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Lecture 6 (Conic Sections)

Lecture 6 (Conic Sections)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises

Conic Sections
Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines Diliman
Mathematics 54–Elementary Analysis 2
Conic Sections 1/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Introduction
A conic section is a plane figure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane.
Below are samples of conic sections.
Conic Sections 2/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Introduction
A conic section is a plane figure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane.
Below are samples of conic sections.
Conic Sections 2/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Introduction
A conic section is a plane figure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane.
Below are samples of conic sections.
Conic Sections 2/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Parabola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the fixed point (focus) equals
the distance from the fixed line (directrix).
Conic Sections 3/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Parabola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the fixed point (focus) equals
the distance from the fixed line (directrix).
Conic Sections 3/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Parabola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the fixed point (focus) equals
the distance from the fixed line (directrix).
Conic Sections 3/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:
A point P =(x, y) is on the parabola if
distance of P to F = distance of P to D
_
(x−p)
2
+(y −0)
2
=
¸
¸
x−(−p)
¸
¸
_
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=
¸
¸
x+p
¸
¸
(x−p)
2
+y
2
=(x+p)
2
x
2
−2px+p
2
+y
2
=x
2
+2px+p
2
y
2
=4px
Conic Sections 4/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
For p >0,
Focus Directrix Equation Orientation
(p, 0) x =−p y
2
=4px right
(−p, 0) x =p y
2
=−4px left
(0, p) y =−p x
2
=4py upward
(0, −p) y =p x
2
=−4py downward
The point on the parabola closest to the diretrix is called the vertex of the parabola.
In every cases consider above, the vertex is at the origin.
Conic Sections 5/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
For p >0,
Focus Directrix Equation Orientation
(p, 0) x =−p y
2
=4px right
(−p, 0) x =p y
2
=−4px left
(0, p) y =−p x
2
=4py upward
(0, −p) y =p x
2
=−4py downward
The point on the parabola closest to the diretrix is called the vertex of the parabola.
In every cases consider above, the vertex is at the origin.
Conic Sections 5/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
In general, a parabola with a vertical or a horizontal directrix can take either of the
form
(y −k)
2
=±4p(x−h) (x−h)
2
=±4p(y −k)
In these general cases, the vertex is located at the point (h, k).
Conic Sections 6/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
In general, a parabola with a vertical or a horizontal directrix can take either of the
form
(y −k)
2
=±4p(x−h)
(x−h)
2
=±4p(y −k)
In these general cases, the vertex is located at the point (h, k).
Conic Sections 6/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
In general, a parabola with a vertical or a horizontal directrix can take either of the
form
(y −k)
2
=±4p(x−h) (x−h)
2
=±4p(y −k)
In these general cases, the vertex is located at the point (h, k).
Conic Sections 6/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
In general, a parabola with a vertical or a horizontal directrix can take either of the
form
(y −k)
2
=±4p(x−h) (x−h)
2
=±4p(y −k)
In these general cases, the vertex is located at the point (h, k).
Conic Sections 6/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
For (y −k)
2
=4p(x−h) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(p+h, k) x =−p+h
(−p+h, k) x =p+h
For (x−h)
2
=4p(y −k) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(h, p+k) y =−p+k
(h, −p+k) y =p+k
Conic Sections 7/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
For (y −k)
2
=4p(x−h) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(p+h, k) x =−p+h
(−p+h, k) x =p+h
For (x−h)
2
=4p(y −k) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(h, p+k) y =−p+k
(h, −p+k) y =p+k
Conic Sections 7/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
For (y −k)
2
=4p(x−h) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(p+h, k) x =−p+h
(−p+h, k) x =p+h
For (x−h)
2
=4p(y −k) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(h, p+k) y =−p+k
(h, −p+k) y =p+k
Conic Sections 7/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
For (y −k)
2
=4p(x−h) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(p+h, k) x =−p+h
(−p+h, k) x =p+h
For (x−h)
2
=4p(y −k) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(h, p+k) y =−p+k
(h, −p+k) y =p+k
Conic Sections 7/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
For (y −k)
2
=4p(x−h) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(p+h, k) x =−p+h
(−p+h, k) x =p+h
For (x−h)
2
=4p(y −k) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(h, p+k) y =−p+k
(h, −p+k) y =p+k
Conic Sections 7/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
For (y −k)
2
=4p(x−h) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(p+h, k) x =−p+h
(−p+h, k) x =p+h
For (x−h)
2
=4p(y −k) with p >0,
Focus Directrix
(h, p+k) y =−p+k
(h, −p+k) y =p+k
Conic Sections 7/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Example
Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the
equation
y =2x
2
−4x+3
Solution:
Note that the above equation can be written as
2(x−1)
2
=(y −1)
which can be further written as
4
_
1
2
_
(x−1)
2
=
_
y −1
_
.
Hence, the focus is at (1,
3
2
), the directrix is y =
1
2
and the vertex is at (1, 1).
Conic Sections 8/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Example
Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the
equation
y =2x
2
−4x+3
Solution:
Note that the above equation can be written as
2(x−1)
2
=(y −1)
which can be further written as
4
_
1
2
_
(x−1)
2
=
_
y −1
_
.
Hence, the focus is at (1,
3
2
), the directrix is y =
1
2
and the vertex is at (1, 1).
Conic Sections 8/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Example
Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the
equation
y =2x
2
−4x+3
Solution:
Note that the above equation can be written as
2(x−1)
2
=(y −1)
which can be further written as
4
_
1
2
_
(x−1)
2
=
_
y −1
_
.
Hence, the focus is at (1,
3
2
), the directrix is y =
1
2
and the vertex is at (1, 1).
Conic Sections 8/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Example
Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the
equation
y =2x
2
−4x+3
Solution:
Note that the above equation can be written as
2(x−1)
2
=(y −1)
which can be further written as
4
_
1
2
_
(x−1)
2
=
_
y −1
_
.
Hence, the focus is at (1,
3
2
),
the directrix is y =
1
2
and the vertex is at (1, 1).
Conic Sections 8/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Example
Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the
equation
y =2x
2
−4x+3
Solution:
Note that the above equation can be written as
2(x−1)
2
=(y −1)
which can be further written as
4
_
1
2
_
(x−1)
2
=
_
y −1
_
.
Hence, the focus is at (1,
3
2
), the directrix is y =
1
2
and the vertex is at (1, 1).
Conic Sections 8/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Parabola
Example
Find the focus, directrix and vertex of the parabola being described by the
equation
y =2x
2
−4x+3
Solution:
Note that the above equation can be written as
2(x−1)
2
=(y −1)
which can be further written as
4
_
1
2
_
(x−1)
