THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP

GU WORKSHOP IDE
AND PULLS PEGS SHAKER
PEGS COMM()N SHAKER

FINISHES SHAKER
FINISH A SHAKER REPTICATING of painted in theirfurniture a variety colors, TheShakers ye V ll b , e o i n c l u d i nrg d , r a n g e , l l o w ,l u e a n db r o w n . t r t u a lay l in that pieces with were coated thin paints a wash of these grain show To this through. replicate to allowed wood's the paint. Milkpaints leave a you latex effect, canusemilkpaintor once surface the or oiled, waxed thatcanbestained, flatfinish that as milk is dry.Although paintis available a powder is your you the to added water, canprepare ownby blending below. in shown thechart ingredients To with were Shaker Some Dieces f inished varntsh. tone furnishowy-Shaker too a thatwas glossy-and down finish The with rubbed down surfaces pumice. oilthe turemakers rich presented willimpart deep, f inish a below recipe varnish good protection the for gloss, offer and too without much with apply solution a rag,let it sit the results, wood. best For with then for onthesurface a fewminutes, ruboff theexcess sand lightly, to for rag. 24 a clean Allow hours thecoat cure, any in Complete finbuilding thefinrsh layers. up andrepeat, paste of ishwitha coat good-qualiiy wax.

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(lIT.VARNISH FINISH Wood . 1 p a r tl i n s e e o r t u n go i l d
o 2 naric satin varnish

. 3 partssteam-distilled turpentine PAINT MILK (yields 1 about quart): Basic formula . 1 r / 2 u p ss k i mm i l k c . 1 o z .s l a k e di m e l o 8 o z .p l a s t eo f P a r i s r c a l c i u m a r b o n a t e r c o Procedure 'I . S p r i n k l t h e l i m ei n t ot h e m i l ka n dm i xf o r 3 m i n u t e s . e f S t i ri n t h e p ' a s t e ' oP a r i s . p p s s 2 . A d dc o i o r i n g ,u c ha s a r t i s t ' s r g m e n to r e a r t h i g m e n t s p o f c u s e d o r c o o r i n g e m e n tt;e s tt h e s o l u i i o n n a s c r a p l e c e a n dl e t i t d r y , i t 3 . L e tt h e o a i n ts r tf o r t h o u r , h e nb r u s h t o n , f s t i r r i n gr e q u e n t l y . h c o 4 . A d da t h i n a y e r f v a r n t s o r s h e l l a t o p r o t e ctth e f i n s h , PAINT LATEX Procedure '| c t t . A p p l y t h i n f i r s tc o a ti n t h e d e s i r e d o l o r o s e a l h e w o o d a a n d l e td r y . f i w 2 . R u bt h e s u r f a c e i t hv e r y i n es t e e w o o l . 3 . A p p l y n o t h etrh i n c o a to f p a i n ta n dr u bw i t hv e r y a f i n es t e e w o o l . l s 4 . A d da l i g h tc o a to f o r a n g e h e l l a c .

THEARTOFWOODWORKING

SHAKER FURNITURE

THE ART OF WOODWORKING

SffiR FIJRNITURE

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA. VIRGINIA PRESS ST.REMY MONTREAL. NEWYORK

THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST.REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PRES/DENT PierreLdveill6 Editor Series Series Director Art SeniorEditor Editor Art Directors Designers Picture Editor Writers ContributingWriter Cont r ibuting Illu str ors at Administrator Production Manager Coordinator System Coordinator Photographer Indexer PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini Andrew fones Normand Boudreault, Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre Michel Gigudre HdldneDion, Jean-Guy Doiron, Frangois Daxhelet ChristopherJackson fohn Dowling,Adam Van Sertima fune Sprigg GillesBeauchemin, Michel Blais, RonaldDurepos,Michael Stockdale, Th6rien James Natalie Watanabe Michelle Turbide Dominique Gagn6 Eric Beaulieu RobertChartier ChristineM. Iacobs

