boat .The most inferior division of Kakralla gives as its share to the Governement 1000 kirwars of rice which is 1/3rd of the total produce .This comes to 840 000 pounds ,so that total produce of the inferior division is 2520 000 pounds.People give this in time to Governemnts and there was no need to increase the revenew and tax them more than that . The native Governments were following that policy from prehistoric times upto the Amirs .Food supply was never a problem .In the east of Goni branch of the river there is no inundation and there Bajra,mung(pulses)wheat ,Indian corn are cultivated by irrigation.Sugarcane,barley,cotton and tobacco are also by irrigation.In more Northern districts people make Dindh ( In Malayalam we call it Thind)and make lakes within it when annual floods happen and irrigation is done from them . Cotton and sugarcane are grown.In North Sindh are Indigo plantations. Indigo is the standard dye of local people. After use,a part is supplied to foreign markets. The revenue from Indigo is for one Sindh Beegha(8 yard of land only) annual revenue of 80 Rs for the Governement.For this irrigation is required. Thatta has lot
51 of saltpeter. Entire India is supplied with this rocksalt (Susrutha says rocksalt is best for Ksharakarma /cauterization). For home needs and for land route trade salt peter is used. Bengal salt is more cheap and of good quality . The best native gunpowder in India come from saltpeter . Sind has no timber. Only some brushwood in delta which is firewood. The most common tree is the Tamarisk indica ,wildly growing . Mangoes,Melon and Anar are fruits grown. Once a year apple,grapes and pears and plums come from Kabul. Plums are dried. Others are packed in cotton and kept fresh for 6 months bynatives. Mineral water with medicinal quality, hot springs in west of Thatta,(hills) give alkali and Northern Khairpur districts prepare alkali for soaps and lie making.He describes camel,horses,mules herds of oxen, buffaloes species of game and waterfowls ,beasts f prey like jackal and fox,badgers ,wild hog etc .He mentions a ferocious breed of dogs for hunting boar ,which was once very prevalent in India (as described by Valmiki among the many gifts Kekaya king sent to Dasaratha ) He describes a number of ancient cities .Among them is Kallankot (Kallakkot) west of Thatta hills and people believe that it was made by Hindu Gods . The remains of Sundara (Sundra) city and nearby Himakot fort also is believed to be built by Hindu Gods. The people of these cities later changed residence to Thatta . Dibal (Devala/Devalaya) was aold port with a temple ,which was frequented by Arab merchants .The people later migrated en mass to Lari Bandar and from there to Dharroja . Mandropath is on banks of Goni ,a little above and parallel to Lakpath .In Hijra 8th century the original people of the city deserted it . The city of Sumra near this is called Thur. Vijekot was their capital.Now it is in s desert in banks of old Puran. Hijra 8th century ,this was destroyed by Alla uddhin Khilji. Manhathra(Mnghathara) is in Roopa pargana which was deserted in Hijra 8th century. Meenagara(Minnagara) was under a chief of Agri. It was very prosperous until 7th century Hijra. According to native historians the place upto Thatta was covered by ocean and when ocean withdrew t was a waterless desert and later on when Sindhu changed its course ,it became fertile . Thatta or thab means an assembly or a crowd of people with a special place/position(Thattakam in Malayalam / Thab or Thamb means a sibira) .On its north is Bagra river .People who deserted Deebal,Bambhor,Baagar and Thera (The populous cities of sagar river)were the inhabitants of Thatta . They were celebrated for their learning and were able men. This portion was taken by force by Alexander .Until AH 1000, Mirza Jan Beg destroyed it Thatta survived all assaults . It was a very important center for caravens to rest and proceed .There was no fortified wall around it . Only after the Portuguese invasion Mirza Isa made a brick wall around.The trade of Dibal by which name alone Thatta is still known to the ancient Arabs was formerly very extensive and in this view it has to be considered elaborately . Hyderabad is the ancient Nerunkotta (In Malayalam the nedunkotta,nerunkaithakotta). It is on a rocky hill. Steep foot washed by a branch of Indus.The main river is 3 miles to the west of city.Both streams are navigable. When the fort wall was excavated human bones and a number of dead bodies in wonderful state of preservation was obtained . Sehavan (Sevisthanam or Sibisthanam) is a place where in ancient times cannibals lived. Bakeer or Baker is the city built on ruins of Alor .Once it was a island in Sindhu .Now in hot season ,there is not a drop of water .Loheri (Roheri) is an ancient city which existed during Alor and on its opposite bank is the Seigher (Shikara). In the precinct of Bhakir is the Bhairuu thottam(garden of Bhairava). The magnificent
52 elegant buildings and fort was destroyed by Nadir shah. It was the frontier city between Sind and Ghandhara on one side and the Dravidaputhrarajya on the other side . Nasirpur is the old Al Mansura of Arabs. Commerce: Ancient Hindu Governments had admirably adapted the geographical peculiarities for benefit by commerce(pp 20).The continued attacks from the west affected this transactions .The ancient commerce between India ,Persia and Arabia was rich and exclusive and Dibal and sea ports of Indus was an emporium of goods ,from India and Arabia,and conferred a degree of wealth and splendor to the province and the Government .During the Sumra rule the trade was not flourishing ,internal unrest in Sindh and entire and partial dismemberment of Hindu sovereigns in bordering provinces tended to check transactions in commerce .This continued for hundreds of years and under the Kalhoras the commerce regained some importance ,and Mc Munroe says because they allowed an English factory in Sind. By this the European goods ,capital and industry could reach other parts of India .(page 22). Karachi,the seaport is the Rambhagarh of Purana. It is on a creek at head of a bay and carries brisk trade with Bombay,Malabar and Arabia. The entrance to the creek harbor is narrow and at low water only 1 ½ ft so that boats cannot move.In spring tides vessels of 400 tons can shelter here from September to May . All other seasons are danger zone for ships. This area was under the Makkran chief of ancient times . (The other 2 being Maagan and Meluha).The export from Sindh (from their own product) are rice,hides,sharkfur,saltpeter,potash,asafetida,cotton cloth,silk cloth ,horses and Indigo . Imports are coconuts,dates,iron,tin,lead and copper .The commerce at sea is exclusively carried out by Hindus of the Bhatti and Lohanna castes both of which are ancient inhabitants of Sindh (page 23) and this is a very pertinent remark McMurdo has made ,showing th esearoute trade and its control by Harappan /IVC people of Mkhran,Magana nd Meluhan coasts.The inland trade is carried out by all people and numerous merchant guilds are moneylenders/bankers for Governemnts and people. The Multans carry land route trade with Kabul,Kandhahar,Kwelath ,Multan and Bahavalpur .The Amirs ,in addition to what he gets as his share ,purchase vast quantities of grains from his people and store in granaries (just as Mohenjo Daro granary was used for in BC 3500) and in case of need give it to subjects on advance prize .(It is by this practice Indians withstood many a famine/war time emergencies). The extra money is invested by people in gold,jewellery and in treasuries maintained by different members of the Government as private hoards ,and they are withdrawn from circulation( but reappear in needy times like famine etc when the hoard can purchase grain from a neighbouring janapada ). MCMurdo says in contrast to the highly populated river sides of India elsewhere, Indus banks are destitute of population with no village or towns. The people do not like urban life. The Sindh frequently change courses and floods are common. Therefore Sindh is the place with largest number of beggars and multitudes of such adventurers with knowledge of every profession reach other parts of the world .(This and what is said of the Gypsis in last chapter may be compared ).The statements about the revenue system shows how peoplefriendly it had been just as it had been in Kerala ,before the 18th century. McMurdo notes that revenue is different in different districts and in south it is in kind and elsewhere by Jamma (The Janma,or land rent)and it is the irrigated land which is rented. Where there is 3 crops ,the rent is in kind and 1/3rd/1/4th and 1/5th according to the valuation made on the grounds (See
53 Malabar Manual by Logan .).The rates were regulated by valuation of labour needed and also on risks,and natural obstacles to agriculture.The Government rent for irrigated land (for which the King makes irrigation arrangements and maintainnance )was per Biga (1 Biga = 40 feet square ;One Indigo Biga is twice this ) per Annum . Item cultivated Rs /Biga/Annum Sugarcane 12 Tobacco 7½ Vegetables 7½ Opium 21 Indigo 80 Food Grains 6 This shows the Governements were concerned about the food sufficiency of the people ,and the revenue for irrigated land for food grain production was least revenewed , and it was a nominal value upon the land .From south where there is more grain production the revenue being in kind the granary was always full for the Government as well as for the people.The revenue collection was done by the farmers themselves (and McMurdo thinks at the expense of the Ryots) .Only when there is a movement of military troops ,the people are subjected to increased collection of revenue .(which was common in NW India and almost nonexistent in South India till 13 to 14th century AD).The 3 branches of th eTalpurs got only RS 50000 per annum as revenue (but with enough grains and articles in kind ) and they were sharing it equally ,just as the 5 branches of Kings of South India does .The Arabs never settled in NorthWest India though were given land for cultivation by the kings of India and settlement started only after Islam was founded . Anthropologically McMurdo notes the people are sturdy and strong hardy men and complexion is same as that of other people of western India .The Beluchis have oval face ,aquiline nose and arched eyebrow and high forehead and expressive eyes which he thinks are jewish features. Both men and women are extremely handsome and Hindu people have the same countenance as the tribes of the west coast of India. Yet ,he notices that they wear filthy clothes and are ot as clean as other Hindu brothren in India. Population is military ,trade and agriculture people. (warriors/tradesmen and farmers).The Baluchis are the old race of Zamindars and are military class. (which shows that they are not Jewish ,who are a class of merchants/tradesmen). They are jealous,proud ,knavish and even mean and the good natured ones are in the lowest and uneducated classes who are silly and stupid (observed McMunro).Once irritated the Scindis are a irascible and unforgiving people and meanness and knavery in them is proverbial. They either fight ,or do thefts at night and beg for alms in day .(This sort of gypsies are described by several European authors in their books ).The mercantile class Hindu and Muhammadana are of different races ,observes McMurdo. Baluchis respect their females and their females possess much influence over their mind and action .Their adherence to any agreement or stipulation to which their womwn are parties may be implicitly relied on and more confidence may be safely placed on engagements of this kind than if they had been sworn to on the Koran(page 30).This is exactly how the Matrilinear Dravidian society worked and Baluchisthan or Kekaya belonged to the Dravida country under Aswapathy ,father of Kaikeyi of Ramayana fame as we know .The sindhis are a homely race and ask about health of children when they meet .Cattle is an important branch of a human being’s family .Shepherds live in Wandhs
54 (herds)and leads cattle according to convenience .They live in grass huts and milk,curd,butter and roti made of bajra is their food. Only on the main festival day they eat goat’s meat .All men wear weapons against the bandits of the deserts who steal cattle. They are a simple people but ambition,jealousy and pride leads them to troubles.Though males have adopted a different dress code from Hindus the females retain the ancient hindu custom of dress because most of them are converts .Only a very few are nonconverts and they wear a green dress like their males . The west part of the Thatta is the Jaquias or Yaksha land ,a tribe of the Baluchi who live in reed huts removable and suited for all weathers. They are called Pakkiraaja(Pakshiraja) by Sindhians which means king of the wilderness .Their food is fish and rice .The Brahmins and Bhattiyas of Sindh does not eat fish .All eat cheap nourishing sweet potato which grow well in the area. The Hindus are Bhattiya and Lohanna and their purohitha and Guru ,called the Pokkarna and Sarsath Brahmins.They were the majority people of Sindh and Gandhara and the xclusive natives of the area and trade scattered them to western India as well as to Arabia . The Bhattia of Sindh have started to eat fish unlike others of his caste elsewhere in Indi a.The Bhattiya of west coast of India are Vaishnavites and cleanliness of person and environment they live ,the diet they eat ,are strictly followed by them. This is a peculiar nature of Vaishnavas and the Sindh Bhattiyas have deviated from this (page 33).McMurdo says ,as the Hindus almost extremely follow the peaceable walks of life ,their voice could not be heard among a nation of armed men and that the western Hindu has for many centuries known no other Government but that of Islam and shut out from intercourse with other Indian brethren ,the Hindus of Sindh have lost the fine feelings of their culture which distinguishes their brethren elsewhere .MCMurdo says for thousands of years ,the only attempt to be independent was raised by th eSamma family ,but they had to accept Islam to succeed to sovereignty ,thereby loosing their independence of choice of religion. All the original Hindus of the soil are now Mussalmans ,says Mc Murdo.The same family following the two religions exist and they maintain intercourse ,the Mussalman retains his Hindu family names . Lovanna or Lohanna are Hindus who follow the meanest mode for gaining substenance in Sindh.Some raise to highest post in Govenrment and for that they have to dress like a Mohammadan .They are clean due to their economic stability while the poor people of his class are unclean. Both Bhattiya and Lohanna have sacred threads. Both have long beard (especially if in Govt service to show solidarity to Islamic Govt) and Lohanna are allowed polygamy .Women can divorce and remarry .Bhattiyas do not do that .Sarsath Brahmins are priests and teachers of Lohanna.They eat flesh ,and drink beverages and get income from marriage ceremonies ,birth and death .They are worshippers of mother Goddess and have numerous pagodas dedicated to worship of ocean and the river Goddess Sindhu . For pooja a Jalakumbha filled with water is essential (These are the Thanthrik Saaktheya). Pokkarna are priests and teachers of Bhattiya and are more Hindu than the sarsaths Yet they are inferior to their disciples from other parts of India .They have a language and a script which is written from left to right .It is an Indian origin script and resembles the scripts from Malabar (page 34) but if we take each letter separately ,it is different from Malayalam .They have 2 languages –The sindhi and the Baluchi (which is not a written tongue).Sindhi is from Sanskrit and has more Sanskrit words than Gujrati but radicals of words are alike in sindhi and gujrati. Entire word has no resemblance . Sindhi is only a dialect of Punjabi according to
