Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrochemistry
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Understanding properties of electrolytes and non-electrolytes Analysing electrolysis of molten compounds Analysing the electrolysis of aqueous solutions Evaluating electrolysis in industry Analysing voltaic cell Synthesising electrochemical series Develop awareness and responsible practices when handling chemicals used in electrochemical industries

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Modul AI-Kimiya 6.1 Understanding properties of electrolytes

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis
and non-electrolytes

A student is able to: • state the meaning of electrolytes • classify substances into electrolytes and non-electrolytes • relate the presence of freely moving ions to electrical conductivity.

1. Definition of electrolysis is

.

A. ELECTROLYTES

AND NON-ELECTROLYTES

"BU:~,

is

. lighted
Mc4ten.~· -~. kad(U) ib:romiide., PlbB"2 Sodiil;lm .chlru'ide,

Mad ~]U!tiOOl

.01. n;1:!

,,:,1 .'. "_";P,'~'. !ri~'lVl:.'J:e.

-...,......z ..:r.,.....Jrkitv . :nrtt>imC'e' ol .J'''''' ~ can.. ~_I· •• """: ~"' .., .. - .. :!I' b8ci:iu$e .. o.t···· the r . ::/' ... .:;i

movi\';O' "'''Q,

Ww.

1. Definition of an electrolyte is a substance

that can conduct

.in

...............

state or

solution and undergo chemical changes.

2. Ionic compounds in molten state or in aqueous solution are electrolytes because these substances contain freely . either

3. A non-electrolyte is a substance that cannot conduct in state or solution. contain

4. Covalent compounds are non-electrolytes and these substances neutral and no freely

However, certain

covalent compounds such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia and ethanoic acid when dissolved in water are electrolytes. This is because these compounds react with water to produce freely .

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Modul AI-Kimiya Activity 1: Classify the substances

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis
in the text box below into electrolyte and

non-electrolyte Solid lead(lI) chloride, molten aluminium oxide, lead(lI) nitrate solution, solid sodium chloride, sodium chloride solution, magnesium, silver, molten lead (II)chloride, glucose solution, glacial ethanoic acid, dilute ethanoic acid, molten naphthalene, ethanol, tetrachloromethane, sodium hydroxide solution, aqueous ammonia Electrolyte Non-electrolyte

6.2 Analysing electrolysis

of molten compounds

A student is able to: • describe electrolysis, • describe electrolytic cell, • identify cations and anions in a molten compound, • describe evidence for the existence of ions held in a lattice in solid state but move freely in molten state, • describe electrolysis of a molten compound, • write half-equations for the discharge of ions at anode and cathode, • predict products of the electrolysis of molten compounds.

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Modul AI-Kimiya Electrolysis of Molten Compounds

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

1. Electrolysis

is a process

whereby

compounds

in through them.

or

..........................

states are broken down (or decomposed) into their constituent by passing

...................................

2. Anode is the electrode which is connected to the battery. 3. Cathode is the electrode which is connected to the of a battery.

terminal of a terminal

4. Carbon or platinum is chosen as electrodes as they are chemically inert or unreactive. 5. The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus (II)bromide.
Activity 2: Name the main apparatus and materials in the diagram.

of electrolysis of molten lead

Iii

,----Ii _I
NOTE:

• During electrolysis cations are attracted to the cathode and anions are
attracted to the anode. • Solid sodium chloride contains sodium ions and chloride ions which are in fixed position and not freely moving.

• In solid state, sodium ions and chloride ions are strongly attracted by
electrostatic forces in a lattice.

• Electric circuit is complete due to the flow of electrons along the connecting wires and movement of ions in the solution.
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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

• If the electrodes are placed further apart, the ammeter reading will decrease because there will be an increase in internal resistance .
• Aqueous sodium chloride contains Activity freely moving ions to conduct electricity. 3: Given below is a list of ionic compounds

in molten state. Identify the

cation and anion in each electrolyte.

