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Introduction to Linear Algebra With Applications - DeFranza, Gagliardi|Views: 7,130|Likes: 38

Published by Muhammed Ahmed Yousaf

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/98845227/Introduction-to-Linear-Algebra-With-Applications-DeFranza-Gagliardi

04/12/2015

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In Exercises 1–16, a matrix* A* is given. Find* A*−1

or

indicate that it does not exist. When* A*−1

exists, check

your answer by showing that* AA*−1

=* I*.

**1.
**

1 −2

3 −1

**2.
**

−3 1

1 2

**3.
**

−2 4

2 −4

**4.
**

1 1

2 2

**5.
**

0 1 −1

3 1 1

1 2 −1

Conﬁrming Pages

**46
**

Chapter 1 Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

**6.
**

0 2 1

−1 0 0

2 1 1

**7.
**

3 −3 1

0 0 1

−2 2 −1

**8.
**

1 3 0

1 2 3

0 −1 3

**9.
**

3 3 0 −3

0 1 2 0

0 0 −1 −1

0 0 0 −2

**10.
**

1 3 0 −3

0 1 2 −3

0 0 2 −2

0 0 0 2

**11.
**

1 0 0 0

2 1 0 0

−3 −2 −3 0

0 1 3 3

**12.
**

1 0 0 0

−2 1 0 0

1 −1 −2 0

2 −2 0 2

**13.
**

2 −1 4 −5

0 −1 3 −1

0 0 0 2

0 0 0 −1

**14.
**

3 0 0 0

−6 1 0 0

2 −5 0 0

1 −3 4 2

**15.
**

−1 1 0 −1

−1 1 −1 0

−1 0 0 0

−2 1 −1 1

**16.
**

−2 −3 3 0

2 0 −2 0

2 0 −1 −1

−2 0 1 1

**17.** Let

*A* =

2 1

3 −4

* B* =

1 2

−1 3

Verify that* AB* +*A* can be factored as* A(B* +*I)
*and

**18.** If* A* is an* n*×*n* matrix, write* A*2

+2*A*+*I* in

factored form.

**19.** Let

*A* =

1 2

−2 1

**a.** Show that* A*2

−2*A*+5*I* =** 0***.
*

**b.** Show that* A*−1

= 1

5*(*2*I* −*A).
*

−2*A*+5*I* =** 0***,* the inverse is

*A*−1

= 1

5*(*2*I* −*A).
*

**20.** Determine those values of λ for which the matrix

1 λ 0

3 2 0

1 2 1

is not invertible.

**21.** Determine those values of λ for which the matrix

1 λ 0

1 3 1

2 1 1

is not invertible.

**22.** Determine those values of λ for which the matrix

2 λ 1

3 2 1

1 2 1

is not invertible.

**23.** Let

*A* =

1 λ 0

1 1 1

0 0 1

Conﬁrming Pages

1.4 The Inverse of a Square Matrix** 47
**

**a.** Determine those values of λ for which* A* is

invertible.

**b.** For those values found in part (a) ﬁnd the

inverse of* A.
*

**24.** Determine those values of λ for which the matrix

λ −1 0

−1 λ −1

0 −1 λ

is invertible.

**25.** Find 2×2 matrices* A* and* B* that are not

invertible but* A*+*B* is invertible.

**26.** Find 2×2 matrices* A* and* B* that are invertible

but* A*+*B* is not invertible.

**27.** If* A* and* B* are* n*×*n* matrices and* A* is invertible,

show that

*(A*+*B)A*−1

*(A*−*B)* =* (A*−*B)A*−1

*(A*+*B)
*

**28.** If* B* =* PAP*−1

*,* express* B*2

*,B*3

*,...,Bk
*

*,* where* k
*

is any positive integer, in terms of* A,P,* and

*P*−1

*.
*

**29.** Let* A* and* B* be* n*×*n* matrices.

**a.** Show that if* A* is invertible and* AB* =** 0***,* then

*B* =** 0***.
*

**b.** If* A* is not invertible, show there is an* n*×*n
*matrix

that

**30.** Show that if* A* is symmetric and invertible, then

*A*−1

is symmetric.