2
=
_
y −1
_
.
Hence, the focus is at (1,
3
2
), the directrix is y =
1
2
and the vertex is at (1, 1).
Conic Sections 8/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Ellipse
The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the fix points (foci sing.
focus) sum up to a constant.
Conic Sections 9/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Ellipse
The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the fix points (foci sing.
focus) sum up to a constant.
Conic Sections 10/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Ellipse
The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the fix points (foci sing.
focus) sum up to a constant.
Conic Sections 11/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Ellipse
The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the fix points (foci sing.
focus) sum up to a constant.
Conic Sections 12/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Ellipse
The set of all points in the plane whose distances from the fix points (foci sing.
focus) sum up to a constant.
Conic Sections 13/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)
Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if
distance of P to F
1
+ distance of P to F
2
=
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
+
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=2a
Conic Sections 14/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)
Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if
distance of P to F
1
+ distance of P to F
2
=
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
+
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=2a
Conic Sections 14/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)
Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if
distance of P to F
1
+ distance of P to F
2
=
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
+
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=2a
Conic Sections 14/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)
Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if
distance of P to F
1
+ distance of P to F
2
=
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
+
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=2a
Conic Sections 14/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)
Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if
distance of P to F
1
+ distance of P to F
2
= constant
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
+
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=2a
Conic Sections 14/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)
Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if
distance of P to F
1
+ distance of P to F
2
= 2a
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
+
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=2a
Conic Sections 14/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
Endpoints of minor axis: (b, 0) and (−b, 0)
Point P =(x, y) is on the ellipse if
distance of P to F
1
+ distance of P to F
2
= 2a
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
+
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=2a
Conic Sections 14/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
= 2a−
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
x
2
+2cx+c
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
+x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4cx
a
2
_
x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
_
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
a
2
x
2
−2a
2
cx+a
2
c
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
= 1
Conic Sections 15/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
= 2a−
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
x
2
+2cx+c
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
+x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4cx
a
2
_
x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
_
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
a
2
x
2
−2a
2
cx+a
2
c
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
= 1
Conic Sections 15/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
= 2a−
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
x
2
+2cx+c
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
+x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4cx
a
2
_
x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
_
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
a
2
x
2
−2a
2
cx+a
2
c
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
= 1
Conic Sections 15/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
= 2a−
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
x
2
+2cx+c
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
+x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4cx
a
2
_
x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
_
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
a
2
x
2
−2a
2
cx+a
2
c
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
= 1
Conic Sections 15/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
= 2a−
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
x
2
+2cx+c
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
+x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4cx
a
2
_
x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
_
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
a
2
x
2
−2a
2
cx+a
2
c
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
= 1
Conic Sections 15/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
= 2a−
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
x
2
+2cx+c
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
+x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4cx
a
2
_
x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
_
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
a
2
x
2
−2a
2
cx+a
2
c
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
= 1
Conic Sections 15/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
= 2a−
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
x
2
+2cx+c
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
+x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4cx
a
2
_
x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
_
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
a
2
x
2
−2a
2
cx+a
2
c
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
= 1
Conic Sections 15/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2
= 2a−
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
x
2
+2cx+c
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
+x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
4a
_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
= 4a
2
−4cx
a
2
_
x
2
−2cx+c
2
+y
2
_
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
a
2
x
2
−2a
2
cx+a
2
c
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
4
−2a
2
cx+c
2
x
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
+a
2
y
2
= a
2
_
a
2
−c
2
_
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
= 1
Conic Sections 15/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
=1
Notice that b
2
=a
2
−c
2
.
Thus, we have
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
=1.
Conic Sections 16/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
=1
Notice that b
2
=a
2
−c
2
.
Thus, we have
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
=1.
Conic Sections 16/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
a
2
−c
2
=1
Notice that b
2
=a
2
−c
2
.
Thus, we have
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
=1.
Conic Sections 16/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
For
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
=1 we have
Foci Vertices
a >b (±

