# MATH 135, Fall 2010

Solution of Assignment #1
Problem 1. Find all ordered pairs of integers (x, y) such that x2 + 2x + 18 = y 2 . Solution. Note that 17 = (y + x + 1)(y − x − 1). Since y + x + 1 and y − x − 1 are integers, there are only the following possibilities y + x + 1 = ±17, y − x − 1 = ±1, or y + x + 1 = ±1, y − x − 1 = ±17. The solutions are y = 9, x = 7, or y = −9, x = −9, or y = 9, x = −9, or y = −9, x = 7. Problem 2. Find all real numbers x such that √ x − 13 2 x−1 √ . = 3 x+3

Solution.

Let

√ √ √ x − 13 2 x−1 √ = =⇒ 3x − 39 = 2x + 5 x − 3 =⇒ x − 5 x − 36 = 0. 3 x+3

x = y. The equation becomes

y 2 − 5y − 36 = 0 =⇒ (y − 9)(y + 4) = 0 =⇒ y = 9, −4. √ Since x is a real number, y = x must be positive. Thus, y = 9 and x = 81. Problem 3. Solve y = x +
1 x

with 0 < x ≤ 1 for x in terms of y.

Solution. Multiply both sides of the equation by x then use the quadratic formula to get 1 y ± y2 − 4 ⇐⇒ xy = x2 + 1 ⇐⇒ x2 − xy + 1 = 0 ⇐⇒ x = . x 2 1 1 Note that 0 < x ≤ 1 =⇒ x ≥ 1 ≥ x =⇒ y = x + x ≥ 2x =⇒ x ≤ y , so we must use the 2 negative sign. Thus y − y2 − 4 x= 2 Problem 4. Let P and Q be statements. Show that the statements NOT (P OR Q) and (NOT P ) AND (NOT Q) have the same truth tables and give an example of the equivalence of these statements in everyday language. y =x+ Solution. P Q T T T F F T F F P OR Q T T T F
1

NOT (P OR Q) F F F T

2

P Q NOT P NOT Q (NOT P ) AND (NOT Q) T T F F F T F F T F F T T F F F F T T T The ﬁnal columns of each table are the same, so the two statements have the same truth tables. This equivalence can be illustrated in everyday language. Consider the statement “I do not want cabbage or broccoli”. This means that “I do not want cabbage” and “I do not want broccoli”. Problem 5. Let P , Q, and R be statements. Show that the statements P AND (Q OR R) and (P AND Q) OR (P AND R) have the same truth tables. This is a distributive law. Solution. P Q R T T T T T F T F T T F F F T T F T F F F T F F F Q OR R T T T F T T T F P AND (Q OR R) T T T F F F F F

P Q R P AND Q P AND R (P AND Q) OR (P AND R) T T T T T T T T F T F T T F T F T T T F F F F F F T T F F F F T F F F F F F T F F F F F F F F F The ﬁnal columns of each table are the same, so the two statements have the same truth tables.