Controlling (CO

)

Release 46C

HELP.CO

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Copyright
© Copyright 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Microsoft, Windows, Outlook, and PowerPoint are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. IBM, DB2, DB2 Universal Database, OS/2, Parallel Sysplex, MVS/ESA, AIX, S/390, AS/400, OS/390, OS/400, iSeries, pSeries, xSeries, zSeries, z/OS, AFP, Intelligent Miner, WebSphere, Netfinity, Tivoli, and Informix are trademarks or registered trademarks of IBM Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. UNIX, X/Open, OSF/1, and Motif are registered trademarks of the Open Group. Citrix, ICA, Program Neighborhood, MetaFrame, WinFrame, VideoFrame, and MultiWin are trademarks or registered trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. HTML, XML, XHTML and W3C are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C®, World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Java is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. JavaScript is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc., used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape. MaxDB is a trademark of MySQL AB, Sweden. SAP, R/3, mySAP, mySAP.com, xApps, xApp, SAP NetWeaver, and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries all over the world. All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies. Data contained in this document serves informational purposes only. National product specifications may vary. These materials are subject to change without notice. These materials are provided by SAP AG and its affiliated companies ("SAP Group") for informational purposes only, without representation or warranty of any kind, and SAP Group shall not be liable for errors or omissions with respect to the materials. The only warranties for SAP Group products and services are those that are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services, if any. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty.

Controlling (CO)

46C

2

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Icons in Body Text
Icon Meaning Caution Example Note Recommendation Syntax

Additional icons are used in SAP Library documentation to help you identify different types of information at a glance. For more information, see Help on Help → General Information Classes and Information Classes for Business Information Warehouse on the first page of any version of SAP Library.

Typographic Conventions
Type Style Example text Description Words or characters quoted from the screen. These include field names, screen titles, pushbuttons labels, menu names, menu paths, and menu options. Cross-references to other documentation. Example text EXAMPLE TEXT Emphasized words or phrases in body text, graphic titles, and table titles. Technical names of system objects. These include report names, program names, transaction codes, table names, and key concepts of a programming language when they are surrounded by body text, for example, SELECT and INCLUDE. Output on the screen. This includes file and directory names and their paths, messages, names of variables and parameters, source text, and names of installation, upgrade and database tools. Exact user entry. These are words or characters that you enter in the system exactly as they appear in the documentation. Variable user entry. Angle brackets indicate that you replace these words and characters with appropriate entries to make entries in the system. Keys on the keyboard, for example, F2 or ENTER.

Example text

Example text <Example text>

EXAMPLE TEXT

Controlling (CO)

46C

3

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling (CO)............................................................................................................................... 7 Organization in Controlling........................................................................................................... 9 Company Code ...................................................................................................................... 10 Controlling Area...................................................................................................................... 11 Processing Controlling Areas ............................................................................................. 12 Selecting and Displaying Current Controlling Area ............................................................ 13 Assigning Controlling Areas and Company Codes ............................................................ 14 Assignment of Controlling Areas and Plants ...................................................................... 17 Business Area ........................................................................................................................ 18 Operating Concern ................................................................................................................. 19 Profit Center ........................................................................................................................... 21 Plant ....................................................................................................................................... 23 Currencies .............................................................................................................................. 24 Currencies in Controlling .................................................................................................... 25 Specifying the Controlling Area Currency ....................................................................... 27 Defining Currencies......................................................................................................... 31 Number Ranges ..................................................................................................................... 33 Defining Number Ranges ................................................................................................... 35 Business Transactions in Controlling ..................................................................................... 37 Chart of Accounts................................................................................................................... 41 Fiscal Year Variants ............................................................................................................... 42 Controlling Methods ................................................................................................................... 43 Authorizations......................................................................................................................... 44 Authorizations for CO-OM Areas of Responsibility ............................................................ 45 General Authorization Object for CCA ............................................................................ 48 General Authorization Object for Internal Orders ........................................................... 49 Authorizations for Hierarchy Areas in Activity-Based Costing............................................ 51 General Authorization Object for Business Processes ................................................... 53 Account Assignment of Controlling Objects ........................................................................... 54 Examples: Account Assignment Logic ............................................................................... 57 Period Lock............................................................................................................................. 58 Requesting an Adjustment Posting from the Intranet (AC) .................................................... 59 Processing Request Forms ................................................................................................ 62 Processing a Request in the SAP System ......................................................................... 64 Processing Notifications.................................................................................................. 65 Process Notification..................................................................................................... 66

Controlling (CO)

46C

4

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Processing Notifications Using Worklist ...................................................................... 68 Task Processing.............................................................................................................. 69 Processing Tasks Using Worklist ................................................................................ 70 Processing Tasks Using Workflow .............................................................................. 71 Document Flow ............................................................................................................... 72 Displaying the Document Flow for a Notification......................................................... 74 Status Query For Request .................................................................................................. 75 Summarization ....................................................................................................................... 76 Overhead Cost Controlling (CO-OM)......................................................................................... 78 Overhead Costs ..................................................................................................................... 80 Cost Accounting Methods ...................................................................................................... 81 Multiple Valuation Approaches in Overhead Cost Controlling ............................................... 83 CO External Data Transfer ........................................................................................................ 85 External Data Transfer with Function Modules ...................................................................... 86 Table Structures and Function Modules for Planning Data................................................ 87 Interface for External Data Transfer................................................................................ 91 Import Parameters For Transferring Planning Data........................................................ 92 Import Parameters for Transferring Planning Data......................................................... 96 Table Structures and Function Modules for Actual Data.................................................... 98 Import Parameters for Transferring Actual Data ........................................................... 100 Export Parameters for Transferring Actual Data........................................................... 102 Table Parameters for Transferring Actual Data ............................................................ 103 External Data Transfer with BAPIs....................................................................................... 105 Information Sheets for the Transfer of Master Data ......................................................... 106 Information Sheets for the Transfer of Cost Centers .................................................... 107 Information Sheets for the Transfer of Business Processes......................................... 108 Information Sheets for the Transfer of Cost Elements.................................................. 109 Information Sheets for the Transfer of Activity Types................................................... 110 Information Sheets for the Transfer of Statistical Key Figures ..................................... 111 Information Sheet for the Transfer of Internal Orders................................................... 112 Information Sheet: The Transfer of Planning Data ........................................................... 114 Information Sheets for the Transfer of Actual Data .......................................................... 116 Information Sheet for the Transfer of Activity Allocations ............................................. 117 Information Sheet for the Transfer of Primary Cost Repostings ................................... 119 Information Sheet for the Transfer of Revenue Repostings ......................................... 121 Information Sheet for the Transfer of Actual Statistical Key Figures ............................ 123 Information Sheet for the Transfer of Sender Activity................................................... 125

Controlling (CO)

46C

5

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

External Data Transfer Of Master Data For Internal Orders, With Transaction................... 127 Old or External Data Transfer........................................................................................... 131 Example: Filled Sender Structure..................................................................................... 132 Interfaces to Other SAP System Components ........................................................................ 137 Standard Interface Settings.................................................................................................. 138

Controlling (CO)

46C

6

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling (CO)
Purpose
Controlling provides you with information for management decision-making. It facilitates coordination, monitoring and optimization of all processes in an organization. This involves recording both the consumption of production factors and the services provided by an organization. As well as documenting actual events, the main task of controlling is planning. You can determine variances [Extern] by comparing actual data with plan data. These variance calculations enable you to control business flows. Income statements such as, contribution margin accounting, are used to control the cost efficiency of individual areas of an organization, as well as the entire organization.

Integration
Controlling (CO) and Financial Accounting (FI) are independent components in the SAP system. The data flow between the two components takes place on a regular basis. Therefore, all data relevant to cost flows automatically to Controlling from Financial Accounting. At the same time, the system assigns the costs and revenues to different CO account assignment objects, such as cost centers, business processes, projects or orders. The relevant accounts in Financial Accounting are managed in Controlling as cost elements [Extern] or revenue elements [Extern]. This enables you to compare and reconcile the values from Controlling and Financial Accounting.

Features
Cost Element Accounting (CO-OM-CEL) Cost and Revenue Element Accounting provides you with an overview of the costs and revenues that occur in an organization. Most of the values are moved automatically from Financial Accounting to Controlling. Cost and Revenue Element Accounting only calculates costs which either do not have another expense or only one expense in Financial Accounting. If needed, reconciliation [Extern] of the values in Financial Accounting and Controlling takes place in Cost and Revenue Element Accounting. For more information, see the SAP Library under Financials → Controlling → Cost Element Accounting [Extern]. Cost Center Accounting (CO-OM-CCA) You use Cost Center Accounting for controlling purposes within your organization. It is useful for a source-related assignment of overhead costs [Extern] to the location in which they occurred. For more information, see the SAP Library under Financials → Controlling → Cost Center Accounting [Extern]. Activity-Based-Accounting (CO-OM-ABC) Activity-Based Costing analyzes cross-departmental business processes. The goals of the whole organization and the optimization of business flows are prioritized. For more information, see the SAP Library under Financials → Controlling → Activity-Based Costing [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

7

SAP Online Help Internal Orders (CO-OM-OPA)

23.05.2005

You use internal orders to collect and control according to the job that incurred them. You can assign budgets for these jobs, which the system monitors, to ensure that they are not exceeded. For more information, see the SAP Library under Financials → Controlling → Internal Orders [Extern]. Product Cost Controlling (CO-PC) Product Cost Controlling calculates the costs that occur during manufacture of a product, or provision of a service. It enables you to calculate the minimum price at which a product can be profitably marketed. For more information, see the SAP Library under Financials → Controlling → Product Cost Controlling [Extern]. Profitability Analysis (CO-PA) Profitability Analysis analyzes the profit or loss of an organization by individual market segments. The system allocates the corresponding costs to the revenues for each market segment. Profitability Analysis provides a basis for decision-making, for example, for price determination, customer selection, conditioning, and for choosing the distribution channel. For more information, see the SAP Library under Financials → Controlling → Profitability Analysis [Extern]. Profit Center Accounting (EC-PCA) Profit Center Accounting evaluates the profit or loss of individual, independent areas within an organization. These areas are responsible for their costs and revenues. Profit Center Accounting is a statistical accounting component in the SAP system. This means that it takes place on a statistical basis at the same time as true accounting. In addition to costs and revenues, you can display key figures, such as, Return on investment, working capital or cash flow on a profit center. For more information, see the SAP Library under Financials → EC-Enterprise Controlling → ECProfit Center Accounting [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

8

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Organization in Controlling
Use
Using the SAP system, you can define each of the organizational units in your organization from the perspective of an SAP application component. In the Financial Accounting (FI) component, you can define the organizational units for accounting in the Controlling (CO) component under controlling aspects. The SAP system has direct links between internal and external accounting. This means that FI and CO organizational units are related.

Integration
You assign organizational units from the Financial Accounting component to the units in the Controlling component. This enables you to transfer postings relevant to cost accounting on to Controlling. The following sections describe the organizational units in other components, which have crosscomponent relationships to units in Controlling. You cannot define these organizational units separately from one another.

Cross-component relationships exist between the following organizational units in internal and external accounting: • • • Company code [Extern] in the Financial Accounting component (FI) Business area [Extern] in the Financial Accounting component (FI) Controlling area [Extern] in the Controlling component (CO)

Controlling (CO)

46C

9

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Company Code
Definition
The smallest organizational unit for which a complete self-contained set of accounts can be drawn up for external reporting. This involves recording all relevant transactions and generating all supporting documents for financial statements, such as balance sheets and profit and loss statements.

Use
You can set up more than one company code for each client [Extern]. This enables you to manage the accounts for more than one independent company at the same time. However, you need to set up at least one company code. A legally independent company is normally only represented by one company code in the SAP system. You can, however, also use a company code to represent an operation that is not independent according to trade law. This is required, for example, if this operation is in another country and must use the corresponding country currency and must meet the local tax requirements. In financial accounting, business transactions are always entered on the company code level and processed further. The costs are also managed on the company code level. By using internal organizational structures, it is possible to divide this up even further. All company-specific specifications are made on the company code level. See also: Assigning Controlling Areas and Company Codes [Seite 14]

Controlling (CO)

46C

10

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling Area
Definition
Organizational unit in an organization that represents a closed system used for cost accounting purposes. A controlling area may contain one or more company codes, which can operate in different currencies, if required. The company codes within a controlling area must all use the same operational chart of accounts. All internal allocation transactions refer only to objects from the same controlling area.

Use
Internal business transactions are portrayed in the controlling area. Primary costs are transferred from external accounting and classified according to managerial accounting perspectives. If the primary costs are direct costs, then they are assigned to cost objects. If they are overhead costs, then they are assigned to cost centers or overhead cost orders. The system then allocates them using internal allocation techniques, according to their source. When you create master data, the system always assigns the Controlling objects to a controlling area and a company code. The level of detail provided by the Controlling component enables you to track specific information for cost monitoring, business decisions and sales control. For example, the Controlling component contains subdivisions such as cost centers and internal orders in addition to accounts. See also: Assigning Controlling Areas and Company Codes [Seite 14] Assigning Controlling Areas and Plants [Seite 17].

Controlling (CO)

46C

11

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Processing Controlling Areas
Use
You make the settings for the controlling area [Extern] to show the structure of your organization from the Controlling aspect.

Prerequisites
Before creating a controlling area, you need to create the company codes and business areas (in FI) that are to be assigned. For more information, see: Organizational Structure of Financial Accounting [Extern].

Process Flow
Define the controlling area and enter the basic data relevant to cost accounting.
...

1. In Customizing, choose Controlling → General Controlling → Organization → Maintain Controlling Area [Extern]. 2. Activate each component in the controlling area (cost centers, order management, profitability analysis, and so on). 3. Store additional control information, such as, which currency the system should use to update the values, and whether it should display variances. 4. Assign one or more company codes to the controlling area. See also: Assigning Controlling Areas and Company Codes [Seite 14] You can also activate individual components in the controlling area, using the IMG for each Controlling component.

Controlling (CO)

46C

12

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Selecting and Displaying Current Controlling Area
Prerequisites
When you call up the first business transaction in Controlling, you need to select a controlling area [Extern].

You cannot execute a transaction for more than one controlling area at the same time. If you are working with multiple sessions [Extern], note that changing the controlling area setting in one session affects all other sessions. It is not possible to work with different controlling areas in different sessions.

Procedure
Enter the required controlling area in the dialog box.
...

1. The system saves this as a user parameter so that you do not need to enter the controlling area again if you call up another transaction.

If you mainly work in one controlling area, you can store a default value as a user parameter: • • • • Choose System → User profile → User parameters. Enter CAC as the parameter ID (for controlling area). Enter the required controlling area as a parameter value in the dialog box. Save your entries.

At the next system logon, the R/3 System automatically sets the specified controlling area. You can display or change the current controlling area from each transaction within Controlling. Choose Extras → Set Controlling area. A dialog box appears displaying the current controlling area, which you can overwrite if required.

Controlling (CO)

46C

13

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Assigning Controlling Areas and Company Codes
Use
The company code [Extern] and controlling area [Extern] organizational units can be combined in a number of ways. Using these combinations you can represent organizations with different structures. • One Controlling Area is Assigned to One Company Code In this example, the financial accounting and cost accounting views of the organization are identical.

Controlling Area

Company Code 0001

Business Area 0001

Business Area 0002

Business Area 0003

Multiple Company Codes Assigned to One Controlling Area This example is Cross-Company Code Cost Accounting. Cost accounting is carried out in multiple company codes in one controlling area. All cost-accounting relevant data is collected in one controlling area and can be used for allocations and evaluations. In this case, the external and internal accounting perspectives differ from each other. For example, this method can be used if the organization contains a number of independent subsidiaries using global managerial accounting. Cross-company code cost accounting gives you the advantage of using internal allocations across company code boundaries.

Controlling (CO)

46C

14

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling Area

Company Code 0001

Company Code 0002

Business Area 0001

Business Area 0002

Business Area 0003

If you assign more than one company code to one controlling area, then you need to note the following: • You need to use a consistent chart of accounts

You need to treat each cost element (in all company codes) in the same way (for example, as a primary cost element, or as an accrual cost element). In Financial Accounting, you can also use country-specific charts of accounts. • • The operative fiscal year variants in the company codes must match the fiscal year variants in the controlling area. You should execute period-end closing in Controlling for all company codes at the same time.

You can only execute period-end closing for a shared controlling area once closing is complete in Financial Accounting. • • If you wish to calculate plan prices automatically, you need to wait until planning is complete. The system only posts reconciliation postings across company codes without tax, which means that it cannot automatically create invoices.

For tax reasons, cost flows (that are cross-company code) in Controlling can only be passed onto Financial Accounting if the company codes form an integrated company with sales tax.

Controlling (CO)

46C

15

SAP Online Help • • • • •

23.05.2005 If you wish to prevent cross-company code postings in Controlling, then you need to create a detailed authorization concept. Retrospectively excluding a company code in another SAP system or client, requires more time and effort than in cost accounting by company code. If you only use one controlling area, you can only use one operating concern. You can only display profit center allocations in a controlling area. You can only use transfer prices within a controlling area.

Activities
...

1. To assign one or more company codes to a controlling area, go to the Implementation Guide (IMG) and choose Controlling → Organization → Maintain Controlling Area [Extern]. 2. To assign company codes to an existing controlling area, select a controlling area. 3. Choose Assign company code(s). 4. Choose New entries. 5. Enter the company code(s) that you want to assign to the selected controlling area.