a
2
−b
2
, 0) (±a, 0)
a <b (0, ±

b
2
−a
2
) (0, ±b)
The ellipses considered above are those centered at the origin.
Conic Sections 17/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
For
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
=1 we have
Foci Vertices
a >b (±

a
2
−b
2
, 0) (±a, 0)
a <b (0, ±

b
2
−a
2
) (0, ±b)
The ellipses considered above are those centered at the origin.
Conic Sections 17/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
For
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
=1 we have
Foci Vertices
a >b (±

a
2
−b
2
, 0) (±a, 0)
a <b (0, ±

b
2
−a
2
) (0, ±b)
The ellipses considered above are those centered at the origin.
Conic Sections 17/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
For
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
=1 we have
Foci Vertices
a >b (±

a
2
−b
2
, 0) (±a, 0)
a <b (0, ±

b
2
−a
2
) (0, ±b)
The ellipses considered above are those centered at the origin.
Conic Sections 17/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major
axis centered somewhere aside from the origin.
They take the form
(x−h)
2
a
2
+
(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
Foci Vertices Major Axis
a >b (h±

a
2
−b
2
, k) (h±a, k) horizontal
a <b (h, k±

b
2
−a
2
) (h, k±b) vertical
In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).
Conic Sections 18/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major
axis centered somewhere aside from the origin. They take the form
(x−h)
2
a
2
+
(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
Foci Vertices Major Axis
a >b (h±

a
2
−b
2
, k) (h±a, k) horizontal
a <b (h, k±

b
2
−a
2
) (h, k±b) vertical
In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).
Conic Sections 18/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major
axis centered somewhere aside from the origin. They take the form
(x−h)
2
a
2
+
(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
Foci Vertices Major Axis
a >b (h±