THECONSUXIANTS
Ian Ingersoll owns a cabinetmakingshop in WestCornwall, Connecticut,that specializes Shakerfurniture. in GilesMiller-Mead taught advanced cabinetmaking Montreal at for technicalschools more than ten years. nativeof New A Zealand, hasworked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. he ShakerFurniture. p. cm.- (The art of woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9s33-3 1. Furniture making-Amateurs' manuals. 2. Furniture,Shaker-Amateurs' manuals. I. Time-Life Books. IL Series. TTl95.S481995 749.213'08'8288-dc20 95-1022 cIP For information about any Time-Life book, please l-800-621-7026, write: call or Reader Information Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1995 Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced any form or by in any electronicor mechanical means, including information storage and retrievaldevices systems, without prior writor ten permissionfrom the publisher,except that brief passages may be quoted for reviews. First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneously Canada. in TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Time-Life Booksis a division of Time Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY TIME.LIFEINC. President CEO and Editor-in-Chief JohnM. Fahey JohnL. Papanek

TIME-LIFEBOOKS
President Vice-President, Director of Marketing ManagingEditor Director of Design Directorof Editorial Operations Consubing Editor Vice-President, ook Production B Production Manager Manager Quality Assurance John D. Hall Nanry K. fones RobertaConlan MichaelHentges Ellen Robling John R. Sullivan Marjann Caldwell Marlene Zack King James

CONTENTS
6 INTRODUCTION L2 SHAKERDESIGN 1 8 A galleryof Shaker furniture 24 26 34 38 44 48 56 58 68 78 86 88 90 94 97 104 106 CHAIRS Enfield sidechair Rushseat Shakerrocking chair Thpeseat Meetinghouse bench TABTES Tiestletable Drop-leaftable Candlestand PIE SAFE Anatomy of a pie safe Making the casework frames Raisingthe panels Assembling safe the Shelving Tin-paneldoors 1T6 118 129 135 138 SHAKERCTASSICS Wall clock Stepstool Shakerboxes Pegboard

140 GTOSSARY 142 INDEX 144 ACKNOWTEDGMENTS

INTRODUCTION

David Lambon

REDEFINING SHAKERSTYLE
enough liveattheCanterbury to ShakerVillage in NewHampshire f *ur fortunate L for 14years, from 1972 1986. parents theVillage to My ran Museum wewere and given housing theChildren's in House, in 1810.I theprivilege knowing built had of seven Shaker Sisters listened theirbeliefs memories theolddays. and to and of While livingthere,lfoundmyself exploring studying architectural and the elements the of buildings, wellasthefurniture thecollections. as in Whilelivingin these unique surroundings, theexceptional I had opportunity of apprenticing anOldWorldcabinetmaker Madrid, with from Alejandro laCruz. de His teachings emphasized tradition, classicism, integrity work,design, and in and living.Thisapprenticeship provided with a direction focus studying me and for Shaker otherclassic and designs. thesame At time,it allowed to constructively me criticize some pieces to rebuild redesign by using old and or them better construction methods, whilestillretaining original their charm attractiveness. and Likethearchitectural elements antiquiry beauty truthof Shaker of the and design aremostevident basic in forms. overall The proportions, stance be lines, and can piece furniture thecandle seen a simple in of like stand shown thephotoatright. in Details, theyaredone if well,adda further dimension will notobscure clutand or terthegeneral form. I donotbelieve theShakers outto develop owndesigns; that set their rather, their reshaped beliefs forms with whichtheywere already familiar. Shaker design be can seen a stripped-down as Federal withemphasis Hepplewhite Sheraton style, on and elements. Federal was style concurrent thebeginning thedevelopment with and of theShaker religious movement. keycabinetmakers The of each Shaker village were also to develop unique free the flavor each of community's while work taking direction fromthelead community MountLebanon, of NewYork. Whilea good of Shaker deal design charm in itsnaivet6, moredepends lies even on thecabinetmaker's complete mastery theform.Creating of furnituredesigns requiresthorough a understanding design process, being to "get ofthe and able into theheads" theoldmasters understand certain of to why design decisions made. were It also requiresgood a understandingfurniture of construction past preusing and sent techniques. important justto acknowledge asa masterpiece It is not apiece and copy butto findout wltyitisamasterpiece,asking it, by many questions about The it. answers provide building will your blocks creating owndesigns anysryle. for your in

DavidLambwasresident cabinetmaker Canterbury at Shaker Village, NewHampshire, between 1979and 1986. now He buildsShaker-inspired furniture at hisshopin Canterbury.