55 scholars. Sindhi is the language of the Hindus of Sindh and the Jareja of Kutch also speaks this. Jhareja,Bhattia,Lohanna and Sindhi tribes of Kutch (Brighukatcha) has brought their language to Sindh. The Abhira and Chara(Chera) shepherds who were the adivasi inhabitants of Kutch had Gujrathi language and it has a written script (the only written tongue in the province). Baluci is a mix of Arabian , Persian, Punjabi ,Sanskrit spoken in various dialects and numerals in Sindhi and Beluchi have strong resemblance to each other (page 35). The original sovereignty of Sindhudesa (from Ghandhara to Baluchistan and Sindhu or ocean) was a sovereign who had a strategic point in Alor Kashmere ,with several large towns south of Multan on eastern banks of Sindhu river. This was occupied by the Chandravansi and Suryavansi with their teachers . In Ramayana the Kekaya king has a daughter married to Dasaratha and her son is the famous Bharatha . He ruled the Baluchistan,Sindh (southern territory) and his brother Sathrughna (The northernmost Indian outpost Shortugai is in his name) ruled the Gandhara or upper part and his son Mathu (Madhu) is said to have built the city of Mathura (where Kamsa ruled thousands of years after ).The chandravansi princes ,(sons of Yayathi) Thurvasu and Druhyu were the rulers of tehse two regions respectively and their brother Yadu ruled entire south India and central India (from Gujrath to Kanyakumari) .The descendents of Lakshmana (the Lichavis) ruled the North East and parts of Vindhia and sathpura . This area was ruled by the Chandravansi king Anu ,son of king Yayathi .Kusa (Kousika) and Lava(Elava) the sons of Rama were the emperors of the North and South India respectively .The name Elava ,Elam ,and Ezhava etc persists still in Dravidian languages . During Arab invasions in a battle of Alor fort troops of Rao Dahir were defeated and drowned in the river and the body of the prince was seen in a ravine leading to the bed of the river. At that time Alor was on a stream of Indus that was navigable and called Brahmanabad or Brahman or Patan (Pattana).This same area had been designated as Lohanna Deria (The place or gate to the city of Lohannas or metalsmiths). After the Arab conquest the district of Thatta was not well peopled or productive.The river had a more eastern course and the old river is called Puraana Deria . On its banks were celebrated cities of Brahmanabad,Alor,Abpore,Waghelkot (capital of Summas) and the Purana deria separates from the new channel above Bhakir. Lohanna deria or river Lohana’s city is the Brahmanava (the new Brahmanabad or the nine Brahmana) ,a new canal built on the Brahmana river .McMurdo takes pains to trace the ancient and modern course of the river and he finds out there is a very ancient lake called Narayanasarovar at the mouth of Indus with ocean which Arrian had mentioned in his writings. Another lake southwest of Lakpat Bandar is the Koteeswara . He notices that both these lakes are mentioned in very ancient Hindu Puranas as sacred Theertha .The lake Narayana still exists as Narayane Sirowaar and nearby a fortified city of Kutch called Koteeswara with a pagoda and a small village on bank of the river ,one mile from NarayanaSarovar. But the water is salty now. Dival banthara or Pandar : In Arabic Dibal and in Sindhi the island of Sindh .The VA of Indian language pronounced as BA Devaala(ya) became Debaalaya and later Deebaala . Deepa also meansa light and Deeva a island .Thus a lighthouse,a temple and an island are all mentioned by just one name .James McMurdo gives this derivation correctly showing his enthusiasm to learn and his scholarship . Devala was on western bank of weaternmost branch of Indua called the Saagara river . That is why Mohamad Bin Kasim has said that without crossing a single river this city was attacked. When Dival was destroyed
56 by Muslims another one in same name was made more towards east . A new town with an old name .This was succeeded by th eLaribandhar and the modern delta at its western part .Bhakkir is called Al Mansara by Aini Akbari . It was near Brahmanabad .Sehwan the city of Sibi was more ancient than that of Brahmanabad . Raja Sehwan ,a descendent of King of Sindh lived there. Sewi and sehwan are same .Nerunkot or Nudumkotta was called Nerun Kaaphiri by Arabs and it was a federality of Alor ,and river Saagar flowed to west of it .The present Hyderabad of Pakistan is the old Nerumkota cite. Kallakkot or Aghmakot is 7 miles west of Thatta . Ashkendra or Seccundra was afortified and strong town of Raja Dahir. Mohamad Bin Kasim took this . From there he marched to Multan ,therefore it is between Alor and Multan . Mc Murdo speculates that it is the Alexandria which Alexander built in 3rd century BC in Sogdi . His proof for this assumption is that there is a warrior statue with complete armour on horseback worshipped in town of Ashkendra ,which is (according to him) unheard of in Hindu mythology . But here he is wrong .Ashkendra is Aswakendra ,the center of Asawapathi ,the Kekaya king and warriors on horseback are worshipped as Veera throughout South India ,from stone age period along with Sathi stones ,where Alexander is not worshipped at all. The horseback warrior is also the Chiefton who died in a battle and Alexander was not a hero who died in battle in Indian soil . Himakot(Jamkot) is a independent Rajputh city in pargana of Palayar .Their fanciful works are seen in excavations of nearby hills. In one the excavated cave resembles a cow’s udder and from which milk used to come according to legend . After Kaliyuga (about 3104 BC) aet in only water comes .Minaagara depended onMultan upto 17th century was in possession of an Agri and Binagara or Agrinagara of Ptolemy is equated with this by MCMurdo .In the banks of Lohana deria,not far from Brahmana ,in a pargana now called Ldehadaghd (Dehadagdhapura) lies Agri ,the land of Akkithiri who does Agnihothra .Thus both the Aswa and Agri are not from Greek sources but from Indian language and custom and sociopolitical history of ancient Indian people . The most important among the names associated with Sogdhi is the Soghdi Bakkir .City of Bakir was built only 1200 years before McMurdo’s times. But Sogdhi people lived there upto the Indus . They are the race of Rajputs belonging to Sodhas or Sudhas occupying habitable tracts of deserts between Sindh and Gujrath . They were ancient chieftains of Sindh and Amarkot and sovereigns of a much more exclusive country northward even upto Alor and with a capital north of Alor between that palace and Multan. Sudaasa was a King of the Solar race and his story is mentioned in the Puranas and in Ramayana .His tribes were still living during McMurdo’s time ,making it possible to assess the vedic Sudaasa and his descendents . Musicanus, Oxycanus and Sewi :Ayni Akbari says a chain of mountains stretch from Sehwan (Sahya!) to Sewi (Sibi) and they are differentplaces bt belongs to a same tribe .The people is the same . The view of Prof Vincent that Sewi and Sehwan are the same has to be taken in this sense . Lying west of Bhakir leading to Kandahar(Gandhara) the original inhabitants of Sewi or sewez live and their capital in 6th century was Kakaaraaje . Mohammadan authors have said that Sisam,Bheltor,Salor,Kundaachal (Kundaabil of La
57 Rochette ) are places in the Sewi ,and that they existed there long before the Mohammadan conquest .The name Kundachala is in Karnataka Kerala border . A fort named Sewi is on the side of a mountain where a remarkable stone is found. The author believes the exceptional round shape and its resemblance to a linga ,and name Shiva somehow related .The sewis or /sabis are the silo of Arrian as worshippers of Hercules who marks the cattle with a club. (offering to SunGod). The Hindus marks the male calf with a trisoola mark and allow them to roam free as offering to Shiva in the villages,towns and temples. This Sewi or Seewee spoken of by Abul Fazl could be same as the sehwan .The Chola claim their descend from Sibi and their worship of Shiva is attributed to this legend . Musicanus and Oxycanus were chiefs of Sewis and Sehwan .Sehwan is a popular and familiar name in Sindh . McMurdo says : “Unless Musicanus is placed at Schewan ,I can see no other situation where his Government could be fixed. Yet as his captal was on the river ,placing him at schewan will overthrow all I said with change of course of the river ...If I place Oxycanus at Schehwan and Musicanus between Schewan and Puraan (between Alor and Brahmana) then Oxycanus is between Lakhi mountains and Sambhus must have been on the Lakhi chains .”Greek has said that Saindhimana is the capital of the Sambhus but has not mentioned Lakhi pass and if the river was in the pass this would not have happened. During Arrian’s time ,when Alexander reached Indian border Mushikaanus was the richest and the most populous throughout India . Which is this Mushikanus ? The assumption that it is a He , is wrong .It is a people , a race of people ,descended from the legendary King Karthaveeryarjuna with territories from central to entire south India and branches of the Yadava clan throughout India (by the period of Mahabharatha ) .What Arrian say is that Alexander erected and garrisoned a fort in the Moosikanus capital (which could never have happened since he never reached Mahishmathi in central India ,but he fought with a brave king of the same race at banks of Jhalum river ) proceeded with archers and agrians and troops of horses on board his navy to attack neighbouring Oxycanus .Craterus ,his army chief had already left on ferry to the left(east)bank ,so that Oxycanus resided on west bank of river. Sewi and Schwan (Sibi and Sahya ) as two places (as Vincent says) will make Musikanus and Oxycanus the chief of these 2 .But Musikanus of Mahaishmath and Oxycanus his younger branch at Sahya were never reached by Alexander . But their trade centers in the North were reached . At Shehwan is another place of the Shanbhus. The chieftain of Sambhu met Alexander on banks of Sogdi .Sambhu was a sathrap of the mountains Sehwan, on a branch of the Lakhi mountains . (The Chigoo range –in Kutch language a Look out place or observatory ).According to Dr Vincent the slip of land between this parallel range and the sea is th eland of the Languarians ,a race infamous for their piracy and plunder and that the pirates of Bete and Dwaraka used to plunder under the name of Samghan (a sangha or a group/guild) under famous distinguished pirate chiefs . (The name survives in place names like Chikku Mangalore etc ) .The great influence of the mountain tribes of the south and that Schwan is the Sindhomana of the Sambhus (Sahyan is th eSindhomana of Sambhus) has to be understood to grasp the Dravidian influence on trade,language,sociopolitical background of Indi a. Arrian say Pattala or Paataala is the ancient state on the delta and is very obscure in Alexanders journey down the Indus. Dr Vincent suggests Brahmanabad as the Patala of Arrian.McMurdo thinks it must be true . But the placement seems wrong to him. He fix it at the head of the ancient delta while Dr Vincent place it at head of an inferior delta further down
58 .Nobody thinks of a possibility that the Greek were writing only what they heard ,and not what they saw and Paattaala is at the southernmost tip (Indian ocean) where the Palai saamundamana of Ptolemy with the Adike sathron or first kshethra of Ay kings and their guardian deities the Phaneesa Anantha and Vasuki live . Arrian says the Pattala is next below the territory of the Musicanus (below Kerala ). Alexander was met by king of Patala while he was engaged with sambhus .At the same time ,Musicanus revolted and sent an army .Python brought Musicanus to Alexander in chains . The description that Alexander took 3 days to reach Patala and that the natives flood (deserted ) when he arrived means he was shown a place on Puran ,near to Brahmanabad as Patala .Since Arrian say there were no wells in that place it does not fit in with Brahmanabad or with any place on delta .Suppose Thatta is the Patala shown .Then also there is no desert and the Grrek had already marched through the west and seen Thatta before . Arrian says the march through island of Patala was with a hope that they will meet their fleet on the other side . If Patala is the spot suggested by Dr Vincent (between Thatta and Lahiri Bandar) it is inconveneient and impracticable and between them there is no important place to conquer . And Arrian’s words they might meet the fleet on the other side is then ill applied. Ptolemy mention the western branch of Indus as Sagapa and eastern most branch as Loni Bare . Baara or bare means in India a roadstead,an entrance to a harbor (as in Malavaare /malabare /seaward ). Up the Thatta th eLoni Bare has 2 branches and then divide to 7 branches and empty into ocean . Sagora or Sagar is the Sagapa of Ptolemy . Loni Bare is old Lakhpath river or Laavani river. It is still known as Loni . The gulf of Kutch between Sindh and Gujrath is a strip of wasteland called the Bhanni and Rann of Kutch round the North of Kutch ,to the west as far as Lakpath Bander . From July to October the strip is covered with water forming Kutch into an Island . From the North side of Lucky mountains (which is a chain of mountains from east to west) torrents come and fill the wastes and from the south of the mountain the rivers join the ocean (which are dry except in monsoon) .The streams that flow from north through deserts come and join the tract and among them are Haggra and Nargali connected with Puran ,high up northward and pursuing separate courses falling into the Banni to eastward of Khetti .Traditionally there was extensive rice production in Banni . Banni is also pronounced as Vanni .Runn (Hindi Erun) means barren wastelands difficult and dangerous to access. Banni + Erun = Bannerun if pronounced as V is Vannerun and the fact that I come from the Mushakavansa’s Vannery Nadu in South Malabar makes the connection seem very simple to me. Runn or Erun is also a field of battle and a haunted spot for strangers and the troupe of Alexander was taken to this spot by the natives to teach them a lesson . Both Narayanasira and Koteeswara are celebrated theertha on east bank of Lakhpath branch of Indus .It is 12-15 miles from the entrance of the river . This is the spot where the famous assembly of Gods are held . (Just like the Naavaa sandbanks on Nila in South Malabar ). Nearchus account of Karaacki (Karachi):- The fleet on leaving Indus entered the bay of Karacki ,with Mount Iras on right side, and discovering a dangerous rock at the mouth of the river. During his stay ,McMurdo found no such stone in the bay from Lakpat to Lahri Bandar at the mouth of river Sindhu . In Karacki the shore is rocky and waves beating high close to and at the mouth is a singular stone rock in the sea. It is perforated from end to end so that a small canoe could pass and water rushing through the
59 passage makes a loud tremendous noise. Nearchus saw the sandy island ( Chilney is sandy) on his left hand and mountainous coast on right and was closer to the mountainous coast . Nalarajya : Nala or Nalla was a artificial cut to bring water into Puran after its failure or to furnish water from Puran to Loheri which was a very ancient city .There was aNala between Alor to Loherkot and this region was called the Nalarajya or the land of the Nishaada tribes.Quoting a Nubian geographer M.D Anville says : Mansura is a city encircled at a distance by a branch of the Mehran (Indus) . The city stands on the western side of main channel ;for Mehran in its descend separates into 2 streams at Cabre ,a day’s journey from Mansura .” It is interesting that the Nubian geographer has called Sindhu river as Mahran . It is because of the connection with Sindhu river and the people of Sindhu (Indhu) that the Mehergarh or Mahagriha got its name as the house of the Mehran or the house of the Indians (Sindhus/Hindhus).And it is an urban center with a history dating back to 7500-8000 BC and artisans belonging to the Kaaru (silpi) or Lohanna who were a sangha or guild of Brahmins wearing sacred thread ,who lived and worked and continued trade relations with the western Europe by land route ,while their original branch ,the Musikanus from the west coast and south India were the Phoenicians who carried out the sea trade of forest goods and spices .The languages of the urban centers came from the villages and languages of the villages from the forest dwellers and mountain folk and these Kallar (as we see in Kallrkot etc) became Perumaal (chieftains) and continued organized trade all over India and abroad for several thousands of years .The relics of this long history of trade relations we are discovering every day from every corner of the world . The reference of the British authorities ,I adopted not because their proof is superior ,but for the very fact that if I quote Sanskrit sources alone the so called intellectuals of India who have lost all intellect will never see sense . They will put all Sanskrit sources in a dustbin of mythology and religion and wander in the darkness in vain in search of their own heritage and history .
Chapter 5. Discovering India through Susruthasamhitha A culture’s self –awareness in terms of its law , Medicine and grammer is an important pre-condition for awareness of its aesthetics. ….The knowledge of Medicine-A system of management of pain,of anaesthetics,of birth and death-is interrelated to poetry-A system of management of pleasure ,of aesthetics and of creation .(After Amnesia- G.N.Devy .Orient Longman .1995 .Page 64-65) In the first chapter we have gone through the genetic, cultural,linguistic and ethnic past of the British Isles . In the 2nd chapter we dealt with the concept of Indian culture and health and its antiquity and also explored the modern views of development of cognition,language and wisdom ,comparing it with the Indian cultural background.In third chapter the ancient Trigonometry practiced in India and its learning by the Europeans by the first Trigonometric survey and the great Arc of the circle was
60 mentioned. The 4th chapter saw the observations of a British officer in the Sindh and his musings about the history of India based on Indian Purana, Alexandrian references and his own experiences and observations . In this chapter we will see a very different scenario ,the scenario of medical practices in India ,based on a single text Susruthasamhitha as a prototype of surgery and surgical Pathology ..