Electrolyte (Molten)

Cation Name Formula

Anion Name Formula

Sodium chloride Lead(II) oxide Potassium bromide

Activity

4: Given below is a list of electrolytes and products

discharged at both

electrodes. Based on the given substance

discharged at the electrode, write a half

equation to represent the reaction occurring at the electrode.
Electrolyte (molten) Substance discharged at the electrodes and the half equation Anode Cathode

(i) Aluminium oxide,
Ah03

Oxygen gas Half equation:
............................................

Aluminium Half equation:
............................................

(ii) Potassium iodide, KI

Iodine Half equation:
............................................

Potassium Half equation:
............................................

(iii) Sodium chloride, NaCI

Chlorine gas Half equation:
............................................

Sodium Half equation:
...........................................

(iv)Zinc bromide,
ZnBr2

Bromine gas Half equation:
............................................

Zinc Half equation:
. ..........................................

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

Activity 5: The flow chart below is used to predict the products formed at the electrodes during the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide, PbBr20
Molten lead(lI) bromide

Consists of

(Ions that are present)

...

_......;(_MOVement

of ions)

I

1

To anode

I

I I

(Half equation) At Anode

(Products formed) At Anode

-I

Try This!
1. In the spaces below, draw a similar flow chart (as in question

products formed at the electrodes chloride, PbCh.

from the electrolysis

1) to predict the of molten lead(II)

Molten Lead(lI) chloride

Consists of

(Ions that are present)

...

-.....;._

(Movement of ions) To anode

(Half equation) At Anode

...

---

(Products formed) At Anode
p

Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

2. Predict the products formed at the electrodes during the electrolysis of molten Zinc Chloride, ZnCb.
Molten Zinc Chloride

Consists of

(Ions that are present)

...

_.....;.(_MOVement

of ions)

I

1

To anode

I

I I

(Half equation) At Anode

(Products formed) At Anode

-I

Try This! In the spaces below, draw a similar flow chart (as in question 1) to predict the products formed at the electrodes from the electrolysis of molten Aluminium oxide, Ab03.
Molten Aluminium Oxide

Consists of

(Ions that are present)

...

_.....;.(_MOVement

of ions)

I

1

To anode

I

(Half equation) At Anode

I

I

(Products formed) At Anode

do

~

Modul AI-Kimiya 6.3 Analysing the electrolysis of aqueous solutions

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

A student is able to: • identify cations and anions in an aqueous solution, • describe the electrolysis of an aqueous solution, • explain using examples factors affecting electrolysis of an aqueous solution, • write half equations for the discharge of ions at the anode and the cathode, • predict the products of electrolysis of aqueous solutions.

(i). Aqueous Solutions

1. Molten contains only solute. That means 2 ions exist. The positive ion and the

negative ion, from a solute. 2. But an aqueous, contain solute that have two ions and solution - water, also have two ions.

Molten (solute only)

Aqueous

Solute Solute 1 +ve ion 1 -ve ion Solution (Water)

1 +ve ion 1 +ve ion, H+

1 -ve ion 1 -ve ion,
OH-

3. That mean, the aqueous ions and two negative ions. 4. When the switch is on,

solution contains 4 ions present in it. Two positive

(i) The two positive ions will attract to cathode (ii) the two negative ions will attract to anode. 5. Based on the situation, the factor affecting electrolysis are: (a). The position of ions in the Electrochemical Series (b). The concentration of electrode (solution used) (c). The type of electrode

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis
Series

(ii). Electrochemical cathode.

1. The list used to determine

the ions will be selected and discharge

at anode and

ELECTROCHEMICALSERIES Cation Formula Name Memorize Formula Anion Name Memorize

K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ A13+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Pb2+ H+ Cu2+
Ag"

FS042N03 CIBr1-

OH-

(a). The affect of the position

of ions in the Electrochemical

Series

1. Based

on the Electrochemical the position.

