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Lecture 6 (Conic Sections)|Views: 184|Likes: 3

Published by Clarisson Rizzie P. Canlubo

Published by: Clarisson Rizzie P. Canlubo on Jul 02, 2012

Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/98837517/Lecture-6-Conic-Sections

12/26/2012

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Conic Sections

Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines Diliman

Mathematics 54–Elementary Analysis 2

Conic Sections 1/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Introduction

A conic section is a plane ﬁgure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane.

Below are samples of conic sections.

Conic Sections 2/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Introduction

A conic section is a plane ﬁgure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane.

Below are samples of conic sections.

Conic Sections 2/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Introduction

A conic section is a plane ﬁgure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane.

Below are samples of conic sections.

Conic Sections 2/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Parabola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the ﬁxed point (focus) equals

the distance from the ﬁxed line (directrix).

Conic Sections 3/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Parabola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the ﬁxed point (focus) equals

the distance from the ﬁxed line (directrix).

Conic Sections 3/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Parabola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the ﬁxed point (focus) equals

the distance from the ﬁxed line (directrix).

Conic Sections 3/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if

distance of P to F = distance of P to D

_

(x−p)

2

+(y −0)

2

=

¸

¸

x−(−p)

¸

¸

_

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=

¸

¸

x+p

¸

¸

(x−p)

2

+y

2

=(x+p)

2

x

2

−2px+p

2

+y

2

=x

2

+2px+p

2

y

2

=4px

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

For p >0,

Focus Directrix Equation Orientation

(p, 0) x =−p y

2

=4px right

(−p, 0) x =p y

2

=−4px left

(0, p) y =−p x

2

=4py upward

(0, −p) y =p x

2

=−4py downward

The point on the parabola closest to the diretrix is called the vertex of the parabola.

In every cases consider above, the vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections 5/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

For p >0,

Focus Directrix Equation Orientation

(p, 0) x =−p y

2

=4px right

(−p, 0) x =p y

2

=−4px left

(0, p) y =−p x

2

=4py upward

(0, −p) y =p x

2

=−4py downward

The point on the parabola closest to the diretrix is called the vertex of the parabola.

In every cases consider above, the vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections 5/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

In general, a parabola with a vertical or a horizontal directrix can take either of the

form

(y −k)

2

=±4p(x−h) (x−h)

2

=±4p(y −k)

In these general cases, the vertex is located at the point (h, k).

Conic Sections 6/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

In general, a parabola with a vertical or a horizontal directrix can take either of the

form

(y −k)

2

=±4p(x−h)

(x−h)

2

=±4p(y −k)

In these general cases, the vertex is located at the point (h, k).

Conic Sections 6/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

In general, a parabola with a vertical or a horizontal directrix can take either of the

form

(y −k)

2

=±4p(x−h) (x−h)

2

=±4p(y −k)

In these general cases, the vertex is located at the point (h, k).

Conic Sections 6/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

In general, a parabola with a vertical or a horizontal directrix can take either of the

form

(y −k)

2

=±4p(x−h) (x−h)

2

=±4p(y −k)

In these general cases, the vertex is located at the point (h, k).

Conic Sections 6/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

For (y −k)

2

=4p(x−h) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(p+h, k) x =−p+h

(−p+h, k) x =p+h

For (x−h)

2

=4p(y −k) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(h, p+k) y =−p+k

(h, −p+k) y =p+k

Conic Sections 7/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

For (y −k)

2

=4p(x−h) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(p+h, k) x =−p+h

(−p+h, k) x =p+h

For (x−h)

2

=4p(y −k) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(h, p+k) y =−p+k

(h, −p+k) y =p+k

Conic Sections 7/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

For (y −k)

2

=4p(x−h) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(p+h, k) x =−p+h

(−p+h, k) x =p+h

For (x−h)

2

=4p(y −k) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(h, p+k) y =−p+k

(h, −p+k) y =p+k

Conic Sections 7/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

For (y −k)

2

=4p(x−h) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(p+h, k) x =−p+h

(−p+h, k) x =p+h

For (x−h)