a
2
−b
2
, k) (h±a, k) horizontal
a <b (h, k±

b
2
−a
2
) (h, k±b) vertical
In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).
Conic Sections 18/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major
axis centered somewhere aside from the origin. They take the form
(x−h)
2
a
2
+
(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
Foci Vertices Major Axis
a >b (h±

a
2
−b
2
, k) (h±a, k) horizontal
a <b (h, k±

b
2
−a
2
) (h, k±b) vertical
In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).
Conic Sections 18/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
In general, we may consider an ellipse with either a vertical or a horizontal major
axis centered somewhere aside from the origin. They take the form
(x−h)
2
a
2
+
(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
Foci Vertices Major Axis
a >b (h±

a
2
−b
2
, k) (h±a, k) horizontal
a <b (h, k±

b
2
−a
2
) (h, k±b) vertical
In the cases considered above, the ellipse is centered at (h, k).
Conic Sections 18/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Example
Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and
vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).
Solution:
The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal. From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,
c =2 and b =

5.
Hence, we have
(x−1)
2
9
+
(y −1)
2
5
=1
Conic Sections 19/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Example
Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and
vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).
Solution:
The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal.
From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,
c =2 and b =

5.
Hence, we have
(x−1)
2
9
+
(y −1)
2
5
=1
Conic Sections 19/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Example
Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and
vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).
Solution:
The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal. From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,
c =2 and b =

5.
Hence, we have
(x−1)
2
9
+
(y −1)
2
5
=1
Conic Sections 19/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Example
Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and
vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).
Solution:
The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal. From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,
c =2 and b =

5.
Hence, we have
(x−1)
2
9
+
(y −1)
2
5
=1
Conic Sections 19/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of an Ellipse
Example
Find the equation of the ellipse centered at (1, 1) with foci (−1, 1) and (3, 1) and
vertices (−2, 1) and (4, 1).
Solution:
The major axis of our ellipse is horizontal. From the data above, (h, k) =(1, 1), a =3,
c =2 and b =

5.
Hence, we have
(x−1)
2
9
+
(y −1)
2
5
=1
Conic Sections 19/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Hyperbola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the two fixed points (foci)
that have a constant difference.
Conic Sections 20/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Hyperbola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the two fixed points (foci)
that have a constant difference.
Conic Sections 21/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Hyperbola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the two fixed points (foci)
that have a constant difference.
Conic Sections 22/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Hyperbola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from the two fixed points (foci)
that have a constant difference.
Conic Sections 23/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
From the above figure and from the definition of the hyperbola we have
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2

_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=
Conic Sections 24/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
From the above figure and from the definition of the hyperbola we have
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2

_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=
Conic Sections 24/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
From the above figure and from the definition of the hyperbola we have
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2

_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=
Conic Sections 24/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
From the above figure and from the definition of the hyperbola we have
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2

_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=constant
Conic Sections 24/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Foci : F
1
=(c, 0) and F
2
=(−c, 0)
Vertices : V
1
=(a, 0) and V
2
=(−a, 0)
From the above figure and from the definition of the hyperbola we have
_
(x+c)
2
+y
2

_
(x−c)
2
+y
2
=2a
Conic Sections 24/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get
x
2
a
2

y
2
c
2
−a
2
=1
Note that a <c. Thus, c
2
−a
2
>0. Let b
2
=c
2
−a
2
. Then
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
Conic Sections 25/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get
x
2
a
2

y
2
c
2
−a
2
=1
Note that a <c. Thus, c
2
−a
2
>0. Let b
2
=c
2
−a
2
. Then
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
Conic Sections 25/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get
x
2
a
2

y
2
c
2
−a
2
=1
Note that a <c.
Thus, c
2
−a
2
>0. Let b
2
=c
2
−a
2
. Then
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
Conic Sections 25/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get
x
2
a
2

y
2
c
2
−a
2
=1
Note that a <c. Thus, c
2
−a
2
>0.
Let b
2
=c
2
−a
2
. Then
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
Conic Sections 25/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get
x
2
a
2

y
2
c
2
−a
2
=1
Note that a <c. Thus, c
2
−a
2
>0. Let b
2
=c
2
−a
2
.
Then
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
Conic Sections 25/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get
x
2
a
2