The company code(s) must be fully maintained before you can assign them to a controlling area. See also: Example: Assigning Controlling Area and Company Code [Extern]

Controlling (CO)

46C

16

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Assignment of Controlling Areas and Plants
Use
Each plant [Extern] is assigned uniquely to a company code. As a company code is always assigned uniquely to a controlling area, you can also easily derive the relationship from the controlling area and plant.

Controlling Area

Company Code 0001 Europe

Company Code 0002 USA

Plant 0001 Hamburg

Plant 0002 Munich

Plant 0003 New York

Controlling (CO)

46C

17

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Business Area
Definition
An organizational unit in external accounting, which corresponds to a separate operational or responsibility area in the organization, and value flows recorded in Financial Accounting can be assigned to it.

Use
The business area should be treated as a separate economic unit, for which you can create an internal balance sheet and a profit and loss statement. The business area is, however, only an internal organizational unit and does not have any external impact. You define business areas if you wish to create a balance sheet and a profit and loss statement for internal areas, in addition to company codes. If you want to create business area balance sheets for internal reporting purposes, you must maintain the business area within Controlling as well. This means that when you create cost center master records you need to specify the business area. CO objects (such as, cost centers and internal orders) aid account assignment, as the business area can be derived from the master data records. When you post primary costs to a cost center, the system determines the business area automatically from the cost center master data. This enables the costs to be assigned to the correct business area. Therefore, you do not need to manually set the business area in the posting document, as the system does this, and thus reduces the number of incorrect assignments to a minimum.

Controlling (CO)

46C

18

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Operating Concern
Definition
An operating concern [Extern] represents an organizational unit in your company for which the sales market has a uniform structure. It is the valuation level for Profitability Analysis (CO-PA).

Structure
You structure an operating concern by selecting • Characteristics [Extern] You should ask yourself at what level your analyses should be performed, such as the sales organization, region, product, or customer level. • and value fields [Extern] (only in costing-based Profitability Analysis) You should ask yourself which values and key figures should be analyzed, such as revenues, sales deductions, costs, or quantities. • as well as G/L accounts (only in account-based Profitability Analysis)

This structure may vary greatly from one company to the next. For example, the structure of total production costs in a manufacturing company differs from that in a wholesale or retail company. Consequently, you need to "model" CO-PA in Customizing by defining the characteristics and value fields that you want to analyze.

(1) Define characteristics

(2) Define value fields

Characteristics
User-defined Delivered by SAP

Quantity/Value Fields
User-defined Delivered by SAP

(3) Create operating concern(s)

Field catalog Customer group Product group ...

OpCn1

OpCn1

The system then generates the necessary database tables for CO-PA transaction data [Extern] and access programs based on how you defined your operating concern. See also:

Controlling (CO)

46C

19

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

For information on the procedure for defining an operating concern, choose Structures → Define Operating Concern [Extern] in Customizing.

Characteristics for Profitability Segments
All the characteristics in the operating concern are used in the line item. However, you can restrict the characteristics for a profitability segment [Extern] that forms the basis for valuation. This is because it is unnecessary and impractical for a profitability segment to use characteristics that are almost always populated and each has a different value. You should deactivate such characteristics when creating a profitability segment. Otherwise the data volume of the profitability segments is too large and hampers system performance. One characteristic that should not be used in profitability segments is the sales order in repetitive manufacturing.

Whether used or not in the profitability segment

Billing document
Header

Characteristics

CE1xxxx line item All characteristics

Sales order Date Customer Division
Item 1

123 25.6.99 1600 007

Sales order Customer Division Product

Customer 1600 Division 007 Product P-100

CE4xxxx object table

Line 10: Product P-100 Line 20: Product P-102
Item 2

You specify in Customizing which characteristics are to belong in which profitability segments. For more information about this function, see Define Profitability Segments Characteristics (Segment-Level Characteristics) [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

20

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Profit Center
Definition
A profit center is an organizational unit in accounting that reflects a management-oriented structure of the organization for the purpose of internal control. You can analyze operating results for profit centers using either the cost-of-sales or the period accounting approach. By calculating the fixed capital as well, you can use your profit centers as investment centers.

Use
Profit Center Accounting at the profit center level is based on costs and revenues. These are assigned statistically by multiple parallel updating to all logistical activities and other allocations of relevance for a profit center. The exchange of goods and services between profit centers can be valuated using the same valuation approach as in financial accounting or another approach (see Multiple Valuation Approaches/Transfer Prices [Extern]).

Structure
The master data of a profit center includes the name of the profit center, the controlling area it is assigned to, and the profit center’s period of validity, as well as information about the person responsible for the profit center, the profit center’s assignment to a node of the standard hierarchy, and data required for communication (address, telephone number and so on). Every profit center is assigned to the organizational unit Controlling area. This assignment is necessary because Profit Center Accounting displays values in G/L accounts. The system transfers all the data to Profit Center Accounting together with the G/L account to which the data was originally posted. You can only aggregate data of this structure by using the same • • • chart of accounts fiscal year variant currency

Time-Based Master Data
Like cost centers, profit centers are valid for a specific time period. This has advantages in that: • • • • No complications arise when a new fiscal year begins. You can enter future changes to the master data in advance.

Profit centers are time-dependent in two ways: First, you can enter a period during which actual or plan data can be posted to the profit center. Second, you can define time-based fields when you customize Profit Center Accounting.

Time-based fields let you change information in the profit center master record, such as the person responsible for the profit center, at a specific point in time without having to create a new profit center and without losing any information about the previous person responsible.

Controlling (CO)

46C

21

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Integration
Enterprise Organization
If you are using the enterprise organization, both profit centers and cost centers form part of it. For further information, see Enterprise Organization [Extern].

The Standard Hierarchy
In order to ensure that your data in Profit Center Accounting is consistent with that in other areas, you must assign each profit center to the Standard Hierarchy [Extern] in your controlling area. The standard hierarchy is used in the information system, allocations and various planning functions. You can also assign your profit centers to alternative hierarchical structures which are completely independent of the standard hierarchy. These structures are called Profit Center Groups [Extern].

Copying Cost Centers
If the profit centers in your organization are closely linked to your cost centers, you can simply copy your cost center master data to create your profit centers. For more information on this function, see the Implementation Guide (IMG) for Profit Center Accounting, under Master data.

Controlling (CO)

46C

22

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Plant
Definition
An organizational unit serving to subdivide an enterprise according to production, procurement, maintenance, and materials planning aspects. It is a place where either materials are produced or goods and services provided.

Use
The preferred shipping point for a plant is defined as the default shipping point, which depends on the shipping condition and the loading condition. For the placement of materials in storage (stock put-away), a storage location is assigned to a plant. The storage location depends on the storage condition and the placement situation. The business area that is responsible for a plant is determined as a function of the division. As a rule, a valuation area corresponds to a plant.

Structure
A plant can assume a variety of roles: • As a maintenance plant, it includes the maintenance objects that are spatially located within this plant. The maintenance tasks that are to be performed are specified within a maintenance planning plant. As a retail or wholesale site, it makes merchandise available for distribution and sale.

A plant can be subdivided into storage locations, allowing stocks of materials to be broken down according to predefined criteria (for example, location and materials planning aspects). A plant can be subdivided into locations and operational areas. Subdivision into locations takes geographical criteria into account, whereas subdivision into operational areas reflects responsibilities for maintenance.

Integration
All data that is valid for a particular plant, as well as for the storage locations belonging to it, is stored at plant level. This includes, for example, MRP data and forecast data.

Controlling (CO)

46C

23

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Currencies
Definition
Legal means of payment in a country.

Use
In external accounting, you assign a company code currency to each company code. You can also specify one or two parallel currencies for a company code, which are recorded in the external accounting documents. Examples of parallel currencies are currencies from other organizational units (group currency [Extern], hard currency [Extern], global company currency [Extern] or index-based currency [Extern]). When you create a controlling area, you specify whether the controlling area currency [Extern] may differ from the company code currency, and which particular currency is to be the controlling area currency. You can use the company code currency or the currency of a different organizational unit recorded as a parallel currency in the company code. You can also use a separate controlling area currency not dependent on the company code currency. Cross-company code cost accounting can therefore be performed for company codes that use values recorded in different currencies. SAP recommends that you specify a consistent parallel currency for the company codes, and use this as the controlling area currency. In this case, postings in Controlling are made that are relevant for Accounting. See also Defining Currencies [Seite 31]

Controlling (CO)

46C

24

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Currencies in Controlling
Use
You can use different currencies in the Controlling component (CO):

Features
The following currencies are valid in Controlling: • Controlling area currency [Extern] The system uses this currency for cost accounting. This currency is set up when you create the controlling area. It is based on the assignment control indicator and the currency type. (see: Specifying Controlling Area Currency [Seite 27] ) • Object currency [Extern] Each object in Controlling, such as cost center or internal order, may use a separate currency specified in its master data. When you create an object in CO, the SAP system defaults the currency of the company code to which the object is assigned as the object currency. You can specify a different object currency only if the controlling area currency is the same as the company code currency. There is an object currency for the sender as well as one for the receiver. • Transaction currency [Extern] Documents in Controlling are posted in the transaction currency. The transaction currency can differ from the controlling area currency and the object currency. The system automatically converts the values to the controlling area currency at the exchange rate specified.

The system always translates actual data with the average rate (exchange rate type M). You store the exchange rate type for each currency. You can specify a different exchange rate type for planning data in the version. All three currencies are saved in the totals records and the line items. This enables you to use the different currencies for evaluations in the information system. This is only possible if you specified that all currencies should be updated for the given controlling area (see: Maintain Controlling Area [Extern]).

The transaction currency is USD, the controlling area currency is EUR, and the object currency is SFR (Swiss francs). The system converts the amounts as follows: 1.) From transaction currency to controlling area currency (USD → EUR) 2.) From controlling area currency to object currency (EUR → SFR) The following additional currencies may also appear as controlling area currencies in Controlling if you use cross-company code cost controlling: Local Currency: Company code currency (country currency) used for local ledgers in external accounting.

Controlling (CO)

46C

25

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

For each company code you can specify one or two parallel currencies (= second and third local currencies) which are stored in the documents and updated parallel to the local currency in the general ledger. Group Currency: Currency in which the group balance sheet is displayed. You can specify it as a parallel currency (additional local currency) for a company code. Hard Currency: Secondary currency for countries with high inflation. You can specify it as a parallel currency (additional local currency) for a company code. You need to specify the hard currency in the detail screen for the corresponding country. Index-Based Currency: Country-specific, fictitious currency stipulated in certain countries with high inflation for tax returns. You can specify it as a parallel currency (additional local currency) for a company code. You need to specify the index-based currency in the detail screen for the corresponding country. Global Company Currency: Currency used in a corporate group. In the CO application component you can create companies to represent divisions, regions, or product groups. You can specify it as a parallel currency (additional local currency) for a company code. You need to store the global company currency in the detail screen for the corresponding company. For more information on defining parallel currencies, see Customizing under Financial Accounting → FI Global Settings → Company Code → Parallel Currencies → Defining additional local currencies [Extern]. See also: Examples: Currencies in Controlling [Extern]

Controlling (CO)

46C

26

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Specifying the Controlling Area Currency
Use
You use the controlling area currency [Extern] for cost accounting. You specify the controlling area currency when defining the controlling area [Extern] in Customizing for Controlling. You can assign more than one company code [Extern] with varying currencies to a controlling area. The system can derive the controlling area currency automatically from the company code currencies or currencies of other organizational units. Or you can specify the controlling area currency yourself.

A German corporation has subsidiaries in Switzerland and the USA. The Swiss subsidiary uses the SFr (Swiss francs) currency for cost accounting purposes in its own company code. The American subsidiary uses USD. The corporation executes its cost controlling on a global basis in EUR.

Prerequisites
The controlling area currency depends on: • • The assignment of company code and controlling area The currency type [Extern] in the controlling area. You can specify the assignment control [Extern] indicator, and the currency type in Customizing, under: Defining the Controlling Area [Extern]. If you choose the assignment of the controlling area at the same time as the company code, then you assign one company code to a controlling area. In this case, the controlling area currency corresponds to the company code currency. If you choose the assignment of Cross Company Code Accounting, then you can: • • Assign more than one company code to the controlling area, or Specify a controlling area currency different from the company code currency. The currency type then determines the controlling area currency.

If you use a controlling area currency, which differs from the company code currency, the system automatically records the company code currency as the object currency [Extern] for the CO objects. For example, when creating a cost center, the currency of the company code to which the cost center is assigned is automatically defaulted as the object currency.

Features
Controlling Area Currency Control Company Code-CO Area Assignment Controlling area / company code Cross-company code cost Currency type Controlling Area Currency 10 10 Use company code currency Use company code currency

Controlling (CO)

46C

27

SAP Online Help accounting Cross-company code cost accounting Cross-company code cost accounting Cross-company code cost accounting Cross-company code cost accounting Cross-company code cost accounting 20 30 40 50 60 Independent controlling area currency

23.05.2005

Group currency [Extern] transfer. Hard currency [Extern] transfer. Index-based currency [Extern] transfer. Global company currency [Extern] transfer.

Use Company Code Currency (Currency Type 10) You can transfer the company code currency to the controlling area. If you assign more than one company code to the controlling area, all company codes must use the same currency. In this case any object currency can be used.

A German company owns a subsidiary in Mexico. The company code currency is MXP (Mexican pesos). The controlling area should be managed in the same way as the company code. This means that the controlling area currency is also Mexican pesos and you can define the object currency for CO objects as you wish.

Different subsidiaries of a German corporation produce balance sheets for two company codes in EUR. Joint cost controlling is executed for both subsidiaries. Use currency type 10 to specify that the company code currency is the same as the controlling area currency. Use Group Currency (Currency Type 30) You can use the company code currency for the controlling area if: • • The assigned company code uses the group currency as a parallel currency, and The group currency is stored in the corresponding clients [Extern]. If more than one company code is assigned to the controlling area, all these company codes must use the same group currency as a parallel currency.

A German company owns a subsidiary in Mexico. The company code currency is MXP. The group currency EUR was defined and stored in the corresponding client, for external accounting. You can specify the group currency as the controlling area currency. In this case the company code currency MXP is the object currency.

A German corporation owns subsidiaries in Mexico and USA. The company code currencies are MXP and USD. The group currency EURO is the parallel currency for both company codes. You can therefore use the group currency EURO as the

Controlling (CO)

46C

28

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

controlling area currency. The Controlling objects in the Mexican subsidiary must use MXP and the objects in the American subsidiary USD. Using Hard Currency (Currency Type 40) You can use the hard currency for the controlling area if: • • The assigned company code uses the hard currency as a parallel currency, and The hard currency is stored for the country that it is to be used for. If more than one company code is assigned to the controlling area, all company codes must use the same hard currency as a parallel currency. The company codes must be in the same country, or the countries where the subsidiaries are located must all use the same hard currency.

A German company owns a subsidiary in Mexico. The company code currency is MXP. USD is specified as the hard currency for external accounting and is stored for Mexico. The hard currency can be used as the controlling area currency. In this case the company code currency MXP is the object currency. Using Index-Based Currency (Currency Type 50) You can use the index-based currency for the controlling area if: • • The assigned company code uses the index-based currency as a parallel currency, and The index-based currency is stored for the land that it is to be used for. If more than one company code is assigned to the controlling area, these company codes must use the same index-based currency as a parallel currency. The company codes must all be in the same country, or the countries where their subsidiaries are located must all use the same index-based currency. Using Global Company Currency (Currency Type 60) You can use the global company currency for the controlling area if: • • The assigned company code uses the global company currency as a parallel currency, and The global company currency is stored for the land that it is to be used for. If more than one company code is assigned to the controlling area, these company codes must use the same global company currency as a parallel currency. The company codes must all belong to the same company, or the companies must be managed in the same hard currency. Other Controlling Area Currency (Currency Type 20) You can choose any of the currencies for the controlling area, from the currencies that you defined in Customizing.

A German corporation owns subsidiaries in Mexico and USA. The company code currencies are MXP and USD. The hard currency USD is specified as a parallel currency for the company code in Mexico. USD can be chosen as the controlling area currency. The CO objects in the Mexican subsidiary must be recorded in the object currency MXP, and the CO objects in the American subsidiary must be recorded in the object currency USD.

Controlling (CO)

46C

29

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

By using the controlling area currency from the currencies of other organizational entities, you ensure that postings within Controlling appear in currencies relevant to external accounting. This is not the case if you specify any controlling area currency.

You can specify the assignment control and currency type indicators if • • You redefine the controlling area, or You have not yet assigned any productive company codes to it.

Once an assigned company code is productive, the currency type cannot be changed.

Controlling (CO)

46C

30

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Defining Currencies
Purpose
In the SAP system you can post in different currencies.

Prerequisites
You define the currencies allowed in the system and the exchange rates in Customizing under General Settings → Currencies [Extern]. In Financial Accounting, you need to define a company code currency for each company code. You can also define one or two parallel currencies for each company code. These settings also affect Controlling. You must define a controlling area currency [Extern] for each controlling area. You make these settings in Customizing for Controlling under General Controlling → Organization → Maintain Controlling Area [Extern]. The system can derive the controlling area currency from the company code [Extern] currency or from the currencies of other organizational units. Or you can specify the controlling area currency yourself.