2

=4p(y −k) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(h, p+k) y =−p+k

(h, −p+k) y =p+k

Conic Sections 7/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

For (y −k)

2

=4p(x−h) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(p+h, k) x =−p+h

(−p+h, k) x =p+h

For (x−h)

2

=4p(y −k) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(h, p+k) y =−p+k

(h, −p+k) y =p+k

Conic Sections 7/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

For (y −k)

2

=4p(x−h) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(p+h, k) x =−p+h

(−p+h, k) x =p+h

For (x−h)

2

=4p(y −k) with p >0,

Focus Directrix

(h, p+k) y =−p+k

(h, −p+k) y =p+k

Conic Sections 7/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the

equation

y =2x

2

−4x+3

Solution:

Note that the above equation can be written as

2(x−1)

2

=(y −1)

which can be further written as

4

_

1

2

_

(x−1)

2

=

_

y −1

_

.

Hence, the focus is at (1,

3

2

), the directrix is y =

1

2

and the vertex is at (1, 1).

Conic Sections 8/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the

equation

y =2x

2

−4x+3

Solution:

Note that the above equation can be written as

2(x−1)

2

=(y −1)

which can be further written as

4

_

1

2

_

(x−1)

2

=

_

y −1

_

.

Hence, the focus is at (1,

3

2

), the directrix is y =

1

2

and the vertex is at (1, 1).

Conic Sections 8/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the

equation

y =2x

2

−4x+3

Solution:

Note that the above equation can be written as

2(x−1)

2

=(y −1)

which can be further written as

4

_

1

2

_

(x−1)

2

=

_

y −1

_

.

Hence, the focus is at (1,

3

2

), the directrix is y =

1

2

and the vertex is at (1, 1).

Conic Sections 8/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the

equation

y =2x

2

−4x+3

Solution:

Note that the above equation can be written as

2(x−1)

2

=(y −1)

which can be further written as

4

_

1

2

_

(x−1)

2

=

_

y −1

_

.

Hence, the focus is at (1,

3

2

),

the directrix is y =

1

2

and the vertex is at (1, 1).

Conic Sections 8/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the

equation

y =2x

2

−4x+3

Solution:

Note that the above equation can be written as

2(x−1)

2

=(y −1)

which can be further written as

4

_

1

2

_

(x−1)

2

=

_

y −1

_

.

Hence, the focus is at (1,

3

2

), the directrix is y =

1

2

and the vertex is at (1, 1).

Conic Sections 8/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Parabola

Example

Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the

equation

y =2x

2

−4x+3

Solution:

Note that the above equation can be written as

2(x−1)

2

=(y −1)

which can be further written as

4

_

1

2

_

(x−1)

2

=

_

y −1

_

.

Hence, the focus is at (1,

3

2

), the directrix is y =

1

2

and the vertex is at (1, 1).

Conic Sections 8/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Ellipse

The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the ﬁx points (foci sing.

focus) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections 9/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Ellipse

The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the ﬁx points (foci sing.

focus) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections 10/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Ellipse

The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the ﬁx points (foci sing.

focus) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections 11/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Ellipse

The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the ﬁx points (foci sing.

focus) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections 12/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Ellipse

The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the ﬁx points (foci sing.

focus) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections 13/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)

Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if

distance of P to F

1

+ distance of P to F

2

=

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

+

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=2a

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)

Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if

distance of P to F

1

+ distance of P to F

2

=

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

+

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=2a

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)

Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if

distance of P to F

1

+ distance of P to F

2

=

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

+

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=2a

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)

Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if

distance of P to F

1

+ distance of P to F

2

=

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

+

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=2a

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)

Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if

distance of P to F

1

+ distance of P to F

2

= constant

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

+

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=2a

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)

Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if

distance of P to F

1

+ distance of P to F

2

= 2a

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

+

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=2a

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)

Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if

distance of P to F

1

+ distance of P to F

2

= 2a

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

+

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=2a

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

= 2a−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

x

2

+2cx+c

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

+x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4cx

a

2

_

x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

_

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

a

2

x

2

−2a

2

cx+a

2

c

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

= 1

Conic Sections 15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

= 2a−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

x

2

+2cx+c

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

+x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4cx

a

2

_

x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

_

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

a

2

x

2

−2a

2

cx+a

2

c

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

= 1

Conic Sections 15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

= 2a−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

x

2

+2cx+c

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

+x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4cx

a

2

_

x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

_

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

a

2

x

2

−2a

2

cx+a

2

c

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

= 1

Conic Sections 15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

= 2a−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

x

2

+2cx+c

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

+x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4cx

a

2

_

x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

_

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

a

2

x

2

−2a

2

cx+a

2

c

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

= 1

Conic Sections 15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

= 2a−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

x

2

+2cx+c

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

+x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4cx

a

2

_

x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

_

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

a

2

x

2

−2a

2

cx+a

2

c

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

= 1

Conic Sections 15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

= 2a−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

x

2

+2cx+c

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

+x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4cx

a

2

_

x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

_

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

a

2

x

2

−2a

2

cx+a

2

c

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

= 1

Conic Sections 15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

= 2a−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

x

2

+2cx+c

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

+x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4cx

a

2

_

x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

_

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

a

2

x

2

−2a

2

cx+a

2

c

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

= 1

Conic Sections 15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

= 2a−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

x

2

+2cx+c

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

+x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

4a

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

= 4a

2

−4cx

a

2

_

x

2

−2cx+c

2

+y

2

_

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

a

2

x

2

−2a

2

cx+a

2

c

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

4

−2a

2

cx+c

2

x

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

+a

2

y

2

= a

2

_

a

2

−c

2

_

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

= 1

Conic Sections 15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

=1

Notice that b

2

=a

2

−c

2

.

Thus, we have

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

b

2

=1.

Conic Sections 16/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

=1

Notice that b

2

=a

2

−c

2

.

Thus, we have

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

b

2

=1.

Conic Sections 16/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

a

2

−c

2

=1

Notice that b

2

=a

2

−c

2

.

Thus, we have

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

b

2

=1.

Conic Sections 16/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

For

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

b

2

=1 we have

Foci Vertices

a >b (±

a

2

−b

2

, 0) (±a, 0)

a <b (0, ±

b

2

−a

2

) (0, ±b)

The ellipses considered above are those centered at the origin.

Conic Sections 17/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

For

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

b

2

=1 we have

Foci Vertices

a >b (±

a

2

−b

2

, 0) (±a, 0)

a <b (0, ±

b

2

−a

2

) (0, ±b)

The ellipses considered above are those centered at the origin.

Conic Sections 17/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

For

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

b

2

=1 we have

Foci Vertices

a >b (±

a

2

−b

2

, 0) (±a, 0)

a <b (0, ±

b

2

−a

2

) (0, ±b)

The ellipses considered above are those centered at the origin.

Conic Sections 17/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

For

x

2

a

2

+

y

2

b

2

=1 we have

Foci Vertices

a >b (±

a

2

−b

2

, 0) (±a, 0)

a <b (0, ±

b

2

−a

2

) (0, ±b)

The ellipses considered above are those centered at the origin.

Conic Sections 17/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major

axis centered somewhere aside from the origin.

They take the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

+

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

Foci Vertices Major Axis

a >b (h±

a

2

−b

2

, k) (h±a, k) horizontal

a <b (h, k±

b

2

−a

2

) (h, k±b) vertical

In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).

Conic Sections 18/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major

axis centered somewhere aside from the origin. They take the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

+

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

Foci Vertices Major Axis

a >b (h±

a

2

−b

2

, k) (h±a, k) horizontal

a <b (h, k±

b

2

−a

2

) (h, k±b) vertical

In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).

Conic Sections 18/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major

axis centered somewhere aside from the origin. They take the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

+

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

Foci Vertices Major Axis

a >b (h±

a

2

−b

2

, k) (h±a, k) horizontal

a <b (h, k±

b

2

−a

2

) (h, k±b) vertical

In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).

Conic Sections 18/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major

axis centered somewhere aside from the origin. They take the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

+

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

Foci Vertices Major Axis

a >b (h±

a

2

−b

2

, k) (h±a, k) horizontal

a <b (h, k±

2

−a

2

) (h, k±b) vertical

In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).