INTRODUCTION

ELEGANT SHAKERBOX
Handberg in woodenware Ejner by Shaker boxes apattern bookonShaker T mu saw Even I making Lansing at Community College. L n 1977 when was teaching furniture in gradoval crafted fromcherry aslinedrawings, simple, these elegant containers, All hold appeal, to have but themnest uated sizes, intriguing. boxes universal were inside otherappeals thechildin allof us. to each for a in construction 10years, Up to thispoint,I hadbeen carpenter residential teaching social anthropology. didI knowwhen Little andhadspent another decade in that would become perthe I began followmycuriositF Shaker boxes they to oval in interpreting comother fectavenue expressing three for those skills-working wood, But what happened me to munities'life work,andteaching. thatis exactly has and the over last15years. Byspecializing Shaker boxes,was in oval I fortunate takeadvantage three to of design, popularity woodworking a the of as trends: growing a awarenessShaker of in in activities. combination This opened hobby, aninterest instruction leisure and for By I teaching workshops 30 thedoors freelance box-making seminars. 1986 was parts thecountry, wellasin Canada England. particiand The ayear many in of as pants It to the of make nest fiveboxes. is fulfillingto beable master technique a of more to perfect in making In thel2yearc it five. since the making box, even a and so people traditional firstboxclass,have I taught more than4,000 this craft. breaking, bringing the My memory firstattempting buildthemisof bands of to project an abrupt It morethanlinedrawings master to technique. to end. takes recall rare to box Visiting Shaker in NewEngland,I sites a opportunity watch makHe me tacls er|erryGrant Hancock at ShakerVillage. gave asample thetinycopper of These asscarce hen's thatare hallmark theboxlap. the of are as teeth, theexpresas At Nail was tack siongoes. *re time,Cross Company theoneremaining manufacturer, order. tooka minimumof 50pounds order, It to andmade themonlyon special that an supply. 12taclsneedWth andwithover taclato theounce, was incredible 750 represented a lifetime boxmaking. edto make box,it also a of my withqualToday, Shaker boxes become lifeandsupplying boxtrade have the more making ity materials occupies of mytimethaneither now boxes teaching. or good has Morethanjustbeing business, making Shaker boxes leftmewiththeconis each victionthatpassing our skills a responsibility of usmustaccept. on
at turning taughtsocial anthropology Purduebefore JohnWilson his attentionto teaching Shaker makingfull time in 1983. box Hisseminars have been heldat theSmithsonian, Shaker in villages throughout America, and in England. ownsand operates He The HomeShop EastBroadway on Highrq,in Charlotte, Michigan.

the Iohn Wilsonperfects

INTRODUCTION

A SHAKERLIFE
hen I waslittle and shared room with my sisterI yearned havea room a to of my own.I was19whenthat dreamcametrue,and oh, what a room it