Process Flow
The system requires these definitions to check whether an entered currency is allowed and to translate the currencies during posting. • Define a currency key with long text and short text for each currency. In Customizing, choose General Settings → Currencies → Check currency codes [Extern]. For more information, see the SAP Library under Financials → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable or Accounts Receivable → Posting → Posting Documents in a Foreign Currency [Extern] Define the number of decimal places for each currency, if you do not want the currency displayed in the standard format. In Customizing, choose General Settings → Currencies → Setting decimal places for currencies [Extern]. For more information, see the SAP Library under AC Financials → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable or Accounts Receivable → Posting → Posting Documents in a Foreign Currency [Extern] • Store the required exchange rate types [Extern]. Exchange rate types enable you to record different exchange rates valid on the same date for different purposes. The system uses exchange rate type M (= average exchange rate) for postings. You can define other exchange rate types for different planning scenarios using different exchange rates, for example. To define exchange rate types for currency translation, see Customizing, under General Settings → Currencies → Check Exchange Rate Types [Extern]. • For each exchange rate type you enter a basic currency to be used for the currency translation. You would then no longer need to maintain translation factors and exchange rates between the currencies, but only in relation to the basic currency.

Controlling (CO)

46C

31

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

For more information, see the SAP Library, under Financials → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable or Accounts Receivable → FI - General Topics → Organizational Units and Basic Settings → Currencies → Exchange Rates → Exchange Rate Types. [Extern] • Enter translation ratios (for currency translation) in pairs for the required currencies, and for each exchange rate type. In Customizing, choose General Settings → Currencies → Defining translation ratios for currency translation [Extern]. The translation ratios (such as 1:1 or 1000:1) form the basis of the exchange rates and simplify their display if there is a large difference in the currency units.

If you have established a basic currency for the exchange rate type, you only need to specify the translation ratios in relation to the basic currency. For more information, see the SAP Library, under Financials → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable or Accounts Receivable → FI General Topics → Foreign Currencies → Exchange Rates → Exchange Rates → Definition of Exchange Rates [Extern] • Specify exchange rates in pairs for the required currencies, and for each exchange rate type. In Customizing, choose General Settings → Currencies → Enter exchange rates [Extern]. Exchange rates are period-dependent and valid from the date entered. You can maintain the exchange rates at regular intervals according to your own requirements.

If you have established a basic currency for the exchange rate type, you only need to specify the translation ratios in relation to the basic currency. For more information, see the SAP Library, under Financials → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable or Accounts Receivable → FI General Topics → Foreign Currencies → Exchange Rates → Exchange Rates → Definition of Exchange Rates [Extern] See also: The SAP Library under Financials → Financial Accounting → Accounts Payable or Accounts Receivable → FI General Topics → Foreign Currencies → Parallel Currencies [Extern] Foreign Currencies: Overview [Extern]

Controlling (CO)

46C

32

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Number Ranges
Definition
Area in which numbers are assigned that refer to business objects of the same type. Examples of objects: • • • • • Business partners G/L accounts Orders Posting documents Materials

One or more number range intervals are specified for each number range, as well as the type of number assignment. There are two types of number assignment: • Internal When saving a data record, the SAP System assigns a sequential number that lies within the corresponding number range interval. • External When saving a data record, either you or an external system assigns a number. You need to ensure that the number lies within the corresponding number range interval.

→ Organization → Maintaining Number Ranges for CO Documents [Extern].

You maintain number ranges in Customizing, under Controlling: General

Use
The system generates a document number for each business transaction. Business transactions are classified according to CO transactions.

The business transaction Direct Internal Activity Allocation belongs to the Controlling transaction Actual Activity Allocation. This means that you must assign each transaction to a number range interval. You can also define several business transactions in one number range interval. The R/3 System provides numerous transactions for each controlling area in the Controlling component.

Controlling (CO)

46C

33

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling (CO)

46C

34

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Defining Number Ranges
Purpose
The SAP system creates a numbered document for each posting in Controlling. The document numbers are unique in every controlling area [Extern] as each number is only used once.

Prerequisites
You define number ranges in Customizing under Controlling: General → Organization → Maintain Number Ranges for CO Documents [Extern]. You can: • • • • Create business transaction groups [Extern] Assign business transactions [Extern] to business transaction groups Maintain number range intervals [Extern] for individual business transaction groups Maintain number range intervals and number range statuses in the controlling area

Process Flow
You define number ranges [Seite 33] in two steps:
...

1. You create individual business transaction groups [Extern] for each controlling area. You can, for example, group all planning transactions into a business transaction group and then assign it to a number range interval. You can also create a business transaction group for each business transaction if you require a greater level of detail for the number assignment. If this is the case, you make assignments to the number range on the business transaction level. 2. Assign the business transaction groups to number range intervals [Extern]. This enables you to combine similar or related business transactions into one number range.

If all planning transactions are grouped together, the system processes all the business transactions connected with planning in one number range.

The SAP system includes standard default assignments of business transactions to number ranges for controlling area 0001. You can copy these assignments to other controlling areas if you wish. You then only need to maintain the number ranges if you require other assignments or other number range groups.

Controlling (CO)

46C

35

SAP Online Help The following graphic illustrates the steps required for defining number ranges.
CO Document No. Ranges

23.05.2005

CO Document Number Ranges Controlling Area:

Maintain Groups

Change Intervals

Change Status

Maintain No. Range Grps
Number Range Object Controlling Area Grouping Planning RKP1 RKP2 : Primary Postings COIN :

Maint. No. Range intervals
Number Range Object Controlling Area

Intervals
From Number Number Status To Number Ext

Insert Group

Maintain Intervals

Assign Elements to Group

Iinsert Group

Maintain Number Range IIntervals Select group with "X" Number Range Object Controlling Area Group Intervals From Number

Text New Interval From Number

To Number

Mark Element Execute "Assign Element To Group" funtion.

Number Status Ext To Number

Number Range Ext

Controlling (CO)

46C

36

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Business Transactions in Controlling
Use
Each component in Controlling uses specific business transactions [Extern]. When activating a CO component (you can do this successively), you must make sure that all business transactions used by the component have been assigned to number ranges. Otherwise you will not be able to call up the business transactions in the System. The OKC1 transaction enables you to display all CO business transactions.

You define number ranges for each controlling area. The sample client 000 contains defaults for number ranges. You combine transactions into transaction groups. Create the plan and actual transactions in separate transaction groups (see also: Defining Number Ranges [Seite 35]).

Features
Business transactions, planning
The business transactions for planning are split up as follows: Period-Based Business transaction CPPP FIPA JVPL KAZP KOAP KPPB KSP0 KSPB KZPP KZRP PAPL RKPB RKPL RKPP RKPQ RKPS Name ABC Process Assessment: Plan Automatic Payment Schedule JV Planning Data Document Plan Cost Center Accrual Plan Settlement Standard Cost Estimate Plan Splitting Plan assessment to PA Plan: Periodic overhead Plan Interest Calculation Plan Sales/Profit Plan Periodic Reposting Plan Indirect Activity Allocation Primary Planning with Template Manual Cost Planning Secondary Planning with Template

Controlling (CO)

46C

37

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

RKPU RKPV

Plan Overhead Cost Assessment Plan Overhead Cost Distribution

Business Transaction-Based RKP1 RKP2 RKP3 RKP4 RKP5 RKP6 RKP7 RKP8 RKP9 RKPW RKPX RKPZ Planning Primary Costs Planning Activities Plan Secondary Costs Planning Statistical Key Figures Planning Revenue Elements Planning Activity-Dependent Primary Costs Planning Activity-Dependent Secondary Costs Planning Settlement Costs Planning Activity-Dependent Settlement Costs Secondary order cost planning Activity-dependent secondary order cost planning Planning overhead credits

Business transactions, actual postings
The business transactions for actual postings can be classified as follows: Period-Based Transactions Business transaction COIN CPPA JVIU JVIV JVU1 KAMV KAZI KAZO KGPD KOAO KPIV KSI0 KSII KSOP KSPA Name CO through-posting from Financial Accounting ABC Actual Process Assessment JV Actual assessment JV Actual Distribution JV Reposting Costs Manual Cost Allocation Actual Cost Center Accrual Down payments Distribution according to peg Actual Settlement Actual Distribution to Cost Objects Actual Split Costs Actual Price Calculation Primary Target Cost Calculation Assessment to CO-PA

Controlling (CO)

46C

38

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

KVAR KZPI KZRI RKIB RKIL RKIU RKIV RRIB RRIU RRIV

Variance Calculation Actual Periodic Overhead Actual Interest Calculation Actual Periodic Reposting Actual Indirect Activity Allocation Actual Overhead Assessment Actual Overhead Distribution Segment Adjustment: Actual Periodic Reposting Segment Adjustment: Actual Assessment Segment Adjustment: Actual Distribution

Business Transaction-Based RKU1 RKU2 RKU3 RKL RKN RKLT RKLX RKS Repost Costs Repost Revenues Repost CO Line Items Actual Activity Allocation Actual Non-Allocable Activities Actual Process Allocation Predistribution of Fixed Costs Enter Statistical Key Figures

Other Business Transactions
The remaining business transactions cannot be classified as plan or actual transactions: Other Business Transactions Business transaction KABG KABM KAFM KAUS KEKB KEKZ KFPI KFPP KPPZ KSOS KSWP Name Automatic Accrual Calculation Manual Accrual Calculation Payment Data Calculate Scrap Unit Costing Unit Costing (Overhead) Fixed Price Allocation Fixed Price Agreement Standard Costing (Overhead) Secondary Target Cost Calculation Primary Target Cost Calculation (WIP)

Controlling (CO)

46C

39

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

KSWS

Secondary Target Cost Calculation (WIP)

Controlling (CO)

46C

40

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Chart of Accounts
Definition
An organizational structure, defined using accounting principles, that records values and value flows for orderly account management.

Use
The operational chart of accounts is used by financial accounting and cost accounting. The items in a chart of accounts can be expense or revenue accounts in FI and cost or revenue elements in cost accounting.

Integration
You need to assign each company code [Extern] to a chart of accounts. In addition, you may assign each company code to a country-specific chart of accounts. The chart of accounts and country-specific chart of accounts are linked using alternating account numbers. The accounts from internal and external accounting are managed in an integrated accounting system [Extern]. Therefore, when creating a controlling area [Extern], the charts of accounts used by the corresponding company code must be respected. The controlling area adopts the chart of accounts belonging to the company code assigned. In cross-company code cost accounting the controlling area and all company codes assigned to it must use the same chart of accounts. Nevertheless, you can also use a country-specific chart of accounts to apply the country-specific accounting requirements while using consistent cost accounting.

You assign a company code to the controlling area. The company code uses the INT chart of accounts (International Chart of Accounts). The controlling area also uses the INT chart of accounts.

Your organization has subsidiaries in France and Italy which produce balance sheets in different company codes. Uniform managerial accounting is to be performed for the entire enterprise. In order to comply with the accounting regulations of each country, the company codes are assigned to different country charts of accounts. In addition, you also define a uniform worldwide chart of accounts for internal accounting to which you assign the company codes and the controlling area. For more information on the chart of accounts, see the SAP Library under FI Financial Accounting → G/L Accounting → General Ledger Account Master Data → Chart of Accounts List [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

41

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Fiscal Year Variants
Definition
The fiscal year variant contains the number of posting periods in the fiscal year and the number of special periods. You can define a maximum of 16 posting periods for each fiscal year in the Controlling component (CO). To define the fiscal year variant, go to Customizing for Financial Accounting (FI), Financial Accounting Global Settings → Fiscal Year → Maintain Fiscal Year Variant [Extern].

Integration
You need to specify the fiscal year variant for each company code. When you create a controlling area, you also need to specify the fiscal year variant. The fiscal year variants of the company code and controlling area may only differ in the number of special periods used. You need to ensure that the fiscal year variants match, in other words, they may not have a time conflict.

You can assign a company code using a fiscal year variant with 12 posting periods and four special periods to a controlling area that has a fiscal year variant with 12 posting periods and one special period. The time frame, for example, from April 1 to March 31 in the following year, must be identical in each fiscal year variant. However, it cannot be assigned to a controlling area with 52 posting periods for example. For more information on fiscal year variants, see the SAP Library under AC Financials → FI Financial Accounting → FI General Ledger Accounting(FI GL) → FI - Closing and Reporting in Posting Periods and Fiscal Years [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

42

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling Methods
The different methods used in Controlling are listed below.

Controlling (CO)

46C

43

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Authorizations
Use
You can create Authorizations [Extern], which enable you to specify which actions individual users are allowed to execute in the SAP System. SAP provides standard authorization objects [Extern] that allow you to define authorizations. An authorization object consists of individual fields, the content of which determines whether you may execute a given activity. You use the default authorization objects to define authorizations. Authorizations that cover a differentiated set of tasks can be grouped together into an authorization profile. You can then group the individual profiles into composite profiles [Extern]. You enter the profile or composite profile into your user master record.

Activities
If you want to execute an activity in the system, it uses the values you entered in the authorization fields to establish whether you are authorized to do so.

This section only deals with the most important aspects of issuing authorizations in CO-OM areas of responsibility. You define authorizations in customizing (IMG) for the relevant component in Overhead Cost Controlling. To do so, go to Customizing under Controlling → • • • Cost Center Accounting → Authorizations Management → Maintain Authorizations and Profiles [Extern] Cost Element Accounting → Define Authorizations and Profiles [Extern] Internal Orders → Maintain Authorizations [Extern]

There is also information on maintaining authorizations and profiles. For information on the SAP system authorization concept, see the SAP Library, under Basis Components → Computing Center Management System → BC Users and Roles [Extern]

Controlling (CO)

46C

44

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Authorizations for CO-OM Areas of Responsibility
Use
In Cost Center Accounting and internal orders, you can issue authorizations not only for individual cost centers, but also for CO-OM responsibility areas [Extern]. A CO-OM area of responsibility consists of one or more cost centers, or one or more nodes of the standard hierarchy for Cost Center Accounting. If you issue authorization for a node in the standard hierarchy [Extern] for Cost Center Accounting, this authorization [Extern] is valid for all lower-level nodes and cost centers. You do not need to issue separate authorizations for nodes and individual cost centers. If you issue authorization for nodes of alternative cost center hierarchies, this authorization is valid only for the name of the node. For example, you can use this authorization in a summarization report to display totals for all cost centers beneath the node. The authorization concept enables you to easily issue detailed and general authorizations. Enhancements for Internal Orders: A CO-OM area of responsibility can also consist of one or more orders for internal orders. The orders are assigned to the standard hierarchy for Cost Center Accounting using the responsible cost center. If you issue authorization for one node of the standard hierarchy for Cost Center Accounting, this is also valid for all the orders assigned to the given cost center. Where orders do not have a responsible cost center, the CO-OM responsibility area only consists of the order itself. No other CO-OM responsibility area can be assigned at a level above this responsibility area.

Controlling (CO)

46C

45

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

S01000 BSP Inc.

S01100 Management

1100 Management

S02000 Logistics

S03000 Admin.

S04000 Production

S02 200 Power

S02 300 Buildings

S04 100 Services

S04 200 Prod. A

2210 Electricity

2310 Admin. Building 2320 Warehouse 2330 Production Building

3100 General Admin. 3200 HR

3100 General Admin. 3200 HR

4110 Fitter

4210 HFI

2220 Water

4120 Electrician

4220 HFII

2230 Gas

3300 Sales

3300 Sales

4130 Painter

40098 Order

Area of responsibility for node S02200 Area of responsibility for cost center 2330 Area of responsibility for node S03000 Area of responsibility for order 40098

10011 Order

Features
For a CO-OM area of responsibility, you can issue authorizations for maintaining cost center master data, manual cost center planning, and for cost center reports. For example, you can authorize the person responsible for a cost center to plan cost centers in their CO-OM area of responsibility, or to display reports for these cost centers.

You cannot issue authorizations for one CO-OM responsibility area for allocations in planning and for actual postings.

Activities
During each authorization check, the R/3 System checks whether you are authorized to execute the given action for the cost center, or for the nodes in the standard hierarchy for Cost Center Accounting. If you do not have this authorization, the system checks the authorizations within the standard hierarchy for each of the higher-level nodes. If the R/3 System finds such a node, you

Controlling (CO)

46C

46

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

have authorization for all of the lower-level nodes and cost centers. If the R/3 System does not find such a node, right up to the top node of the hierarchy, you cannot execute out the action. The R/3 System only checks the authorization for the node itself in other hierarchies. If you do not have this authorization, you cannot execute the activity. Enhancements for Internal Orders: For internal orders, the system first checks whether you are authorized to execute the given action for the order. If you do not have this authorization, the SAP system does not make any additional checks for orders without a responsible cost center. For orders with responsible cost centers, the SAP system checks whether you have authorization for the CO-OM responsibility area of the responsible cost center. If you do not have this authorization, the SAP system continues to check within the standard hierarchy for Cost Center Accounting, but using the authorization objects for internal orders. See also: General Authorization Objects for Cost Center Accounting [Seite 48] General Authorization Objects for Internal Orders [Seite 49]

Controlling (CO)

46C

47

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

General Authorization Object for CCA
Definition
The general authorization object [Extern] for Cost Center Accounting (K_CCA), allows you to issue authorizations for CO-OM responsibility areas [Extern] within Cost Center Accounting (COOM-CCA).