History of Medicine:Since human beings originated on the earth’s face,he must have had disorders ,must have had cuts and burns and other problems ,childbirth and death and its mental agonies .Thus human history and history of Medicine originated simultaneously and parallel to each other .The tropical man understood the effects of the numerous herbs and plants and their products on human illnesses from experience of thousands of years and gave the knowledge to generations of offsprings before it was codified as a science.The process of observation and experimentation continued and still continues.(Prathisamskaara according to Charakasamhitha). The process of medicine thus became popular by a process of empiricism.In Rgveda we find all the evidences of a codified knowledge of Medicine and pharmacopeia .Therefore ,before the Rgvedic period ,medicial knowledge has developed as a science.The Aswins were the first famous Medical people who codified Medical and Astronomical knowledge but they had teachers before them according to Kasyapasamhitha..The son of Usijin was Kaksheevan or Kshathri who had a synonym Romasa . Indian subcontinent south of Ganga was called Romaka’s pura. The second Aswin was Purudamsas,also called Pururavas who lived during the Threthayuga period and is a Vishnu/Chandravansi king .He codified Veda and sasthra and all arts and sciences .Thus in Indian history the knowledge systems we find today,developed at the beginning of Threthaayuga ,with Pururavas and his brother .(Sri Rama lived at end of Threthayuga ,several yrs after Pururavas ). The Greek medicine (in 6th century BC) say Aesculapius ,son of Appollo was originator of Medicine. His sons were Machaon,and Podalirious and they are the representatives of Aswins but have only a history from 8th -6th century BC much later than the Indian counterparts.In Bc 8th century Homer says that Machaon was expert in surgery and Podalirious in Medicine .In later Greek traditions they are called Custor and Poludenchas. (Kshathri and Purudamsas as corrupted from Sanskrit ).The wonderful things done by Aswins are described in Vedic literature.They went to King Divodasa of Kasi when Rishabha and Simsumara star cluster were with Ursa major. Now Ursa major is in the star cluster of Makha (in Leo Rasi called Simha ).This is a clue for the time of Divodasa ,a vedic character,a great Vaidya and this also gives a clue to time of Susrutha which we will discuss later on. Susruthasamhitha:Susruthasamhitha was codified with commentary called Kavyatheertha ,by Thrivikrama’s son Yadavasharman,with advice of Guru Narayanaacharya .In 1945 this was published by Ramachandra yesu shedge in Nirnayasagar press in Bombay 26/28 Colbalt street .The publisher was Satyabhama bhai Pandurang. This book is the base for my commentary. Also I have refered a book in English by Priyaranjan Ray by Indian National Academy . The translations and commentaries of Susruthasamhitha:-
61 1 In 1919 Yadavji Thrikamji Acharya with Dhallana commentary in Bombay.Its third edition came out in 1935 2.In 1901 With commentary of Dhallanan,and chakrapaanidhattha ,published in Calcutta by Vijayachandrasen and Nisikanthasen 3.In 1938 with Dhallana’s Nirbandhasamgraha commentary in Calcutta by Nripendranath sen and Balachandrasen guptha 4.Dhallana’s Nibandhasamgraha . Jeevandavidyasagaran .Calcutta 1831 5.Kunjalal Bhishak Rathna English translation in 1963 For the teeka of Yadavji Thrikamji another name is Bhanumathi.Yadavasharma has used this book and susruthaarthasamdeepana commentary of Sreehaaraanachandra chakravarthy for his book as references.He has also used a old Thaleepathra grantha .He has mentioned the books of Chakrapanidatha,Dhallana,Arunadatha,Vijayarakshitha,Sivadasa ,Senendu and Hemadri .Mareechaakasyapa had a book onPaediatrics(Koumaarathanthra) which he advised to his disciple BudhaJeevaka ,and a person called Vaatsya belonging to race of Jeevaka has written a book based on it called Budhajeevakeeyam.This book was abridged by Raajaguru of Nepal Panditha Sree HemaraajaSharma . Charaka is mainly a book on Kaayachikitsa while Sushrutha is mainly based on Salyachikitsa.He says in the book Bhelathanthra published at Calcutta University several mistakes have been committed. During period of Vagbhata there were many branches of medicine in use .These are understood from his book Ashtangahridaya. Rishipraneethe preethishrenmukthwaa charakasusruthou Bheta(la)alaadyaa :kim na patyanthe thasmaanyaaham subhaashitham (Ash .Uthara .) In Sreeharsha’s Naishadacharitha(sarga 4):Kanyaantha:pura bhaadanaaya yadadhikaanaannadoshaanripam Dhwou manthripravaraschathulyamaagadhankaaraschathaavoochathu: Devaakarnaya:susruthena charakasyokthena jaanokhilam Syaadasyaanaladam vinaa na dalanethaapasyakopikshama: The word aaghadhankaarathwam (suvaidyathwam or great scholarship in Medical science) means at that time both Charaka and Susrutha were taught and learned .Both Bhelasamhitha and Charaka were written before Susruthasamhitha.Commentator Dhallana lived only in 12th century.Dhallana says he got the book from Nagarjuna and Nagarjuna got it from his ancestors.Moolasusruthasamhitha is adviced by Dhanwanthari to his disciple Susrutha. The book is in the form of conversation between
62 them.Suthrasthaana gives a few more Acharya’s names other than Dhanwanthari.They must be the Vaidya who lived before or during period of Dhanwanthari and Susrutha. Atha khalu bhagavanthamamaravararishiganaparivrithamaasramastham kaasiraajam Divodaasam dhanwantharimoupadhenava,vaitharanourabrapoushkalaavatha karaveeerya gopurarakshitha susruthaprabrithaya oochu: 1 King of Kasi -Divodasa 2.Dhanwanthari 3.Oupadhenavan 4.Vaitharanan 5.Ourabran 6.Poushkalaavathan 7.Karaveeryagopurarakshithan 8 Susruthan These are the Ashtavaidya in Susruthasamhitha . History of Dhanwanthari and Susrutha in Indian sources:In veda and purana,Ithihasa and Sanskrit literature the name of Dhanwanthai is famous and popular.In Balaramayana of Rajasekhara and bhaavasamhitha of Bhavamisra Susrutha is said to be a student of Medicien under Dhanwanthari.In Mahabharatha Anusasanaparva and in Susruthasamhitha Susrutha is said to be son of Viswamithra .That means he lived during Ramayana period and he was sent to Kasi by his father Viswamithra to study medicine under Divodasa Dhanwanthari.His name was Krishna.Susruthaapatyam sousruthaa: (The children of Susrutha are sousrutha) Sousruthaa:paarthivaaschethi ( Many sousrutha and paarthiva –doctors and kings) as a pleural in Paanini show by his time several famous surgeons called sousrutha were prevalent and many of them were royal (as Viswamithra ) children learning medicine .During Rgveda doctors were many . Satham the Raajan Bhishaja:sahasram( Rg 1.24.7) means for 100 kings9administrators/management students ) 1000 doctors were being qualified in India .Another tradition( sidhopadeshasamgraha and Chikitsaaagrantha by Nakula) say susrutha was son of Saalihothra,son of Thuragaghosha and was Garga (the kulaguru of Yadava ). This was written by Nakula,one of the Pandava princes who knew Aswaayurveda and Aswahridaya which was prevalent during king Nala and Rithuparna (of Ayodhya).Upto time of Kanishka the Gurukula of Salihothra was existing .During Susrutha’s timespan the Utharaayana was in the beginning of Sisira rithu and at end of Hemantha. Varsha ,sarath,hemantha,vasantha ,greeshma and Praavrida are seasons in order. Hemantha and sisira are alike ;varsha and praavrida are alike .In old Madras Presidency in Margaseersha and Pousha ,the mango inflorescences appear .In Vaisakha they become fruits,and Bhadra and Aswina mature/ripe.At the end of
63 Greshma (hot season) in Bay of Bengal and Arabian ocean winds (monsoon) form and India gets rain.Kasyapa’s Teeka on Susruthasamhitha says : North of Ganga has a climate equivalent to Hemantha and sisira(cold),south of Ganga has Pravrida varsha (getting good rains )all along.The timespan of Susrutha is the timespan of Aranyaka,Brahmana and of Vedangajyothisha of Paithamaha . This is seen documented in all Indian and Nepalese ancient texts .Gothra of Susrutha is Bharadwajagothra which is that of Angirasa and Atharva .Bhela (Vela) were doctors who existed before Charaka and Susrutha and Dhanwanthari is a word which originated from Dhanus / bow called Vil in Dravidian languages. Velava ( from Vel /or sakthi) and Villava from bow or dhanus are denoting cult of Muruka and Rama. Vela(Bhela) were ancient Atharvaveda practitioners with medical,magical and astronomical knowledge and Villava is a synonym for the Kerala males who were uncles of Tamil Nad Velava(Muruka) during Sangam era. Velava when he become adult/mature become the Villava or Vishnu in a matrilinear society .Dhyanasloka of Vishnu say: Jithanthe Pundareekaaksham namasthe Viswabhaavana: Subramanya namasthesthu nama: purushapoorvaja: The sacred journey to hilltop and riverside temples of Vishnu ,Muruka ,sakthi and Shiva were part of lifestyle and the austerities which accompanied such journeys made body and mind and intellect healthy .We find the Aesculapean cult following the same rites .Esculapius was son of Sun and he learnt Medicine from a mythical partly serpentine Vyali (demon) called Chiron in paathaala(netherland ) .He was born in Thesally and at that time several serpents(Naagavansa) lived there and one of them taught him his racial profession of medicine . Therefore he accepted the Guru’s racial symbol of serpent twined around a Caduceus danda ,which is still the medical symbol followed all over the world. In BC 429 the cult of Aesculapius spread from the coast of Mediterranean to Greece. Which was the netherworld (underworld ) where the race of serpents who worship Merudanda with coiling Ida and Pingala live ? There is only one place which we can think of .That is India. The temples of Esculapius were centers of Medical learning just as described in Susruthasamhitha. Even the healing dreams (swapnamanavaka of Indian Ayurveda) and the rituals and teaching methods were the same . Daivagnasampradaya of India thinks about the past ,present and future of every illness . What was the past history ? How much is the present severity ? Will the illness be cured,partly cured or not ? These three questions are answered by a series of observations ,discussions etc . What we modern Medical professionals call the Past history, aetiology,pathogenesis,and prognosis are called Bhootha,Varthamaana and Bhaavi in Sanskrit .The translation of bhootha as demon into English has created more superstition than its original meaning in Indegenous languages. Corpus Hippocratica has written that if one treats cancer ,the patient dies early and if left untreated he/she might live some more time . It was his disciple Alemaeon who first did a dissection . It was done in secrecy .Herophilus who died in BC 290 did it in public demonstrating it to his students for teaching purposes.He found that veins and arteries have some differences. But he didn’t know the reason for the difference. He was the first Greek to understand that the center of nervous system is the brain. That shows how evolved Indian medicine was over ots Greek counterpart during time of Susrutha which is
64 vedic /prevedic . In Egypt dissection was considered menial yet they had a embalming system 1000 years before Greece . Embalming is practiced in india during Ramayana times (Vasishta does it to preserve body of Dasaratha till Bharatha and Sathrughna arrive for last rites) and during Mahabhagavatha (Satyabhama does it to her own father Sathrajith before she goes to Hasthinapura to see Krishna and inform him of the injustice) .That is by BC 7000- 3500 it had been practiced and learnt by scholarly men and women .The Pre-columbian skulls with trephine holes were studied showing that the people had lived after the trephine ( they were made by surgeons and not by some murderers as thought by the attacking Spanish conquistadors) .The Precolumbian surgeons used Erythroxylon cocoa for anaesthesia. Indians used Madanakameswari ( a shrub that grows widely ) and also supthivaatha (the gas that produce sleep ) as mentioned in Susruthasamhitha.To know human anatomy is essential for a good surgeon and therefore dissection was taught during time of Susrutha .During Budhist period this practice stopped in India. Sir William Osler remarked: In the continued remembrance of a glorious past ,individuals and nations find their noblest aspirations”.Study of Indian arts and sciences makes us remember about a glorious past of not only of India ,but of entire human race and make us fulfil our noblest aspirations . Vishnupurana,Bhagavathapurana,Manusmrithi and Harivansa give the geneology of Dhanwanthari. Kaasa- Kaasi- Dheerghathapas- Dhanwa who did Upasana on Vishnu as Dhanwanthari to get a son and named his son as Dhanwanthari- Dhanwanthari – Kethumaan- Bheemaratha(Bheemasena)-Divodasa the second Dhanwanthari-Prathardhana- Vatsya-Alarkka .Susrutha is contemporary of Dhanwanthari .The view that Susruthasamhitha was written during Budhist period was due to a word in Sareerasthaana 318 ,that Subhoothigouthama took part in discussion with Dhanwanthari on development of embryo in womb.The existence of a Subhoothi as disciple of Gouthamabudha during Budhist period was the reason for this misunderstanding .But Gouthama is an old Rishivansa and there is no reason to fix the date by just this name . Weber has said that KouseethakiBrahmana is older than Aithareya Brahmana and is written in BC 2500 .S.V .Deekshit fix its date between BC 2900 -1850.Panineeya does not mention Gouthamabudha or Mahaaveerasampradaya and this shows even Panini was before them and Paanini mentions the term Susrutha as an adjective-The famous .In Ayodhara ,a Paali jaathaka it is said that Budha was a prince in his previous birth and he was then contemporary of Dhanwanthari Vaitharanabhoja ,a great Vaidya.The first word of Susrutha is: Dhanwanthariroopa divodaasa kaasaadhidaanalabhyaye Samupethaanaamanthevaasnaamullekhe Vaitharanyaapinirdesosthi . Similarly when the names of Ashtavaidya re mentioned :Malsakaasasye praacheene susruthasya thalee(dee)pathatusthakethu Oupadhenavakavaitharanyaarabrapoushkalaavathakaraveeryagopurarakshithabhojasusruthaprabritha ya “ .This has Bhoja in front of Susrutha name and Vaitharana is an ancient rishi earlier than Bhoja and susrutha.The Paalijathaka’s VaitharanaBhoja,as Student of Divodasadhanuanthari is considered as
65 Susrutha by many scholars. The famous Dhanwantharikshapanakaamarasimha sloka during the early centuries of Christian era is thus a third Dhanwanthari . The name must have been used as a title for expert vaidyas. Why was Susrutha placed during Budhist period by later authors ? In Susruthasamhitha it is said that Susrutha had a discussion with rishi Subhoothigouthama and Dhanwanthari on the development of a zygote within the womb of mother (Sareerasthaana 3.18). In Budhist literature Budha had a discussion with Subhoothi ,one of the householder disciples .Considering the name Subhoothi occurring in both ,the scholars placed Susrutha in Budhist period and this is a very controversial procedure.KousheethakiBrahmana which is before 2500 BC (Weber)mentions Dhanwanthari as older than it .Yaska and Panini mentions Kouseethaka .And Panini who is unaware of name of Budha speaks of Kousheethaka,Susrutha and Dhanwanthari.The current concept is that Susrutha is older than Kousheethaka and is almost at the same time as Ramayana .The very statement that Budha was in his previous birth contemporary of Dhanuanthari Vaitharanabhoja (Pali text) points out to antiquity of Dhanwanthari and Susrutha before Budha.The Vaitharanabhoja as anthevasi of Dhanwanthari mentioned in Palijathaka is considered to be Krishna,son of Viswamithra ,later came to be known as Susrutha.Kasyapasamhitha calls him KrishnaBharadwaaja (Rogaadhyaaya of Kasyapasamhitha ).Viswamithra is a sage in Veda. There are 8 anga (organs) for Ayurveda .(soothrasthaana 1.3.13) 1 .Salyathanthra (surgery) 2.Saalaakyathanthra ( surgery of E.N.T and Ophthalmology ,Dental surgery 3.Kaayachikitsa . Medical treatment of diseases 4.Bhoothavidya . Psychology and psychotherapy ,psychosomatic diseases 5.Koumarabritya . Paediatrics and Adolescent medicine 6. Aagathathanthra .Toxicology and poisoning and its treatment 7. Rasaayanathanthra (Treatment for longevity and rejuvenation; chemicals used as medicines )Sidha medicine uses chemicals also while Ayurveda traditionally uses herbal medicine. 8.Vaajeekaranathanthra . Increase virility ,fertility,reproductive medicine . The different branches are used in combination for relief and for quick relief in certain cases surgery alone is used ( soothra . 1.4.15).Susruthasamhitha has 120 chapters divided as 6 books .(Soothrasthaana gives basic principles of ayurveda; Nidaanasthaana discuss aetiology or causes of diseases ;Sareerasthaana deals with embryology and Anatomy ;Chikitsaasthaana deals with general medical treatment and Kalpasthaana with toxicology and finally Utharathanthra which in 66 chapters discuss the specialities and special treatment methods for some diseases .
