# Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

Flywheel

A

flywheel and the

is

an

inertial as a

energy-storage reservoir, is the more

device.

It

absorbs during

mechanical the period releases than the

energy when it

serves of

storing than the of

energy

supply the

energy when

requirement energy is

and

during

period

requirement

more

supply.

Flywheels-Function need and Operation
The main function of a fly wheel is to smoothen out variations in the speed of a shaft caused by torque fluctuations. If the source of the

driving torque or load torque is fluctuating in nature, then a flywheel is usually torque engines called time with for. Many to or machines vary two have the are load patterns that cause the

function one punch

over

cycle. a etc.

Internal typical are the

combustion Piston systems

cylinders rock

example. other

compressors,

presses,

crushers

that have fly wheel. Flywheel absorbs mechanical energy by increasing its angular

velocity and delivers the stored energy by decreasing its velocity
T 2 T m T 1 A ω max ω min C D θ B C D θ
1 CYCLE

A

B

Figure 3.3.1

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

Design Approach
There are two stages to the design of a flywheel. First, the amount must be of energy and required the for the moment desired of degree of

smoothening

found

(mass)

inertia

needed

to absorb that energy determined. Then moment flywheel of geometry in a must be defined sized that caters and is the safe required against

inertia

reasonably

package

failure at the designed speeds of operation.

Design Parameters
Flywheel inertia (size) needed directly depends upon the acceptable

changes in the speed.

Speed fluctuation
The change in the shaft speed during a cycle is called the speed

fluctuation and is equal to ωmax- ωmin

Fl = ωmax − ωmin
We can normalize this to a dimensionless ratio by dividing it by the

average or nominal shaft speed (ωave) .
Cf = ωmax − ωmin ω

Where ωavg is nominal angular velocity

Co-efficient of speed fluctuation

The above ratio is termed as coefficient of speed fluctuation Cf and it is defined as
Cf = ωmax − ωmin ω

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

Where shaft

ω

is

nominal desired.

angular This

velocity,

and is a

ωave

the

average parameter

or

mean to be

speed

coefficient

design

chosen by the designer. The smaller this chosen value, the larger the flywheel have to be and more the cost and weight to be added to the system. However the

smaller this value more smoother the operation of the device It is typically and set as to a high value as between 0.20 for 0.01 to 0.05 for like precision crusher

machinery

applications

hammering machinery.

Design Equation
The kinetic energy Ek in a rotating system =
1 I ω2 2

( )
1 ⎛ ⎞ Im ⎜ ω2max − ω2 ⎟ min ⎠ 2 ⎝

Hence the change in kinetic energy of a system can be given as,
EK =

E K = E 2 − E1 ωavg =

( ωmax + ωmin )
2

EK =

1 I 2ωavg 2 s E 2 − E1 = Cf Iω2 Ek Is = 2 Cf ωavg

(

)( Cf ωavg )

Thus system

the in

mass order

moment to

of

inertia selected

Im

needed

in of

the speed

entire

rotating is

obtain

coefficient

fluctuation

determined using the relation

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

EK = Is =
The Im above equation to can the be

1 I 2ωavg 2 s Ek

(

)( Cf ωavg )
obtain change appropriate Ek for a flywheel specific inertia value

2 Cf ωavg
used to

corresponding

known

energy

coefficient of speed fluctuation Cf,

Torque Variation and Energy
The required change in kinetic energy Ek is obtained from the known

torque time relation or curve by integrating it for one cycle.

θ @ ωmax Tl − Tavg dθ = E K ∫ θ @ ωmin

(

)

Computing the kinetic energy Ek needed is illustrated in the following example

Torque Time Relation without Flywheel A typical torque time relation for example of a mechanical punching

press without a fly wheel in shown in the figure. In the absence and of fly wheel and surplus enery operations. To smoothen or positive or enregy is avalible energy speed fly

initially during

intermedialty and be

absorbtion A out large the

negative of

punching can

stripping

magitidue speed

fluctuation

noted.

fluctuation

wheel is to be added and the fly wheel energy needed is computed as illustrated below

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

Torque Area +20 073 C rms Area +15 388 D B A

34 200 A

7 020 0

Average

ω min

ω max
θ

Shaft angle time t

-34 200 0

Area -26 105

Area -9 202 360

Figure 3.3.2
Accumulation of Energy pulses under a Torque- Time curve From A to B B to C C to D D to A Area= E +20 073 -26 105 +15 388 -9 202 Accumulated sum =E +20 073 -6 032 +9 356 +154 Total Energy= E @ωmin- E@ωmin =(-6 032)-(+20 073)= 26 105 Nmm2 Min & max

ω ω

min

@B @C

max

Figure 3.3.3

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

Torque Time Relation with Flywheel

Torque 8730 7020 Cf =0.05 Average

0 360
Figure 3.3.4

Time t Shaft angleθ

Geometry of Flywheel
The geometry of a flywheel may be as simple as a cylindrical disc of solid wheels wheels material, with are a solid and disc of or hub may and of be rim of spoked by construction spokes or like arms As the conventional Small the fly

connected circular

discs size

hollow of the hub

cross

section.

energy

requirements changes to

flywheel peripheral

increases rim

geometry by webs

central

and

connected

and to hollow wheels with multiple arms.