Series, arrange

the ions in aqueous Series.

solution

according

The ions that will be selected at anode and cathode will

be choosing in the LOWER position in the Electrochemical
Example 1: The lead(II) bromide solution,

PbBr2

(Solution mean aqueous - contains
Ions present in solution

solute and solution)

anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason

Cathode

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Modul AI-Kimiya Example 2: The lead(II) chloride solution, PbCb Ions present in solution Anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

Cathode

Example 3: The Copper(II) Sulphate solution, CUS04 Ions present in solution anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason Cathode

Example 4: The Silver bromide solution, AgBr Ions present in solution Anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason Cathode

Example 5: Hydrochloric acid (Hydrogen chloride), HCI Ions present in solution anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason Cathode

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Modul AI-Kimiya (b). The affect of the concentration of electrode

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis
(solution used)

1. Concentration

means

the solution

contains

more solute than

water. The

indicator to show concentration 2. Example: Concentrated

is MOLDM-3 and CONCENTRATED.

Copper(II) sulphate

I

1.0 moldm" Copper(II) sulphate

Example 1: 1.0 moldm+ oflead(II) bromide solution, PbBr2 Ions present in solution anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason Cathode

Example 2: Concentrated Ions present in solution

of lead(II) chloride solution, PbCb

anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason

Cathode

Example 3: 1.0 moldm+ of Silver bromide solution, AgBr Ions present in solution anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason Cathode

Conclusion for cathode:

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Modul AI-Kimiya Example 4: Concentrated Ions present in solution anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid, HCI

Cathode

Note!

If the aqueous contains ion Positive ions Negative ions : Fe2+ to K+ : N03 -, S04 2-and FThe ions will be NOT selected. other ion will be chosen. The

Example 5: 1.0 moldm" of Copper(II) Sulphate Ions present in solution anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason

solution, CUS04

Cathode

Example 6: 1.0 moldm" of Sulphuric Ions present in solution

acid, H2S04

anode Ion that move to Ion that choose Reason

Cathode

(c). The affect of type of electrode

1. In the discussion unreactive electrode.

before, the electrode

used

is carbon

or platinum.

This

2. If used electrode other than carbon or platinum, the electrode will react.

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Modul AI-Kimiya Anode

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis
Cathode

• • •

The electrode will dissolve into the solution The electrode produce ions The electrode become thinner

• • •

The electrode act as "middle person" Choose the concentrated ions or the lower position of ions in the solution The electrode will be coated or
thicker

Example 1: Copper(II) sulphate solution with (i) carbon electrode

(ii) copper electrode

Diagram

Ions present Ions attract to anode Ion chosen Reason Ions attract to Cathode Ion chosen Reason

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Modul AI-Kimiya Example 2: Silver nitrate solution with (i) carbon electrode

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

(ii) silver electrode

Diagram

Ions present Ions attract to anode Ion chosen Reason Ions attract to Cathode Ion chosen Reason

Example 3: Silver nitrate solution with silver electrode and spoon

Ions present Ion attract to anode Ion chosen

Ion attract to cathode Ion chosen Diagram

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Modul AI-Kimiya Try This!
1.

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

Dilute magnesium chloride solution

__
-r:, __ ~

_

- - -----------

Electrode P --\:---+11-------------

----------------------..... ---+-

Electrode Q

The apparatus

above is used to electrolyse dilute magnesium

chloride solution.

1. (a)Name electrode (i) P : [1M] (ii)Q : [1M]

(b) Write formula of all ions present in the solution. [2 M]

(c) (i) Name the product X. [1 M]

(ii)State a chemical test to confirm your answer to (c) (i) above. [1 M]

(iii)Write a half ionic equation for the reaction occurring at electrode P. [1 M]

(d) (i) Name the product Y. [1 M]

(ii) State a chemical test to confirm your answer to (d) (i) above. [1 M]

(iii) Write a half ionic equation for the reaction occurring at electrode Q. [1 M]

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Modul AI-Kimiya 2.