Conic Sections 18/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major

axis centered somewhere aside from the origin. They take the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

+

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

Foci Vertices Major Axis

a >b (h±

a

2

−b

2

, k) (h±a, k) horizontal

a <b (h, k±

b

2

−a

2

) (h, k±b) vertical

In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).

Conic Sections 18/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Example

Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and

vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).

Solution:

The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal. From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,

c =2 and b =

5.

Hence, we have

(x−1)

2

9

+

(y −1)

2

5

=1

Conic Sections 19/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Example

Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and

vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).

Solution:

The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal.

From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,

c =2 and b =

5.

Hence, we have

(x−1)

2

9

+

(y −1)

2

5

=1

Conic Sections 19/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Example

Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and

vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).

Solution:

The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal. From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,

c =2 and b =

5.

Hence, we have

(x−1)

2

9

+

(y −1)

2

5

=1

Conic Sections 19/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Example

Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and

vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).

Solution:

The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal. From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,

c =2 and b =

Hence, we have

(x−1)

2

9

+

(y −1)

2

5

=1

Conic Sections 19/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of an Ellipse

Example

Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and

vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).

Solution:

The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal. From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,

c =2 and b =

5.

Hence, we have

(x−1)

2

9

+

(y −1)

2

5

=1

Conic Sections 19/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Hyperbola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the two ﬁxed points (foci)

that have a constant difference.

Conic Sections 20/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Hyperbola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the two ﬁxed points (foci)

that have a constant difference.

Conic Sections 21/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Hyperbola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the two ﬁxed points (foci)

that have a constant difference.

Conic Sections 22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Hyperbola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the two ﬁxed points (foci)

that have a constant difference.

Conic Sections 23/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

From the above ﬁgure and from the deﬁnition of the hyperbola we have

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=

Conic Sections 24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

From the above ﬁgure and from the deﬁnition of the hyperbola we have

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=

Conic Sections 24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

From the above ﬁgure and from the deﬁnition of the hyperbola we have

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=

Conic Sections 24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

From the above ﬁgure and from the deﬁnition of the hyperbola we have

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=constant

Conic Sections 24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F

1

=(c, 0) and F

2

=(−c, 0)

Vertices : V

1

=(a, 0) and V

2

=(−a, 0)

From the above ﬁgure and from the deﬁnition of the hyperbola we have

_

(x+c)

2

+y

2

−

_

(x−c)

2

+y

2

=2a

Conic Sections 24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Simplifying, we get

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

c

2

−a

2

=1

Note that a <c. Thus, c

2

−a

2

>0. Let b

2

=c

2

−a

2

. Then

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

Conic Sections 25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Simplifying, we get

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

c

2

−a

2

=1

Note that a <c. Thus, c

2

−a

2

>0. Let b

2

=c

2

−a

2

. Then

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

Conic Sections 25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Simplifying, we get

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

c

2

−a

2

=1

Note that a <c.

Thus, c

2

−a

2

>0. Let b

2

=c

2

−a

2

. Then

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

Conic Sections 25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Simplifying, we get

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

c

2

−a

2

=1

Note that a <c. Thus, c

2

−a

2

>0.

Let b

2

=c

2

−a

2

. Then

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

Conic Sections 25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Simplifying, we get

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

c

2

−a

2

=1

Note that a <c. Thus, c

2

−a

2

>0. Let b

2

=c

2

−a

2

.

Then

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

Conic Sections 25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Simplifying, we get

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

c

2

−a

2

=1

Note that a <c. Thus, c

2

−a

2

>0. Let b

2

=c

2

−a

2

. Then

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

Conic Sections 25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

If we solve for y in terms of x we get

y =±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

Consider the lines y =

b

a

x and y =−

b

a

x. Verify the following:

lim

x→+∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

±

b

a

x

=1

lim

x→−∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

∓

b

a

x

=1

Hence, the lines y =±

b

a

x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.

Conic Sections 26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

If we solve for y in terms of x we get

y =±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

Consider the lines y =

b

a

x and y =−

b

a

x.