reflects on |une Sprigg

was, anearly in l9th-Century Shaker building Canterbury, Hampshire. in New My roomwasa classic Shaker interior, with built-incupboards drawers, and a peg around walls, rare rail the and sliding shutters. Everything overhead underand footwas workof Shaker the Brothers hadused pine, who local maple, birchand and a combination handtoolsandwater-powered of machinery anefficient in and sophisticated system man-made of ponds millsbehind village. and the Aftera centuryandahalfof continual thepegs firm in theirsockets. drawers use, were The slid smoothly aslight onthesingle with tug pull. center Thewhole effect oneof spawas ciousness, airiness, lightness. roomwas and This worththewait. BythetimeI arrived Canterbury 1972 a summer at in as guide themuseum, in theshaker s9clety longsince had flourished faded. canterbury and The shakers were established1792 theseventh whatbecame principal in as of 19 settlements in America. when I came, half-dozen the shakers livedthere- all in their70s, who (The 80s, 90s-wereoneof thelasttwoShaker and families existence. other in was sabbathdayLake in Maine.) sisters delightful-energetic, The were humorous, and unstintingly kind.There were Brothers Canterbury. lastonehaddiedin the no at The joked theyhad"worked 1930s thewomen and that those poormento death." while woodworking passed history had into with thelastof theBrothers, the sisters theworkof the"oldshakers" highregard. lifetime using held in A of Shaker desks, tables, counters, work chairs, cupboards given and had themahands-on appreciation the-qualities have of that earned Shaker design respect worldwide: strength, lightness, a simple and rightness proportion. of Ergonomic? bet.we heldour You breath whenever fragile unstoppable the but Eldress up anddownthestairs went with herbadknee cane, thebreadth thesteps, gentle andthe and but of the rise, sturdy, elegant handrail herupright safe. kept and "Hands to workandhearts God," homilyof Shaker to a founder MotherAnn Lee, a roadmapfor goodlife.My Shaker was friends gone are now, theirwork but endures testimony thebeauty wisdom thatsimple as to and of message.

has studying Shakers mostof her the lune Sprigg been for life,and shewasCuratorof Collections Hancock at Shaker Village betyveen and 1994. 1979 Her latest bookwithphotographer PaulRocheleau, Shaker Burlt,ispublishedby MonacelliPress. lives Pittsfield, She in Massachusetts.

h

SHAKERDESIGN

'

DESIGN SHAKER

SffiDESIGN
today are T h. Shakers recognized as most I oneof America's interesting Thanks religious societies. communal crop articles, to thevigorous ofbooks, that sprouted up andexhibitions have celebrasince Shakers' the bicentennial most thinkof them tionin 1974, people firstandforemost oroducers simas of pleandwell-made furniture. in their But thev hevdav from 1825 1845, were to biend of i<no*n theiroriginal for beiter celibacy communalism, comand adeep principles pracmitment Christian to as and ticed Christtdisciples, aworship by
Americafor its service uniquein civilized line or groupdancing, sort ofsacred a that gave members all equal circledance the opportunityto express Holy Spirit. dancescandalized many This ecstatic including Ralph conventional observers, Dickens. WaldoEmerson Charles and

rear With its backward-Ieaning legs sidechair andcurved sla*,theEnfleld shownat left wasbuiltfor simplicity and comfort. rushseats eaily The on chairs thisonegradually like Shaker gaveway to canvas tapeseating.

shown above mqde, was By themid-l9th Century, whenthelithograph worship-and gavethemtheir that once marked Shaker thefreneticdancing line As replaced with morereserved dances. in all Shaker name-had been were activities, sexes strictlydivided.Thewomanin stylishVictoriandress the theirworship. was invitedby theShakers observe to in theforeground probably

I3

SHAKER DESIGN

Thedininghall at thePleasant community Harrodsburg, Hill in K

lE

MotherAnn's NewOrder The Shakers tracetheir history in "Mother Americato 1774, when founder Anrt''Leeemigrated NewYorkfrom to Manchester, England, with eightfollowers. 39-year-old The daughter a of Midlandsblacksmith, Ann Leewas prompted come theNorthAmerito to cancolonies, according herfaithfirl to believers, avisionof thesecond by coming of Christ.She sickened the was by corruption the Old World,andthe of changes wroughtby the Industrial Revolution were that altering conthe ditions ofhuman beyond life allprevious experience. sought establishnew She to a orderof life in theNewWorld.