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

Concentrated sodium chloride -~ solution Electrode P ~,....---.-------------

-----------------------.._--+----------

Electrode Q

The apparatus solution.

above is used to electrolyse concentrated

sodium chloride

(a) Name electrode (i)
P

[1 M] [1 M]

(ii) Q (b) Write formula of all ions present in the solution. [2 M]

(c) (i) Name the product X. [1 M]

(ii) State a chemical test to confirm your answer to (c) (i) above. [1 M]

(iii) Write a half ionic equation for the reaction occurring at electrode P. [1 M]

(d) (i) Name the product Y. [1 M]

(ii) State a chemical test to confirm your answer to (d) (i) above.[1 M]

(iii) Write a half ionic equation for the reaction occurring at electrode Q.[1 M]

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Modul AI-Kimiya 3.

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

~
I+-----H-----"",,-------

Copper electrodes

+t---

Copper(II) sulphate solution

The apparatus above is used in electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution using copper electrodes. (a)Write the formula of all ions present in the solution. [2 M]

(b) Write half ionic equation for the reaction at the: (i) anode (ii)cathode [1 M] [1 M]

(c) Explain why the concentration of the copper(II) sulphate solution does not change as electrolysis proceeds. [2 M]

(d) If the experiment is repeated but with the copper electrodes being replaced with carbon electrodes, name the products formed at the: (i) anode (ii)cathode (e) Write half ionic equation for the reaction at the: (i) anode when the carbon electrodes are used. [1 M] [1 M] [1 M]

(ii) cathode when the carbon electrodes are used. [1 M]

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Modul AI-Kimiya Exercise 1: 1. Diagram 1.1 shows the set-up of apparatus molten Lead (II) bromide.

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

to investigate the electrolysis of

Carbon electrode X Crucible----'Ii

DIAGRAM 1.1 (a) Based on Diagram 6. 1, identify : [1M] Anode Cathode

(b) Write the formulae for the ions present in molten lead (II) bromide. [1M]

(c) State the ion that is attracted (i)
X:

to: [1M]
.

(ii) Y:

.

(d) In Diagram 1.2 below, draw arrows (-----+) to show the movement of ions in (c). [2M] y x

e
Diagram1.2

G

Positive ion Negative ion

(e) Write the half equations of the reaction at electrodes: [2M]
(1·) X : (1·1·) Y:
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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

(g) What would you observe at electrodes? [2M]
(1·) X : (1·1·) Y:

. .

2. Diagram 2 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of a dilute aqueous sodium chloride solution using carbon electrodes.

Electrode Q Electrode P

Diagram 2 (a) What is meant by cation? [1M]

(b) What is the energy change that occurs in the electrolysis process?

[1M]

(c) (i) State all the ions present in the electrolyte. [2M]

(ii) In the table below, write the formulae of the ions in (c) (i) which moved to electrodes P and Q. [2M] ~~------------~---------------, Electrode P Electrode Q

(d) Name the gas collected in the test tube at electrodes P and Q. [2M]
Electrode P Electrode

Q

(e) If a concentrated sodium chloride solution is used in the above electrolysis, name the gas collected in the test tube at electrode Q. Explain why.[2M]

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Modul AI-Kimiya 3. Diagram 3 show the set-up of apparatus solution using carbon electrodes.
GasV--------I::::::____]

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis to electrolysis copper (II) sulphate

Carbon electrode T Copper(II)sulphate solution 1.0 mol

l____-----ll

11---1

~_____J

Diagram 3 (a) What is meant by electrolysis? [1M]

(b) State which electrode acts as the anode? [1M]

(c)Name all the anions present in the solution. [1M]

(d)(i)What would you observe at electrode T? [1M]

(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at the electrode T. [1M]

(e) (i) Name gas V. [1M]

(ii) Describe a chemical test to identify the gas V. [2M]

(f) What is the process occurring at electrode carbon T? Explain your answer. [2M]

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

4. The diagram 4 below shows the set-up of apparatus of an electrolytic cell containing concentrated copper (II) sulphate solution. Two test tubes filled with copper (II) sulphate solution were placed over the electrodes J and K to collect any gas evolved. The switch is then turned on so that electrolysis of copper (II) sulphate solution can occur.