66 Medical theories of Ayurveda :The first theory is the theory of origin of Universe (Prapanchotpathy) which a student should understand .It is equivalent to Kapilasamkhya theory of origin of Universe . We know the western theories of Origin of Universe that started with Darwin . But here we are dealing with a theory of origin of universe which started from Kapila ,son of Kardamaprajapathi and Devahoothi (daughter of Swayambhuvamanu and Satharoopa) at the beginning of the human consciousness development which is prevedic .It says that the unmanifested nature which is endless,omnipresent and omnipotent energy has the three qualities(sathwa,rajas,thamas) balanced .Both Purusha and Prakrithi have same qualities. Only difference is that Purusha we call Chethana (energy) and Prakrithi as achethana(matter) though in essence both are energy only . Prakrithy is the balanced 3 guna state ,Purusha is even beyond that where even the threeness is not there .It is the energy absolute indivisible .From prakrithi which is influenced by the presence of energy(puriusha) creation(sarga)starts and then the balanced state is lost . From such a unbalanced prakrithi is born Mahat and from it Ahamkaara .The ahankaara has three types : sathwika or emotional ;thaijasika or Rajasa ;and thaamasika or bhoothaadhi ahamkaara .The last is gross and sathwika is subtlest .From sathwik ahamkara by influence of rajasic ahamkara is born the 11 senses (including mind) .From Bhoothaadhi by influence of rajasa the 5 thanmaathra of sookshmabhootha are generated .From them the 5 mahaanhootha(panchabhootha) are created. Thus the gross creation of matter has been described.Apart from this the other causes of creation are 6 :Swabhaava (own nature ),Iswara ( The Lord );Kaala(time),yadricha (accidental), Niyathi(law of nature) and parinaama (change or evolution happening in nature . Thus the creation and evolution of universe goes back to sage Kapila and this is accepted in Susruthasamhitha and other Ayurveda texts which follow the balancing and unbalancing of thriguna and thridosha as basis cause of health and disease .Purusha or energy is within each jeeva(living being) as Karmapurusha though it is omnipresent and omniscient and birthless and deathless. The effects of previous actions(karma) leads to reactions (Newton’s law ) so that by the previous activity jeeva takes up divine,human or animal qualities immeadiately they manifest in the womb .(sareerasthaana 1..1 17).Since every matter which become food and medicine (oushada) are made of the 5 elements they are created and born in Prakrithi (nature /natural).Therefore the qualities of nature is present in all that we eat or drink. The science of jeeva (biology) is a wholistic knowledge of all these natural properties and principles ( Sareerasthaana 1.12.14).All living things desire blissful experiences.And detest sorrow and difficulties. Their natural characters include:- karma(action),breathing, excretion,winking of eyes, power of intellect of varying degrees,mind,habit of thinking,desires,memory,knowledge derived from personal experience,cognitive power, and wisdom therefrom . These are different in different proportions in jeeva depending upon ratio of the thriguna .Therefore human beings are broadly classified as three depending upon the three guna . Sathuagunapradhaani: kindness,patience,truthfulness,honesty,dharma or righteousness, Athmagnaana or wisdom,intellectual power, memory power, belief in a greater power (aasthikathwa), lack of interest in samsara(mundane life) are the signs of a sathwika person . They are able to withstand any difficult situations due to their patience and righteousness and wisdom . This classification does not take into
67 consideration any skin colour or racial difference but only the personal qualities of individuals .The best teachers, and best leaders of races come from this group. Rajogunapradhaani: They react to sorrows emotionaaly and have a dual mind ,and their ability to grasp absolute truth is lesser .They are egocentric,and tell lies to get their way,and have no kindness to other jeeva ,and their intense desires and selfishness and anger creates problems in society.Yet they are able to do things with concentration and shine as great administrators,artists etc .Rajasic people are ready to suffer sorrows and rise to an occasion only when they are made aware of the danger of loosing their own selfish pleasures .Otherwise they just adopt a carefree life of indulgence.The best warriors and best artists come from this group. Thamogunapradhani:They are unrighteous,tell only lies,and insult a power above them, have slow intellect and yet pretend to be very intelligent ,and are ignorant , having a crooked mind and laziness being hallmark of their character they sleep all the time.They cannot suffer even the slightest pain and run away from all situations and sorrows without even trying to defend . The character of the 5 elements is seen in jeeva. In aakaasa sathwaguna is more. Sound,hearing and listening ,the blood vessels of body ,the openings of body(spaces) are all based on aakaasa and sathwaguna. Vaayu or wind is rajoguna . Touch,skin ,mundane actions, and earth’s movements, vibrations of body,and the laghuthwa (weightlessness) of objects are determined by vayu . Thejas has both rajas and sathwa. The sight ,eyes,colours,sandhaana(joining of colours ),digestion,anger,immeadiate reactions to actions,energy ,courage and cruelty are linked to fire or thejas.Water has sathwa and thamas. Taste, fluidity,weight,coldness,semen are dependent on water.Prithwi or earth is thamas . The smells,the organ of smell,weight,hardness are related to earth. Comparison of this to Hippocratus’ men of 4 types (sanguine ,phlegmatic ,choleric and melancholic )is an interesting exercise.Greeks omits aakaasathathwa (pure sathwik) and gives the signs of a sathwik man to the prithwithathwa which is thamas (for Indian medicine) is a notable change ,probably due to the geographical variation of human beings in India and Greece
Body,jeeva,Athman and law of genetics in Ayurveda:Purusha is birthless ,deathless and changeless and eternal energy ( Sareera. .10).Purusha is Kshethragna (one who knows the temple where he dwells /the body/cosmos). Synonyms are Achyutha,Sarvagatha .When such a purusha enters a body a jeevi(one with jeeva-a living being) is created. When the karmapurusha ,thus entered leaves that body ,the jeevi becomes dead. (sareera 1. 16.17).The kshethragnapurusha enters a beejasonithasankalana ( united sperm and egg-zygote) that zygote gets its own consciousness,cognitive power of senses ,creative power ,power of movement ,growth,and observation power and manifestation power . . By the reaction to the past action,that purusha which is changeless is felt as if it has changes .This is just an illusion which the karmapurusha aquires due to its past actions. The three guna which determine a living being’s character are given by karmapurusha .But its real nature is too deep to be cognized by ordinary intellects.The life starts with union o fkarmapurusha to a zygote formed by the mother’s egg and father’s sperm . This union of karmapurusha
68 to the zygote is called Aadhaanalagna or period of Garbhaadhaana. The object thus made afte rsamkalana is carried by Vaayu to its determined place within the womb ( sareerasthaana 3.3).This is creation o fan individual jeeva as opposed to creation of cosmic egg (which is topic of discussion in Astronomy,another related science). Susrutha defines the 3 actions which are in the control of man for creating a good offspring:1 Selection of bride and groom with good qualities for a union 2.selection of time for their union for getting a good offspring (saanthimuhoortha) 3.Protection of the offspring during the pregnancy by all means Just by female and male union an offspring is not created and for that the blessing of karmapurusha is essential.(sareera 39.42). Man is comparable to a plant. Plant needs good earth ,(kshethra) and good seasons,and water for sprouting and growing. In appropriate time and season,in a good woman(kshethra) seed is sowed and proper protection given for getting a good offspring.The expectation of getting a child who is good,kind,honest,and righteous ,energetic and healthy depends on these .(Sareera 2.33).The parents should be healthy,and who have reached reproductive age .The semen and egg should have no disorders .If there are disorders,treat them first and allow union only after that (sareera 2.5.18).For certain types of disorders of sperm and egg there are no medicines and such people are not fit to marry and produce children( Sareerasthana 2.2.4).The disorders of sperm and egg, the methods of sexual union ,the physical and mental states of parents affect the baby’s health .Sareerasthaana(2.36.43)describe such malpractices which should be avoided to prevent illhealth and congenital anomalies to child. (sareera 2.36-43).These thought processes show how evolved Indian science had been even in that remote times.Before sexual union parents are asked to do Veeryadhaarana. For at least a month man and wife should sleep separately and avoid union . They should not sleep during daytime.Woman should always be happy and contented and should not cry and fall into depressions. No hard labour should be performed at this time. Gossiping and laughing aloud which decrease energy and time is prohibited at this time. Body should not be subjected to strong winds or heats. Nonvegetarian food should not be eaten . It is better not to see adult males at the time (sareera 2.24.25) which may cause involuntary desires in her mind which might be harmful to the desired baby . Time of garbhaadhaana: Count from the first day of menstrual cycle. 4 to 12 days are best (because that is time of ovulation).The first 4 days when blood flow is there should be avoided since babies formed at this time may be shortlived. After 12 days Susrutha says there is no use since it will not give a baby(progesterone cycle) showing his scientific knowledge on hormonal cycles in women. In 5,7,9 and 11th day if zygote is formed there is possibility of getting a male child. In 6,8,10 and 12 th days possibility of getting a girl child is more. (sareera 2.28.29).If sperm is stronger than egg one gets a male child and if egg is stronger than sperm one gets a girlchild and if both have equal strength then the child is neuter gender (napumsaka). After sexual union ,the male is asked to mix 3 or 4 drops of some medicines in milk and to instill it in the nose of his wife as nasal drops which promotes pregnancy .The medicines thus
69 mentioned are : Lakshmana(Atropa mandragora),Sahadeva a plant having yellow flowers(sida condofolia),Vatasumka(Coleus ambonicus),Viswadeva(Uraria lagopodiodas). The physical and mental characters of child is determined right from the moment of garbhaadhaana (union of zygote with karmapurusha).Face ,head,body hairs,bones,teeth and nails, bloodvessels ,nervous system and semen are from the male gene . Blood,bone marrow ,heart,umbilicus,liver,intestines ,generative organs ,muscles are from mother’s somatic genes. Power,shape ,colour are from the food which is received as liquid form from mother’s body fluids (mother’s food). The cognitive powers, wisdom ,knowledge,capacity to experience and withstand pleasures and pain ,lifespan etc come not from father or mother but from self as Karmapurusha. The health,energy or veerya,nature of body ,colour and intellect are modified by the spiritual and functional unity of parents and their karma .(sareera 3.19). Thridoshasidhantha:-Just as thriguna makes manifestation or creation of prakrithi,thridaathu makes manifestation of the body .The relation of thridosha and disease is that of cause and effect.It is not an eternal relationship. At the same time a cause from its effect has a continuous relationship which one has to break with treatment .Vaayu,pitha and kapha (gas,liquid and solid are represented by them) join with blood which is the base for jeeva and takes form of creation,protection and destruction in order. The term health is a balanced satte of these .Disease is an unbalanced state of these three dosha .9soothra 21.2.3).Vaayu is strong and controls all moving and nonmoving objects . It controls creation,maintainance,protection as well as destruction of universe and jeeva. Though unseen vaayu is experienced by its touch.Its qualities are coldness,hard functions, Thiryagaa(angular momentum),swara(sound)touch ,rajas (dust and powerful function),unthinkable power and energy(achintyaveerya) and muhuschaarithwa(ability to move vast distances within a second) .It moves in universe and in body every moment and in great speed. When a obstacle happen to its movement somewhere ,disaster happens (which is also followed in Indian Vasthu meticulously). The undisturbed flow of air is essential for balancing of thridosha,agni and the dhaathu (elements). The 5 types of vaayu are then described with their properties. Praanavaayu (oxygen):- Functions are protection of life,taking food to internal organs,vibratory movements in mouth and nose leading to sound and language production Udaanavaayu :- This moves from internal organs upwards .This is essential for sound production,musical sounds and also for speech and oratory.The main function is Udvahana – carrying upwards (upward course ) Vyaanavaayu:- That which spreads throughout a body. It makes the blood and rasa (hormones) spread everywhere by chamkramana (cyclical or wheellike movement ). The contraction (samkocha),Vikaasa(expansion),urdhwa(up)neecha(down),thiryagaa(angular and opposite momentum) are the five types of movements produced by it. Its main function is poorana or filling . Apaanavaayu is the air in the large intestine. The presuure of this helps the mother to propel the child downwards during delivery. Faeces,urine,menstrual blood and semnen are expelled downwards due to its function. Its main function is dhaarana .
70 Samaaanavaayu:- It is air in digestive tract .It unites with agni (fire) to digest food. The wastes after digestion are expelled and the essence is absorbed into blood stream by its action.Its main function is viveka (literally wisdom).It knows what is to be expelled and what is to be retained. Pitha is symbol of thejas. There are 5 types of pitha .Ranjakapitha (Hemoglobin) is that which produce varna or colours.(raagakrith). It is responsible for colours seen in rasa like body fluids ,lymph etc.For example yellow colour in Jaundice is called yellow pitha (jaundice).Paachakapitha is paachakaagni which united with samaana makes digestion,gives metabolic heat to body. Saadhakapitha is in heart and gives ojas and movements possible.The flow of blood in cyclical fashion to other parts of body and back to heart happen due to this . Alochakapitha is in the pupil of eyes.It gives power of sight and informs about light,heat and thejas. Vrajakapitha is in skin and preserves its colour and beauty and heat .Pitha protects body by agnikarma(function o fire).It represents the fire of cosmos in our body . Sleshma is a variety of aapas or water of cosmos in our body .It gives coolness to body.There are 5 types of sleshma. Khedakasleshma is slimy like dirt and is in abdomen and intestines giving power of function to them (Mucous). Avalambakasleshma gives functioning ability to joints of chest,shoulder,neck ,vertebral column . Vodhakasleshma is in throat and tongue and helps to know taste and to keep watery content above tongue in same proportion .It is also needed for wound repair in various tissues Tharpakasleshma is within head .It preserves water in and around sense organs and increase cognitive power of sense organs .Sleshmakasleshmam is in all joints for proper function of joints .Sleshma is generally balakrith( that which give strength). It gives fixity .The lymph system concerned with immunity is included in the sleshma .When there is thridosha ,blood also gets dosha and different types of diseases are created.The changes in nature,seasons,food,lifestyle ,climate changes etc produce unbalanced thridosha and diseases. Pravaatha(whirlwinds and storms),nivaatha(strong wind),aathapa(extreme heat of sun),chaaya(shadows),Jyotsna(moonlight)thamas(ignorance /darkness),cold and heat and changes of ahorathra,paksha and maasa and ayana (seasonal ) bring imbalances in thridosha which can be dealt with the particular geographic region and its food and practices 9soothra 1.24-25).Controlling natural biological phenomena ,involving in unnatural behaviours and lifestyles, eating opposite types of food, and by accidents and seasonal changes the vaay is obstructed in its movement .The vaayu which is obstructed and taken to unusual places creates rakthadosha.When pitha makes rakthadosha the plethora are created and similarly kapha also can make the rakthadosha.When all the 3 creates rakthadosha together it is sannipaatha and is difficult to treat. The seasonal variation of the thridoshakopa and its end with subsequent seasons is given as follows: Dosha Pitha Sleshma Vaatha Increase in season Rainy season Sisira Greeshma Beginning of disease Beginning of sisira Vasantha First rain End of disease End of sisira Venal /greeshma Beginning of Sisira
71 Vasantha is the morning of samvatsara (year) ,and greeshma is the noon of year and first rain is the afternoon of year .Rain is th esandhya of year , sisira beginning is midnight , and sisira end is early morning . In this way Makara month (markazhi) is the poorvasandhya of year and karkitaka is saayamsandhya (the Utharayana and Dakshinaayana respectively) and the 2 Vishuvath are the midnoon and midnights . This is important to those who do music therapy which is part of Ayurveda. The eastern wind removes all diseases and tiredness.It increases acidity . It can increase wounds,and toxins .Among the four winds (from 4 regions) the southern one is good for strength of body and also for strength of eye . It calms the blood ,removes pitha and does not increase the vaatha and kapha .The western winds takes away the oily content of our body. It dries up and reduce strength and veerya . The northern winds increase mucous flow in nose and throat and apart from that it has no other illeffects. It increase strength and cures constipation and poisoning (soothra 20.22-25).In this way the geographical changes which a human body and mind can have is explained by Susrutha from generations of experience of his ancestors . He says in anoopadesa (low lying areas where water accumulates) there are lakes,canals,rivers and forests ,the people will be soft bodied,beautiful and more towards obese nature and generally vaatha and kaphaprakrithi .From Gujrat to Kanyakumari there is anoopadesa (Krishna is called Anoopadesabhoopathi in Bhagavatha). Jangaladesa has plains low hills and grasslands and there rain water does not accumulate for longer period . The hot winds will blow throughout the year . People are strong ,muscular and hard bodied and has vaathapithaprakrithi. Tamil Nad is typically of this type. The place having both these geographic features mixed is called the Sadaranadesa(normal place) where heat and rain will be balanced . Human beings are healthy . Kerala has this type of climate generally . In infancy kapha,in adulthood pitha and in old age vaayu are more damaged. The first sign of vayukopa is pressure and swelling in abdomen. The first sign o fpithakopa is yellow colour of skin and eyes. And first sign of kaphakopa is tired feeling . In he second stage rakthadosha, pain in body and movement of air for vaayukopa; belching ,thirst for kaphakopa haapen.In third stage vayukopa makes movements of intestines with loud noises. Pitha produce coldness and burning sensation. Kapha leads to loss of apetite ,indigestion,vomiting ,tired muscles and heaviness of limbs.In 4th satge the dosha centralize in particular organs of body and diseases of special organs ensue. (stomach,intestine,neck,muscles,head ,generative organs etc etc). In 5th stage all the signs of disease manifest .The good doctor’s sign is to detect the first sign of disease and prevent disease from progressing .Not diagnosing at last stage (which is possible even for a ordinary layman).If more than one dosha show imbalance ,treat first the more severe one and make sure that the other 2 are not progressively imbalanced by treatment.This is especially important in sannipaatha .