Aspreached byAnn Lee herfoland lowers, Shaker wasoneof hardship life andself-denial. aShakermeantlivBeing ing a celibate with no possibility life of bearing children, workingselflessly and andequallyalongside Brothers one's and Sisters. also It meant livingin isolation from theoutside world,renouncing all private property, taking and solace the in purityof community prayer. and Although Ann dieda scant years 10 after arriving America hermovein and mentremained relatively small during herlifetime, converts began join in to droves theyears in following death. her By17 87,the large-scale first communal Shaker Family gathered Albany had near

at NewLebanon, York.TheNew New kbanon communitywas become to the spiritual capital the Shaker of world through nefi century. 1800, the By missionaries helped had establishdozen a Shaker communities throughout New England, including onesin Enfield, Connecticut; Harvard, Massachusetts; andCanterbury, Hampshire. New By 1825,19 principal villages wereflourishingfrom Maineto pointswestin Kentucky Ohio.In 1840, estiand an mated 4,000 Shakers putting were their hands work andhearts Godin to to America's largest, known, only best and alternative mainstream thatexistto life edon a trulynational scale.

DESIGN SHAKER

In spite ofefforts attract conto new verts, Shakers'numbers to began the decline before endof theCivil War. the In 1875, Tyringham, Massachusetts, was close offithefirstShaker communityto cially.In a centurythat witnessed so in manyrevolutionary changes American life it proveddifficult for the so Shakers-whochanged little-to maintain momentum theirfirst the of

By had 70years. 1900, Shakers dwinthe vildledto 2,000 members Shaker as lages closed their doorsoneby one. just Today, onecommunity survives, at Sabbathday Maine, Lake, where fewer members carryon the thana dozen Shaker traditions. Harmonyof Proportion TheShakers not anesthetic were move-

ment or a self-conscious schoolof In like design. fact, theirfurniture, their architecture clothing, derided and was in its dayfor anexcessively utilitarian lackof style. Today, attracted thesimby plicityof theirdesigns, worldhas the begun recognize achievements to the of woodworkers, astheclocks Shaker such made Brother by Isaac Newton Youngs of NewLebanon, thesewing and desks

Thespiritualcenter Shaker themeetinghouse, asmodest unpretentious anyShaker of life, is and as building.

15

SHAKE,R DESIGN

and rocking chairs Brother of Freegift Wells Watervliet, of NewYork. is Simplicity thequintessential hallmarkof Shaker design. with Compared theopr.rlent complexiry a Queen of Anne highboy, example,Shaker for a chairis a paragon ofaLrsterify: legs, four three slats, a handfulofstretchers, a fewyards and of canvas tanefor the seat. a world In that seems growincreasingly to more complex and chaotic yearby yearit is not difficLrlt see to whythesirnple, harr.r.ror.rior-rsof Shaker lines ftirniturecontinueto holdtheirappeal. Shaker artisans distinguished also themselves thequality theirwork. by of Theyrarelyneeded hurry andwere to in factencour-aged thetimeneedto take edto do thejob properly. cornmuThe nal ftrmilystructure gaveindividuals fieedomfrom thoughts purchasing, of narketing, sales, allrelated and business coucerns-an experienced business staff took care ofall t[at. Shaker woodworkersreceived trainingfrom veryfine free craftsmen, olderBrothers who taught them in an apprenticeship system. Shakers generally worked big,handin some, state-of-the-art workshops with thebest toolsandmachines available; a communal economy, thriftyliving, and an abhorrence ofbuying credit on usuallymeant plenty capital invest of to in thebest. Shakers'were capable The also of irrverrtirrg bestl table the the for saw, was example, thebrainchild a Shaker of sister. comes no sururise manv It as that woodworkers today speak enviously at tinres theirShaker of counterparts. A Lackof Ornamentation The relisious motivation behind the simplicity Shaker of is design an obviousone.The Shakers in sought every-

thing theydid to freethemselves from thevainandunnecessary, to them which meant avoiding gross materialism. This wasno mean in theGilded that feat Ase gave birthto Victoriana conspicuous and consumption. Shakers The eschewed the

sort of artisticfreedorn that allowed builders design to and makewhatever theywanted. Theyseldom autographed theirpieces because took no pride they in beingrecognized individual as artisans. Reliqious convictions forbade also