Diagram 4 (a) Identify the cations and the anions present in the aqueous solution. Cations : Anions: .

(b) Identify which electrode ( J or K ) is the anode and the cathode: Anode : Cathode: .

(c) (i) Which ion is selectively discharge at the anode?

(ii) Give a reason for your answer in (c) (i).

(iii)What do you observe at the anode?

(iv) Give one test to confirm the gas released at K.

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

(v)Write a half equation to represent the discharge of ions at anode.

(d) (i) Which ion is selectively discharge at the cathode?

(ii). Give a reason for your answer in (d) (i)

(iii). Which do you observe at the cathode?

(v)Write a half equation to represent the discharge of ions at the cathode.

(e) What do you observe about the copper (II)sulphate solution?

6.4 Evaluating electrolysis

in industry

A student is able to: • state uses of electrolysis in industries, • explain the extraction, purification and electroplating of metals involving electrolysis in industries, • write chemical equations to represent the electrolysis process in industries, • justify uses of electrolysis in industries, • describe the problem of pollution from electrolysis in industry.

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Modul AI-Kimiya Electrolysis in Industries
1. The application of electrolysis in industries

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

are .

. electrodes are used and the

, and

and

2. In the extraction of aluminium from its ore, 3. In purification of metals, the pure metal is made the impure metal is made the salt solution of the metal ions. 4. In electroplating of metals, the .................. to be

is added to aluminium oxide to lower its melting point. The electrolyte used is an aqueous .is made the anode and the is made the cathode. The electrolyte

used is an aqueous salt solution of the electroplating metal. 5. The purposes of electroplating metals are to make the electroplated object more ......................................... and to corrosion.

6. Below are shown the three uses of electrolysis in industries. Fill in the blanks.
Extraction of aluminium from bauxites Purification of copper from impure mined copper Cathode: Electroplating of iron spoon with silver Cathode:

1. Substanceused Cathode: as cathode and anode
Anode:

Anode:

Anode:

2. electrolyte used

3. Half equation represen ting the process.

Cathode:

Cathode:

Cathode:

Anode:

Anode:

Anode:

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Modul AI-Kimiya 6.5 Analysing voltaic cell

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

A student is able to: • describe the structure of a simple voltaic cell and Daniell cell, • explain the production of electricity from a simple voltaic cell, • explain the reactions in a simple voltaic cell and Daniell cell, • compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of various voltaic cells, • describe the differences between electrolytic and voltaic cells.

Voltaic Cells

1. A simple voltaic cell can be constructed

by immersing two . to

metals in an 2. In a voltaic cell, energy.

connected by energy is converted

3. THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES is an arrangement

of metals based on the

tendency of each metal atom to donate electrons. Complete the table below.

Electrochemical

series of metals

Cation formed

and number of electron(s)

released during the process

Potassium,

K

K -- > K+ + e

Aluminium, Al

Tendency of

Al -- > A13+ 3e +

metal atoms to donate electrons to
form ions

.

Copper, Cu

Cu --

>

* Note: Hydrogen is not a metal, but it is included in the Electrochemical Series.