Use
This authorization object lets you issue authorizations within a CO-OM responsibility area of Cost Center Accounting for actions, such as, maintaining cost center master data, manual cost center planning, or for actions in the information system. You can issue each of the authorizations for one CO-OM responsibility area.

Structure
The authorization object consists of the following fields: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Actions for the CO-OM authorization check Cost element CO-OM responsibility area for authorizations

You can protect one or more of the following actions: 0001: Create master data 0002: Change master data 0003: Display master data 0006: Delete master data 0008: Display change documents 1002: Create/change planning data 1003: Display planning data 3027: Select totals records 3028: Select line items 3029: Display extracts

If required, you can use authorization object K_CCA as well as the other authorization objects for Cost Center Accounting.

Controlling (CO)

46C

48

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

General Authorization Object for Internal Orders
Definition
The general authorization object [Extern] for Internal Orders (K_ORDER), allows you to issue authorizations for CO-OM responsibility areas [Extern] in the Internal Orders component CO-OMOPA.

Use
This authorization object lets you issue authorizations for the following actions within a CO-OM responsibility area for Internal Orders: • • • • Maintain order master data Manual order planning Budget orders Actions in the information system

You can issue each of the authorizations for one CO-OM responsibility area. If the order has a responsible cost center, the CO-OM responsibility area can be the order, the responsible cost center or a node of the standard hierarchy for Cost Center Accounting. If the order does not have a responsible cost center, the CO-OM responsibility area covers only the order itself.

Structure
The authorization object consists of the following fields: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Actions for the CO-OM authorization check Order type Internal order authorization: Authorization phase Cost element CO-OM responsibility area for authorizations

You can protect one or more of the following actions: 0001: Create master data 0002: Change master data 0003: Display master data 0008: Display change documents 0011: Release 0012: Undo release 0013: Complete technically 0014: Close 0015: Lock 0016: Unlock 0017: Set deletion flag

Controlling (CO)

46C

49

SAP Online Help • • • • • • • • • • • • 0018: Undo deletion flag 0019: Set deletion indicator 0020: Change user status 0030: Maintain settlement rule 0031: Maintain settlement parameters 1002: Create/change planning data 1003: Display planning data 1502: Change budget 1503: Display budget 3027: Select totals records 3028: Select line items 3029: Display extracts

23.05.2005

If required, you can use authorization object K_ORDER as well as the other authorization objects for Internal Orders. For more information, see the system documentation for authorization object K_ORDER.

Controlling (CO)

46C

50

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Authorizations for Hierarchy Areas in Activity-Based Costing
Use
In the Activity-Based Costing component (CO-OM-ABC), you can issue authorizations [Extern] for hierarchy areas [Extern], as well as for individual business processes. A hierarchy area comprises one or more business processes, or one or more nodes of the standard hierarchy for Activity-Based Costing. If you issue authorization for a node in the ABC standard hierarchy, this authorization applies to all the nodes and business processes below this node. You do not need to issue separate authorization for nodes and individual business processes. The authorization concept enables you to easily issue detailed and general authorizations.

You can only issue authorizations for standard hierarchy nodes in Activity-Based Costing, not for nodes of alternative cost center hierarchies.

Features
For each hierarchy area you can issue authorizations for maintaining business process master data, manual business process planning, maintaining templates and displaying change documents. For example, you can issue the person responsible for a business process with the authorization to plan business processes in their CO-OM responsibility area or to display change documents through these business processes.

You cannot issue authorizations for one CO-OM responsibility area for allocations in planning and for actual postings.

Activities
During each authorization check, the R/3 System first checks whether you are authorized to execute the given action for the business process or nodes in the standard hierarchy for ActivityBased Costing. If you do not have this authorization, the system checks the authorizations within the standard hierarchy for each of the higher-level nodes. If the R/3 System locates this kind of node, you have authorization for all of the lower-level nodes and business processes. If the R/3 System does not find this kind of node, right up to the top node of the hierarchy, you cannot execute the action. See also: General Authorization Objects for Business Processes [Seite 53]

Controlling (CO)

46C

51

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling (CO)

46C

52

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

General Authorization Object for Business Processes
Definition
The general authorization object [Extern] for business processes (K_ABC) allows you to issue authorizations for individual hierarchy areas within Activity-Based Costing.

Use
This authorization object enables you to issue authorizations within a hierarchy area of ActivityBased Costing for activities, such as, maintaining business process master data, manual business process planning, maintaining process templates or for activities in the information system.

Structure
The authorization object consists of the following fields: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Actions for the CO-OM authorization check

You can protect one or more of the following actions: Authorization area for authorizations 0001: Create master data 0002: Change master data 0003: Display master data 0006: Delete master data 0008: Display change documents 0047: Activate inactive master data 1002: Create/change planning data 1003: Display planning data 3027: Select totals records 3028: Select line items 3029: Display extracts

If required, you can use authorization object K_ABC, as well as the other authorization objects for business processes.

Controlling (CO)

46C

53

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Account Assignment of Controlling Objects
Use
For postings in external accounting that use a cost element [Extern] as the account [Extern], you need to use a special account assignment logic. This enables the SAP system to ensure that data is reconcilable with all the relevant application components. These rules for the account assignment logic always apply for postings in internal accounting (Controlling). Account assignment distinguishes between true and statistical Controlling objects. True Controlling Objects • • • • • • • • • Cost centers [Extern] (for account assignment of costs) Orders [Extern] (true) Projects [Extern] (true) Networks [Extern] Make-to-order sales orders [Extern] Cost objects [Extern] Profitability segments [Extern] Real estate objects [Extern] Business Processes [Extern]

You can use true Controlling objects as senders or receivers. Statistical Controlling Objects • • • • • Cost centers (for account assignment of revenues) Cost centers, if a true account assignment object already exists Statistical internal orders Statistical projects Profit centers [Extern]

You can indicate internal orders and projects in each master record as statistical. You can also specify Statistical Controlling objects as account assignment objects in addition to true Controlling objects. You cannot allocate costs on statistical Controlling objects to other objects. Account assignments are for information purposes only. You can make statistical assignments to any number of Controlling objects.

Features
Note the following rules for account assignments: • You need to specify a true Controlling object in each posting row You cannot assign to a statistical project without specifying a true Controlling object.

Controlling (CO)

46C

54

SAP Online Help •

23.05.2005

In each posting row, you can specify up to three more statistical Controlling objects, as well as the true Controlling object. You can make a true assignment of costs to a cost center and to a statistical order and a statistical project.

You cannot assign to more than Controlling object of the same type in one posting row. You cannot make a posting to a true order and a true project.

The only exception to this rule is that you can assign to a cost center and one other true Controlling object. In this case, the posting is true for the additional Controlling object and statistical for the cost center. • You cannot specify the same Controlling object as being true and statistical in the same posting row. You cannot post to an order and a statistical order in the same posting row. • You can only make postings to profit centers in addition to true Controlling objects. This means that costs and revenues are only posted statistically to profit centers. Profit centers are derived from true Controlling objects. When you enter a profit center, this must match up with the profit center that is assigned from the Controlling object. • • You need to create P&L accounts as a cost element if you wish to post to them and a Controlling object. You can make true revenue postings to the following: A profitability segment A make-to-order sales order A project with revenues An order with revenues A real estate object • You can only post revenues statistically to cost centers and profit centers. If you specify a cost center or a profit center for a revenue posting, the system treats the object as a statistical Controlling object. This means that you must also specify a true Controlling object to which the revenues are posted. The SAP system can automatically derive such an object if account-based Profitability Analysis is not active. The system logs the posting under the “Reconciliation object” object type. The reconciliation object is a summarized profitability segment with the characteristics “Company code”, “Business area”, “Plant”, and “Profit center”. The system also updates a reconciliation object by cost element for postings to a profitability segment with costing-based Profitability Analysis. The system does not post to reconciliation objects if you specify an additional Controlling object on which true revenue postings can be made.

If you use account-based Profitability Analysis, you cannot assign revenue postings only to cost centers or profit centers. In this case, you need to save a fixed account assignment for each revenue type during automatic account assignment. For more

Controlling (CO)

46C

55

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

information, see the Implementation Guide (IMG) for Cost Center Accounting under Actual Postings → Manual Actual Postings → Maintaining automatic account assignments [Extern]. See also: Examples: Account Assignment Logic [Seite 57]

Controlling (CO)

46C

56

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Examples: Account Assignment Logic
The following examples illustrate the account assignment logic for Controlling objects:
Entry 1. Costs: Stat. Order 100.00 40010 Extension of Acct Assignment Objects Costs: 100.00 Stat. Order 40010 Cost Center 2330 Profit Center P100 Posting True Cost Center Statistical Order Profit Center

2. Costs: 100.00 Cost Center 2330 Order 40020 Costs: Cost Center Order Profit Center 100.00 2330 40020 P100 Order Cost Center Profit Center

3. Revenue: Cost Center 200.00 2330 Revenue: 200.00 Cost Center 2330 Reconcil. Obj. X Profit Center P100 Prof. Segm. Cost Center Profit Center

...

1. You enter costs of 100 USD for statistical order 40010. The order also stores the posting to cost center 2330. Cost center 2330 is assigned to profit center P100. Because this is a statistical order, the cost center is the true account assignment object for this posting. The system also posts the costs statistically to the order and to the profit center. 2. The system records costs of 100 USD on cost center 2330 and on the order 40020. Cost center 2330 is assigned to profit center P100. Orders and cost centers are true Controlling objects. The system therefore posts the costs as true costs to the order and as statistical costs to the cost center. In addition, the system posts the costs statistically to the profit center. 3. You enter revenues of 200 USD on cost center 2330. Cost center 2330 is assigned to profit center P100. As you cannot make true revenue postings to a cost center, the SAP system derives a summarized reconciliation object as the true account assignment object. The system also makes a statistical posting of the costs to the cost center, and to the profit center.

Controlling (CO)

46C

57

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Period Lock
Use
Use the period lock to lock plan and actual business transactions for a combination of controlling area, fiscal year, and version.

Activities
To maintain the period lock for the corresponding Controlling component, go to the menu in Cost Element Accounting, Cost Center Accounting, Cost Object Accounting, internal orders, or ActivityBased Costing and choose Environment → Period lock → Change. You can use Actual and Plan to decide whether to lock periods in actual or plan data. You receive a list of all business transactions in actual or in planning data, with which you can lock individual transactions for specific periods. Choose Lock transaction or Unlock transaction for individual transactions in all periods of the fiscal year. You can use Lock periods or Unlock periods to lock or unlock all business transactions for individual periods.

Save your entries before exiting the processing screen.

Controlling (CO)

46C

58

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Requesting an Adjustment Posting from the Intranet (AC)
Purpose
You can request an adjustment posting from the Intranet. You do not have to know the name of the processor, since the system automatically determines it. The request is transferred to the SAP R/3 System and can be processed there with the functions of the message processing. You can call up the request form • • • • • From the employee Workplace [Extern] launchpad From line item reports [Extern] in Controlling (CO) From line items for vendor/customer [Extern] and G/L accounts [Extern] From the general document display in Controlling [Extern] (CO) From the general document display in Financial Accounting [Extern] (FI)

You can call up the reports and the document display from the workplace as well as in the SAP R/3 System.

Prerequisites
• You have defined the process for requesting an adjustment posting in a scenario and have entered the name of the processor in the SAP System. To do so, in Customizing choose Cross-Application Components → Internet/Intranet Services → Internal Service Request → Definition of Scenarios with Specific Customizing → Request for an Adjustment Posting → Define Own Scenarios For The Request For An Adjustment Posting [Extern]. • You have specified from which applications (such as document display, CO line item report) the request form for adjustment postings can be accessed. To do so, in Customizing choose Cross-Application Components → Internet/Intranet Services → Internal Service Request → Definition of Scenarios with Specific Customizing → Request for an Adjustment Posting → Assign Own Scenarios For The Request For An Adjustment Posting [Extern]. • You have set up the corresponding posting transactions for the adjustment postings. To do so, choose Cross-Application Components → Internet/Intranet Services → Internal Service Request → Definition of Scenarios with Specific Customizing → Request for an Adjustment Posting → Assign Adjustment Postings To The Scenarios [Extern].

Process Flow
...

1. You call up the request form for an adjustment posting.
...

a. To call up the form from the Employee Workplace launchpad, choose Create internal service request. b. To call up the form in the SAP System, choose Extras → Correction request. The system transfers the data of the incorrect posting.

Controlling (CO)

46C

59

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

In the cost center line item report, you notice that an amount was incorrectly entered. However, you do not know the name of the processor. From the line item report, you access the request form for an adjustment posting by choosing Extras → Correction request. 2. You request an adjustment posting via the form in the Intranet (see Processing Request Form [Seite 62]) When you send the request, the information is transferred to the SAP R/3 System. The system determines the responsible processor based on entries made in Customizing (see Define Own Scenarios For Requesting an Adjustment Posting [Extern]). 3. The processor receives the request for an adjustment posting in their worklist or workflow inbox (see Task Processing [Seite 69]). 4. The following options are available to the processor:
...

a. They may require additional information, should the request be incomplete. They attach a note to the requests and enter the person making the request as the processor. b. The processor rejects the request for an adjustment posting. c. They approve the request and makes the necessary adjustments in the SAP R/3 System. d. They forward the request. In the second decision level, the options a to d are available again. In the last three cases, the processor can enter a text to explain the reason for his/her decision.

You can check the current state of the request at any time (see Status Query of a Request [Seite 75]).

Controlling (CO)

46C

60

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Request for an Adjustment Posting

Intranet

SAP R/3 System SAP-R/3-System
Decision
Forward

Decision
Query Forward

Request
being processed

Reject

Execute Query

Request form
for an

Reject Send

Request
rejected

Request
in the SAP R/3 System

Request
Find processor
being processed

adjustment posting

Execute
P o s t

Request
executed

Check request status

Adjustment posting

Result
The adjustment posting is either completed or the request is rejected. For more information, see the SAP Library under Cross-Application Components → Internal Service Request [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

61

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Processing Request Forms
Use
With a request form, you can request an adjustment posting from the Intranet. The SAP standard includes a predefined form for adjustment postings. This form is divided into various areas, but you can adjust the layout and the individual fields individually.

Incorrect posting

Explanation

Processor

Created by

Check

Send request

Prerequisites
• You first need to define in Customizing which fields are to be available on the form. See Cross-Application Components → Internet/Intranet Services → Internal Service Request → Definition of Scenarios with Specific Customizing Request for an Adjustment Posting → Define Own Scenarios For The Request Of Adjustment Postings [Extern]. •
...

You have defined the layout of the form a. Using the SAP@Web Studios [Extern] b. Using the Web Application Builder [Extern] in the ABAP Development Workbench

If you access the form via Create an Internal Service Request from the launchpad of the Employee Workplace, you first have to select the right request from (see Creating an Internal Service Request [Extern]).

Procedure
...

1. Enter the data regarding the incorrect posting.

Controlling (CO)

46C

62

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

If you access the form from the SAP R/3 System, these fields contains this information. 2. Enter a text to describe the problem. This is an optional entry. 3. If you know the name of the processor for this problem, enter it in the processor field. If a processor or a standard role was entered in Customizing, these fields contain the corresponding entries. The partner role setting in Customizing controls whether an individual employee or a department is entered as the problem processor. You can find additional information about roles in Defining Roles based on Responsibilities [Extern].

If an entire department was entered as the processor, you cannot overwrite the Processor field. The system displays a list of the processors. 4. The fields for Created by contain your data. 5. Check your entries. 6. Send the request. Confirm the message, that your request has been saved.

Result
The request is transferred to the SAP R/3 System and assigned to a processor.

Controlling (CO)

46C

63

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Processing a Request in the SAP System
Use
You have made one of the following requests using an Intranet/Internal request form: • • Request Change to Master Data [Extern] Request an Adjustment Posting [Seite 59]

The request is automatically transferred to the SAP System and assigned to a processor.

Integration
The system creates a message [Extern] when the request form is sent. The following functions are available for processing messages [Seite 65] in the SAP System. • Task processing [Seite 69] The following jumps to the following activities are available in task processing: Access to the request form Access to the processing transactions in the SAP R/3 System that were set up in Customizing for the related requests. See Cross-Application Components → Internet/Intranet Services → Internal Service Request → Definition of Scenarios with Specific Customizing → Request for a Master Data Change (Request for an Adjustment Posting) → Define Own Scenarios For The Request For Master Data Change [Extern] (Define Own Scenarios For The Request For Adjustment Postings [Extern]). • • Status query [Seite 75] Document Flow Display [Seite 72] The document flow display is only relevant for the request for an adjustment posting.

Activities
To call up the functions for message processing, in the SAP Easy Access Menu choose Office → Message.

You can find additional information about messages in the SAP Library under CrossApplication Components (CA-NO) → Messages [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

64

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Processing Notifications
To process the internal service request [Extern], you can do the following: • • • • Processing notifications [Seite 66] Processing notifications using the worklist [Seite 68] Office → Notification → Worklist → Notifications or Office → Notification → Change

You call up processing via:

Controlling (CO)

46C

65

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Process Notification
Use
Put notification in process
Once you have created a notification and entered all relevant information, you can put the notification in process. When you put a notification in process, you release the notification for processing. A notification can be put in process in the following ways: • • You can put a notification in process manually. The system puts a notification in process automatically if an order was created for the notification.

When a notification is put in process, the system changes the status of the notification from “outstanding” (OSNO) to “notification in process” (NOPR).