Verify the following:

lim

x→+∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

±

b

a

x

=1

lim

x→−∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

∓

b

a

x

=1

Hence, the lines y =±

b

a

x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.

Conic Sections 26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

If we solve for y in terms of x we get

y =±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

Consider the lines y =

b

a

x and y =−

b

a

x. Verify the following:

lim

x→+∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

±

b

a

x

=1

lim

x→−∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

∓

b

a

x

=1

Hence, the lines y =±

b

a

x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.

Conic Sections 26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

If we solve for y in terms of x we get

y =±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

Consider the lines y =

b

a

x and y =−

b

a

x. Verify the following:

lim

x→+∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

±

b

a

x

=1

lim

x→−∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

∓

b

a

x

=1

Hence, the lines y =±

b

a

x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.

Conic Sections 26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

If we solve for y in terms of x we get

y =±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

Consider the lines y =

b

a

x and y =−

b

a

x. Verify the following:

lim

x→+∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

±

b

a

x

=1

lim

x→−∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

∓

b

a

x

=1

Hence, the lines y =±

b

a

x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.

Conic Sections 26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

If we solve for y in terms of x we get

y =±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

Consider the lines y =

b

a

x and y =−

b

a

x. Verify the following:

lim

x→+∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

±

b

a

x

=1

lim

x→−∞

±

_

x

2

b

2

a

2

−b

2

∓

b

a

x

=1

Hence, the lines y =±

b

a

x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.

Conic Sections 26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, for

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

we have

a >b

Foci Vertices

(±

_

a

2

+b

2

, 0) (±a, 0)

a <b

Foci Vertices

(0, ±

_

a

2

+b

2

) (0, ±b)

Conic Sections 27/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, for

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

we have

a >b

Foci Vertices

(±

_

a

2

+b

2

, 0) (±a, 0)

a <b

Foci Vertices

(0, ±

_

a

2

+b

2

) (0, ±b)

Conic Sections 27/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, for

x

2

a

2

−

y

2

b

2

=1

we have

a >b

Foci Vertices

(±

_

a

2

+b

2

, 0) (±a, 0)

a <b

Foci Vertices

(0, ±

_

a

2

+b

2

) (0, ±b)

Conic Sections 27/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal

transverse axis centered somewhere aside from the origin, say at (h, k).

They take

the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

−

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

a >b

Foci Vertices

(h±

_

a

2

+b

2

, k) (h±a, k)

a <b

Foci Vertices

(h, k±

_

a

2

+b

2

) (h, k±b)

Conic Sections 28/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal

transverse axis centered somewhere aside from the origin, say at (h, k). They take

the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

−

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

a >b

Foci Vertices

(h±

_

a

2

+b

2

, k) (h±a, k)

a <b

Foci Vertices

(h, k±

_

a

2

+b

2

) (h, k±b)

Conic Sections 28/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal

transverse axis centered somewhere aside from the origin, say at (h, k). They take

the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

−

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

a >b

Foci Vertices

(h±

_

a

2

+b

2

, k) (h±a, k)

a <b

Foci Vertices

(h, k±

_

a

2

+b

2

) (h, k±b)

Conic Sections 28/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal

transverse axis centered somewhere aside from the origin, say at (h, k). They take

the form

(x−h)

2

a

2

−

(y −k)

2

b

2

=1

a >b

Foci Vertices

(h±

_

a

2

+b

2

, k) (h±a, k)

a <b

Foci Vertices

(h, k±

_

a

2

+b

2

) (h, k±b)

Conic Sections 28/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and

(3, 1).

Solution:

The desired hyperbola is centered at (

3

2

, 1) so h =

3

2

and k =1.

The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is

3

2

.

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is

5

2

.

Now, b

2

=c

2

+a

2

=

16

4

=4. Hence, the desired equation is

(x−

3

2

)

2

_

3

2

_

2

−

(y −1)

2

(2)

2

=1

Conic Sections 29/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and

(3, 1).

Solution:

The desired hyperbola is centered at (

3

2

, 1) so h =

3

2

and k =1.

The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is

3

2

.

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is

5

2

.

Now, b

2

=c

2

+a

2

=

16

4

=4. Hence, the desired equation is

(x−

3

2

)

2

_

3

2

_

2

−

(y −1)

2

(2)

2

=1

Conic Sections 29/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and

(3, 1).

Solution:

The desired hyperbola is centered at (

3

2

, 1) so h =

3

2

and k =1.

The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is

3

2

.

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is

5

2

.

Now, b

2

=c

2

+a

2

=

16

4

=4. Hence, the desired equation is

(x−

3

2

)

2

_

3

2

_

2

−

(y −1)

2

(2)

2

=1

Conic Sections 29/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and

(3, 1).

Solution:

The desired hyperbola is centered at (

3

2

, 1) so h =

3

2

and k =1.

The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is

3

2

.

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is

5

2

.

Now, b

2

=c

2

+a

2

=

16

4

=4. Hence, the desired equation is

(x−

3

2

)

2

_

3

2

_

2

−

(y −1)

2

(2)

2

=1

Conic Sections 29/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and

(3, 1).

Solution:

The desired hyperbola is centered at (

3

2

, 1) so h =

3

2

and k =1.

The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is

3

2

.

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is

5

2

.

Now, b

2

=c

2

+a

2

=

16

4

=4. Hence, the desired equation is

(x−

3

2

)

2

_

3

2

_

2

−

(y −1)

2

(2)

2

=1

Conic Sections 29/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and

(3, 1).

Solution:

The desired hyperbola is centered at (

3

2

, 1) so h =

3

2

and k =1.

The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is

3

2

.

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is

5

2

.

Now, b

2

=c

2

+a

2

=

16

4

=4.

Hence, the desired equation is

(x−

3

2

)

2

_

3

2

_

2

−

(y −1)

2

(2)

2

=1

Conic Sections 29/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and

(3, 1).

Solution:

The desired hyperbola is centered at (

3

2

, 1) so h =

3

2

and k =1.

The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is

3

2

.

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is

5

2

.

Now, b

2

=c

2

+a

2

=

16

4

=4. Hence, the desired equation is

(x−

3

2

)

2

_

3

2

_

2

−

(y −1)

2

(2)

2

=1

Conic Sections 29/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and

(3, 1).

Solution:

The desired hyperbola is centered at (

3

2

, 1) so h =

3

2

and k =1.

The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is

3

2

.

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is

5

2

.

Now, b

2

=c

2

+a

2

=

16

4

=4. Hence, the desired equation is

(x−

3

2

)

2

_

3

2

_

2

−

(y −1)

2

(2)

2

=1

Conic Sections 29/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Exercises

1

Identify the following conic sections:

a. 2x

2

−3y

2

+4x+6y −1 =0

b. 2x

2

+3y

2

+16x−18y −53 =0

c. 9x+y

2

+4y −5 =0

d. 4x

2

−x =y

2

+1

e. 7y −y

2

−x =0

2

Sketch the graph of the following conic sections:

a. x

2

−2x+y =0

b. 9x

2

−18x+4y

2

=27

c. y =3x

2

−6x+5

d.

y

2

9

−(x+2)

2

=1

e.

(x−3)

2

25

−

y

2

+4y +4

9

=1

3

Do as indicated

a. Determine the equation of the parabola whose focus and vertex are the vertex

and focus, respectively of the parabola with equation x+4y

2

−y =0.

b. Let M=3. Determine the equations of the hyperbola and ellipse having (±2, 1) as

the foci and M as the length of the conjugate axis and minor axis, respectively.

Conic Sections 30/ 30

The Notion of Dimension in Geometry and Algebra[Manin]

Lecture 11 (Conics in Polar Coordinates)

Lecture 10 (Calculus of Polar Curves)

Lecture 9 (Polar Coordinates and Polar Curves)

Lecture 8 (Parametric Equations)

Lecture 7 (Hyperbola and Focus Directrix Equation)

Lecture 5 (Differential Equations)

Lecture 4 (Improper Integrals)

Lecture 3 (Trigonometric Substitution and Partial Fractions)

Lecture 2 (Trigonometric Integrals)

Lecture 1 (Review)

Lecture 1 (Integration By Parts)

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