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

4. The diagram below shows an example of a simple voltaic cell.

~----~--~~

v ~----------,
'I
1~~~ __

Enc~Troll. (low

...iI'

Hydrogl'!'rl

H:H)1i1;:~lilk.li2

Copper pE;lik

Explanation:

• • • •

An example of a simple voltaic cell is a magnesium immersed in dilute sodium chloride solution. The electrons then flows from the magnesium

strip and a copper strip

ribbon to the copper plate

through the wire and this results in the flow of electrical current. Hence magnesium atom releases electrons more easily than a copper atom and the magnesium act as the negative terminal of the cell. The overall equation for the reaction is given as follows. Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) --> Mg='{aq] + H2(g) • • Magnesium is placed higher than copper in the electrochemical At the negative terminal, each magnesium the Mg2+formed moved into the solution. Mg(s) --> Mg2+(aq) + 2e

series.

atom releases two electrons and

At the positive terminal which is the copper plate, the electrons are accepted by the H+ ions in sodium chloride solution. 2H+ + 2e --> H2 (g)

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Modul AI-Kimiya Exercise 2:

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

1. Diagram 1 shows a chemical cell with iron and aluminium metals acting as electrodes which are immersed in the iron(II) sulphate solution and aluminium nitrate solution respectively .
.-----------{v}----------,

Salt bridge

I
Iron

-=-=l-_ ====== =======:

- - - --

~_I===t----Aluminium
nitrate solution

Iron (II) sulphate solution __

~~------------

:=======-_=====~ ----Aluminium

Diagram 1 (a) State the energy change in the cell above. [1M]

(b) State the negative terminal. Explain your answer. [2M]

(c) (i) State one observation at the aluminium electrode. [1M]

(ii) Write the half equation for the reaction in c (i). [1M]

(d) Mark the direction of the flow of electrons in the diagram above. [1M] (e) (i) What is the function of the salt bridge? [1M]

(ii) Suggest a suitable chemical substance

to be used as salt bridge. [1M]

(f) Voltage value of the cell is 0.8 V. If the iron is replaced by copper, predict the voltage value produced. Explain your answer. [2M]

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Modul AI-Kimiya 2. Diagram 2 represents

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis a Daniell cell where strips of copper and zinc are used.

Copper(ll) sulphate solution t-=+--Zinc sulphate solution

Diagram 2

(a) State the metal which acts as [1M] positive terminal: and negative terminal: .

(b) In Diagram, draw arrows (-----+) to show the direction of the flow of electrons.[IM] (c) What is the energy change that occurs in the cell? [1M]

(d) What is the function of the porous pot? [1M]

(e) Write the half equations of the reaction take place at: [2M] (i) positive terminal (ii) negative terminal (f)After 30 minutes, what is the colour change of the copper(II) sulphate solution? Explain why. [2M]

(g) The voltage of the cell in Diagram 8 is 1.1 volts. If the zinc strip is replaced by magnesium ribbon and dipped in magnesium sulphate solution, predict the voltage of the cell formed. Explain why. [2M]

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Modul AI-Kimiya Act 7:

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

The table below listed are five types of voltaic cells commonly used in our daily lives. Each voltaic cell has its advantages and disadvantages. Complete the table by stating the advantages and disadvantages each voltaic cell. of

Voltaic cell

Advantages

Disadvantages

1. Lead -acid accumulator 2. Dry cell 3. Mercury cell 4. Alkaline cell 5. Nickelcadmium cell

6.6 Synthesising

electrochemical

series

A student is able to: • describe the principles used in constructing the electrochemical series, • construct the electrochemical series, • explain the importance of electrochemical series, • predict the ability of a metal to displace another metal from its salt solution, • write the chemical equations for metal displacement reactions.