Postpone notification
In some cases, it may be necessary to delay the processing of a notification (for example, if the assigned tasks cannot be carried out yet). Using this function, you can postpone the processing of a notification. When you postpone a notification, it receives the status NOPO (notification postponed).

You cannot postpone a notification that has already been put in process.

Complete notification
You complete a notification when the problem has been solved and no further processing is necessary. Once you complete a notification, you can no longer change any data in the notification. You can then only display the notification. When a notification is completed, it receives the status NOCO (notification completed).

You cannot complete a notification if outstanding tasks still exist in the notification. Categorizing a notification problem When you complete a notification, the system displays a dialog box with the current date and time. You can accept the displayed date and time as the completion time or you can change it. In this dialog box, you must specify whether the problem arose because of an internal or external cause. For example, if a vendor delivers a defective product, your are dealing with an externally caused problem. Put notification in process again You can put a completed notification in process again, if you determine that additional processing is necessary. Archive completed notification

Controlling (CO)

46C

66

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Completed notifications are automatically archived and are deleted from the database after a specific, predefined time interval. This time interval is defined in Customizing. Therefore, make sure you have finished processing the notification before you complete it.

Delete notification
In some cases, you may want to delete a notification. You cannot, however, delete a notification directly. You must set a deletion flag in the notification which identifies it as one that can be deleted. A company typically runs an archiving program at regular intervals. This program searches for the notifications with deletion flags, converts the deletion flags to deletion indicators, and copies the notifications to an archive. The system then deletes the notifications from the database.

Before you delete a notification, make sure that it is no longer needed. Once you set a deletion flag for a notification, you can no longer change the data in the notification. It then receives the status Deletion flag and Completed. You can now only display the notification. For more information about notification statuses, see Status Management [Extern]. If you set a deletion flag in the notification header, the system also sets deletion flags for the individual notification tasks. You can cancel the deletion flag as long as it has not been converted to a deletion indicator. You can then put the notification back in process and change or display it in the usual manner.

Procedure
Desired processing type Put notification in process Postpone notification Complete notification What you should know Call up the notification in the create or change mode and then choose Notification → Functions → Put in process. Call up the notification in the change mode, choose Notification → Functions → Postpone, and then save the notification. Call up a notification in the change mode and choose Notification → Functions → Complete. Specify the completion date/time and the cause of the problem; then close the dialog box and save the notification. Delete notification To set a deletion flag, call up the notification in change mode and then choose Notification → Functions → Deletion flag → Set. To reset the deletion flag, choose Notification → Functions → Deletion flag → Deselect.

Controlling (CO)

46C

67

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Processing Notifications Using Worklist
Use
Using the worklist for notifications, you can select notifications on the basis of different criteria and process them. You can select the notifications as follows: • You select the notifications using the My worklist function. The system then displays the following notifications for further selection and processing: All notifications to be processed by you as the "person responsible" or that fall within your department's area of responsibility All notifications to be processed by you as a <Partner function> All notifications you created All notifications that were last processed by you • You select the notifications using the General selection function. The system then displays all notifications for further selection and processing. Make sure the preset selection criteria contain the values you want (for example, notification status, selection period).

Prerequisites
If you use the General selection function and you want to process notifications for which you are not responsible or which you did not create, you must have the corresponding authorization.

Activities
You choose Logistics → Central Functions → Notification → Worklist → Notifications to call up the worklist for notifications. You enter the required data and choose Execute. See also: Select and Process Notifications Using Worklist [Extern]

Controlling (CO)

46C

68

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Task Processing
Purpose
Using the functions for task processing, you can change or display the tasks [Extern] in a notification independently of the notification itself. In this way, you can: • • • Process tasks quickly and easily Execute tasks using the functions of the action box Access the information in the associated notification at any time

Process Flow
...

1. You process the tasks using one of the following options, depending on your job duties or method of working: Worklist [Seite 70] You call up the worklist for tasks to determine whether tasks exist that you must process. Workflow [Seite 71] You check your workflow inbox determine whether tasks exist that you must process. Functions for Task Processing [Extern] If you want to process a specific task in a specific notification, use the transactions for processing or displaying a task. 2. After you have selected and executed one of the above options, you process a task by either: Forwarding the task to another person, if you cannot process the task yourself Carrying out the instructions specified in the task Documenting the information for a task that has just been executed; for example, as a task long text or via a follow-up function in the action box (internal remark) Setting the status of the task to "completed," once you have carried out the instructions specified in the task Executing additional follow-up functions in the action box, if additional tasks need to be implemented

Result
Once you have processed and completed a task, you can complete the notification (provided there are no other tasks in the notification that need to be processed).

Controlling (CO)

46C

69

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Processing Tasks Using Worklist
Use
Using the worklist for tasks, you can select notification tasks on the basis of different criteria and process them. You can select the tasks as follows: • You select the tasks using the My worklist function. The system then displays the following tasks for further selection and processing: All outstanding tasks to be processed by you as the "person responsible" All tasks to be processed by you as a <Partner function> All tasks you created All tasks you completed • You select the tasks using the General selection function. The system then displays all tasks for further selection and processing. Make sure the preset selection criteria contain the values you want (for example, selection period, outstanding tasks only).

Prerequisites
If you use the General selection function and you want to process tasks for which you are not responsible or which you did not create, you must have the corresponding authorization.

Activities
You choose Logistics → Central functions → Notification → Worklist → Tasks to call up the worklist for tasks. You enter the required data and choose Execute. See also: Select and Process Tasks Using the Worklist [Extern]

Controlling (CO)

46C

70

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Processing Tasks Using Workflow
Use
If a task is created in a notification or if the person responsible for a task is changed, the system can automatically notify the person or department responsible via the SAP Business Workflow that a task needs to be processed. You receive the information about the task that needs to be processed as a work item in your inbox (Business Workplace). Your inbox provides an overview of all tasks that you are responsible for processing. You can begin processing the work item directly from your business workplace.

Integration
You can access your business workplace by choosing Office → Workplace from the SAP menu. Then choose Inbox → Workflow to display any work items that may be present.

Prerequisites
The required system settings to activate the SAP Business Workflow have been made.

Activities
If there is a work item in your inbox, proceed as follows to begin processing the work item: • • You double click the work item to display a description of the task to be executed. You choose Execute to process the work item. The system calls up the transaction to process the task.

Controlling (CO)

46C

71

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Document Flow
Use
You can use this function to display the document flow for a notification as a list or network graphic. The document flow allows you to identify: • • • • • • • Preceding documents (documents from which the current notification originated) Subsequent documents (documents that originated from the current notification) "To-and-from" references between documents

Each document contains the following information: Document number Document number Additional data (if available) Logical system (if any of the other documents was created in a logical system other than the one in which the original notification was created)

You can also display the detailed information for each document.

Integration
The document flow is integrated in the following processes: • • • • • • • • Materials Management (MM) Production Planning and Control (PP) Sales and Distribution (SD) Customer Service (CS) Plant Maintenance (PM) Financials (FI) Controlling (CO) Project System (PS)

Features
The document flow, for example, can display the following objects (among others): • • • • • • • • Quality notification Service notification Maintenance notification General notification Claim Service order Sales order Production order

Controlling (CO)

46C

72

SAP Online Help • • • • Run schedule header Goods movement Purchase order Inspection lot

23.05.2005

Controlling (CO)

46C

73

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Displaying the Document Flow for a Notification
Procedure
...

1. Call up a notification in the create or change mode. 2. Choose one of the following menu paths, depending on whether you want to display the document flow as a list or graphic: − − Extras → Notification documents → Document flow → List Extras → Notification documents → Document flow → Graphic

The notifications that reference other subsequent documents in the list display are labeled with a (Ref.) designation. 3. If you displayed the document flow as a graphic, select a document and choose Goto → Display document. The detailed information for the selected document is displayed.

Controlling (CO)

46C

74

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Status Query For Request
Use
You can call up the status of the request at any time during its runtime. See also: Status Management For Notifications [Extern] Display Status Information [Extern] System Status Assignment [Extern] Assigning And Changing User Statuses [Extern] Status Management For Tasks [Extern]

Controlling (CO)

46C

75

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Summarization
Use
You need more than a cost structure analysis of individual internal orders (Internal Orders [Extern], Production Orders [Extern], Projects) to ensure efficient controlling. You need to be able to group together account assignment objects with common attributes and analyze them collectively. This provides a much greater degree of cost transparency within your organization.

You can, for example, summarize and analyze the costs of all your orders according to the following criteria: • • • Order type [Extern] Responsible cost center Plant [Extern]

Integration
You can summarize internal orders, production orders and projects collectively. For more information on project summarization, see the SAP Library under Accounting → PSProject System → Project Information System → Project Summarization [Extern].

Features
For reporting purposes, summarization collects account assignment objects with common attributes. You can use summarization initially to obtain an overview of a large number of orders. It is also useful for processing order groups containing large variances. You can then analyze relevant account assignment objects individually, using the cost element reports. This means that you do not have to analyze each account assignment object individually.

Summarization hierarchy
You use characteristics to define the individual levels of the summarization hierarchy. These characteristics refer to the fields in the master data for the account assignment object. The controlling area is always the top node in the summarization hierarchy. To summarize account assignment objects, you need to differentiate between those and the others in the same controlling area. You do this by using a characteristic in the corresponding hierarchy identification. For more information on summarization hierarchies, see the SAP Library under Accounting → CO-Controlling → Product Cost Controlling (CO-PC) → Product Cost Controlling Information System → Cost Object Controlling: Information System → Key Figures in cost Object Controlling → Summarization Hierarchies [Extern] , or the implementation guide for the summarization object. You can find more information on classification in the SAP Library under Financials → CO Controlling → Product Cost Controlling → Cost Object Controlling [Extern]

Summarization Reports
The following standard summarization reports are available:

Controlling (CO)

46C

76

SAP Online Help • • Summarization objects: Actual/plan/variance Compares the plan and actual costs for the selected subhierarchy. Summarization objects: Actual/plan/commitment

23.05.2005

Compares the costs already assigned and those still available. The value in the Allotted column is calculated by adding actual cost and commitment values. The difference between the plan costs and the assigned costs is displayed in the last column as available costs. • Summarization objects: Curr. Period/Cum./Total Compares the plan and actual costs for a selected period, the entire fiscal year, and cumulated.

Controlling (CO)

46C

77

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Overhead Cost Controlling (CO-OM)
Purpose
Overhead Cost Controlling component enables you to plan, allocate, control, and monitor overhead costs. It is an important preparation for a strong profitability analysis, as well as for a precise product costing. By planning in the overhead area, you can specify standards that enable you to control costs and evaluate internal activities. All overhead costs are assigned to the cost centers where they were incurred, or to the jobs that triggered them. The SAP system provides numerous methods for overhead allocation. Using these methods you can allocate the overhead costs true to their origins. Some of the overhead can be assigned to cost objects with minimum effort, and converted to direct costs. At the end of a posting period, when all allocations have been made, the plan (target) costs are compared with the corresponding actual costs, based on the operating rate. You can make a source-based analysis of the resulting target/actual variances, and use the analyses for further managerial accounting measures within Controlling. Along with timesaving automatic allocations, the integration of Overhead Cost Controlling in the SAP system environment minimizes entry of actual data and reduces the work involved in planning.

Features
Overhead Cost Controlling is divided into the following areas.

Cost Element Accounting
Cost and Revenue Element Accounting details which costs and revenues have been incurred. Accrual is calculated here for valuation differences and additional costs. Cost Accounting and Financial Accounting are also reconciled in Cost Element Accounting. This means that the tasks of Cost and Revenue Element Accounting stretch beyond the bounds of Overhead Cost Controlling.

Cost Center Accounting
Cost Center Accounting determines where costs are incurred in the organization. To achieve this aim, costs are assigned to the subareas of the organization where they have the most influence. By creating and assigning cost elements to cost centers, you not only make cost controlling possible, but also provide data for other application components in Controlling, such as Cost Object Controlling. You can also use a variety of allocation methods for allocating the collected costs of the given cost center/s to other controlling objects.

Internal orders
Overhead Orders are internal orders used either to monitor overhead costs for a limited period, or overhead incurred by executing a job, or for the long-term monitoring of specific parts of the overhead. Independently of the cost center structure, internal orders collect the plan and actual costs incurred, enabling you to control the costs continuously. You can also use internal orders to control a cost center in more detail. You can assign budgets to jobs. These budgets are then monitored automatically by the SAP system to ensure that they are kept to.

Controlling (CO)

46C

78

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Activity-Based Costing
In contrast to the responsibility and function-oriented basis of Cost Center Accounting, ActivityBased Costing provides a transaction-based and cross-functional approach for activity output in which several cost centers are involved. The emphasis is not on cost optimization in individual departments, but the entire organization. By allocating process quantities based on cost drivers, rather than using overhead calculation, cost allocation along the value chain is more source-based. Activity-Based Costing enables you to cost products more accurately in the overhead areas.

Controlling (CO)

46C

79

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Overhead Costs
Definition
Costs that cannot be assigned directly to cost objects are overhead costs, and are divided into direct and indirect overhead costs. It is possible to assign indirect overhead costs to cost objects, but would be too time-consuming.

Use
The percentage of overhead costs in total costs has risen sharply in recent years. The number of workers employed in overhead cost areas grew from 25-30% in the 1950’s to more than 50% today. Not only have overhead costs increased in service organizations, which treat most of their costs as overhead, but also in manufacturing. A survey in the United States showed that there was approximately 80% overhead costs in the machine and electronics manufacturing industries. In the manufacturing industry, increases in overhead cost often caused by a structural change in the organizational value-added structures, which normally changes the organizational cost matrix. Therefore, the increased use of automation results in a rise in overhead cost, with a negative effect on directly assignable production costs. Overhead cost has increased because organizations cannot assign the cost of administrative and planning activities to products as accurately as the manual activities. Even reducing production depth can change direct costs to overhead costs because of the greater number of external procurements. Overhead costs from planning, management, quality control, and coordination in such areas as research and development, procurement, and work preparation are increasingly important compared with actual product manufacture. Managers can gain a high degree of cost transparency for activity output using theoretical cost accounting methods, and possibilities for reducing cost are used extensively. However, the connection between overhead cost areas is often unclear and the optimization options unrealized.

Controlling (CO)

46C

80

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Cost Accounting Methods
Use
The Controlling component (CO) supports all standard cost accounting methods. You do not need to implement the different methods individually. Depending on your organization’s requirements, you can use more than one method at a time in cost accounting.

Features
The SAP system provides all the functions necessary for planning and allocation using the different methods. The functions record fixed and proportional costs related to all levels of activity output separately. Implementing the CO component does not limit you to using one cost accounting method. Instead, you can decide which method to use in each area of your organization, depending on the way you plan and the functions you choose to use. In the Overhead Cost Controlling area, you can use the following, widely used cost accounting methods within the SAP system: • Cost Assessment Method Cost assessment is plan/actual cost accounting based on full costs. Costs are not split into fixed and proportional costs. The system uses assessment to “allocate” overhead, based on certain keys, to cost collectors, or to products. • Overhead Calculation Overhead calculation is similar to the cost assessment method (standard and actual costing using full costs). Costs are not split into fixed and proportional costs. The system only calculates wage costs using the fixed hourly rates determined in cost center planning. This is to valuate the activity quantity structure of the work plan. The SAP system then applies remaining overhead costs to cost collectors or products, using overhead calculation • Static Standard Costing In contrast to the above methods, standard costing divides the cost center structure into tracing factors and activity types, and activity is allocated. Costs are not split into fixed and proportional costs. In the costing, the system uses the (total) cost portions that it calculated to evaluate the activity quantity structure from the work plan. In the Profitability Analysis component (CO-PC), you can use production costs calculated in Product Costing for valuating products sold on the basis of full costs (according to the cost-of-sales accounting method). • Marginal costing In contrast to static standard costing, this method splits costs into fixed and proportional costs (based on the cost center structure divided up into activity types). The planned cost rates (determined by price calculation) are included in the costing to valuate the activity quantity structure from the work plan. Analytical cost planning, and the proportional costs it calculates, enable better decision-making. By using marginal costs, for example, you can determine short-term, lower limit prices. In product cost planning, you can determine whether full or only variable costs are relevant for stock valuation when you specify characteristics for cost elements. You can use the latter to determine the "variable cost of goods manufactured". If you use this method to calculate the standard price, then the system only credits the cost centers with the variable portion of the activity type in Cost Object Controlling when the costs are recorded. The fixed portion of the activity type remains on the cost center. You can transfer it at the end of

Controlling (CO)

46C

81

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

the period, using assessment in the Profitability Analysis (CO-PA). The advantage is that fixed costs are not proportionalized in the actual data, enabling true contribution margin accounting. Production costs calculated using product costing can be used in profitability analysis to evaluate the products sold on the basis of marginal or full costs (corresponding to the cost of sales accounting method). Additionally, cost splitting into fixed and proportional costs enables you to display the true contribution margin on the basis of marginal costing, in the Profitability Analysis component. • Activity-Based Costing (see: Overhead Cost Controlling [Seite 78])

Controlling (CO)

46C

82

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Multiple Valuation Approaches in Overhead Cost Controlling
Use
The SAP System enables you to work with multiple value flows. For more information on the business theory of multiple value flows in the system and their portrayal in the Controlling component (CO), see the SAP Library, under Accounting → EC Enterprise Controlling → EC Profit-Center Accounting → Multiple Valuation Approaches/Transfer Prices [Extern]. To make the necessary settings for multiple valuations, see the Implementation Guide (IMG) under Controlling → General Controlling → Multiple Valuation Approach / Transfer Prices [Extern]. This section deals with the aspects of multiple valuation approaches that are relevant for Overhead Cost Controlling (CO-OM).