Blood:- Pure blood is neither transparent nor thick .It is deep red in colour. When there is vaathakopa ,blood become thin and transparent ,blackens and foamy and flows quickly . In Pithakopa it is thin ,with blue,yellow or green ,brown coloured with a fishy smell. Even a fly or ant will touch that blood . In
72 kaphakopa blood is slimy and slow flowing with colour of fresg flesh or even yellowish. If two kopa are mixed the nature of blood also show mixed features. Thridoshakopa have colour of stale kanji and smell of fecal matter. The diagnosis and treatment are determined by state of disease and on thridoshasidhantha . Sweet ,acid,and salty taste calm vayu .Swet ,sour and astringent taste calms kapha. When vayubala is lost one looses ojas,ability of speech and consciousness. When Pithabala is lost the temperature of body is lost. The digestion stops and body colour gone .When sleshmabala is lost body is dry, burning is experienced and within abdomen and body a feeling of nothingness occur. The joints become loose ,thirst ,tiredness and lack of sleep are felt .When vaayu is more skin become hard and body thin ,dark and limbs shaky ,and love for hot food and drinks ,lack of sleep ,constipation and tiredness occur. If pitha increase, paleness(anemic) lack of sleep,like cold food and drink, mental and physical tiredness,loss of consciousness happen. Both feces and eyes become yellow . When kapha increase skin is cold and pale with lack of touch sensation and limbs are heavy ,sleep ,tiredness ,loose joints happen. Sleep and dream:- When chethana is under control of thamas one sleeps .This happen naturally everyday when night comes(nocturnal rhythmic cycles) for giving rest to our nervous system. At that time the nervous channels required for jagrad state are asleep . When sathw anad rajas are weak a type of thamasic sleephappen which is called loss of consciousness or coma . This is different from natural normal cyclical thamasic sleep . In sleep the jeevathman is not asleep but in a awakened satte it gives visions of previous experiences ,events etc to the rajasic mind . Rajasic mind also is not asleep in daily nidra but it has no ability to come back to awakened state by itself. Only with help of sathwik state one can awaken from natural sleep. In coma or thamasikanidra ,this is lacking and there is chance for death to happen .The nature of thamasic people is sleep for the whole day .Rajasic people sleep for a particular period at night and day . For a sathwik person only very little sleep is needed . He/she sleeps only for a very little time at night and engages in study and research and mental ,intellectual and spiritual practices. If sleshma is less sleep never omes and if vaayu is more by physical and mental causes sleep is disturbed. For prediction of future sleep and dreams have a great role .Susrutha ‘s opinion here is heads and shoulders above Freud and Jung and he draws his theories from vedic and upanishadic theories. Some dreams are even predictive of disease and death but those predictive of progress and growth are very important for a people. Jeevathman gives visualization of predictive dreams to mind which is impossible in awakened state . This is the sign of a sarvagnapurusha and not of a karmapurusha .The sarvagnapurusha is reflected in karmapurusha during predictive dreams giving aim to his life (sareera 4.35).This is a part which I have experience myself and has already dealt with in many of my books in detail.It has comparison with collective consciousness of Jung in certain respects . Seeing a pralaya (flood) and a event or object which is impossible and a transcendental naadasravana are described by Susrutha as sign of Mrityu . (Soothrasthaana 29.15 .24) My dreams of such events at age of 8 did not bring about my death(I am 65 now) but it certainly brought about my first creative poem (published in Mathrubhoomi weekly children’s colum) titled “Death”. Time is swayambhoo (born from itself) and endless and beginningless . Even a little thruti(smallest unit) of time is swayambhoo. Time is cause for creation . It is cause for pralaya (floods). Both life and death are functions of kaala or time (soo.6.1.2). Like a revolving wheels spokes ,the kanika (units) of time come
73 one after another following each one cyclically repeating endlessly. This wheel of time is eternal ,revolving and causing parinaama of universes(evolution) endlessly .The time is measured in smaller units based on movement of earth around sun (soo 6.3.8)and also by movement of moon and stars at night. But that is only a relative time and the absolute time is timless and immeasurable.This spacetime concept of Indians make the human consciousness and its evolution timeless too . How the embryo grows ,delivery of child,and protection of pregnant woman:-Body of a seed is made of 5 elements .Agni (energy)comes from mother and becomes pitha .Soumya from father becomes sleshma .Vaayu who is sarvagatha becomes vaatha . Five sensory organs ,Karmapurusha as Bhoothaathmaa as a sanghaatha makes the jeeva with a body .The mass or panda (zygote ) is divided by vayu into thridosha,seven dhathu,organs like limbs,and objects to be expelled. Agni starts metabolic functions. Wter creates humidity and aakasa induces growth . A skin with 7 coverings is made as a result of function of energy (metabolic kriya). This covers baby .In first month the baby is like a solidified dirty clay . In second month by amassing the dhathu child grow in size and aquire weight.If it is having a round shape at this stage it is likely to develop into a male baby and if t is oval ,more likelihood to develop into a female baby –says Susrutha .If no such form it could be neuter. In third month limbs ,heart etc form as rudimentary structures. At that time child develops a primitive consciousness of its surroundings. (when heart is formed). This desire is manifested through mother . Mother have some special likings at this stage.She is called a Dwihridaya (woman with 2 hearts ) and whateve she wish should be given ,because it is for the baby and its happiness .If the baby is not happy ,it may develop a physical or mental deformity . (sareera 3.14.15).In 5th month child’s mind is awakened. 6th month intellect is awakened. In 7th month the organs take the miniature shape of them . In 8th month the Ojadhathu of the heart is awakened and it travels to mother’s heart and back cyclically .After 9th month delivery happen.If there is prolongation one has to take out baby surgically( sarera 3.16 and 5.48). Position of child is head down usually and it is the head which comes out first . If some other part comes it is vaikritha(not natural) and may need intervention surgically . If placenta does not fall normally after childbirth it may harm the mother’s life.Methods of removing placenta is described in expert manner (sareera 10.17-18).Looking at the signs and movements of mother one can predict the child’s sex. (sareera 3.20). The child gets food through digested essence of mother’s food through he rblood ( Sareera 3.17) and continues to do so until the umbilical cord is cut. Ince Vayu does not enter the stomach,intestine of child within womb ,these organs are nonfunctioning . A covering of slimy mucouslike material blocks its throat and mouth and therefore the infant in womb cannot make a sound. It breaths with mother,and gets food through her blood. Sleeps with mothe and awakens with her. It has bility to move but it is limited by the womb and its shape. (sareera 2.52-53). Mother should be properly instructed in methods to protect the child from internal and external stress. The charya of pregnant mother include : Keeping clean of her person and mind, happy pure life , avoidance of sorrow and fearful sights and situations, avoiding bad smells and loud noises, eating sathwik,pure fresh tasty food , sleeping in low cot with soft bed and pillows,, avoiding lonely places,avoidance of hard manual labour and mental stress, as far as possible avoid talking to unfamiliar males with loud noises ( It might startle baby) and hear good devotional melodies .Sareerasthana 10.2 gives a short list of these.In the first 3 months she is given sweet and cold drinks.Third month rice is boiled in milk with sweet,and also
74 curd and milk are given. In 4th and 5th months she has to eat butter . From 4th month onwards milk,soups and light fatty foods are given.(sareera 10.3). In 7th month,in order to give ample space for the child in uterus,mother’s intestines are cleaned of its gases and feces by enema.In last trimester the diet is more of liquid nature with lots of soups . This is to prevent the child’s face when it comes out of the womb ,not to be smeared with mother’s fecal matter .Discussiong the different types of labour and its complications,treatment (sareera 10. 4-20;10.45-50) he even tells us that in case the child has serious anomalies and the labour is obstructed ,and one is sure of fetal death ,in order to save the life of mother killing the child by Craniotomy is not a sin and he describes the method of Craniotomy( Chi .15.6-7). The newborn’s best food is breastmilk and if it is not available honey, clarified butter ,anantha(Hemidesmos indica) and Lakshmana(Atropa mandragora) may be used as substitutes. (sareera 10.13-14)The breastmilk of fostermother is permitted and when such a person is selected see to it that she is clean and devoid of any diseases . And give her good nutritious food . In case such a fostermother is unavailable give thinned goat’s milk (sareera 10.22-24) .From 6 th month onwards child can be fed on boiled rice and other easily digestible solids. (sareera 10.39-40). The usual Baalaarishtu(infant diseases) like vomiting,swollen abdomen,incessant cry,not moving head and feet ,and winking of eyes ,constipation, lack of urination are described . How to care for the infant is given in detail .Susrutha says if the infant is not properly looked after with care ,he becomes a coward ,and temperamental angry person in adulthood and resorts to complaints and vomits milk and food given and in the end he becomes very thin due to lack of food,suffers insomnia,indigestion,and unhealthy .(Sareerasthana 10.38.41). Ayurveda doctors in Kerala calls this Grahani which may be in mild terms translated as Kwoshiorkor in Allopathy practice with its complications in adult life including severe metabolic disturbances.The food of mother,her lifestyle,happy state of mind, the care given after birth makes the child healthy .This lifestyle is well known in every household in India ,and is followed by even the village people as afr as possible .This adoption of a medical lifestyle prescribed by a Sanskrit text ,by all shows the literacy rate was notmerely of writing skill but of living skill and style for a quality life. Susrutha says the mother takes a minimum of 45 days to come back to normalcy after delivery and at this stage she is likely to develop infections (especially ascending infections through vagina and urinary tract) and therefore utmost care is to be taken to prevent such calamities .( sareera 10-12,16--17).The reason for isolating the new mother from others was to prevent this infection and not because she is impure.Her person may be made impure by others (especially by a sexual contact) and hence she was kept in isolation and this is called Pula or period of impurity to ward of strangers,impure persons and her own husband from the room of isolation. Susrutha knew the structure and function of human body .He says there are 6 main organs (head,trunk,2 upper and lower limbs each). Each is divided as pratyamga (suborgans) .The skull,forehead,face,chin,mouth ,neck,back,abdomen ,and umbilicus are odd number(Single).Eye,ear,nostrils,brows,lips,shoulders,cheeks,armpits,breasts,testis,thigh,knee,etc are even (two in number). Other pratyanga are the 7 coverings of skin ,the 7 kala (supporting connective tissue) 7 dhathu (elements) 7 Aasaya (for vayu,pitha,sleshma,blood ,aama or undigested food, pakwa or digested food ,and urine .Aasaya are the seven pots (paathra)and women have an 8th one the womb also. The length of male intestine is 14 ft and that of female is only 12 ft observed the Rishi .The nine
75 srothas are th e2 eyes,2 ears,2 nostrils,one mouth ,one anus,one urethra.For woman there are additional srothas -2 of tehm for secreting milk in breasts, one for the menstrual blood and for childbirth . Thus female has 12 srothas . There are 16 kandara or sinews .2 each in each upper and lower limbs makes 8. In neck 4 and back 4 .The kandara of limbs reach upto the end of fingers and toes till nails.The neck sinew through heart reach upto the generative organ and the back one upto the end of back . There are 16 Jaala (plexuses) .Ineach ankle and wrist are 4 different tpes of plexuses. One is made of muscle plexuses, the second of venous plexuses,The third of snaayu or ligamental plexuses,and 4th is bone plexuses .He describes 6 koorcha complexes :- muscle,vein,artery,bone,nerve,ligaments .These exist in limbs (2 each) and neck(1) and at root of generative organ (1). The 7 Maharajju are starting from the two sides of vertebral column. One pair internally and one pair externally extend in different directions .These maintains the muscles in a complexly bound state .The 7 sevani are in skull(5) tongue(!) and in male generative organ (1) .This represent the ischiocavernosus structure. There are 14-18 bone samghaatah .The wrist,knee nd elbow,shoulder ,skull ,chest ,the union of chest bone with shoulder bone with 3 faces (sternum ,clavicle and scapula) ,the 14 seemantha (synovial)which cover each of the joint or asthisamghaatha .Susrutha says the Medical teachers before him has described 360 bones but he finds only 300 of them (and others are cartilage). He classifies bones into 5 types: Kapaala (flat),Ruchaka(comblike),tharuna(cartilaginous),valaya(bend as a circle),naalaka (with a tubular shape –or cylindrical) .He says bones give strength to muscles and make our upright posture possible.There are 210 joints .(68 in limbs,83 in head,and neck,59 in trunk) and they are of 8 types and Susrutha compares them to household articles (which is still used in modern Medicine).He even describes the helical shape of the cochlea in ear showing his anatomical knowledge . The snayu are 900 (600 in limbs,230 in body,70 in head and neck)and are of 4 types as branching tree trunks, circular,vast and thick,and with holes in them.500 Muscles are described with functions,position etc.Women have 20 muscles extra . 5Each in breasts become mature when she attains puberty .4 Are in the opening of vagina and 3 are below vertebral column. 3 are around the tubular structure which sucks in the sperm(fallopian tube) . To expel placenta,blood etc and to swallow the sperm in ,the extra muscles are needed . The same muscles around te testis and penis of man is modified and arranged around the vagina and uterus of woman . Susrutha enumerates 107 marma positions ,the circulatory system with veis,arteries and smaller capillaries and nervous network . He gives accurate detail of eyeball with its transverse diameter and says it has a elongated circle or elliptical circle appearance .He describes the 5 mandala and 6 patalas,6 sandhi between mandala in detail which is in accordance with modern ophthalmology .The kaaacha (lens) which is kept in place by muscular structures,the vitreous and blood vessels in the eye . We think that William Harvey first found out the cyclical flow of blood . But we will be surprised to read Susruthasamhitha written thousands of years before Harvey describing blood circulation. Describing the functioning of body ,Susrutha says that the body is maintained by the flow of vayu,pitha,kapha and raktha . The blood which flows through several tubular channels make body grow and nourishes it.He compares it to the several branching irrigation canals of water wetting every inch of a fertile field and