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Modul AI-Kimiya The Electrochemical Series

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

1. THE ELECTROCHEMICALSERIES is an arrangement tendency of each metal atom to donate electrons.

of metals based on the

2. The higher the position of a metal in the Electrochemical Series, the greater the tendency of metal atoms to donate electrons. 3. The Electrochemical Series can be constructed (i)The potential difference between two metals (ii)The ability of a metal to displace another metalDisplacement reaction based on

(i) The potential difference between two metals

1. The voltaic cell, two different metals are used to create a potential difference,

which is shown by the reading on the voltmeter. 2. The further the two metals are in the electrochemical voltage produced by the cell. 3. The metal which is higher in the electrochemical terminal. 4. The electrons are released and flow through the external circuit to the other electrode, which is the positive terminal. (ii). The ability of a metal to displace another metal - Displacement reaction 1. The higher metal in Electrochemical electrochemical series from its salt solution.
[Other word- Metal on the top, can displace the metal solution below it in ECS]

series, the greater the

series will be the negative

Series can displace

metal below in

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

Example: Reaction between Magnesium and Copper(II) sulphate Metal Metal solution

Substance Position in Electrochemical series Can React?

Activity 8: Solve the question below

a. Reaction between Copper and Silver nitrate
Metal Metal solution

Substance Position in Electrochemical series Can React? b. Reaction between Zinc and Magnesium sulphate
Metal Metal solution

Substance Position in Electrochemical series Can React? c. Reaction between Silver and Copper(II) sulphate
Metal Metal solution

Substance Position in Electrochemical series Can React?

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Modul AI-Kimiya Activity 9:

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

Three metals

experiments P, Q, Sand

were

conducted

to investigate

the

potential

differences difference

between three pairs of metals in a voltaic cell. An electrochemical series for four T is then constructed based on the potential obtained. Three pair of metals used as electrodes in different voltaic cells are: P and Q, Q and Sand Sand T. All the metals are cleaned with sandpaper before used. 50 em- of 1.0 mol dm" sodium nitrate solution is poured into a beaker as electrolyte.
Experiment I

The electrodes P and Q are immersed into the solution. The two electrodes are connected to a voltmeter using copper wires. Electrode Q is the positive
terminal. The voltmeter reading is recorded.

Experiment

II

The electrodes Q and S are immersed into the solution. The two electrodes are connected to a voltmeter using copper wire. Electrode Q is the
positive terminal. The voltmeter reading is recorded.

Experiment

III

The electrodes Sand connected

T are immersed into the solution. The two electrodes are using copper wire. Electrode
T is the positive

to a voltmeter

terminal. The voltmeter reading is recorded.

Based on Experiment I, II and III, answer the questions below. (a) Record the voltmeter reading of each experiment in the spaces provided. Experimen t 1 Experimen t II Experimen t III

o~~

\,~,/5

\v
I

~6

o~

\,~,/5

",v
I

~6

o~

\,~//5
I

t

I

~6

V

I

I
Voltmeter reading:

I

I
.

Voltmeter reading:

Voltmeter reading:

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

(b) Construct a table to record the data from the above experiments.

(c) List the apparatus experiment. Apparatus:

and materials

that

you will need to carry out this

.

Materials:

.

(c) State all the variables: Manipulated variable Responding variable Controlled variable (d) State the hypothesis:

(e) Based on the information obtained in Experiment I, what can you infer about metal P and Q?

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Modul AI-Kimiya
(f) Write a half equation

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis for the reaction occurring in negative of Experiment I,

assuming the cation has a +2 charge.

(g) Arrange the metals P, Q, Sand donate electrons.

T in descending order of their tendency to

(h) Another voltaic cell is set-up using metals T and Q as electrodes. potential difference produced in the cell.

Predict the

(i) Given that

metal

X is placed

between

metal

S and

metal

Q in the

electrochemical series, can metal X displace metal S from its salt solution? Give an explanation for your answer

U) Given that copper is more electropositive than metal T, a displacement reaction
will occur when copper is immersed into a salt solution of metal T, TN03. Write the chemical equation for this reaction.