Features
Value Flow
Distribution, Assessment and Periodic Reposting You execute actual distribution, assessment and periodic repostings in parallel in all valuations. The costs to be allocated are taken from the corresponding valuation. The tracing factor is always taken from the operational valuation. The values allocated may differ in the different valuation methods. An exception to this is assessment in Profitability Analysis (CO-PA). This can only be carried out using the operational valuation. Internal activity allocation Internal activity allocations [Extern] are made in the operational valuation. The plan price used for allocation thus applies to all the valuations. A later release will allow different (manually defined) plan prices for the various valuations, dependent on the receiver. You can determine actual prices, and revaluate on orders in all valuation views. Actual costs are split on the activity types, based on the planning for the operational valuation. Accrual Costs and Overhead Rates The operational valuation forms the basis for accrual calculations [Extern] and overhead rates [Extern]. The amounts determined are valid for all valuations. Settlement Settlement [Extern] is executed in parallel in all valuation methods, except for settlement to fixed assets or to profitability segments. For settlement to fixed assets, the SAP system uses the company code currency. For settlement to profitability segments, it uses the operational valuation. Line item settlement to a fixed asset is possible only if you use legal valuation as your operational valuation. Reposting You can repost documents (with references) in each valuation for the amount updated when the document was originally posted. It is not possible to repost values for multiple valuation approaches.

Controlling (CO)

46C

83

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Documents and Line Items
When you post a document, the system creates separate line items for each valuation, all of which belong to the same document header.

Analyses and the Information System
You can only execute variance calculation [Extern] in the operational valuation. The information system in the Overhead Cost Controlling component can access all of your valuations. A ready-for-input field appears for the valuation in the selection screen, if you have activated the update for multiple valuation approaches in at least one controlling area of the current client. For more information see: Financials → Controlling → Cost Center Accounting → Information System (CO-OM) → Report Definition → Report Painter [Extern]). In reporting, you can run target/actual comparisons between plan values in the operational valuation and the actual values in another valuations.

Availability control
Commitments [Extern] are only executed with the operational valuation. The active availability control compares the actual values for the operational valuation with the released budget. This means that you can only control availability for the operational valuation.

Reconciliation with Financial Accounting
All valuations are updated in the reconciliation ledger [Extern]. When you enter reconciliation postings [Extern], the system reports the values to Financial Accounting in all valuations. However, valuations that are not recorded in Financial Accounting are not considered. For more information see the SAP Library under: Financials → Controlling → Cost Element Accounting → Information System → Transfer Prices in the Reconciliation Ledger [Extern].) The default setting for the reconciliation reports and the cost flow report ensure that values are displayed in the legal valuation.

Controlling (CO)

46C

84

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

CO External Data Transfer
Use
You need to transfer external data if you previously stored your data in non-SAP systems, or an SAP R/2 System, but now intend to transfer the data to an SAP R/3 System, for example Cost Accounting. For example, you can transfer your planned primary costs to SAP-internal structures. The SAP R/3 System checks the data to be transferred in the same way as it does for the corresponding dialog functions You have two options for transferring data to the SAP R/3 System: • • • • • External Data Transfer with Function Modules [Seite 86] External Data Transfer with BAPIs [Seite 105]

External data is subdivided as follows: Master data Planning data Actual data

Controlling (CO)

46C

85

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

External Data Transfer with Function Modules
Use
SAP provides function modules for transferring plan and actual data from external or legacy systems. You call up these function modules in a program that you have to create yourself.

With effect from Release 4.6A, SAP also provides Business Application Programming Interfaces (BAPIs) for transferring external data. SAP recommends using BAPIs so that you can transfer external data into the SAP System without the need for programming.

Prerequisites
Since you need to create your own program (containing all the necessary steps for data transfer) for transferring external data using function modules, you should have previous experience in ABAP programming. To simplify the external data transfer process, SAP demonstration programs are available. These programs contain sample calls of the function modules, which control the data transfer.

Features
You can transfer plan and actual data from external or legacy systems into the SAP System using function modules. You can carry out Plan Data Transfer [Seite 87] by calling up the appropriate function module directly in the program. The SAP System carries out all the checks on the data to be transferred in a plan data transfer using function modules. You can carry out an actual data transfer [Seite 98] in the background, or by using immediate update. The function modules transfer the data directly to the corresponding screens [Extern]. The SAP System performs checks on the screen, and not while the function module is being processed. This enables you to analyze any errors that occur. There are three SAP demonstration programs for actual data transfer, which include important steps for the transfer of actual data. When you transfer external data to the SAP System (for example, from a sequential file with a specific structure), you need to change the data structure to conform with the existing SAP structure. This means that you assign the external data to the fields in the SAP structure. The program for the external data transfer must contain the following steps: 1. Read the data records to be transferred 2. Transfer the data to an internal table with an SAP-defined structure 3. Transfer actual or plan data using demonstration programs.

Controlling (CO)

46C

86

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Table Structures and Function Modules for Planning Data
Use
The following section includes the planning areas for various Controlling component (CO) objects that have function modules for data transfer. You need to specify the data to be transferred for each planning area.

Features
You can take data from the following planning areas for Cost Centers: • • • • • • Activity-independent primary cost planning Data: Cost center, cost element (cost element category 01, 04, or 90) Revenue planning Data: Cost center, cost element (cost element category 11 or 12) Planning activity-independent order costs without sender Data: Cost center, cost element (cost element category 21) Planning activity-independent order costs without sender Data: Cost center, cost element (cost element category 21) Planning overhead credits Data: Cost center, cost element (cost element category 41) Activity-independent planning of activity input Data: Cost center, sender cost center, sender activity type (cost element category 43, activity type category 01) Cost center, sender business process • Activity-independent planning of key figures Data: Cost center, statistical key figure You can collect data from the following planning areas for cost centers / activity types: • Activity-Dependent Primary Cost Planning Data: Cost center, cost element (cost element category 1, 4, or 90), activity type (activity type category 1, 2, 3, or 4) • Planning activity-dependent order costs without sender Data: Cost center, cost element (cost element category 21), activity type (activity type category 1, 2, 3, or 4) • Planning activity-dependent order costs with sender Data: Cost center, cost element (cost element category 21), activity type (activity type category 1, 2, 3 or 4) • Planning nonallocable, or directly allocable activity types

Controlling (CO)

46C

87

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Data: Cost center, activity type (cost element category 43, activity type category 1 or 4) • • Planning indirectly allocable activity types Data: Cost center, activity type (cost element category 43, activity type category 2 or 3) Activity-dependent planning of activity input Data: Cost center, activity type (cost element category 43, activity type category 1, 2, 3, or 4), sender cost center, sender activity type (activity type category 1) Cost center, activity type (cost element category 43, activity type category 1, 2, 3, or 4), sender business process • Activity-dependent key figure planning Data: Cost center, activity type (activity type category 1, 2, 3, or 4), statistical key figure You can collect data from the following planning areas for orders and WBS elements: • • • • Activity-independent primary cost planning Data: Order or WBS element, cost element (cost element category 1, 4, or 90) Revenue planning Data: Order or WBS element, cost element (cost element category 11 or 12) Planning overhead credits Data: Order or WBS element, cost element (cost element category 41) Activity-independent planning of activity input Data: Order or WBS element, sender cost center, sender activity type (cost element category 43, activity type category 1) Order or WBS element, sender business process • Activity-independent planning of key figures Data: Order or WBS element, statistical key figure You can collect data from the following planning areas for business processes: • Activity-independent planning of activity input Data: Business process, sender business process Business process, sender cost center, sender activity type • Activity-independent planning of key figures Data: Business process, statistical key figure You can collect data from the following planning areas for cost objects, networks and network activities: • Activity-independent planning of key figures Cost object, or network or network activity, statistical key figure You can collect data from the following planning areas for reconciliation objects: • Activity-independent planning of activity input

Controlling (CO)

46C

88

SAP Online Help Data:

23.05.2005

Reconciliation object, sender cost center, sender activity type (cost element category 43, activity type category 1) Reconciliation object, sender business process

Only one CO object may be transferred per function callup. Therefore you need to call up primary cost planning on cost centers and on orders separately. The following categories for table structures are available for transferring planning data: • • Transfer of cumulated data Transfer of periodic planning data

The following table shows the function modules used for each planning area for the data transfer: Function Modules and Transactions for Planning Areas Planning areas Function Module Transaction

Activity-independent planning K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ RKP1 of primary cost K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_ TOTAL periodic/cumulated Revenue planning periodic/cumulated Planning of activityindependent order cost, without sender periodic/cumulated Planning of activityindependent order cost with sender, periodic/cumulated Planning credit overheads, periodic/cumulated Planning of activityindependent activity input, periodic/cumulated Planning of activityindependent key figures, periodic/cumulated K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ RKP5 K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ RKP8 K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL

K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_TOTAL

RKPW

K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ RKPZ K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_RATIO_PLAN_INTERFACE_ PERIOD/ RKP4 K_RATIO_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL RKP6 RKP3

Planning of activity-dependent K_RKP6_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ primary cost, K_RKP6_INTERFACE_TOTAL periodic/cumulated Planning activity-dependent order costs without sender, periodic/cumulated Planning activity-dependent order costs with sender, periodic/cumulated K_RKP6_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ K_RKP6_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_TOTAL

RKP9

RKPX

Controlling (CO)

46C

89

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Planning non-allocable or directly allocable activity types, periodic/cumulated Planning indirectly allocable activity types, periodic/cumulated

K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_ PERIOD/ K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_ PERIOD/ K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL

RKP2

RKPL

Planning of activity-dependent K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_PERIOD/ activity input, K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_TOTAL periodic/cumulated

RKP7

Planning of activity-dependent K_RATIO_PLAN_INTERFACE_ PERIOD/ RKP4 key figures, K_RATIO_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL periodic/cumulated

You read the data to be transferred in the source system and transfer it to an internal SAP table structure. You need to be familiar with the table structure and to select it before transferring the data. The SAP system contains the following function modules and sample programs for transferring plan data. Table of Sample Programs for Planning Data Transfer Function Module K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_ TOTAL K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_RATIO_PLAN_INTERFACE_ PERIOD K_RATIO_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_RKP6_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_RKP6_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL Sample Program RKKIPL1P RKKIPL1T RKKIPL3P RKKIPL3T RKKIPL4P RKKIPL4T RKKIPL6P RKKIPL6T RKKIPL2P RKKIPL2T

Controlling (CO)

46C

90

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Interface for External Data Transfer
You can use a program to call up the corresponding function module for transferring data. You enter parameters that the SAP R/3 System then checks for validity. • Import parameters These parameters are independent of the selected area for the data transfer. They are the same in both planning and actual postings. You need these parameters to transfer data and control information. • • Export parameters These parameters are required for the results of executing a function module. Table parameters The table parameter is independent of the selected area for data transfer. You need it to transfer data and control information.

Controlling (CO)

46C

91

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Import Parameters For Transferring Planning Data
The following parameters are independent of the planning area for the plan data that you wish to transfer: Function Module Import Parameters for Transferring Planning Data Import parameters BLTXT GJAHR KOKRS PERAB PERBI VERSN VRGNG IRKU01_CUR IRKU02_CUR Transfer Of Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Control information Control information Description Document text Fiscal year Controlling area From period To period Version Transaction Currency field group indicator Currency field group indicator Display messages Check existing values Execute commit using function module Indicator for supplementary entry Error message without update Online posting

MESSAGES_SHOW Control information UPDATE_VALUES COMMIT DELTA TESTMODE ONLINE_VB Control information Control information Control information Control information Control information

Additional Import Parameters for Function Modules K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL and K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD Import parameters PRICE_QUANT_PLAN Transfer Of Control information Description Plan the quantities and/or prices

Import Parameters VERSN and VRGNG
Use the VERSN parameter to select the version you require. The VRGNG parameter contains the business transactions in the Cost Center Accounting component (CO-OM-CCA) and controls which planning area you transfer the external data to. To see an overview of all the Controlling component business transactions, use transaction OKC1. See: Table Structures and Function Modules for Planning Data [Seite 87] for the business transactions used in the planning function modules.

Controlling (CO)

46C

92

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Import Parameters IRKU01_CUR and IRKU02_CUR
You use the IRKU01_CUR (for cost planning) and IRKU02_CUR import parameters (for activity planning) to define which currency field groups the posted amounts are transferred to in the interface, so defining which amount currency is used for display (transaction, object currency, or controlling area currency).

The use of parameters IRKU01-CUR or IRKU02_CUR is strongly recommended. The IRKU01_CUR and IRK02_CUR import parameters replace the RPLAN import parameter that was used up to Release 3.0B. If the import parameters are not transferred, or are blank in the callup program, the system continues to use RPLAN, in which the standard plan parameter CO01 is defaulted. RPLAN is included for compatibility reasons only, and should no longer be used.

You must use import parameter IRKU01_CUR for plan data transfers that use function modules K_RKP6_INTERFACE_PERIOD and K_RKP6_INTERFACE_TOTAL. Use Import Parameters for Indication of Currency Field Groups in the Function Modules for the Transfer of Planning Data. Function Module Data Import parameters IRKU02_CUR IRKU02_CUR IRKU01_CUR

K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL Cumulated activity types K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_ PERIOD K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_ TOTAL Periodic activity types Activity-independent cumulated primary costs

K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERI Activity-independent periodic IRKU01_CUR OD primary costs K_RKP6_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_RKP6_INTERFACE_TOTAL Activity-dependent periodic primary costs IRKU01_CUR

Activity-dependent cumulated IRKU01_CUR primary costs

If you wish to use the individual import parameters in function modules for control purposes, activate the corresponding structure field with an "X" for the currency field groups that are to be manually planned. Field Groups for Import Parameter IRKU01_CUR Name WKG_MAN WKF_MAN WTG_MAN WTF_MAN Description Total value in controlling area currency, manual Fixed value in controlling area currency, manual Total value in transaction currency, manual Fixed value in transaction currency, manual

Controlling (CO)

46C

93

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

WOG_MAN WOF_MAN

Total value in object currency, manual Fixed value in object currency, manual

Field Groups of Import Parameter IRKU02_CUR Name TKG_MAN TKF_MAN TOG_MAN TOF_MAN Description Total price in controlling area currency, manual Fixed price in controlling area currency, manual Total price in object currency, manual Fixed price in object currency, manual

Currency field groups can be activated for one currency only (transaction, object, or controlling area). Other field groups are calculated using currency translation, based on the exchange rate table.

You need to plan total and fixed amounts in the same currency. If no fixed amounts are planned, do not activate the corresponding indicator.

Import Parameter PRICE_QUANT_PLAN
The import parameter PRICE_QUANT_PLAN is only used for the K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL and K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD function modules. Values of Parameter PRICE_QUANT_PLAN Parameter value B P Q Description Quantities and prices Transfer prices only Transfer quantities only

The PRICE_QUANT_PLAN parameter is defaulted with B.

Optional Parameters
Transferring import parameters BLTXT, COMMIT, DELTA, MESSAGES_SHOW, UPDATE_VALUES, and ONLINE_VB is optional. These parameters are defaulted and should only be changed if you wish to have different defaults. You can use the BLTXT parameter to transfer a header text if planning documents were created. The COMMIT import parameter indicates whether the commit was executed using the function module (enter X), or the callup program (enter a blank space). The parameter default is X. If the program is only used to call up one function module, or if separate sets of planning data are transferred, you can use a function module to execute the commit. If multiple callups with separate but dependent plan data are executed, and you wish to ensure that the planning data is

Controlling (CO)

46C

94

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

completely transferred only if no function module errors occur, then you need to deactivate the parameter. At the end of the program, you need to transmit a COMMIT WORK. If you activate the MESSAGES_SHOW import parameter with X, the SAP system issues the error messages that occurred during the function module callup. It is useful to activate this parameter, but if you call up the log interface in your own program for evaluation, then you should not activate it. Nor should you activate it during background processing. If you activate the TESTMODE parameter, the SAP system displays error messages without running an update. If you transfer data for more than one planning area successively, this is included in the error messages. For example, the error messages for activity input planning take into account whether the data for activity planning has been transferred already. The default for the UPDATE_VALUES parameter is blank, which means that values already planned cannot be overwritten. Activate this parameter to overwrite planned values. The default for ONLINE_VB should not be changed. The DELTA parameter is for internal use only.