y
2
c
2
−a
2
=1
Note that a <c. Thus, c
2
−a
2
>0. Let b
2
=c
2
−a
2
. Then
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
Conic Sections 25/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get
y =±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
Consider the lines y =
b
a
x and y =−
b
a
x. Verify the following:
lim
x→+∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
±
b
a
x
=1
lim
x→−∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2

b
a
x
=1
Hence, the lines y =±
b
a
x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.
Conic Sections 26/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get
y =±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
Consider the lines y =
b
a
x and y =−
b
a
x.
Verify the following:
lim
x→+∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
±
b
a
x
=1
lim
x→−∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2

b
a
x
=1
Hence, the lines y =±
b
a
x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.
Conic Sections 26/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get
y =±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
Consider the lines y =
b
a
x and y =−
b
a
x. Verify the following:
lim
x→+∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
±
b
a
x
=1
lim
x→−∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2

b
a
x
=1
Hence, the lines y =±
b
a
x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.
Conic Sections 26/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get
y =±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
Consider the lines y =
b
a
x and y =−
b
a
x. Verify the following:
lim
x→+∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
±
b
a
x
=1
lim
x→−∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2

b
a
x
=1
Hence, the lines y =±
b
a
x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.
Conic Sections 26/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get
y =±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
Consider the lines y =
b
a
x and y =−
b
a
x. Verify the following:
lim
x→+∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
±
b
a
x
=1
lim
x→−∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2

b
a
x
=1
Hence, the lines y =±
b
a
x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.
Conic Sections 26/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get
y =±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
Consider the lines y =
b
a
x and y =−
b
a
x. Verify the following:
lim
x→+∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2
±
b
a
x
=1
lim
x→−∞
±
_
x
2
b
2
a
2
−b
2

b
a
x
=1
Hence, the lines y =±
b
a
x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.
Conic Sections 26/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, for
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
we have
a >b
Foci Vertices

_
a
2
+b
2
, 0) (±a, 0)
a <b
Foci Vertices
(0, ±
_
a
2
+b
2
) (0, ±b)
Conic Sections 27/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, for
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
we have
a >b
Foci Vertices

_
a
2
+b
2
, 0) (±a, 0)
a <b
Foci Vertices
(0, ±
_
a
2
+b
2
) (0, ±b)
Conic Sections 27/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, for
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
=1
we have
a >b
Foci Vertices

_
a
2
+b
2
, 0) (±a, 0)
a <b
Foci Vertices
(0, ±
_
a
2
+b
2
) (0, ±b)
Conic Sections 27/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal
transverse axis centered somewhere aside from the origin, say at (h, k).
They take
the form
(x−h)
2
a
2

(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
a >b
Foci Vertices
(h±
_
a
2
+b
2
, k) (h±a, k)
a <b
Foci Vertices
(h, k±
_
a
2
+b
2
) (h, k±b)
Conic Sections 28/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal
transverse axis centered somewhere aside from the origin, say at (h, k). They take
the form
(x−h)
2
a
2

(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
a >b
Foci Vertices
(h±
_
a
2
+b
2
, k) (h±a, k)
a <b
Foci Vertices
(h, k±
_
a
2
+b
2
) (h, k±b)
Conic Sections 28/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal
transverse axis centered somewhere aside from the origin, say at (h, k). They take
the form
(x−h)
2
a
2

(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
a >b
Foci Vertices
(h±
_
a
2
+b
2
, k) (h±a, k)
a <b
Foci Vertices
(h, k±
_
a
2
+b
2
) (h, k±b)
Conic Sections 28/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal
transverse axis centered somewhere aside from the origin, say at (h, k). They take
the form
(x−h)
2
a
2

(y −k)
2
b
2
=1
a >b
Foci Vertices
(h±
_
a
2
+b
2
, k) (h±a, k)
a <b
Foci Vertices
(h, k±
_
a
2
+b
2
) (h, k±b)
Conic Sections 28/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Example
Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and
(3, 1).
Solution:
The desired hyperbola is centered at (
3
2
, 1) so h =
3
2
and k =1.
The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is
3
2
.
The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is
5
2
.
Now, b
2
=c
2
+a
2
=
16
4
=4. Hence, the desired equation is
(x−
3
2
)
2
_
3
2
_
2