(k) State three important uses of the electrochemical series

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Modul AI-Kimiya Objective Question:

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

1. The table shows information about three simple cells.
Pair of metals Potential difference/ V Metal at negative terminal

X and copper Y and copper Z and copper

0.45 1.30 0.56

X Y Cu

What is the potential difference of the pair of metals Y and Z? A B C D 0.85 1.01 1.86 2.31

2. The table shows the results of an experiment on chemical cell using different pairs of metal electrodes immersed in a copper (II)sulphate solution.
Electrodes Positive Negative P Q P S R Q R S Voltmeter reading/ V

0.5 2.7 1.0 1.2

The ascending arrangement
A

according to the tendency of releasing electrons is

B
C D

S, R, Q, P P, Q, S, R P, R, Q, S P, Q, R, S

3. Table 1 shows the potential difference of two cells. W, X and Yare metal. The relative position the metals in electrochemical series with the most electropositive metal first, is ....
Cell I Electrodes Positive terminal Negative terminal Potential difference

II A B C D E

WandX WandY W,X,Y Y,W,X Y,X,W X,W,Y X,Y,W

W W
Table 1

X Y

1.1 volt 0.8 volt

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

4. Table 3 shows the results of an experiment from four chemical cells. Arrangemen t of the metals in decreasing order of the tendency to release electron is ....
Chemical cell Metal Metal Potential difference/ Positive terminal Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4

V

J R 2.8 R Table 3

J Q 1.7 Q

Q R 1.1 R

Q M 0.6 M

A
B

C D

J,Q,R,M J,Q,M,R R, Q, M, J R, M, Q, J

5. The table shows the voltmeter readings when a pair of different metal electrodes are dipped into the copper(II) nitrate solution.
Metal electrode Positive terminal Negative terminal P S Voltmeter Reading/ V

P R Q What is the value of Y?
A B

Q
S

R

2.8 0.8 1.2 Y

C

D

0.8 1.0 1.6 2.0

6.Table 3 shows the results of an experiment for three chemical cells. Chemical cell Metal pairs X Pand R Y Rand S Z Q and R Negative terminal R S R Table 3 Cell voltage IV 1.9 0.8 0.3

Which the following can be deduced from table 3? I II III IV the cell voltage is 1.6 V when P and Q are used as electrodes the cell voltage is 1.1 V when P and S are used as electrode electrons flows from terminal Q to terminal S in the metal pair Q and S P functions as a positive terminal when it is paired with Q, R or S in a cell

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

A B C D

I and IV only II and III only I, II and III only I,ll, III and IV

Exercise

3:

The diagram below shows a simple chemical cell that was set up to investigate the arrangement of metals P, Q, Rand S.

Electrolyte

The table below shows the pair of metals used for each experiment.
Experiments I II III IV Pairs of metals Negative electrodes Voltmeter readings (V)

Rand Sand Pand Sand

Q
R S

Q
S P

Q

The voltmeter readings for each experiment are shown in the diagram below.

Experiment I

Experiment II

Experiment III

Experiment IV

(a) Read and record the voltmeter readings in the table above. [3M] (b) State the variables for this experiment. [3M] The manipulated variable

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Modul AI-Kimiya The responding variable The fixed variable (c) State the hypothesis for this experiment. [3M]

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

(d) Predict the negative terminal in experiment IV. [3M]

(e) Based on the voltmeter reading, arrange the metals of P,Q, R, and S according to ascending order of electropositivity. [3M]

(f) What is the inference that can be made for the mass of the negative electrode and the positive electrode in each experiment after a certain time interval? [3M]

(g)Why is the voltmeter reading for experiment II bigger than experiment IV? [3M]

(h) In experiment I, if Q is copper metal, R is silver metal, and sulphuric acid is used as the electrolyte, (i) State two observations that can be made in the experiment. [3M]

(ii)Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs at the copper metal. [3M]

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Modul AI-Kimiya

Chap. 06 - Electrolysis

(i) Classify the metals that can displace and cannot displace metal Q from the salt solution of Q. [3M] Metals that can displace metal Q from salt solution of Q. Metals that cannot displace metal Q from salt solution of Q.

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