In Exercises 31–34, the matrices* A* and* B* are

invertible symmetric matrices and* AB* =* BA.
*

**31.** Show that* AB* is symmetric.

**32.** Show that* A*−1

*B* is symmetric.

**33.** Show that* AB*−1

is symmetric.

**34.** Show that* A*−1

*B*−1

is symmetric.

**35.** A matrix* A* is orthogonal provided that

*At
*

=* A*−1

*.* Show that the product of two

orthogonal matrices is orthogonal.

**36.** Show the matrix

*A* =

cosθ −sinθ

sinθ cosθ

is orthogonal. (See Exercise 35.)

**37. a.** If* A,B,* and* C* are* n*×*n* invertible matrices,

show that

*(ABC)*−1

=* C*−1

*B*−1

*A*−1

**b.** Use mathematical induction to show that for all

positive integers* k*, if* A*1*,A*2*,...,Ak* are* n*×*n
*invertible matrices, then

*(A*1*A*2···*Ak)*−1

=* A*−1

*k A*−1

*k*−1···*A*−1

1

**38.** An* n*×*n* matrix* A* is diagonal provided that

*aij* = 0 whenever* i* =* j.* Show that if* ann* = 0 for

all* n*, then* A* is invertible and the inverse is

1

*a*11 0 0* ...* 0

0 1

*a*22 0* ...* 0

*.
.
.
*

*.
.
.
*

*.
*

*.
*

*.
*

*.
.
.
*

*.
.
.
*

0 0* ...* 1

*an*−1*,n*−1 0

0 0* ...* 0

1

*ann
*

**39.** Let* A* be an* n*×*n* invertible matrix. Show that if

*A* is in upper (lower) triangular form, then* A*−1

is

also in upper (lower) triangular form.

**40.** Suppose* B* is row equivalent to the* n*×*n
*invertible matrix

**41.** Show that if* ad* −*bc* = 0*,* then* A* =

* a b
c d
*

is

not invertible.

**a.** Expand the matrix equation

* a b
c d
*

* x*1* x*2

*x*3* x*4

=

1 0

0 1

**b.** Show the 2×2 linear system in the variables

*x*1 and* x*3 that is generated in part (a) yields

*d* = 0*.* Similarly, show the system in the

variables* x*2 and* x*4 yields* b* = 0*.
*

Conﬁrming Pages

**48
**

Chapter 1 Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

**1.5** ß

**MatrixEquations
**

In this section we show how matrix multiplication can be used to write a linear

system in terms of matrices and vectors. We can then write a linear system as a single

equation, using a matrix and two vectors, which generalizes the linear equation* ax* =* b
*for real numbers. As we will see, in some cases the linear system can then be solved

using algebraic operations similar to the operations used to solve equations involving

real numbers.

To illustrate the process, consider the linear system

*x* − 6*y* −4*z*=−5

2*x* −10*y* −9*z*=−4

−*x* + 6*y* +5*z*= 3

The matrix of coefﬁcients is given by

*A* =

1 −6 −4

2 −10 −9

−1 6 5

Now let** x** and** b** be the vectors

**x** =

*x
*

*y
*

*z
*

and** b** =

−5

−4

3

Then the original linear system can be rewritten as

*A***x** =** b
**

We refer to this equation as the** matrix form** of the linear system and** x** as the** vector
form** of the solution.

In certain cases we can ﬁnd the solution of a linear system in matrix form directly

by matrix multiplication. In particular, if* A* is invertible, we can multiply both sides

of the previous equation on the left by* A*−1

*,* so that

*A*−1

*(A***x***)* =* A*−1

**b
**

Since matrix multiplication is associative, we have

*A*−1

*A
*

**x** =* A*−1

**b
**

therefore,

**x** =* A*−1

**b
**

For the example above, the inverse of the matrix

*A* =

1 −6 −4

2 −10 −9

−1 6 5

is* A*−1

=

2 3 7

−1

2

1

2

1

2

1 0 1

Conﬁrming Pages

1.5 Matrix Equations** 49
**

Therefore, the solution to the linear system in vector form is given by

**x** =* A*−1

**b** =

2 3 7

−1

2

1

2

1

2

1 0 1

−5

−4

3

=

−1

2

−2

That is,

*x* = −1* y* = 2 and* z* = −2

We have just seen that if the matrix* A* has an inverse, then the equation* A***x** =** b
**has a unique solution. This fact is recorded in Theorem 10.