76 that the finest branches of the canals are very subtle . The subtlest branches are innumerable and not seen by naked eye (sareer 7.1-5).He says his predecessors called the three types of flow channels as Sira,Srothas and Dhamani .But according to him these three are seen together in the same place while we do dissection and in form,shape,functioning method etc they are similar .Therefore it is very difficult to separate which is which . Though the functioning method is similar ,the function being different ,some are seen swollen and filled even after death(post mortem appearance ). This is said in sareerasthaan 9.1-2. He says the sira may be carrying thridosha and blood .Srothas may be carrying Rasa(essence,nutrients)and the effects of the biological heat(metabolic products) and dhamani may be divided into several types depending upon their function.24 of them begin from umbilicus and of them 10 flow up to maintain body. Near the ehart each of the 10 divide to 3 .Of these 30 : 2 carry vayu ,2 carry kaha,2 carry the pitha from abdomen,2 carry swara,2 carry vision,2 carry colour,2 carry smell,and 2 carry taste .2 creates language and 2 creates sounds other than language . 2 makes sleep and 2 creates awakened state .2 carry tears. The rest 2 are in women for making breastmilk and for men to make semen. The protection of organs above umbilicus (like arms) is done by the upward flowing dhamani .Susrutha includes not only blood vessels but also other channels like lymphatics and nervous channels . (sareera 9.3-5). 10 important dhamani flow downwards .Between the stomach and intestines they divide into 30 and flow in 3 directions. 2 carry vayu,2 carry pitha,2 carry kapha and 2 carry blood,2 carry essence of digested food, 2 carry solid food 2 carry liquid food ,2 carry urine and 2 carry semen. In woman the same 2 (which carry semen) carry menstrual blood. 2 are for excreting menstrual blood and 2 for carrying feces to large intestine and 8 for carrying sweat to sides where it join to form 4 dhamani .These protects the body below the umbilicus (sareera 9.6).The 4 dhamani have numerous branches and subbranches and their subtlest branches reach the holes outside skin and makes body wet with sweat and rasa (salt). It is these which carry the pleasure and pain experiences from skin by touch (sareera 9.8).In the sides of dhamani are innumerable very subtle holes and through tehm the rasa spreads to all parts of body .This si something which creates wonder in me as a pathologist .How could Susrutha know about the intercellular spaces in vessel walls which takes metabolic products (salt and water) in and out of them ,when Microscope was unknown ? Or is it possible that they were using a primitive type of microscope ? Susrutha says it is thes subtle holes in sides of dhamani which helps the jeeva to cross the assembly of 5 elements at time of death (sareera 9.9.10). Srothas are innumerable. Their functions also are innumerable .Praanavaahi are originating from heart and flow through 2 rasavahi which are arohanadhamani(ascending course).Jalavahi in palate and throat ,rakthavahi in liver,and spleen ,dhaathuvahi in nervous and tendinous ends and skin,medovahi in kidney and sides , moothravahi in bladder and penis and urethra, malavahi in rectum and anus rethovahi in muscles of chest and testis, aarthavarakthavahi in uterine tubes begin their course. When an injury happen to a srothas ,either by accident or during surgery the signs and symptoms and treatment are described in detail (sareera 9.11-12) and if a srothas is injured or a hole is made in it to make it as before is difficult .Therefore surgeon should be careful and should know the anatomy correctly.In healthy state th epraanavahi vessels are in colour of sandalwood and feels like sponge to touch (by this he means
77 nerves).It is this system which gives contraction and expansion of muscles and organs(motor) and ability of speech ,intellect and cognitive power of sense organs and mind . The pithavahi vessels are blue and slightly hot when touched.By them the skin gets its beauty,colour and we get proper digestion and thrst and hunger,and which gives ojas to body .The kaphavahi are white and cold to touch and gives hardness to limbs and joints. Rakthavahi are red and neuter to heator cold when touched. Raktha makes all other dhathu of body . It gives good colour to body.Since body is maintained by blood and jeeva dharanam is done by it ,Blood itself is jeeva. We know touch simply because there is blood flow in our organs. (sareera 7.8, 11-13).In diseases when bloodflow decrease or blood vesels contract ,the nervous system is damaged and lack of sense of touch etc happen .(Since we find this in peripheral neuritis and vasculitis ,in systemic diseases like syphilis and diabetes what Susrutha explains is from scientific observation is inferred). Urine is the fluid which expels all toxic substances in body flushing out them in water .The water of urine comes from water we drink and from watery content of our food (Sareera 15.7;8).Susrutha compares the urinary tubes to the canals and subbranches made in fields .These branches end in a large lake and when the lake is full it flows out to sea through a single large canal . Susrutha says through subtle subbranches invisible to human eye ,even when we sleep the urine is formed and flowing all the time involuntarily to reach the urinary bladder .His understanding of the urinary tract as several subtle subbranches collecting urine from the kidney as and when it is formed, reaching the pelvis (the lake) and when it is full the fluid naturally falling into the sea (urinary bladder) is noteworthy . Susrutha continues to describe the function of expulsion of unwanted matte rfrom kidney thus: Take water in a large pot . Put a new mudpot with multiple small holes in the water so that the pot is immersed upto its neck in water. The water slowly enters the pot through the holes and the pot is full.It is in this way the expelled salts and water is collected by the subtle holes in the kidney channels so that the pelvis is full of urine to be expelled. The single large canal is from one kidney . The two kidneys with the 2 ureters continually expel into the bladder .Bladder is described as a pot with a single opening at its lower end. This opening is normally closed by muscles and controlled by the apaanavaayu . In males the moothradwara is connected to the generative organ and there is only a single hole for expulsion of both urine and semen. Bladder is one of the marmasthaana and a injury to it can even lead to death(nidana 3.14).In normal urine when thridosha are in balanced state the thridosha are invisible though they are being expelled . When imbalance happen they are seen as stony structures . Sometimes they appear as sandy particles or white sediments .In case such structures close the hole there is anuria and pain(dysuria) according to susrutha (Nidana 3.13). The growth of urinary stones is like the subtle elements from a pure transparent water body slowly and steadily accumulating and then becoming gross objects (Nidana 3.15).The normal slight yellow colour of urine is due to a varna dust called Ranjakapitha (what modern medicine calls urobilinogen).When thridosha are imbalanced urine gets different colours,smells ,and cloudiness and thickening etc.(Nidana 3.5).When urine is not expelled ,pain and scribbling of urine can happen (incontinence)and one has to take special drinks and food for expelling urine (sooth 15.11). If urineflow is excess,and there is swelling of bladder ,frequent passing of urine ,and pain special care is needed (sootha 15.14-15). Susrutha does not say a word kidney ,but
78 describes even the subtlest nephron which makes urine and his pathophysiology is scientific in several respects . Digestion and digestive fire :- The fire which produce hunger is divine very light and invisible and subtle with form of an atom(anuroopa). This is called Paachakaagni. Ithas to be known by the digestive action it produce on different rasa. Rasa is born out of food. Agni is created and preserved by the three vaayu – praana,apaanaa nd samaana.(soothra 35.24-25).There are 4 types of paachakaagni. 1. 2. 3. 4. Vishama:- created by the vaayu which has lost its balance. Theeshna: Created by imbalanced angered pitha . Manda:- created by angered sleshma. Sama :- the balanced one (soothra 35.20) The balanced samagni digests food correctly daily .By vishamaagni swelling of abdomen,pain,constipation,diarrohea ,ascites,thickness of limbs,and sounds from intestines happen.. Theeshnaagni is for digesting heavy foods and increase hunger nad it increase heat and dries up throat and palate and produce diseases.Mandagni cannot digest even a light food,and produce heaviness in head and abdomen,cough,breathing difficulty,nausea,and tiredness(soothra 35.21).Such agni has to be converted to samagni by treatment . For vishamagni ,acidic and salty food sare needed. For theeshnagni givemedicines for loose motion and give cold sweet foods and buffalo milk. For mandagni ,medicines for vamana(vomiting) are given and sour and food and tamarind may be needed (soothra 35.23).The digested food becomes subtle.Its essence is trandformed to rasa which gives energy for body.Rasa spreads throughout body by circulation.Through the 10 ascending dhamani which arise from heart, through the 10 descending dhamani from heart and the 4 sideward (parswa)dhamani (total24) the circulation happens.The nature,quality,movement etc of the rasa in food can be guessed from the body build,and strength of body.Rasa wets and spreads as oily substance on organs and makes it calm and energetic. When rasa flow through the liver and spleen it aquires a colour.This coloured rasa is called blood. (soothra 14.4-7)Between age of 12 -50 women loose a part of blood during menstruation.Arthava or menstruation has a firy (agneya)nature (soothra 14.8) From the 5 elements in food blood is created. The properties of blood are liquidity,smell,redness and lightness(soothra 14.9).Blood is the first transformed form of rasa.The second is mamsa( flesh),third vasa(fat)4th majja(marrow)and 5th Rethas(semen).All dhathu in body are made from rasa. Therefore one should take care in foods and drins which creates rasa (soothr 14.10). For the Rasa after orderly stagewise transformation ,to become rethas(semen )3015 Kala are required which is equal to 80.4 hours. BBy 18090 kala(21 days) both arthava blood and semen are fully made (matured). 3015X 6=18090.(soothra 14.12.13). The subtle atoms of rasa flow continuously through body just like the nonending flow of sound waves,light energy and water cycles .(Soothra 14.14).Such comparisons show the awareness of the most subtle principles of astrophysics by ancient medical people of India and that theirs was an integrated approach .Susrutha says just as the smell in a bud is not completely manifested ,in children the transformation of rasa to semen and arthava has not happened. Similarly ,in old people since the ability to expel impurities gradually fails, body degenerates (soothra 14.15).If
79 rasa is made extensively people get nausea and increased salivation. If blood production I smore body become red and dhamani become thick. If fat is more obesity ,shining body and a protruded abdomen results.Then body gets a smell that is not good and cough can happen. When marrow is more, heaviness around eyes and limbs is felt. If semen is increased stones and urinary obstruction occur (prostatic enlargement).When one dhathu increase,the next dhathu is also increased gradually.9soothra 15.13-14)When rasa is less heart disease,pain chest,thirst ,an empty feeling in chest happen .When blood is decreased skin become hard and a desire for acidic food ,cold climate and cold food increase.Dhamani become loose. When flesh is decreased body thins,and vessels beome prominent and pain in limbs and tiredness occur. When fat decrease spleen enlarges ,and joints become weak. Skin is hard and bones degenerate and pain in bone and joints ,and extreme cachexia happen.When marrow is decreased joints become fixed ,and semen is not created . If rethas is reduced there is pain in reproductive organs. There is loss of fertility. Whichever dhathu decreases ,the treatment is given so as to replace it .(soothra 15.10). Ojas gives strength to body. During production o fdhathu Ojas is created. Ojas (energy)is spread everywhere in body.The power of life,power of functioning,sound production,colour,function of sense organs are all based on Ojas.Ojas is white colour (white light). It is soft ,calm,kinetic ,cold and emotionless .To make flesh ,ojas or energy is essential (Phosphate bonds ). Starting from heart ,it circulates in all subtle cells of body .When there is decrease in ojas the reasons would be a severe injury,cachexic illness,intense anger and sorrow,selfishness and possessiveness(Mamatha),intense fear ,tiredness and hunger. Therefore ,such emotions should be got rid of (to prevent loss of ojas which is most important for a human being).This is explicitly stated in Soothrasthana(15.18-27). Food or Annam :- Upanishads proclaim Annam or food is Brahman .Human body is made of five elements .So is food and cosmos.Eating food is for replenishing the 5 elements for sustenance of body /life.Fod and drink (nutrition) is therefore the most important part of treatment for healthy living.Food is needed for growth,health ,strength,function of senses and mind,and for prevention of diseases .The quality,quantity of food, the suitability of food materials, the mixing of different rasa and their effects,the culinary art of nutritional balancing are special subjects in medical knowledge . If the cooking is incorrect ,and mixing of opposite rasa happen food can cause diseases. Herefore selection and method of cooking are to be cared for (Soothra 46.4.9899;54.9). Clarified butter ,boiled rice and milk with water is uniformly good for all human beings . They can be mixed with any type of food without making them toxic. Firy and alkaline food and poisons lead to burning ,pus formation and even death. Other things are good in some seasons and in some types of body conditions and bad in others. Mixed with opposite quality food stehy may become poisonous too.(soothra 20)There are a few food stuffs which are consistently used in Ayurvedic medicine practice due to their taste,roperties and digestibility .In this list 60 types of grains, 22 types of lentils, and barley,corn and wheat are included. If they are grown in bad soil ,their nutrient quality decreases.Growing in adverse seasons,infestation by pests ,harvest before maturity,using before one year storage in granary are other causes for loss of nutrient value. Susrutha gives a long list of about 100 land animals,birds and reptiles ,aquatic creatures and creatures which live both on land and water ,which are considered edible in particular situations .But dry meat and fish,old meat,meat of infected creatures etc
80 were prohibited. Susrutha has not said that eggs of any animal or bird can be eaten.A wide variety of fruits,leaves,grass,roots ,flowers, sprouts,mushrooms,oilseeds ,and immature shoots of palms (includingtaht of coconut) are discussed as edible by him. Milk and milk products were good nutrients for ancient Indians and Susrutha includes all of them in his list.Among salts he mentions the rocksalt as being best. Dhathri(Amalaka ),Pippali(piper longum) naagara(fried ginger) patavala and varthana( long gourd and brinjal) are considered medicinal. Honey,ghee,fine sugar from sugarcane are mentioned by him.Among cooked food screamy thick ricesoups,grain soups,pickles ,and a variety of meat products are mentioned which shows his prevedic Atharvana lineage rather than the Budhist period . The kitchen and pots used for cooking and eating should be very clean and cook should be most honest and trustworthy . The place of eating should be happy and clean. Just after food walking for long distance is prohibited. Just after food one should not engage in discussions or music concerts which are causes for thridoshakopa. Food should be taken according to hunger,taste and seasons. Solid food is best taken in very small quantities intermittently and in between them water should be taken sufficiently . If food is not taken at all body loose strength.Rest,very mild exercise like a walk,a profession which one loves,and a good sleep makes good digestion.After food clean and cold water should be drunk. Milk:Whatever the female living things eat or drink ( oushadhi,vanspathi ) are digested into an essence with white colour within their mammary glands and this essence is called Milk. Among the food stuffs which give Praana ( or life ) the most important is Milk .It has the qualities of sweetness, and is slightly heavy , with a cool feel and induces easy expulsion of faeces of the infant . It does not produce any illeffect to the infant except in ver rare conditions. Milk should be taken in in the disorders caused by vaayu,pittha and kapha , and raktha ( air,acidity, mucous, and blood disorders) and in mental problems as well as in any disease associated and common to the female sex. In cough,fever,tuberculosis,constipation etc milk is a good diet . Milk gives energy to human body and mind. It ensures growth of mind and body. Infants, old people, patients, and convalescing people are given milk due to this reason. Among the milks of animals cow’s milk has ability to balance the hormonal status of human body. Goat’s milk is given for Tuberculosis patients, Camel’s milk is for swelling of glands, piles, Hanson’s disease etc and for oedematous disorders. The milk of deer is for the imbalance of vayu (air) but the other imbalances due to other humours will increase with deer’s milk. The milk of buffalo is thick,very cool, and heavy and it can damage the digestion . Milk of Ekasepha ( animals with one hoof) is used for certain types of Vaatha. Human milk apart from giving energy , is used for several types of eye diseases. The milk of elephant increase the eyesight. Milk taken from the animal in the afternoon will be more digestible than the one milked at dawn. All milk except that of Human beings should be used only after boiling . When boiled for long time heaviness increases and fats increases and optimum time must be employed. If there is colour change, acid increase, smell of salt or of any other bad odour such milk should never be drunk .( Sooth: 45;44-57) Curds:- Are of 3 types.