Brotlrcr Clutrles Greaves outside the corpetty shLtp, Harrcock Slnker VilLrge, Pittsfield, N'lassaclusetts, enrly1900s. ilr the

SHAKERDESIGN

a license decorate to with carving, inlay, painting, exotic importedwoods, any or othertype of applied ornament. The Shakers traditionally regarded these embellishments a waste time and as of resources. Indeed, few ornamental the touches be found on Shaker to furniture-such asexposed dovetailing and the ubiquitous,neatlyturned drawer pulls and rail pegs-invariablyhad a purpose. utilitarian

Usually madewith bentmaple sides pine andquartersawn tops andbottoms, ovalboxes wereused store types to all Theywereconstructed of dry goods. in graduated sizes that each could so one bestored insidethenextlarger size.

Believing that all things visible revealed stateof the spirit within, the Shakers great took care with whatthey madesothat its near-perfection would both honorandemulate excellence the of God'sown creation. Aboveall else, furnitureanddesign imbued is Shaker with the spirit of its makers, proclaimingtheir optimism and faith in the future. By spending obviouscare and time on humble,usefulthings, the Shakers clearlyannounced their beliefin a futureworth living and in the ability of future generations to keeptheir craft alive. On thefollowingpages an illustratis ed gallery some themostenduring of of oiecesof furniture that serveas the legacy modernwoodworking. Shakers' to

A tall clock serves a boundary as between men's women's the and sleeping areas theCentre in FamilyDwellingat Pleasant Hill, Kentucl<y. Clocks dividedtheShakers' also daily livesinto prescribed segments There were specific times rising eating working and sleeping. for

t7

A GALLERY SHAKERFURNITURE OF
TABTES AND CHAIRS

Dining room benah Euilt to accommodate aeveraldinera around a table

Trestle table (pa6e 5b) Themost, commonetyle of thaker dtntnqroom table. Euilt with 7lueleao joinery and knockdown hardware, f,hte table can be dteaaaembled whenit ia not needed;the leqo,feet, and treetle runninqalon4the top'e undereide are le4room poeitionedto maxtmize

Candle stand Qase78) Thetrtpod deei4n 4iveathie li4htweight.table qood etability

Dropleaf table (page 68) ALtached to the top with rulejoinLo,the Ieavee of thio table can be exLended whenneededor dropped down to gave gpace

SHAKERDESIGN

Revolving chair Aleo called ewtvel etoola or revolverg, thege chaira were uged tn
c)haPer nffirca ahnna

and achoolroome

Enfield aide chair (pase 26) Made with a backward tilt to provide comforL wtthout bendtn4 chatr'e I;he rear leqe.Early ver' a t o n al i k eL h eo n e ahownfeatured rush eeata; the thakers Iater reliedon can' vae Lape,aa tn Lhe rockinqchatr ahown
aL rtghL

Rocking chair

(paqe 3O) Haeeteam-bent
rear legeand aoltd' wood rockere;the tape eeaf,inqie tn available a variety of colors and patterns. Also made tn a ladderback veraion

Meetinghouae bench Accommodated the faithful durinq thaker reltgtoue eervrcee; wtth its eolid ptne aeat., Lhte etmple and lt7htweiqht chatr could be moved out of the way easily when neceaoary

With theirshortbacks, splint-seat the diningchairs shown above slide can under a tablewithoutanysacrifice comfort. of

l9

SHAKERDESIGN

CASEWORK
Ketractable work aurface

Work etand Featuree a drawer with partitiona and on piqeonholee top for etorinq aewinqauppliee: the rim around the workaurface prevente iteme from fallin7 off

Sewing deak Featurea a retractable work aurface; with drawera on adjacent aidee of the deak, two people could workon it at the aametime

As canbeseen thisroomat Hancock in Shaker VilIage Massachusetts, Shakers in the spared effort no toprovidea sense orderand tidiness theirliving of in Floor-to-ceiling spaces. cabinets ensured there that place wasa designated for everything.