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

b

b

D d D0 D do

Figure 3.3.5

b

D0 D

d
a

Arm Type Flywheel
Figure 3.3.6

The

latter

arrangement

is

a

more

efficient

of

material

especially

for

large flywheels, as it concentrates the bulk of its mass in the rim which is at the largest radius. Mass at largest radius contributes much more

since the mass moment of inertia is proportional to mr2

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

For a solid disc geometry with inside radius ri and out side radius ro, the mass moment of inertia I is
Im = mk 2 = m 2 2 (r + r ) 2 o i

The mass of a hollow circular disc of constant thickness t is

m=

W γ 2 = π ro − ri2 t g g

(

)

Combing the two equations we can write

Im =

πγ 4 4 r −r t 2g o i

(

)

Where γ is material’s weight density The equation is better solved by geometric proportions i.e by

assuming inside to out side radius ratio and radius to thickness ratio.

Stresses in Flywheel
Flywheel distributed being mass a and rotating attempts disc, to centrifugal pull it apart. stresses Its acts is upon similar its to

effect

those caused by an internally pressurized cylinder

σt = σr =

γ 2 ⎛ 3 + v ⎞⎛ 2 2 1 + 3v 2 ⎞ ω ⎜ r ⎟ ⎟⎜ ri + ro − g ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 3+ v ⎠
2 ⎞ γ 2 ⎛ 3 + v ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 ri2 ro 2 ω ⎜ ⎜ ri + ro − 2 − r ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ g ⎝ 8 ⎠⎜ r ⎝ ⎠

γ = material weight density, ω= angular velocity in rad/sec. ν= Poisson’s ratio, is the radius to a point of interest, ri and ro are inside and outside radii of the solid disc flywheel. Analogous to a thick cylinder under internal pressure the tangential

and radial stress in a solid disc flywheel as a function of its radius r is given by:

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

σt Tang. stress

The point of most interest is the in inside a radius is where the stress the upon is a

maximum. stress at

What that can forces

causes point

failure

flywheel

typically and

tangential fracture

from

where resulting the

fracture

originated

fragments Since speed the also,

explode causing of

extremely are a

dangerous function the of

consequences, the rotational speed at

stresses for

checking

stresses,

maximum

which the stresses reach the critical value can be determined and safe operating factor. speed can some be calculated to or specified its based operation on a safety this

Generally

means

preclude

beyond

speed is desirable, for example like a governor. Consequently

ω F.O.S (N) = Nos = ωyield

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

WORKED OUT EXAMPLE 1
A 2.2 kw, 960 rpm motor powers the cam driven ram of a press through a gearing of 6:1 ratio. The rated capacity of the press is 20 kN and has a stroke of 200 mm. Assuming that the cam driven ram is capable of delivering the rated load at a constant velocity during the last 15% of a constant velocity stroke. Design a suitable flywheel that can maintain a coefficient of Speed fluctuation of 0.02. Assume that the maximum diameter of the flywheel is not to exceed 0.6m.

Work done by the press=

U = 20 *103 * 0.2 * 0.15 = 600Nm

Energy absorbed= work done= 600 Nm Mean torque on the shaft:

2.2 *103 = 21.88Nm 960 2*π* 60
Energy supplied= work don per cycle
= 2π * 21.88 * 6 = 825 Nm Thus the mechanical efficiency of the system is = 600 η= = 0.727 = 72% 825

There fore the fluctuation in energy is =

E k = Energy absorbed - Energy supplied

Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

600 − 825 * 0.075 ( 21.88 * 6 * π * 0.15 ) 538.125Nm Ek I= Cf ωavg 538.125 960 ⎞ ⎛ 0.02 ⎜ 2π * ⎟ 60 ⎠ ⎝ 2

(

)

2

=

= 2.6622 kg m2
π r 2 2 . r − ri .t 2 g o r Assuming i = 0.8 ro π 78500 2.6622 = * 0.304 − 0.244 t 2 9.86 = 59.805t I=

(

)

(

)

∴ t= or

2 .6622 = 0.0445 59.805

45 mm

σt = σt =

r 2 ⎛ 3 + γ ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 1 + 3γ 2 ⎞ r ⎟ ω ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r + ro − g 3+ γ ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ i ⎠

78500 2 ⎛ 3 + 0.3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 1.9 * 0.242 ⎞ .ω ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.24 + 0.3 − ⎟ 9.81 3.3 ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ ⎠ 960 ⎞2 ⎛ σ t = 0.543* ⎜ 2π * ⎟ 60 ⎠ ⎝ = 55667N / m 2 = 0.556MPa
or if σ t = 150 MPa 150 *106 = 7961.4ω2 ( 0.4125 )( 0.0376 )( 0.090 )( 0.0331) = 0.548ω2 ω = 16544 rad / sec2
N OS = ωyield = 16544 32π

ω = 164.65