Controlling (CO)

46C

95

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Import Parameters for Transferring Planning Data
The table parameter, an internal table, is dependent on the business transaction for which you want to transfer the external data. It contains the data itself, and is based on the standard SAP system table structure, which is dependent on the data being transferred (VRGNG parameter). The SAP system uses four different table structures for the transfer of planning data. For costs

Periodic Cumulated

RKU01JA RKU01G

For quantities

Periodic Cumulated

RKU02JA RKU02G

The name of the table used by a function module contains the name of the structure and the letter 'I' before it. Structure: RKU01JA Table name: IRKU01JA These table structures contain many fields which are not required for transferring the external data from different planning areas. The structures are designed to transfer data from other business transactions at a later date. Fields already filled in the structure are replaced by the transferred values. The table below provides an overview of the function modules to be called up, with their corresponding table structures. Function Modules and Table Structures Function Module K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_COSTS_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_RKP6_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_RKP6_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_ACT_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL K_RATIO_PLAN_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_RATIO_PLAN_INTERFACE_TOTAL Table Structure RKU01JA RKU01G RKU01JA RKU01G RKU02JA RKU02G RKU02JA RKU02G

Controlling (CO)

46C

96

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_PERIOD K_ACT_INPUT_INTERFACE_TOTAL

RKU01JA RKU01G

Below is a list of sample fields to be filled in the RKU01JA or RKU01G structure for transferring primary cost planning data that is activity-independent (business transaction RKP1). • • • Cost center, order number, or WBS element Cost Element Currency is either transaction currency, object currency, or controlling area currency. Only one currency type may be filled, and this must be indicated in IRKU01_CUR. If you use the transaction currency, then ensure that you make an entry in theTWAER field. Total quantity

The GJAHR, KOKRS parameters and so on, no longer need to be transferred. You can also make entries in more fields, such as: • • Unit of measure Record quantities indicator

One object type may be transferred for each function callup. Primary cost planning (activityindependent) on cost centers and orders, therefore, requires two separate callups. For activity input planning for sender business processes, the P_PRZNR field must contain the key of the business process. For order cost planning for sender business processes, the P_PRZNR field must contain the key of the business process.

Controlling (CO)

46C

97

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Table Structures and Function Modules for Actual Data
Use
The following section includes the planning areas that have function modules for the transfer of actual data. The required data to be transferred for each planning area is specified.

Features
You can currently transfer actual data from postings in internal accounting for the following areas: • • • • • Reposting costs Reposting revenues activity allocation Non-allocable activities Entering Statistical Key Figures

You can transfer actual data online by making an immediate posting or by a batch input session. If you use a batch input session, then you bring the data into the system in which you are processing the session. A batch input session simulates the online entry of transaction codes and data. Normally, the system does not run the batch input session immediately after you create it, but saves it first. You can start the session at a later time, and thus avoid times of high system use. You can improve the system performance by running the session in the background. The following overview illustrates the function modules for data transfer and the dependent data to be transferred. When you transfer actual data, the system transfers the period values. Data and Function Modules Data Reposting costs Reposting costs with entry variant Reposting revenues Reposting revenues with entry variant activity allocation Activity allocation with entry variant Non-allocable activities Actual statistical key figures Actual statistical key figures with entry variant Function Module K_TRANSFER_BATCHINPUT K_TRANSFER_BDC_WITH_VARNR K_TRANSFER_REVENUE_BATCHINPUT K_TRANSFER_REV_BDC_WITH_VARNR K_ACTIVITY_BATCHINPUT K_ACTIVITY_BDC_WITH_VARNR K_NON_ALLOC_ACTIVITY_BDC K_RATIO_BATCHINPUT K_RATIO_BDC_WITH_VARNR

Controlling (CO)

46C

98

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling (CO)

46C

99

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Import Parameters for Transferring Actual Data
The following parameters are not dependent on the area for which you want to transfer actual costs. These parameters are required to create a batch input session. You can ignore these parameters if you use a direct update for processing. If that is the case, you need to set up the ONLINE parameters. Import Parameters for Function Modules for Transferring Actual Data Parameter CLIENT HOLDDATE KEEP MAPN_R MAPN_E MAPNAME ONLINE SORT_TAB USER Description Client Lock session until specified date Indicator to keep the finished sessions in the session overview Session name Session name for session with incorrect data Session name Indicator for online processing (“ “, A, E, N) Sort indicator User name

Import Parameters for Transferring Actual Data The ONLINE parameter controls how actual data is transferred to the SAP system. • • With a batch input session (blank space): This is the default value. Without a batch input session, by direct data transfer: Online (A) The data is transferred without a batch input session and can be seen by the user. Online for errors (E) The data is transferred without a batch input session and can seen by the user if an error occurs. In background (N) The data is transferred without a batch input session and cannot be seen by the user. The SORT_TAB parameter is defaulted with “X” in the standard system. The SAP system checks the data for completeness and sets the EFLAG indicator depending on the results of its check. The error indicator can have the following values: • • • EFLAG = "0" Data record is complete EFLAG = "1" Data record is incomplete EFLAG = '"2" BUDAT, BLDAT incorrect, or no KOKRS

Controlling (CO)

46C

100

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

The SAP system then sorts the data according to posting date (BUDAT), document date (BLDAT), controlling area (KOKRS), and error indicator (EFLAG).

If you have not set the sort indicator, you should transfer the data already sorted to the SAP system, otherwise many new screens [Extern] are requested if the data changes, which has an adverse effect on system performance. You create batch input sessions with a client (CLIENT) and for a user (USER). When you process a session, the SAP system runs an authorization check on the user. The authorizations of the user who created the session are valid. During the session run, the authorizations of the user who is running the session are valid. When you activate the KEEP parameter, processed sessions are kept in the session overview. All other sessions are deleted. The HOLDDATE parameter blocks sessions up until the date that you assign to this parameter. You cannot run blocked sessions. This is useful for preventing sessions that contain errors from being rerun, or if you have to run a session on a particular date. The SAP system creates up to two sessions. • • • MAPN_R Contains records with EFLAG = "0", complete data MAPN_E Contains records with EFLAG = "1", incomplete data Records with EFLAG = "2" are not transferred to a session.

If you run a session with incomplete data, the SAP system issues an error message, after which you can make corrections. Function modules that use the MAPNAME parameter create one session only. To process a batch input session, choose System → Services → Batch input → Edit. For more information on batch input sessions, see the SAP library under Basis → Kernel Components (BC-KRN) → BC System Services → Managing Batch Input Sessions → Batch Input Sessions [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

101

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Export Parameters for Transferring Actual Data
The SUBRC export parameter is active during actual data transfer. If there are incorrect values when the folder is created, the SAP system sets the export parameters to the highest value accepted by the error indicator EFLAG during data checking, and displays an error message.

Controlling (CO)

46C

102

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Table Parameters for Transferring Actual Data
The table parameter depends on the actual data you wish to transfer. The following table shows the structures available Function Modules and Table Structures for Transferring Actual Data Function Module K_TRANSFER_BATCHINPUT K_TRANSFER_BDC_WITH_VARNR K_TRANSFER_REVENUE_BATCHINPUT K_TRANSFER_REV_BDC_WITH_VARNR K_ACTIVITY_BATCHINPUT K_ACTIVITY_BDC_WITH_VARNR K_NON_ALLOC_ACTIVITY_BDC K_RATIO_BATCHINPUT K_RATIO_BDC_WITH_VARNR Table Structure RKIBI1 RKIBI1B RKIBI1 RKIBI1B RKIBI2 RKIBI2B RKIBI2B RKIBI3 RKIBI3B

The name of the table used by a function module contains the name of the structure with "I_" before it. The programs that control the transfer of actual data by batch input session, already do the following: • • • • • Define the parameters Call up the relevant function module

You need to complete the following steps: Read your own data Convert the data to the relevant SAP table structure Define exceptions which are transferred by error messages to the return code

The function modules for data transfer with entry variants must be given an entry variant in the program that controls the list screen for data entry. The user is responsible for only entering the fields actually present in the corresponding entry variant screen in the function module table structure. The following table contains the SAP program names and the corresponding areas for the data transfer. Program Names for Transferring Actual Data Program Name RKIBI001 RKIBIV01 Area Reposting costs and revenues Reposting costs with entry variant

Controlling (CO)

46C

103

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

RKIBIV04 RKIBI002 RKIBIV02 RKIBIV05 RKIBI003 RKIBIV03

Reposting revenues with entry variant Activity allocation Activity allocation with entry variant and version Enter nonallocable activities Actual statistical key figures Statistical key figure with entry variant

Controlling (CO)

46C

104

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

External Data Transfer with BAPIs
Use
SAP provides Business Application Programming Interfaces (BAPIs) for transferring plan, actual, and master data from external or legacy systems as part of the system implementation. BAPIs enable you to transfer external data without the need for programming. See also: Data Transfer Methods [Extern]

You can only transfer actual data from internal orders using the following transactions: • • The KAFD transaction, which transfers costs on orders/projects and networks. The KAFL transaction, which deletes transferred costs on orders/projects and networks.

Controlling (CO)

46C

105

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheets for the Transfer of Master Data
You can transfer master data from external or legacy systems using Business Application Programming Interfaces (BAPIs). You can use BAPIs for transferring the following master data: • • • • • • Statistical key figures Cost elements Activity types Cost centers Business processes Internal orders

Controlling (CO)

46C

106

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheets for the Transfer of Cost Centers
A. Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of application object Name of business object (BOR object) Change document object supported? Long text object Data category Number assignment Does SAP field exist for the number in the legacy system? Cost center BUS0012 Yes Not supported Master data External Does not exist

Transactions
Create KS01

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables CSKS, CSKT

C. BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? Business object method Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Program for generating test data? K_CSKS or K_CCA Create multiple No Yes Yes No

Controlling (CO)

46C

107

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheets for the Transfer of Business Processes
A. Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of application object Name of business object (BOR object) Change document object supported? Long text object Data category Number assignment Does SAP field exist for the number in the legacy system? Business processes BUS1036 Yes Not supported Master data External Does not exist

Transactions
Create CP01

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables CBPR, CBPT

C. BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? Business object method Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Program for generating test data? K_ABC Create multiple No Yes Yes No

Controlling (CO)

46C

108

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheets for the Transfer of Cost Elements
A. Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of application object Name of business object (BOR object) Change document object supported? Long text object Data category Number assignment Does SAP field exist for the number in the legacy system? Cost element BUS1030 Yes Not supported Master data External Does not exist

Transactions
Create KA01 (primary); KA06 (secondary)

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables CSKA, CSKB, CSKU

C. BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? Business object method Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Program for generating test data? K_CSKB Create multiple No Yes Yes No

Controlling (CO)

46C

109

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheets for the Transfer of Activity Types
A. Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of application object Name of business object (BOR object) Change document object supported? Long text object Data category Number assignment Does SAP field exist for the number in the legacy system? Activity type BUS1031 Yes Not supported Master data External Does not exist

Transactions
Create KL01

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables CSLA, CSLT

C. BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? Business object method Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Program for generating test data? K_CSLA Create multiple No Yes Yes No

Controlling (CO)

46C

110

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheets for the Transfer of Statistical Key Figures
A. Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of application object Name of business object (BOR object) Change document object supported? Long text object Data category Number assignment Does SAP field exist for the number in the legacy system? Statistical key figure BUS1138 No Not supported Master data External Does not exist

Transactions
Create KK01

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables TKA03

C. BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? Business object method Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Program for generating test data? K_KA03 Create multiple No Yes Yes No

Controlling (CO)

46C

111

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheet for the Transfer of Internal Orders
A. Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of application object Name of business object (BOR object) Change document object supported? Long text object Data category Number assignment Does SAP field exist for the number in the legacy system? Master data for internal orders BUS2075 No Not supported Master data Both Yes (AUFEX field)

Transactions
Create Change Display Delete X X X Possible before productive start, using the OK05 transaction.

Additional Programs
Reports for displaying and evaluating transferred data • • Deletion program for mass data or reversal function? Is there a change program for mass data? Can the mass tool be used? KOK3, for example, via order type or external order number RKOCHK02

Yes. Yes. No

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables Logical databases Table space AUFK, ONR0, JSTO, JEST, COBRA, COBRD OKD 1 KB

Customizing
Customizing activities that influence the data transfer Define order types, maintain number ranges for orders, maintain model orders.

Controlling (CO)

46C

112

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Time and Sequence
Time of transfer Dependency on other data You can transfer master data at any time. • • • Order types Number Ranges Enterprise Organization

C. BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? Business object method Message type Idoc type Which attributes are covered? Are all parameters required included? If not, which are missing? Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Yes, as follows: type=s cl=ko number=107 par1=message_v1 Test run indicator (details*) Yes, as follows: type=s cl=ko number=497 Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? BAPI enhancement options: - Parameter extensionIn/extensionOut? BAPI enhancement options: Do user exits or BAPIs exist? Program for generating test data? Yes, extension COOPA_01, function module EXIT_SAPLRKIO_001. Yes, R_BAPI_INTERNALORDER_CREATE_TES T. Yes. Yes, but only CI_AUF. K_ORDER, K_AUFK_ART, K_VORGNG CREATE INTERNAL_ORDER_CREATE INTERNAL_ORDER_CREATE_02 Mandatory entries: Controlling area, order type

Controlling (CO)

46C

113

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheet: The Transfer of Planning Data A. Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of application object Name of business object (BOR object) Long text object Data category CostActivityPlanning BUS6026 Not supported Transaction data

Additional Programs
Reports for displaying and evaluating transferred data Deletion program for mass data or reversal function? Standard reporting 1) Transaction KP91, but only for planintegrated objects 2) Set to 0 for all objects by importing zero values Is there a change program for mass data? Can the mass tool be used? Yes. Can change itself

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables COKA, COKP, COKS, COKR, COKL, COSP, COSS, COSL, COSR, COEJ, COEJL, COEJR

Customizing
Customizing activities that influence the data transfer Version maintenance (OKEQ/OKEV)

Time and Sequence
Time of transfer Shortly before production startup

Controlling (CO)

46C

114

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

SAP Notes

C. BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? K_CCA, K_CSKB_PLA, K_CSKS_PLA, K_KA09_KVS

Business object method

CheckActivityInput CheckActivityOutput CheckKeyFigure CheckPrimCost PostActivityInput PostActivityOutput PostKeyFigure PostPrimCost

Program for generating test data?

RK_BAPI_POSTACTINPUT RK_BAPI_POSTACTOUTPUT RK_BAPI_POSTKEYFIGURE RK_BAPI_POSTPRIMCOST

* See the Guide BAPI Development for Mass Data Transfer

D EDI Information
Message type Idoc type X12 Message type Edifact message type Output type used? Workflow for error handling Processing program (for example, ORDERS) (for example, ORDERS01, ORDERS02) (for example, 850) (for example, ORDERS) (for example, RD00) (for example, TS00008046) (for example, IDOC_INPUT_ORDERS)

Controlling (CO)

46C

115

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheets for the Transfer of Actual Data
You can transfer your actual data from external or legacy systems using Business Application Programming Interfaces (BAPIs). You can use BAPIs for transferring the following actual data: • • • • • Activity allocations Primary cost repostings Revenue repostings Statistical key figures in actual data Sender activities

Controlling (CO)

46C

116

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheet for the Transfer of Activity Allocations
Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of business object (BOR object) Long text object Data category Number assignment BUS6010 (AcctngActivityAlloc) Not supported Transaction data Internal

Transactions
Create Display Delete KB21N KB23N KB24N

Additional Programs
Reports for displaying and evaluating transferred data Deletion program for mass data or reversal function? Standard reporting Reversal BAPI is available

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables COBK, COEP, COEPL, COSS, COSL

Time and Sequence
Time of transfer Dependency on other data Any Controlling area, account assignment objects (cost centers, activity types, orders and so on)

BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? K_PVARIANT, K_VRGNG, S_ADMI_FCD, S_ALV_LAYO, S_BDS_DS, S_CTS_ADMI, S_DATASET, S_DEVELOP, S_DOKU_AUT, S_PRO_AUTH, S_RFC, S_TABU_DIS, S_TCODE, S_TRANSLAT, C_AFKO_AWK, P_ORGIN, S_TRANSPRT, S_OC_DOC, S_OC_ROLE, S_OC_SEND, S_SPO_DEV POST ACC_ACT_ALLOC

Business object method Message type

Controlling (CO)

46C

117

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Notes for parallelization

Yes: CO document number CHECK method Can several BAPIs be posted within one logical unit of work (LUW)? Yes Parallelization possible

Controlling (CO)

46C

118

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheet for the Transfer of Primary Cost Repostings
Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of business object (BOR object) Long text object Data category Number assignment BUS6011 (AcctngRepstPrimCosts) Not supported Transaction data Internal

Transactions
Create Display Delete KB11N KB13N KB14N

Additional Programs
Reports for displaying and evaluating transferred data Deletion program for mass data or reversal function? Standard reporting Reversal BAPI is available

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables COBK, COEP, COSS

Time and Sequence
Time of transfer Dependency on other data Any Controlling area, account assignment objects (cost centers, activity types, orders and so on)

BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? K_PVARIANT, K_VRGNG, S_ADMI_FCD, S_ALV_LAYO, S_BDS_DS, S_CTS_ADMI, S_DATASET, S_DEVELOP, S_DOKU_AUT, S_PRO_AUTH, S_RFC, S_TABU_DIS, S_TCODE, S_TRANSLAT, C_AFKO_AWK, P_ORGIN, S_TRANSPRT, S_OC_DOC, S_OC_ROLE, S_OC_SEND, S_SPO_DEV POST ACC_PRIM_COSTS

Business object method Message type

Controlling (CO)

46C

119

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Notes for parallelization

Yes: CO document number CHECK method Can several BAPIs be posted within one logical unit of work (LUW)? Yes Parallelization possible

Controlling (CO)

46C

120

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheet for the Transfer of Revenue Repostings
Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of business object (BOR object) Long text object Data category Number assignment BUS6012 (AcctngRepostRevenues) Not supported Transaction data Internal

Transactions
Create Display Delete KB41N KB43N KB44N

Additional Programs
Reports for displaying and evaluating transferred data Deletion program for mass data or reversal function? Standard reporting Reversal BAPI is available