(y −1)
2
(2)
2
=1
Conic Sections 29/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Example
Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and
(3, 1).
Solution:
The desired hyperbola is centered at (
3
2
, 1) so h =
3
2
and k =1.
The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is
3
2
.
The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is
5
2
.
Now, b
2
=c
2
+a
2
=
16
4
=4. Hence, the desired equation is
(x−
3
2
)
2
_
3
2
_
2

(y −1)
2
(2)
2
=1
Conic Sections 29/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Example
Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and
(3, 1).
Solution:
The desired hyperbola is centered at (
3
2
, 1) so h =
3
2
and k =1.
The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is
3
2
.
The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is
5
2
.
Now, b
2
=c
2
+a
2
=
16
4
=4. Hence, the desired equation is
(x−
3
2
)
2
_
3
2
_
2

(y −1)
2
(2)
2
=1
Conic Sections 29/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Example
Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and
(3, 1).
Solution:
The desired hyperbola is centered at (
3
2
, 1) so h =
3
2
and k =1.
The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is
3
2
.
The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is
5
2
.
Now, b
2
=c
2
+a
2
=
16
4
=4. Hence, the desired equation is
(x−
3
2
)
2
_
3
2
_
2

(y −1)
2
(2)
2
=1
Conic Sections 29/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Example
Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and
(3, 1).
Solution:
The desired hyperbola is centered at (
3
2
, 1) so h =
3
2
and k =1.
The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is
3
2
.
The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is
5
2
.
Now, b
2
=c
2
+a
2
=
16
4
=4. Hence, the desired equation is
(x−
3
2
)
2
_
3
2
_
2

(y −1)
2
(2)
2
=1
Conic Sections 29/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Example
Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and
(3, 1).
Solution:
The desired hyperbola is centered at (
3
2
, 1) so h =
3
2
and k =1.
The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is
3
2
.
The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is
5
2
.
Now, b
2
=c
2
+a
2
=
16
4
=4.
Hence, the desired equation is
(x−
3
2
)
2
_
3
2
_
2

(y −1)
2
(2)
2
=1
Conic Sections 29/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Example
Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and
(3, 1).
Solution:
The desired hyperbola is centered at (
3
2
, 1) so h =
3
2
and k =1.
The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is
3
2
.
The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is
5
2
.
Now, b
2
=c
2
+a
2
=
16
4
=4. Hence, the desired equation is
(x−
3
2
)
2
_
3
2
_
2

(y −1)
2
(2)
2
=1
Conic Sections 29/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Equation of a Hyperbola
Example
Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and
(3, 1).
Solution:
The desired hyperbola is centered at (
3
2
, 1) so h =
3
2
and k =1.
The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is
3
2
.
The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is
5
2
.
Now, b
2
=c
2
+a
2
=
16
4
=4. Hence, the desired equation is
(x−
3
2
)
2
_
3
2
_
2

(y −1)
2
(2)
2
=1
Conic Sections 29/ 30
Introduction Parabola Ellipse Hyperbola Exercises
Exercises
1
Identify the following conic sections:
a. 2x
2
−3y
2
+4x+6y −1 =0
b. 2x
2
+3y
2
+16x−18y −53 =0
c. 9x+y
2
+4y −5 =0
d. 4x
2
−x =y
2
+1
e. 7y −y
2
−x =0
2
Sketch the graph of the following conic sections:
a. x
2
−2x+y =0
b. 9x
2
−18x+4y
2
=27
c. y =3x
2
−6x+5
d.
y
2
9
−(x+2)
2
=1
e.
(x−3)
2
25

y
2
+4y +4
9
=1
3
Do as indicated
a. Determine the equation of the parabola whose focus and vertex are the vertex
and focus, respectively of the parabola with equation x+4y
2
−y =0.
b. Let M=3. Determine the equations of the hyperbola and ellipse having (±2, 1) as
the foci and M as the length of the conjugate axis and minor axis, respectively.
Conic Sections 30/ 30

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