81 1 sweet curd 2 . Acidic curd 3. Highly acidic curd. Curd gives heat and energy . Used for cold, fever, diarroea , indigestion , and urinary problems. Sweet curd increase fats and kapha ( mucous) . Acidic imbalances pitha( humour) and kapha . Highly acidic poisons the blood. Mandajaathadathi ( slow type curd is that which is not churned properly. It causes diarrohoea and polyurea. It imabalances the three dosha. The whey from different animal’s milk has different properties. Other types of curds are: saradathi ( from the upper pata of milk) , srathaksheeradathi( from the condensed milk),asaaradathi( from churned milk) .These produce different effects on body ( sooth: 45. 58-76) Thakram ( whey):- the thin watery curd ( locally called Moru) is for making digestion and taste. It gives energy. It also removes excess fat from body. It is a medicine for diseases due to increased intake of fatty foods. The whey churned from the milk’s upper foam or Paalppaata is called Golam. Adding sugar, salt, yavakshaara ( potassium carbonate ) ,vyosa( medicines containing alkali) etc to the whey give it special properties which are used in treating different disease processes ( Sooth: 45; 77-81). Navaneetham or butter :- Newly made butter increase appetite and is very light. It is best for increasing intelligence, memory power and strength of body. For imbalance of vayu and pitha, for tuberculosis and ulcers, for piles etc this can be given as remedy. Old butter has more fats. I can be given to growing children. Butter from condensed milk is best for improving eyesight and for cure of eye diseases. Santhaanika ( the upper foam /paalppaata) has several medicinal properties ( ssth: 45; 82-84). Ghrutham or ghee:- Tasty, cool , energy giving and heavy , ghee increases urine flow. Daily use of ghee gives intellect,memory power, good skin colour, good voice, beauty , strength and energy , good eyesight, and long life span. It can be given for mental disorders, apasmaara, fevers ,constipation, mucous and humoural imbalances. Khaaraghritha is that obtained from condensed milk. Ghrithamandam is from the condensed white part of the boiled butter. Kumbhaghritha is that which is kept airtight in a pot for 11 to 100 years . If the ghee is kept for one century or more it is called Mahaaghritha. Each of these have special medicinal properties .( ssoth: 45;84-97). Oils are used for cooking. They are used for external application on head, body, eyes, ears etc also. There are more than 60 oilseeds and oils from them and their properties are enumerated by Susrutha . He says the best among them is oil taken from Thila ( Ellu). It is good for human body. In fats taken from animals ghees, flesh, marrow etc are included and the value depends on type of animal/bird, whether domestic or wild . Honey :- sweet to taste , cool, light ,tasty and first in the antiseptic properties , honey gives energy to human body. For many medicines honey is used as a media . For digestive system, eye, for beauty and skin diseases honey is used. For balance of thridosha, for ulcers, for urinary bladder disorders, for diarrohoea, and parasitic infections , to reduce obesity, honey is useful. Depending upon the origin honey is classified into 8 types. New honey, old mature honey, and heavy honey are used. Light immature ones are harmful. Boiling, heating , diluting in water etc makes it harmful. If honey is indigested in stomach by its
82 union with water and heat , it becomes poison. The reason for this is that the honey bees do not collect honey from the same source. They collect from different flowers belonging to different plants and fruits and this union of different things ( in modern language multiple antigens ) is the reason for harm. In Immunology we know that antigen –antibody union can give rise to sertain toxic chemicals . The different antigens and antibodies in different families of plants and flowers within the body by union with heat and water ( form warm and cold antibodies) and are toxic to each other. This basic principle is known to Susrutha though the language he uses is different . Sugarcane juice is sweet. It is cool heavy and gives strength. It increase digestion , and urine flow. But it can cause cough with bloody sputum and parasitic infestation of intestines .There 12 types of sugarcanes. Each has juice with different property .The things made from the sugarcane juice also reflect these different properties ( sooth 45; 137-154). Grapewine juice and similar sour fruit juices increase appetite. It gives heat and stimulation. Increase urine flow and causes diarrohoea. It can decrease imbalance of vayu and kapha. More than 30 types of such essences are made from different things. The method of their preparation, and properties are enumerated ( sooth 45; 155-200). Susrutha says the urine of animals is used for purification, appetite and for improving cardiac function. ( sooth 45; 201-212).Anthareekshapaaneeya ( water from the atmosphere) is not tasty but is life giving.It is the life giving rain without which life is impossible. It is the best water possible . For continuing life and for maintaining watery content of living bodies it is essential. It gives satisfaction, coolness,to mind and body. Tiredness, laziness, thirst, giddiness, sleepiness, heat and overstimulation of system are removed and balanced by rains. ( sooth;45-21).The atmospheric water touches earth, and when it collects in oceans, rivers, lakes, tanks, wells, prasravana ( waterfalls which are natural), udbhidham ( fountains), vikiram ( underground water flow), palualam ( chathuppu /swamps ) etc its property changes. It gets a distinct taste . According to this its quality also decreases. If anthareekshajala is not obtained , the next best water is that obtained from soil having several airy holes in between the particles ( porous soil) . Sooth; 45;3-4).There are 4 types of anthareekshajala. The first is rain water itself. Since it is light it is the best. This itself is of two types depending upon the nature of the cloud from which it comes. 1 Rain from clouds above the oceans 2. From cumulus clouds above the landmasses Susrutha gives methods for storing rain water . Tie a clean and white cloth over a space without any trees or obstacles above. Or remove the first part of flowing water from the Paathi ( canals) from rooftops and the remaining is collected and filtered. The filtered water is kept in vessels made of gold, silver or burned clay and covered . Ice, dew etc are also anthareekshajala. ( sooth 45;5). What makes the earthly water impure and unsuitable for drinking and bathing purposes ? The excreta of human beings and animals, decayed water plants, and other organic matter, leaves that has fallen into it etc. If one is exposed to the first rain , since it contains the organisms in the atmosphere, it can cause skin diseases , says Susrutha. ( sooth; 45-6).One should never drink water from sources full of watery plants, from sources not exposed to air and
83 light of sun and moon, from sources with smell, colour and taste changes and that which is not clear. That type of water is impure. Other signs of impurity are : heaviness when touched, foams, hot, and that which produce shivering . The impurities known by the sense of sight (eye):- Change in colour, not clear, dust, presence of watery plants Impurities known by sense of taste ( tongue ):- different taste. Good water is tasteless. Impurities known by smell ( nose):- different smells . That water which causes heaviness in stomach, that which does not quench thirst, and that which produce pain and mucous excess is not good . How to purify water before use ?:1 Boil 2. Keep in sunlight for long periods ( the UV light of sun) 3.Flow it through red hot iron or red hot sand . Put ocimum sanctum in purified water and keep it in gold, silver, brass, burned clay pots and drink . Drinking water should be collected in the morning when the atmosphere is most pure and cool . The pot can be kept immersed in a bigger pot which contain cold water . Or , after filteringthrough a clean cloth , continuously fanning and churning with a spoon, put clean sand within it . Or the pot is hung at a high place in a cool room using a nail or on wooden planks. Water which is cool is good for body. ( sooth ; 45;7-12).In certain places the water is always impure .Water flowing through swamps produce cold. In hilly areas the water produce skin disease , jaundice , worms in intestines , oedema , elephantiasis, heart disease , diseases in head and neck including swellings in the neck ( goiter). In some plains water produce piles. In deserts water has salty taste. Water in swamps and open fields can cause imbalance of thridosha. The sea water has salty taste and fishy smell . It cause imbalance of thridosha easily ( sooth 45;14). One should not use cold water when one has chestpain and cold, joint pains, fever and hiccoughs. One should not take bath in cold water , when medicines for producing emesis, loose motion are taken and while oushadhi is taken in, and immeadiately after food , and fatty oily diets. When one has vaayukopa , increased mucous flow , fat, distaste for food, less urine flow and chronic fever one should take bath in hot water only ( sooth 45;21-37). Water from any region should be boiled , then cooled and filtered to get pure water . It is safe too. But if one boils water for entire night it gets acid taste and increase mucous ( sooth 45;3739). Water from inside coconut is cool, tasty satisfying , and which increases urine flow and hunger and energy giving. It decreases imbalance of pittha ( sooth 45 -42).Those people who have distaste for food, cold, oedema, thinning of body , disorders of skin and eye, fevers, ulcers , diabetes should restrict water intake ( sooth 45 ;43). For certain diseases certain rules for food has to be followed .Yavaagu ( barley kanji ) as said in Utharasthaana ( 32; 59-63) is good for patients with fever for quenching thirst and for people with indigestion to increase digestion . Boiled rice and thinned soups are good for patients with slight fever, for convalescence after a fever, and after a fast and when one is tired. Mudga soup ( soup from groundnut) is used for imbalance of mucous and humours. Other soups for fever are : The soup of daadimam and aamalakam which are acidic taste, soup of the root of Ilaya moolaka , Patavala soup ( long
84 gourd), nimbi etc. Laajam ( ground and dried grains) is soaked in water , and honey or sugar added , or cooked in Yavaagu , or adding grapewine , or by adding sour liquids in whey etc the thirst , tiredness , lack of appetite of fever is treated ( Utha 39; 56-61). Milk should not be taken in if fever is high. When there is thinning of body , tiredness , mental laziness, etc due to chronic fever milk has to be taken. ( uth 39;63). For sudden diarroheas water is nectar. But for chronic diarrohoea , add 3 parts of water to milk, dilute, boil and drink. ( U 40;56). Acidic fruit juice added to yavaagu and soup of mudga are good for diarrohoea.( U 40;66-92).For thinning of body and after disease to regain energy ghee is essential. Many people think that Susrutha was a Buddhist monk . What I think was that he was a doctor ,and for a doctor religion is the profession and its ethics . Ahimsa was undertaken generally by all sectors of people in India except in certain contexts and situations. One such was a doctor’s prescription. Susrutha gives prescriptions of eating flesh of various animals for certain disease conditions . He even gives the value of different types of animal flesh . Several praakritha types of flesh eating habits are seen in Susruthasamhitha showing that medicine in India developed in a prehistoric, pre-vedic time . But it is noteworthy that eventhough Susrutha , for completion sake mentions all his predecessor’s views , do not fully approve of them .Because he advocates Mudga soups ( groundnut soups) instead of soups from animal flesh , because it contains all proteins just as the animal soups have and it is a better way of protecting nature and biodiversity from scientific and compassionate levels. Even in modern medicine the animal fats and proteins are slowly being replaced by vegetable and plant derivatives . In 1983 ( Seminars in Oncology : Vol X No:3 . 1983) there was a evaluation of Nutrition and cancer . In Netehrlands, Denmark, Newzealand , etc each person ingests 160180 gms /day of animal fats and the rate of breast cancer is high. In Thailand 40 gms /day is consumption and rate of breast cancer is less. In Japan ( 40 gms/day ) in 1 lakh people only 5 gets cancer breast. In 1967 Winder and Shigamasthu ( cancer .20: 1520;1967) reported the role of intestinal cancer and animal fats for the first time.From research in Japan, Canada, Europe ,Asia ,Africa and US the reports confirmed this. The vegetable fibres decrease the incidence of colon cancer and animal food increase it . The animal flesh when exposed to heat within our digestive system produce N.Heterocyclic amines which is poisonous. In fried flesh its level is very high. Among animal flesh the flesh of buffalo has this substance more. ( cancer research Vol 43 .1983). Research on cabbage, raddish, turnip,chlorophil of vegetables , ginger etc showed that they can reduce such poisons in intestine and increase bowel movements and thereby prevent incidence of cancer . Researchers also reported that vegetable fibre-ric h food is good for heart disease and diabetes. Cellulose , hemicelulose and pectin which are carbohydrates seen only in plants , and lignin in plants produce the fibres . This is not present in animal foods. Studying this the researchers gave some suggestions to reduce cancer .( Seminars in oncology : 1983 .Vol X. No 3 page 342-343) . 1.Avoid fatty foods or at least reduce it. The energy per day needed from fats is only 30 Kilocalories. This one can get from vegetable fats .
85 2. Fruits,vegetables and grains should make the staple diet . The yellow , green and orange coloured vegetables ( carrots, lentils, tomatoes, leafy vegetables, cabbages, cauliflower etc etc ) fruits ( orange,apple, mango, grapes, banana) and different varieties of grains contain fibres, Vit A and C which prevent cancer . 3. Avoid pickled food, smoked fish and smoked food items 4.Avoid alcoholic intake 5. Antimutagenic agents are in plenty in fruit juices and vegetable juices .Therefore take them in plenty . Quercetin in the onion is mutagenic .Therefore those who take onions thinking that it will reduce their cholesterol should take lot of vegetable and fruit juices which contain antimutagens This is not a treatment but a lifestyle to be followed throughout and this is mentioned in the said journal . It reads thu s: “ This regime should be a continuous and lifelong regime and it should be a pleasant tasteful and nutritious diet and at the same time a low risk diet from the public health point of view .Pages 342-343) See below the fibre content per 100 gram of some food items :Food item Fibre/100 gm 1 Grains : Bajra 1.2 Barley 3.9 Jowar 1.6 Dried maize 2.7 Young maizegrain 1.9 Oats 3.5 Ragi 3.6 Handmade rice 0.6 Rice-(mill) 0.2 White rice ( mill) 0.2 Avil ( flat dry rice ) 0.7 Pori 0.3 Thavidu 4.3 Soochirava 0.2 Wheat 1.2 Wheat powder 1.9 2 Seeds ,Oilseeds Almond Cashewnuts Dry coconut Coconut Ellu Groundnut Mustard seed Sunflower seeds Walnuts
1.7 1.3 6.6 3.6 2.9 3.1 1.8 1.0 2.6
86 3. Vegetables Cucumber ( poosanikkaaya) Red beans ( red vallippayaru) Bitter gourd Bitter gourd ( small variety) Patavalam ( long gourd) Brinjal Cauliflower Celery stems Cluster beans Cucumber Drumstick ( muringakakaya) Drumstick flower French beans Capsicum Lady’s finger Green mango Stem of onion Papaya Green peas Flower of banana Green banana Stem of banana tree Matthan Chundakkaya Tomato 4.Graams Bengal gram Green gram Mocchakkotta Paaasippayaru Mysore dhal Thuvara dhal Soya bean 5 Green leafy vegetables Leaf of payaru ( bean ) Cabbage Leaf of carrot Leaf of cauliflower Leaf of celery Black leaf of chembu Green leaf of chembu Dried leaf od chembu Leaf of malli Leaf of curry vep Leaf of drumstick Leaf of cheera Lettuce
0.8 1.9 0.8 1.7 0.6 1.3 1.2 1.2 3.2 0.4 4.8 1.3 1.8 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.6 0.9 4.0 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 17.6 0.7 3.9 0.9 1.4 4.1 0.7 1.5 3.7 3.7 1 1.9 3.0 1.4 1.8 2.9 16.0 1.2 6.4 0.9 1.1 0.5
87 Parippukkeera Leaf of matthan Leaf of raddish Leaf of sweet potato Leaf of green tamarind Dried leaf of tamarind Leaf of turnip 6 Roots Banana tree Beetroot Carrot Chembu Ginger mango Onion (big and small ) Potato Pink raddish White raddish Sweet potato Tapioca Dry tapioca Turnip Chena ( ordinary type) Aanachena ( elephant chena ) 7 Fruits Aamalaki ( nellikkaay) Apple Apricot Banana Banyan tree fruit Cashew mango Cherry Dry dates Green dates Black grapes Green grapes Guava Jackfruit Lemon Moosambi Mango Watermelon Orange Fruit of palm Papaya Sabarjil Pine apple Plum 1.3 2.1 1.0 2.4 1.9 10.1 1
1.1 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.3 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.6 1.8 0.9 1.0 0.8 3.4 1.0 2.1 0.4 8.5 0.9 0.4 3.9 3.7 2.8 2.9 5.2 1.1 1.7 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.5 0.4
8 spices /condiments * have fibrerich , yet to be reduced in diet .These are medicines used for specific purposes/small quantities only and not for daily diet except turmeric which is antiseptic to digestive tract . Asafetida Elam Dry chilly Green chilly Dry gramboo Malli Jeera Garlic Ginger Jaathikka Dry pepper Green pepper Tamarind Manjal (turmeric) 4.1 20.1 30.2 6.8 9.5 32.6 12.0 0.8 2.4 11.6 14.9 6.4 5.6 2.6
From this one can asses s how the life style of Ayurveda is the special diet which the geographic region ( India) had adopted for health and longevity . Ayus and Arogya ( longevity and health):The main aim of Ayurveda is prevention of disorders . 24th chapter of Chikitsaasthaana is entirely devoted for preventive medicine ( Anaagatha Prathishedha) . The schedule of food, the daily routine of life styles and the Rithucharya ( seasonal ) are for this and not for any religious purposes . The customs and rites followed in temples in special days and seasons is following this communal health regimes prescribed by Ayurveda .The entire part is beyond this book . But I would repeat some prescriptions given by Susrutha . 1 Reduce the bad habits slowly and steadily if at all one has acquired them . 2. Do not lie down with head at low level than body 3. Do not take food from dirty and broken vessels 4. Take food only after washing hands thouroughly 5. Do not buy and eat food kept at roadside 6. Do not take food given by street women 7. Do not take food that is infested by flies, dirty, smelly 8.Do not drink lot of water at one stretch , especially in rainy season 9. Do not wear the dress or shoe of another person 10. Do not be anxious about the diseases and calamities that can happen 11. Do not drink alcohol excessively 12. Do not engage in excessive sexual practices whether heterosexual or homosexual