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables COBK, COEP, COSS

Time and Sequence
Time of transfer Dependency on other data Any Controlling area, account assignment objects (cost centers, activity types, orders and so on)

BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? K_PVARIANT, K_VRGNG, S_ADMI_FCD, S_ALV_LAYO, S_BDS_DS, S_CTS_ADMI, S_DATASET, S_DEVELOP, S_DOKU_AUT, S_PRO_AUTH, S_RFC, S_TABU_DIS, S_TCODE, S_TRANSLAT, C_AFKO_AWK, P_ORGIN, S_TRANSPRT, S_OC_DOC, S_OC_ROLE, S_OC_SEND, S_SPO_DEV POST ACC_REVENUES

Business object method Message type

Controlling (CO)

46C

121

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Notes for parallelization

Yes: CO document number CHECK method Can several BAPIs be posted within one logical unit of work (LUW)? Yes Parallelization possible

Controlling (CO)

46C

122

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheet for the Transfer of Actual Statistical Key Figures
Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of business object (BOR object) Long text object Data category Number assignment BUS6013 (AcctngStatKeyFigures) Not supported Transaction data Internal

Transactions
Create Display Delete KB31N KB33N KB34N

Additional Programs
Reports for displaying and evaluating transferred data Deletion program for mass data or reversal function? Standard reporting Reversal BAPI is available

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables COBK, COEP, COEPR, COSR

Time and Sequence
Time of transfer Dependency on other data Any Controlling area, account assignment objects (statistical key figures, cost centers, activity types, orders and so on)

BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? K_PVARIANT, K_VRGNG, S_ADMI_FCD, S_ALV_LAYO, S_BDS_DS, S_CTS_ADMI, S_DATASET, S_DEVELOP, S_DOKU_AUT, S_PRO_AUTH, S_RFC, S_TABU_DIS, S_TCODE, S_TRANSLAT, C_AFKO_AWK, P_ORGIN, S_TRANSPRT, S_OC_DOC, S_OC_ROLE, S_OC_SEND, S_SPO_DEV POST

Business object method

Controlling (CO)

46C

123

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Message type Idoc type Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Notes for parallelization

ACC_STAT_KEY_FIG

Yes: CO document number CHECK method Can several BAPIs be posted within one logical unit of work (LUW)? Yes Parallelization possible

Controlling (CO)

46C

124

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Information Sheet for the Transfer of Sender Activity
Object Profile
Object Name and Identification
Name of business object (BOR object) Long text object Data category Number assignment BUS6014 (Acctng SenderActivity) Not supported Transaction data Internal

Additional Programs
Reports for displaying and evaluating transferred data Deletion program for mass data or reversal function? Standard reporting Reversal BAPI is available

Tables/Databases
Relevant tables COBK, COEPL, COSL

Time and Sequence
Time of transfer Dependency on other data Any Controlling area, account assignment objects (cost centers, activity types, orders and so on)

BAPI Information
Which authorization object is required? K_PVARIANT, K_VRGNG, S_ADMI_FCD, S_ALV_LAYO, S_BDS_DS, S_CTS_ADMI, S_DATASET, S_DEVELOP, S_DOKU_AUT, S_PRO_AUTH, S_RFC, S_TABU_DIS, S_TCODE, S_TRANSLAT, C_AFKO_AWK, P_ORGIN, S_TRANSPRT, S_OC_DOC, S_OC_ROLE, S_OC_SEND, S_SPO_DEV POST ACC_SENDER_ACTIVITIES Yes: CO document number CHECK method Can several BAPIs be posted within one logical unit of work (LUW)? Yes Parallelization possible

Business object method Message type Are the objects created specified in a message within the standard parameter RETURN?* Test run indicator (details*) Is a mass update possible? Has the buffer concept been realized? Notes for parallelization

Controlling (CO)

46C

125

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Controlling (CO)

46C

126

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

External Data Transfer Of Master Data For Internal Orders, With Transaction
Use
Instead of using batch input, you can transfer internal orders automatically from external systems to the SAP R/3 System. The system enters data from the external files into the data fields of the SAP-R/3 internal orders. The easier way of transferring external data from master data is to use a BAPI. For more information on external data transfer of master data for internal orders using a BAPI, see Information Sheet: Transferring Master Data For Internal Orders [Seite 112]. Old and external data is normally transferred to the SAP R/3 system as part of the implementation project in the IT department.

To transfer actual data from internal orders, use the following transactions: • • The KAFD transaction, which transfers costs on orders/projects and networks. The KAFL transaction, which deletes transferred costs on orders/projects and networks.

Prerequisites
You are in the KO09 transaction: Sender structure maintenance for orders: Master data

Features
The system enters data from the external files into the data fields of the SAP-R/3 internal orders that you wish to create. The procedure for is the same as for creating orders from the application. To transfer data, you can use the receiver structure OREXT (external order) in the SAP R/3 System. This receiver structure (for transferring data from the external system) consists of the fields in the order master data, and up to three distribution rules. A corresponding sender structure must exist in the external system. All the orders that you want to create in the SAP System must exist in an external file in the format of the sender structure. The external file must contain exactly one complete sender structure for each order (including up to three distribution rules [Extern]). See also: Example of a Completed Sender Structure [Seite 132]

Order Settlement
The KONTY_n field determines the settlement receiver (n=1,2,3). You can settle to the following receivers if you fill KONTY_n as follows: Settlement Receivers Receiver Asset Cost center Cost object KONTY_n Conversion Exit AN KS HP ALPHA ALPHA

Controlling (CO)

46C

127

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Networks Order Sales order

NP OR VB

ALPHA ALPHA ALPHA KONPR ALPHA

Project/WBS element PR G/L account SK

If you want to use fewer than three distribution rules, leave the KONTY_n fields blank that you do not need. The (BUKRS) field in the distribution rule is needed for future releases, and is currently not included. Therefore you need to leave it blank. The SCOPE field (object class) is two characters long in the OREXT. Entries there are not language dependent, for example, OC for overhead costs. For the purposes of the screen display, the system determines the language-dependent field contents from the domain table for the SCOPE data element. The system uses five-characters, for example, GKOST for overhead costs. For order types whose old order status management is active, you can use the ASTNR field to set the initial status. Otherwise, the system uses the default status. The same consistency checks are made for the automatic creation of internal orders when you create or maintain internal orders in SAP R/3 transactions. This means you must fill the same fields. The field names in the sender structure must be the same as the screen field names.

Name on the screen: Screen field name: Field name in sender structure:

Plant WERKS WERKS

You can display used field names on a screen by positioning the cursor on that field, then choosing F1 and Technical information. In the data element field, you can see the technical name of the corresponding field.

Maintaining Order Types and Dependent Objects
Many of the attributes of the order to be created are derived from the order type (for example, whether revenue postings are allowed or not). You need to specify the order type in the appropriate field in the sender structure. The data you transfer using the sender structure must fit the definitions of the corresponding order type in the SAP R/3 system. If you require a settlement rule [Extern], you need to enter a settlement profile in the order type. If you want to transfer a source assignment, you must maintain the source structure [Extern]. The R/3 System must be able to recognize all the organizational units, settlement receivers, and so on. If you want to settle one of the orders you want to create to a different order, you cannot create this in the same run as the order you want to settle. It must already exist in the system.

Controlling (CO)

46C

128

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

In contrast to the creation of orders in the application, you cannot use reference orders [Extern] or model orders [Extern] in the process of transferring old, or external data from external systems.

Activities
If the sender and receiver structures are the same, proceed as follows:

Defining The Sender Structure
...

1. Choose New entries. 2. Enter the sender structure name (such as ORSEND) and an explanatory short text. 3. Enter a 1 under Item. 4. Enter OREXT as a DDIC structure. 5. Save the sender structure.

Processing Transfer Rules
...

1. Choose Environment → Transfer rules. The sender structure that you just generated is already defaulted. 2. To process the transfer rules, choose Maintain. 3. Choose Create default rule. The system inserts the field names of the sender structure into the sender fields. 4. Save the default rule.

If the sender and receiver structures are not the same, see the implementation guide (IMG) for information on settings that you can make, under Enterprise Controlling → Executive Information System and Business Planning → Data Transfer.

Example For A Data Transfer
The RKOFILET report is available as an example of data transfer from an external system. You can use this report to create sender records on the hard drive of your presentation server for testing purposes. Proceed as follows: 1. As described above, generate the ORSEND sender structure. 2. Start the RKOFILET report and make entries in some of the fields provided. The data is not checked, as this is a test. 3. Start the old data transfer 4. Set the following indicators for the test: • • • File system: Presentation server File type: CSV format Number format: Decimal point

Controlling (CO)

46C

129

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

5. For an overview of the written sender records, and the messages for each record, choose Logs. 6. To be able to see this overview later on, start the RKCDLMON report.

Activities
Transferring Old and External Data [Seite 131] You can also: • See files using the KO08 transaction. For more information on data transfer, see the SAP Library, under Financials → Enterprise Controlling → Executive Information System and Business Planning → Data Collection → Data Transfer Methods [Extern].

Controlling (CO)

46C

130

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Old or External Data Transfer
...

1. Choose Internal orders → Environment → Data transfer → Master data 2. Enter the name of the sender structure you have defined. 3. Enter the file name of the external file containing the sender structure. Then choose Execute.

If you wish to collectively process the internal orders that are to be created in the SAP system, (for example, releasing them collectively), then you can summarize them into one order group after transferring them from the external system. If you wish to create an order group, you can, for example, use the name of the person entering data (ERNAM field) and the date it was entered (ERDAT field).

Results
The SAP system creates new internal orders using the transferred data from the external system.

Controlling (CO)

46C

131

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Example: Filled Sender Structure
The sender structure below has the same structure as the SAP receiver structure OREXT. The minimum data field entries are made for creating an internal order that is to be fully settled to a WBS element. If required, you can obtain the current OREXT receiver structure from the Data Dictionary. Choose Tools → ABAP Workbench → Development → Dictionary. Example of an ORSEND Structure with entries Field AUFNR Type Length Short Description Order number Field Contents ‘‘

CHAR 12

AUART

CHAR

4

Order type

‘0100’

KTEXT KOKRS

CHAR 40 CHAR 4

Short text Controlling area

Order to WBS ‘0001’

BUKRS

CHAR

4

Company code

‘0001’

GSBER

CHAR

4

Business area

‘0001’

WERKS

CHAR

4

Plant

‘‘

PRCTR

CHAR 10

Profit center

‘‘

KOSTV POSID

CHAR 10 CHAR 24

Responsible cost center WBS element

TEST_001 ‘‘

STORT

CHAR 10

Location

‘‘

SOWRK

CHAR

4

Plant for location

‘‘

ASTNR

NUMC

2

Order Status

‘‘

VOGRP

CHAR

4

Group locked. Business Transaction ‘ ‘

PDAT1

DATS

8

Planned release date

‘‘

Controlling (CO)

46C

132

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

PDAT2

DATS

8

Planned technical completion date

‘‘

PDAT3

DATS

8

Planned closing date

‘‘

ASTKZ

CHAR

1

Statistical order indicator

‘‘

WAERS

CUKY

5

Order currency

‘‘

KALSM

CHAR

6

Costing Sheet

‘‘

ZSCHL

CHAR

6

Overhead key

‘‘

ABGSL

CHAR

6

Results analysis key

‘‘

AWSLS

CHAR

6

Variance key

‘‘

ABKRS

NUMC

2

Processing group

‘‘

KSTAR

CHAR 10

Settlement Cost Element

‘‘

KOSTL

CHAR 10

Settle order to cost center

‘‘

SAKNR

CHAR 10

Settle order to G/L account

‘‘

USER0

CHAR 20

Applicant

‘‘

USER1

CHAR 20

Applicant tel. no.

‘‘

USER2

CHAR 20

Responsible person

‘‘

USER3

CHAR 20

Responsible person tel. no.

‘‘

USER4

CHAR 14

14-char. text field

‘‘

USER5

DATS

8

Application date

‘‘

Controlling (CO)

46C

133

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

USER6

CHAR 15

Department

‘‘

USER7

DATS

8

Work start date

‘‘

USER8

DATS

8

Work finish date

‘‘

USER9

CHAR

1

Work approved indicator

‘‘

VNAME

CHAR

6

Joint venture

‘‘

RECID

CHAR

2

Cost type

‘‘

ETYPE

CHAR

3

Investment class

‘‘

TXJCD

CHAR 15

Tax jurisdiction code

‘‘

JV_JIBCL CHAR

3

JIB/JIBE class

‘‘

JV_JIBSA CHAR

5

JIB/JIBE subclass

‘‘

SCOPE

CHAR

2

Object class

‘‘

KDAUF

CHAR 10

Sales order number

‘‘

KDPOS

NUMC

6

Item number Sales order

‘‘

AUFEX

CHAR 20

External order number

‘‘

IVPRO

CHAR

6

Capital investment measure profile ‘ ‘

AKSTL

CHAR 10

Requesting cost center

‘‘

1. Distribution rules The distribution rules are substructures of ORSEND. To reach them in the Data Dictionary, choose

Controlling (CO)

46C

134

SAP Online Help Extras → Substructures → Explode all subst. PERBZ_1 CHAR URZUO_1 CHAR 3 3 Settlement Type Source assignment FUL ‘‘

23.05.2005

PROZS_1 DEC

5

Settlement percentage rate

‘100’

AQZIF_1

DEC

10

Settlement equivalence number

’0’

BETRR_1 CURR 15

Amount/amount rule

‘0’

KONTY_1 CHAR GSBER_1 CHAR

2 4

Account assignment category Business area

PR ‘‘

BUKRS_1 CHAR

4

Company code

‘‘

HKONT_1 CHAR 10

G/L account number

‘‘

PRCTR_1 CHAR 10

Profit center

‘‘

KOSTL_1 CHAR 10

Receiving cost center

‘‘

AUFNR_1 CHAR 12

Order number

‘‘

POSID_1

CHAR 24

WBS element Main asset number

04717.1A.010 ‘‘

ANLN1_1 CHAR 12

ANLN2_1 CHAR

4

Asset subnumber

‘‘

NPLNR_1 CHAR 12

Network number account assignment Business activity number

‘‘

VORNR_1 CHAR

4

‘‘

KDAUF_1 CHAR 10

Sales order number

‘‘

KDPOS_1 NUMC

6

Item number Sales order

‘‘

Controlling (CO)

46C

135

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

KSTRG_1 CHAR 12

Cost object

‘‘

2. Distribution rule PERBZ_2 ... ... 3. Distribution rule PERBZ_3 ... ... .. . .. .

Controlling (CO)

46C

136

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Interfaces to Other SAP System Components
Use
To transfer cost-accounting relevant postings in real-time from other SAP components, you can use a central interface (AC interface), which controls the updating of actual data within the SAP system. You can also use the AC interface (RWIN) • To integrate user-defined functions into the business transaction flow You can make additional checks that are not provided for by SAP.

You should modify the FI/CO interface only in cooperation with the SAP consulting services, because incorrect settings can lead to inconsistencies in the updated data.. • • To collect data from other SAP components when using distributed systems (Application Link Enabling [Extern]). To collect data from external systems

For more information, see the SAP Library under AC - Financials → AC - Accounting General → AC - Interfaces to Accounting → IDoc Interfaces for Data Transfer to the AC Interface [Extern].

Features
The RW interface default settings enable all Controlling-relevant postings to be transferred, in real-time, to Controlling. The system makes checks and updates data in the interface.

If you would like to remove certain components from this integration, then you need to make settings for each particular case in the corresponding program control tables. Communication between the FI and CO application components is controlled by the AC interface. The data issued from an application component is transferred to the AC interface. The AC interface transfers the data to the receiver component. This then receives the incoming data via one of the following collection interfaces: • • • The GL interface for Financial Accounting (FI) The AM interface for Asset Management (FI-AA) The CO interface for Controlling (CO)

Controlling (CO)

46C

137

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

Standard Interface Settings
In the TRWCA table, you can activate or deactivate components according to fiscal year. This can be useful for performance if the components are only to be used (productively) at a later date. Components in Table TRWCA Component COFC COOI COPA COPC CORL ECCS EXTX FDIS FI FIFM FMRE FILC FMCO GL ISRE JVA MM-1 MMML PS RAIN RK-1 RWEX SD VV Description Availability control Commitments Management Profitability Analysis Profit Center Accounting Reconciliation ledger Consolidation Tax Interface Cash Management and Forecast Financial Accounting Cash Budget Management Funds Reservation Business Area Consolidation Cash Budget Management, Controlling General Ledger Real Estate Management Joint Venture Accounting Logistics Material Ledger Material Ledger Update Project System Asset accounting Controlling: Actual Postings IDoc Output, External Accounting Sales Financial Assets Management

Fiscal Year Dependent Entries in Table TRWCA Component RK-1 RK-1 To Year 1990 1999 X Active

Controlling (CO)

46C

138

SAP Online Help

23.05.2005

The first entry deactivates the RK-1 component until fiscal year 1990. The second entry activates it until fiscal year 1999. These entries ensure that all postings as of fiscal year 1991 are transferred to Controlling.

If you wish to deactivate specific components, you need to use the TRWCA table. The system does not delete the component entries that you wish to deactivate, but inactivates them in this table. The table can thus be retained in its complete state, as delivered by SAP in the standard.

Controlling (CO)

46C

139

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful