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Introduction to Linear Algebra With Applications - DeFranza, Gagliardi

# Introduction to Linear Algebra With Applications - DeFranza, Gagliardi

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In Exercises 1–16, a matrix A is given. Find A−1

or

indicate that it does not exist. When A−1

exists, check

= I.

1.

1 −2
3 −1

2.

−3 1
1 2

3.

−2 4
2 −4

4.

1 1
2 2

5.

0 1 −1
3 1 1
1 2 −1

Conﬁrming Pages

46

Chapter 1 Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

6.

0 2 1
−1 0 0
2 1 1

7.

3 −3 1
0 0 1
−2 2 −1

8.

1 3 0
1 2 3
0 −1 3

9.

3 3 0 −3
0 1 2 0
0 0 −1 −1
0 0 0 −2

10.

1 3 0 −3
0 1 2 −3
0 0 2 −2
0 0 0 2

11.

1 0 0 0
2 1 0 0
−3 −2 −3 0
0 1 3 3

12.

1 0 0 0
−2 1 0 0
1 −1 −2 0
2 −2 0 2

13.

2 −1 4 −5
0 −1 3 −1
0 0 0 2
0 0 0 −1

14.

3 0 0 0
−6 1 0 0
2 −5 0 0
1 −3 4 2

15.

−1 1 0 −1
−1 1 −1 0
−1 0 0 0
−2 1 −1 1

16.

−2 −3 3 0
2 0 −2 0
2 0 −1 −1
−2 0 1 1

17. Let

A =

2 1
3 −4

B =

1 2
−1 3

Verify that AB +A can be factored as A(B +I)
and AB +B can be factored as (A+I)B.

18. If A is an n×n matrix, write A2

+2A+I in

factored form.

19. Let

A =

1 2
−2 1

a. Show that A2

−2A+5I = 0.

b. Show that A−1

= 1

5(2IA).
c. Show in general that for any square matrix A
satisfying A2

−2A+5I = 0, the inverse is

A−1

= 1

5(2IA).

20. Determine those values of λ for which the matrix

1 λ 0
3 2 0
1 2 1

is not invertible.

21. Determine those values of λ for which the matrix

1 λ 0
1 3 1
2 1 1

is not invertible.

22. Determine those values of λ for which the matrix

2 λ 1
3 2 1
1 2 1

is not invertible.

23. Let

A =

1 λ 0
1 1 1
0 0 1

Conﬁrming Pages

1.4 The Inverse of a Square Matrix 47

a. Determine those values of λ for which A is
invertible.
b. For those values found in part (a) ﬁnd the
inverse of A.

24. Determine those values of λ for which the matrix

λ −1 0
−1 λ −1
0 −1 λ

is invertible.

25. Find 2×2 matrices A and B that are not
invertible but A+B is invertible.

26. Find 2×2 matrices A and B that are invertible
but A+B is not invertible.

27. If A and B are n×n matrices and A is invertible,
show that

(A+B)A−1

(AB) = (AB)A−1

(A+B)

28. If B = PAP−1

, express B2

,B3

,...,Bk

, where k

is any positive integer, in terms of A,P, and

P−1
.

29. Let A and B be n×n matrices.
a. Show that if A is invertible and AB = 0, then
B = 0.

b. If A is not invertible, show there is an n×n
matrix B that is not the zero matrix and such
that AB = 0.

30. Show that if A is symmetric and invertible, then
A−1

is symmetric.

In Exercises 31–34, the matrices A and B are
invertible symmetric matrices and AB = BA.

31. Show that AB is symmetric.

32. Show that A−1

B is symmetric.

33. Show that AB−1

is symmetric.

34. Show that A−1

B−1

is symmetric.

35. A matrix A is orthogonal provided that
At

= A−1

. Show that the product of two
orthogonal matrices is orthogonal.

36. Show the matrix

A =

cosθ −sinθ
sinθ cosθ

is orthogonal. (See Exercise 35.)

37. a. If A,B, and C are n×n invertible matrices,
show that

(ABC)−1

= C−1

B−1

A−1

b. Use mathematical induction to show that for all
positive integers k, if A1,A2,...,Ak are n×n
invertible matrices, then

(A1A2···Ak)−1

= A−1

k A−1

k−1···A−1
1

38. An n×n matrix A is diagonal provided that
aij = 0 whenever i = j. Show that if ann = 0 for
all n, then A is invertible and the inverse is

1

a11 0 0 ... 0
0 1

a22 0 ... 0

.
.
.

.
.
.

.

.

.

.
.
.

.
.
.

0 0 ... 1

an−1,n−1 0

0 0 ... 0

1

ann

39. Let A be an n×n invertible matrix. Show that if
A is in upper (lower) triangular form, then A−1

is

also in upper (lower) triangular form.

40. Suppose B is row equivalent to the n×n
invertible matrix A. Show that B is invertible.

41. Show that if adbc = 0, then A =

a b
c d

is

not invertible.
a. Expand the matrix equation

a b
c d

x1 x2
x3 x4

=

1 0
0 1

b. Show the 2×2 linear system in the variables
x1 and x3 that is generated in part (a) yields

d = 0. Similarly, show the system in the
variables x2 and x4 yields b = 0.
c. Use the results of part (b) to conclude that

Conﬁrming Pages

48

Chapter 1 Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

1.5 ß

MatrixEquations

In this section we show how matrix multiplication can be used to write a linear
system in terms of matrices and vectors. We can then write a linear system as a single
equation, using a matrix and two vectors, which generalizes the linear equation ax = b
for real numbers. As we will see, in some cases the linear system can then be solved
using algebraic operations similar to the operations used to solve equations involving
real numbers.

To illustrate the process, consider the linear system

x − 6y −4z=−5
2x −10y −9z=−4
x + 6y +5z= 3

The matrix of coefﬁcients is given by

A =

1 −6 −4
2 −10 −9
−1 6 5

Now let x and b be the vectors

x =

x

y

z

and b =

−5
−4
3

Then the original linear system can be rewritten as

Ax = b

We refer to this equation as the matrix form of the linear system and x as the vector
form
of the solution.

In certain cases we can ﬁnd the solution of a linear system in matrix form directly
by matrix multiplication. In particular, if A is invertible, we can multiply both sides
of the previous equation on the left by A−1

, so that

A−1

(Ax) = A−1

b

Since matrix multiplication is associative, we have

A−1

A

x = A−1

b

therefore,

x = A−1

b

For the example above, the inverse of the matrix

A =

1 −6 −4
2 −10 −9
−1 6 5

is A−1

=

2 3 7

−1
2

1
2

1
2

1 0 1

Conﬁrming Pages

1.5 Matrix Equations 49

Therefore, the solution to the linear system in vector form is given by

x = A−1

b =

2 3 7

−1
2

1
2

1
2

1 0 1

−5
−4
3

=

−1
2
−2

That is,

x = −1 y = 2 and z = −2

We have just seen that if the matrix A has an inverse, then the equation Ax = b
has a unique solution. This fact is recorded in Theorem 10.

THEOREM 10 If the n×n matrix A is invertible, then for every vector b, with n components,
the linear system Ax = b has the unique solution x = A−1

b.

EXAMPLE 1 Write the linear system in matrix form and solve.
2x + y =1
−4x +3y =2

Solution The matrix form of the linear system is given by
2 1
−4 3

x
y

=

1
2

Notice that since 2(3)(1)(−4) = 10 = 0, the coefﬁcient matrix is invertible. By
Theorem 8, of Sec. 1.4, the inverse is

1
10

3 −1
4 2

Now, by Theorem 10, the solution to the linear system is

x = 1
10

3 −1
4 2

1
2

= 1
10

1
8

=

1
10

8
10

so that

x = 1

10 and y = 8
10

DEFINITION 1 HomogeneousLinearSystem A homogeneous linear system is a system of
the form Ax = 0.

The vector x = 0 is always a solution to the homogeneous system Ax = 0, and
is called the trivial solution.

Conﬁrming Pages

50

Chapter 1 Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

EXAMPLE 2 Let

A =

1 2 1
1 3 0
1 1 2

and x =

x1

x2

x3

Find all vectors x such that Ax = 0.

Solution First observe that x = 0 is one solution. To ﬁnd the general solution, we row-reduce
the augmented matrix

1 2 1 0
1 3 0 0
1 1 2 0

to

1 2 1 0
0 1 −1 0
0 0 0 0

From the reduced matrix we see that x3 is free with x2 = x3, and x1 = −2x2 −x3 =
−3x3. The solution set in vector form is given by

S =

−3t
t

t

t

.

Notice that the trivial solution is also included in S as a particular solution with

t = 0.

Observe that in Example 2, the coefﬁcient matrix is not row equivalent to I, and
hence A is not invertible.
If a homogeneous linear system Ax = 0 is such that A is invertible, then by
Theorem 10, the only solution is x = 0. In Sec. 1.6 we will show that the converse
is also true.

EXAMPLE 3 Show that if x and y are distinct solutions to the homogeneous system Ax = 0,
then x+cy is a solution for every real number c.

Solution Using the algebraic properties of matrices, we have that

A(x+cy) = A(x)+A(cy)

= Ax+cAy
= 0+c0
= 0
Hence, x+cy is a solution to the homogeneous system.

The result of Example 3 shows that if the homogeneous equation Ax = 0 has
two distinct solutions, then it has inﬁnitely many solutions. That is, the homogeneous

Conﬁrming Pages

1.5 Matrix Equations 51

equation Ax = 0 either has one solution (the trivial solution) or has inﬁnitely many
solutions. The same result holds for the nonhomogeneous equation Ax = b, with
b = 0. To see this, let u and v be distinct solutions to Ax = b and c a real number.
Then

A(v+c(uv)) = Av+A(c(uv))

= Av+cAucAv
= b+cbcb = b

These observations are summarized in Theorem 11.

THEOREM 11 If A is an m×n matrix, then the linear system Ax = b has no solutions, one
solution, or inﬁnitely many solutions.

FactSummary

Let A be an m×n matrix.

1. If A is invertible, then for every n×1 vector b the matrix equation Ax = b
has a unique solution given by x = A−1

b.
2. If A is invertible, then the only solution to the homogeneous equation
Ax = 0 is the trivial solution x = 0.

3. If u and v are solutions to Ax = 0, then the vector u+cv is another
solution for every scalar c.
4. The linear system Ax = b has a unique solution, inﬁnitely many solutions,
or no solution.

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