**THEOREM 10** If the* n*×*n* matrix* A* is invertible, then for every vector** b**, with* n* components,

the linear system* A***x** =** b** has the unique solution** x** =* A*−1

**b***.
*

**EXAMPLE 1** Write the linear system in matrix form and solve.

2*x* +* y* =1

−4*x* +3*y* =2

**Solution** The matrix form of the linear system is given by

2 1

−4 3

* x
y
*

=

1

2

Notice that since 2*(*3*)*−*(*1*)(*−4*)* = 10 = 0*,* the coefﬁcient matrix is invertible. By

Theorem 8, of Sec. 1.4, the inverse is

1

10

3 −1

4 2

Now, by Theorem 10, the solution to the linear system is

**x** = 1

10

3 −1

4 2

1

2

= 1

10

1

8

=

1

10

8

10

so that

*x* = 1

10 and* y* = 8

10

**DEFINITION 1 HomogeneousLinearSystem** A** homogeneous linear system** is a system of

the form* A***x** =** 0**.

The vector** x** =** 0** is always a solution to the homogeneous system* A***x** =** 0***,* and

is called the** trivial solution**.

Conﬁrming Pages

**50
**

Chapter 1 Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

**EXAMPLE 2** Let

*A* =

1 2 1

1 3 0

1 1 2

and** x** =

*x*1

*x*2

*x*3

Find all vectors** x** such that* A***x** =** 0***.
*

**Solution** First observe that** x** =** 0** is one solution. To ﬁnd the general solution, we row-reduce

the augmented matrix

1 2 1 0

1 3 0 0

1 1 2 0

to

1 2 1 0

0 1 −1 0

0 0 0 0

From the reduced matrix we see that* x*3 is free with* x*2 =* x*3*,* and* x*1 = −2*x*2 −*x*3 =

−3*x*3*.* The solution set in vector form is given by

*S* =

−3*t
t
*

*t
*

*t* ∈

*.
*

Notice that the trivial solution is also included in* S* as a particular solution with

*t* = 0*.
*

Observe that in Example 2, the coefﬁcient matrix is not row equivalent to* I*, and

hence* A* is not invertible.

If a homogeneous linear system* A***x** =** 0** is such that* A* is invertible, then by

Theorem 10, the only solution is** x** =** 0***.* In Sec. 1.6 we will show that the converse

is also true.

**EXAMPLE 3** Show that if** x** and** y** are distinct solutions to the homogeneous system* A***x** =** 0***,
*then

**Solution** Using the algebraic properties of matrices, we have that

*A(***x**+*c***y***)* =* A(***x***)*+*A(c***y***)
*

=* A***x**+*cA***y
**=

The result of Example 3 shows that if the homogeneous equation* A***x** =** 0** has

two distinct solutions, then it has inﬁnitely many solutions. That is, the homogeneous

Conﬁrming Pages

1.5 Matrix Equations** 51
**

equation* A***x** =** 0** either has one solution (the trivial solution) or has inﬁnitely many

solutions. The same result holds for the nonhomogeneous equation* A***x** =** b***,* with

**b** =** 0***.* To see this, let** u** and** v** be distinct solutions to* A***x** =** b** and* c* a real number.

Then

*A(***v**+*c(***u**−**v***))* =* A***v**+*A(c(***u**−**v***))
*

=* A***v**+*cA***u**−*cA***v
**=

These observations are summarized in Theorem 11.

**THEOREM 11** If* A* is an* m*×*n* matrix, then the linear system* A***x** =** b** has no solutions, one

solution, or inﬁnitely many solutions.

**FactSummary
**

Let* A* be an* m*×*n* matrix.

**1.** If* A* is invertible, then for every* n*×1 vector** b** the matrix equation* A***x** =** b
**has a unique solution given by

**b***.
*

**3.** If** u** and** v** are solutions to* A***x** =** 0***,* then the vector** u**+*c***v** is another

solution for every scalar* c.
*

or no solution.

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