89 Susrutha warns that these habits can lead to diseases which may be severe and difficult to treat. How to protect eyes, pregnancy , etc are also explained in detail. The three stages in human life ( baalya, Madhya and vaardhakya ) are from birth to 16 years; from 16 to 70 years and from 70 onwards respectively. Of this upto 20 is the time of growth of body. Upto 30 is the youth or youvana. Upto 40 is the complete mature lifespan. At that time the strength of body, of sensory organs, function of organs, and the elements of life are at perfection and mature to optimum.After 40 they slowly and staeadily decrease . But the mental and intellectual faculties do not decrease in this period but mature and increase to optimum with experience . Only from 70 years we find a steady decline of mental and intellectual faculties and then the old age or Vardhakya has set in. Hair become white , baldness of head appear, skin is wrinkled and these 3 are signs of Vaardhakya or old age. At end of life there is obstruction to breathing , breathing become painful and cough obstruct praana movement. Then one cannot do any useful job and strength of body and mind is lost . Susrutha gives certain structural peculiarities of human body and mind which are associated with longevity and health. Even if a disease affect them , they are able to get out of it compared to others. A doctor can treat such people easily and get the satisfaction of curing a client . 1. Very long fingers ,toes,hands, legs 2. Fleshy sides and back than usual, prominent nipples,shoulders , face , forehead , teeth and eyes 3. Broad chest , and fleshy muscles on chest 4. Small short neck , thighs and sex organs 5. Deep umbilicus 6. Ears which are broad , fleshy and with hairs on it 7. Deep breaths 8. Deep voice If one or more of these are present longevity is there. If one puts chandana on the chest and face , if that on face dries up quickly and on chest slowly the person will live more than 70 years ,says Susrutha .(sooth 35;3-4). Small fingers, thin back and sides,very large sex organ, big nose, very curly hairy chest , gums seen out when talking, pupils rolling to sides while speaking and laughing, are signs of short life. If more than one of these features are seen in one person that person will live just above 25 years ( sooth : 35.6).The comparative study of the anthropological features for a long time only gives such observations. The anthropological classification of Susrutha is as follows . 1 sathyasaara :- Those with brilliant intellect . Long life is assured . The rasa ( essencehormones) will be well balanced in their body. ( samarasa). Good memory and cognition, intellectual supremacy , courage, respect for good people, natural purity , are characteristic of such people. The character is determined by the balance of the rasa . 2,Sukrasaara:- Bright white teeth and nails , have more semen and are very fertile . Hve many children and keep up the racial continuity
90 3.Majjasaara:- Long thin body, strength , deep profound voice, long beautiful eyes and character of being victorious and successful in everything . 4.Asthisaara:-Big head, broad shoulders ,strong teeth, big bones, high cheekbones, big nails , 5. Medasaara:-big body with flesh , inability to suffer heavy exercises of body , soft beautiful voice .The sweat and urine of them will be very cool. 6. Maamsasaara: long body and great height. Bones and joints covered by heavy muscles and ligaments 7. rakthasaara:-Hands, eyes, nails, tongue , throat and pharynx , lips , feet etc are red and bright 8 Thwaksaara:- soft bright skin , and hairs. Each of these have different lifespans and abilities and characters . Susrutha tells us the role of environment in health and disease . He says we are treating a person as a whole with a body, mind, intellect and soul ( wholistic approach) and not one organ separately . By treating and curing one type of disease or a few clients , a Vaidya is not satisfied. Dirty dress and careless body are alike . If one tries to colour ( dye ) a unclean dress , one will get only patches and one will fail in the effort. Similarly , timely purification ( vamana,virechana etc) are done and body and mind purified for getting effects with medicines . Therefore lifestyles are very important in both prevention and cure of diseases. To keep mental and bodily health to optimum and to increase such a healthy quality lifespan is the aim of the Vaidya . He says that if one is given milk, pure cool water, ghee , honey ( along with the vegetable diet ) from infancy onwards at specified dose and time, the appearaence of signs of old age will be delayed and quality life is assured . He gives some medicines given to adults for increasing energy (veerya). 1 vidaamgha ( Embelia ribes) 2. yashtimadhu ( Glycyrrhiza glabra) 3. Bhallathaka ( Semecarpus anacardium) 4.Ammalaka ( Emblic myrobalan) 5. Gudoochi ( Tinaspora cordifolia) 6. Athibala ( Sida rhombhifolia) 7.Nagabala ( Batalus paniculata) 8. Sathaavari ( Asparagus racemosa) 9. Beejakam ( Citrus medica) 10 Chithrakam ( Plumbago zeylania) 11 Agnimanda ( Premna integrifolia) 12 seeds of kaashmarya ( Gmelina arborea) 13 .Root of Varaahi ( Dioscoria) Mudga, maasa, rice of Saali grain, condensed milk , honey and ghee are given either alone or in combination for increasing lifespan, preventing signs of old age and for quality life. ( Chikitsa: 27;3-10) .Along with that the client is asked to take saltless diet as well. Both for increased lifespan and protection of eyesight Susrutha advocates saltfree diet . A life in a surrounding with cultured life style, continuous swaadhyaaya ( self study) , discussions with scholarly individuals on intellectual matters is essential for keeping a clear
91 and strong intellect till old age sets in . ( Chi; 28;22). Susrutha says the essence of Somalatha is for the prolonged intellect and quality life .He knows 24 types of somalatha and the geographic areas where they naturally grow ( chikitsasthanam 29;4 and 10-13).There are 18 plants which have same qualities of Soma latha and their locations are also mentioned with names. To get the full effect of soma and these plants mentioned , one has to lead a life without laziness, sins, alcoholism, and virudha type medicines and food . That is , a ethical life is essential for getting effect of Soma and nonalcoholism is mentioned in that lifestyle. This indicates that a Yajna was a place for keeping communal health , a sort of university and teaching skills in traditional life styles . Some of the plants with same properties of somalatha (Ch; 30,4) 1 swethakapothi 2. krishnakapothi 3. Gonasi ( Arisaemia species) 4.Varahi ( dioscora species) 5. Ajagari 6.Kanya ( Aloe indica) 7. Chathra ( Trichodesma indicum) 8. Athichathra ( a type of trichodesma) 9.Karenu 10. Ajam ( Saussurea gossipifolia) 11.Chakrakam (Dolichos biflorus) 12. Adityaparnini ( Polynisia isasandra) 13 Brahmasuvarchala ( Herpestes monnieria) 14 Golomi ( white doorva grass) 15. Ajalomi ( a type of fern) 16 Mahavegavathi The rites for drinking somarasa :1 virechana and vamana and purification of body and mind 2. Sit in a closed room /a cave in ancient times 3. drink one kudavam ( 400cc ) of somarasa once daily 4.the branches of somalatha is ground into a paste , with leaves , roots, and thorns –the entire plant- and mix in cow’s milk also one can drink . 5.One can sit,stand , speak in the room/cave but avoid sleeping . 6 The first day’s diet is only pure cool water 7. On 2nd,3rd,4th day , diet is boiled and cooled milk only in the afternoon alone 8. From 7-17th day , chandana, milk and yashtimadhu is the diet 9. From 17th to 25th day boiled saali rice gruel and milk 10. From 25th day onwards rice cooked and milk can be taken. By this time several changes ahppenin body. The infested and infected materials in the digestive tract is expelled by vamana and virechana till the 4th day . By the 8th day the muscles become dry and thinned out and body will resemble a skeleton. After that there is
92 new strength for muscles , they are renewed with vigour, and at that time skin show cracks , and skin,nails ,hair and teeth may even fall off. From 10th day Lepana with anuthaila is done. Then new skin and hair grow .By 17th day nails appear as if that of a newborn baby and even new teeth appear , if they are lost. Bright glowing hair grow and a youthful glow to skin is seen. This new hair is completely removed ( mundana) and allowed to grow again. Entire timespan for this treatment is 3 months . Throughout this period one has to follow strict ethical regimes. After this not only a healthy body but a healthy mind and intellect also is gained. This was usually done by cavemen during rainy seasons ( Chathurmasya of sanyasins /kuteechaka practice of ayurveda all developed from cavemen’s practices ). Origin , pathogenesis and classification of diseases in Susruthasamhitha :According to origin 4 types : 1 AGANTHUKA ( from the external environment outside our body ) 2. SAREERA ( from inside our own body) 3. MANASA ( from our mind ) 4. SWABHAAVIKA ( natural , like old age , congenital diseases at birth, including slow mentation etc due to various natural causes over which human control is minimum According to severity of disease and curability there are 3 types of diseases 1 . SAADHYAM ( curable by a doctor ) 2. YAAPYAM ( which can be controlled by treatment but cannot be cured completely ) 3.ASAADHYAM( PRATHYAAKHYEYAM) ; which cannot be controlled or cured . Saadhya itself is of 2 types. That which is cured with medicines and with salyachikitsa or surgery . Another classification of diseases :1 ADHYAATHMIKAM :- due to physical and mental factors 2. ADHIBHOUTHIKAM :- due to environmental factors 3. ADHIDAIVIKAM :- due to unnatural calamities , powers of nature etc are included under fate or adhidaivika . Three types of Adhyathmika diseases are shown below .
Aadiphalapravrutha congenital and hereditory ( chromosomal )
janmaphalapravrutha ( nonchromosomal but congenital seen at birth )
Doshaphalapravrutha due to thridoshakopa /mithyaachaara all psychosomatic illnesses
Two types of adhibhouthika are : Samghathaphalapravrutha and Kaalaphalapravrutha . Two types of adhidaivika are daivaphalapravrutha and swabhaavaphalapravrutha . Thus there are 7 types of diseases arising from the three major divisions of diseases. 1 Adhyaathmika : A . Aadiphalapravrutha B. Janmaphalapravrutha C. Doshaphalapravritha A.due to mendelian inheritance and chromosomal disease runs in certain families . B. Congenital and seen at birth but is not decided by chromosomal or Mendelian inheritance. C.Due to wrong life styles , wrong food intake etc . All psychosomatic illnesses ( physical and mental ) due to such imbalance of humours is included D. due to trauma /fall/combat and war / due to attack of wild or domesticated animals , poisonous snales and other animals ,birds ,all accidental injuries E.Due to seasonal changes, heavy rains, heat and cold etc F.By fate one individual in one society or entire society is affected .Eg : lightening , shock, infectious diseases ,natural calamities like Tsunami etc G.Old age ,terminal illnesses, etc If such changes occur in young age it is considered as Akkalakrith swabhaavaphalapravrutha
2. Adhibouthika : D. Samghathaphalapravrutham
E. Kaalaphalapravrutham 3. Adhidaivika : F. Daivaphalapravrutha:-
G. Swabhaavaphalapravrutha :
94 The thridosha when imbalanced mix with the elements of body and the toxins thus produced create numerous signs and symptoms of disease either alone or mixed with more than one .Therefore a 4th classification of diseases is done : 1 Rasadoshajam Humoral and hormonal imbalances 2. Rakthadoshajam Blood diseases 3. Maamsadoshajam Muscle diseases 4.Medadoshajam Disorders of fat 5.Asthidoshajam Diseases of bone 6 Majjadoshajam Diseases of bone marrow 7. Sukradoshajam Diseases of male and female systems of reproduction 8.Malaayathanadoshajam Disorders of excretory organs 9.Indriyadoshajam Diseases of the sense organs of eye, ear, nose, throat and tongue, skin
Thus Susruthasamhitha classifies diseases in 4 different ways just as we modern doctors do according to aetiology, pathogenesis , system manifestation ( systemic classification ) etc .
Diagnosis of disease in Susruthasamhitha :Susrutha says , for any disease even before the disease begins certain symptoms will appear.The signs when the disease is fully developed, signs when disease is spread all over the system etc are different and a Vaidya should know all these.Only one who knows the symptoms and signs of disease can treat and cure disease. In certain conditions when the signs of disease are exacerbated, first one has to reduce the severity and then only give curative therapy.(sooth 35;14-15). There are 3 stages for a disease :1 Anyalakshana :- The symptoms which foretell the disease 2.Praakkevalam:- Real disease state and signs of it (The primary disease) 3 Oupasargikam:- After the disease has spread all over the body other signs ( complications) appear . This is the secondary disease .(Sooth 35;13-14). Examination :-By the integrated functioning of all the senses ( which should be kept at maximum level ) Vaidya has to examine client thouroughly and completely. By careful observation the smell, noises, heat/cold etc of the client’s body is assessed. Listen carefully to the history of the client’s disease as well as to his feelings whether real or imaginary. Touch the body parts with your hands and examine (Palpation). Examine the usual food and water taken in by the body and if needed taste it .Examine faecal and urinary excreta carefully.Also the air entry into the body is examined.To see whether there is internal bleeding is an important step.The skin colour,heat of body, the response when you touch the body,the growth and nutritional status of body,energy and immunity to diseases,are assessed and by
95 looking at horoscope ascertain his/her aayurdaaya (lifespan).The place where the client lives, age,history of disease,symptoms and their onset,onset of severity,nature character and behavior of patient,food habits,the last food taken,taste or distaste of food, orderly body activities if present,sleep rhythm should be asked and understood and without these diagnosis of disease is impossible.If a patient has been having a severe disease for more than one year it is most likely that his body functions are at an ebb.The society does not impose a law that the Vaidya should cure such a patient as well as a patient who has an asaadhya roga ( incurable disease ) This is said in soothrasthaana 10;3-7.It is difficult to treat and cure certain types of patients . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Scholarly Brahmins who know Veda Members of royal family Infants Heads of states and commanders in chief Geriatric population Very shy people Extremely clever people Common people who pretend that they know science of medicine Secretive people People who has no mental control Orphans People with no friends or relatives A good Vaidya should avoid any contact with women and should lead a life of Brahmacharya ( sooth 10;7-8) signs of impending death in patients :1. For a patient with diabetes , if lot of urine is passed containing pus 2. For a person withHanson’s disease if the swellings or ulcers are bursting open by themselves , and the voice become harsh and eyes are red 3. For patient with piles/Arsas if a swelling appear at the anus with uncontrolled bleeding , diarrohoea, pain and inability to eat solid foods and excessive thirst 4. For clients with Bhagandhara ( sexually transmitted disease) if air and faecal matter mixed with urine, blood, semen and worms are passed through the ulcers. 5. For a person with urinary stones if there is oedema and swelling of testicles , obstruction to urine flow,and severe pain 6. For patient with Moodagarbha ( this include vesicular mole and choriocarcinoma) if the cervical os is narrowed and labour pain sets in early , and placenta is displaced in position, or attached and adhered to wall of uterus , vertigo and apasmaara ( coma ) 7. In Ascites, even after letting out the fluid, the fluid accumulate rapidly , oedema spreads all over the body, pain in the sides, diarrohoea and loss of appetite 8. In sevre fever, continuous loss of consciousness, inability to sit, shivering, pain in the region of chest , reddish prominent vessels in eyes, breathing through mouth, rolling of pupils, difficulty in breathing
96 9. In yakshmaa ( Tuberculosis) Oordhwaswaasa, painful and excessive urine flow The eyes become bright , and hiccoughs obstructbreathing which is labored 10 In an abdominal mass ( Gunman) labored painful breathing, severe intermittent pain, dislike for solid food, unendingthirst, sudden disappearance of the abdominal mass , and excessive pallor 11.For a person with pallor , if teeth nails and eyes become yellow ( jaundiced ) 12 For a person with Rakthapitha , red eye and vomiting blood 13 For person with epilepsy , lack of sleep, eyes become fixed up or down ( oordwa or adhodrishty) movement of eyebrows, a type of slanting eye ( soothra : 33; 6-24 ) Basic principles of Ayuveda medicine :Treatment is based on 5 principles ( coothra 1;27) 1 Purusha : The client called a Karmapurusha with abody, and mind 2. Vyaadhi :- The three humours and blood if imbalanced create a disease . This makes the karmapurusha suffer .It is this Vyadhi that is being treated 3. Oushadha :- The medicine with specific signs, tastes, properties and strengths used for treating the disease 4. Kriya :- The method of growing the different plants ( oushadhi) , collecting them in proper time, selecting them depending upon need of individual patient, purifying them, mixing them into specific medical preparations, giving to patient in proper time and dose , the rules and regulations the patient had tofollow while on treatment ( patthya), and if nothing of these are useful in a particular case surgery ( salyakriya) 5 Kaalam :- The time . The seasons, the medicines that grow in different seasons, the best time for medical and surgical treatments, the time of administration and the number of times it has to be given per day etc are included. The time of the horoscope of the patient also is consulted to predict the ourcome of such Treatment The four parts of treatment are : 1 samsodhanam: This is the suddhikarma or purification rite. The environment and the person are purified 2. Samsamanam:- Balancing the imbalance of the thridosha and controlling disease 3.Mithaahaara and the patthya .The food style as a life style 4. Acchaaram,sadaachaaram, suchi :- The daily rites and ethical living with purification of mind, and body .
97 Apart fro medicines and surgery Ayurveda includes certain specific rites for keeping the health of entire nation:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. The teaching of the self ( Aathmeeyasikshana) The aahavana of divine powers for keeping the nation and the people healthy and peaceful Destruction of the bad forces of nature which cause disease The food style The orderly way of cooking ( culienery) preparation of special medicines like Soma Primary care Group medicine for the entire society in certain period sof time/seasons To keep people with communicable diseases separate from the other s( quarantine) to prevent epidemics Purity in sexual relations The methods of creating good progeny ( Eugenics) Protection of new born infant The rites to get back youth and vigour , power of sensory organs, mind and intellect The method sto increase lifespan Control of smoking and alcoholism Bath in medicinal waters Using diaphoretics which produce sweating Purification of digestive system by vamana , virechana etc Purifying all openings of sensory organs Brushing teeth and washing mouth Sekam in eye and nose Massage of skin with oils Using some claypacks, powders and fragrant ointments for increasing beauty ( sooth 45;46; Sareera : 10; chikitsa:12;24.27.;30;40; uthara:18) There are several diseases ,their signs and symptoms, classification, and causes and treatment given in Susruthasamhitha just as in any Modern Medical text. It would be useful for those who learn and teach Modern Medicine to compare and understand the roots of their own medical traditions . In 1993 , Dr Baburaj who was doing his MD in Ophthalmology department approached me for a thesis work he was doing . He wanted authentic references and knowledge about the Ayuveda system for comparison . It was due to his request that I did a complete study and translation of Susruthasamhitha . The structure of eye, its function, diseases, surgical treatment etc are known to Susrutha. He gives causes of eye diseases including genetic diseases ( Utharasthana 1.14) and such exhaustive literature on a profession by an ancient sage , the son of sage Viswamithra of Ramayana period ( which incidentally corresponds to the Archeological Mehrgarh period) and the disciple of Dhanwanthari of Kasi Royal Gurukula is a window through which each and every Indian student can see his/her own past scientific tradition. (The tables and descriptions of the diseases are discussed in another book)
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