Pie safe (page bO) Traditionallyuaed to store bakedqoode:the piercedtin door panelakeptthe contente fresh whilepreventing verminfrom enterin4. Adjuatable ahelveaadded flexibility

SHAKERDESIGN

Waahatand Uaedby thakera for pereonaIhy4iene beforebed:deeiqned to holdan earthenwarepttcher and bowl

Alao known a aecretary' a6 on-cheat;l;heLop aectionfeatured ehelvin7 for Itoraqe and eeveral ptqeonholeo organrzed Workbench Featured a epaciouowork eurface on top and storaqe drawera below:the boardjack olidee alonq front ed4e eide-to-eideto holda workpiece with the face viae of the benchtn conluncLion

2l

SHAKERDESIGN

HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES
Step atool (pase129) Asaembledwith aturdy throuqh dovetaila,theae mtni-atepladdere enabledthakere
f^ rea.h +ha +^h

Yarn reel (paqeTB) Ueedin textile makinq, this devtce featured a columnand leqdeei4n borrowedfrom Lhe candle eLand

ehelves and doora of floor-to-ceilin4 cagework: threeand four-etep ver9ton9 were aleo common

Oval baekets joinery WiLhtheir awallowLail and coppertacka, theae containerewereoold rn the Lhoueanda the outaide Lo world;aesembledmuch like thaker boxee(page 138)

Footetool Alonq wit.hchaira, footetoole wereproducedin qreat quanLitiea for commercialaale

Drying rack Ueuallymade from pine, racke were uaed Lo dry towelsand to air ouf,beddinq

DESIGN SHAKER

4S "o.

Pegboard (pase138)
opaced With their evenly Lheoe railelinedLhe pe4o, wallaof moet thaker roome, holdtn4 everyfihtnq tc from hata and cloake candleeconcea clocke, and likeLheoneehown

#s
\-

is.i,, 0

Wall clock (paqe 118) Clockalike Lhe one ahown at left. helped t he thakera orqanize Lheir buay workdayo. The thakere ueually bought Lhe mecha' ntame and butlLLhe caeeetoftL:aa clock makero joined Lhe movement, the thakere beqan Lo aeeembleLheir own mechanigms

Likennny nntl Arnericans livingin tlrc l9tlt wheels, the usedspirrrting Centrn'y, Sltakers Villagesltotvrt Shaker Iikeonefrortt Hotrcock As above,to rnaketheir owrt textiles, selfpeople, Shakers depcntled srrclt ort reliant the tlwrt to rrtaittdeviccs the skillto opernte and worltl. tttirttlreirirdepetdence ft'om tlteoutsitle

o
Candlesconces Deetqned eo I;he heighL of Lhe candlea and Lhe li7hLtn4 could be adjueted ae Lhe candlee burned and mell,ed down. The vereion on the lefL fear,uree wooden Lhreada Lo ratae and lower Lhe candle eupporL; Lhe one on l,he rt4hL hae a row of holea LhaL a||owedthe candleaconce to be hunq from a pegboard aL any hei7ht.

o

o o
a-\

o o

Clothes hanger A typical thaker innoval,ion,Lhe three-armed hanqer was a clever, apace-eavin4 way to Itore clalthinq

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i t
I

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I

I

CHAIRS
advertisnticipatingmodern-day the ersby more than 100years,

promoted proudly theirwares Shakers who of to a marketplace non-believers poised purchase to were nevertheless qualityfurniture. oneof theirearly As proclaimed, chairs Shaker catalogs "durabiliry and simplicity, lightoffered that The of ness." level craftsmanship them enabled to batkup theyattained chairs theirclaims. Shaker-made sold proving theirbusiness acumen well, that as was welldeveloped theirpiety. as reasoned TheShakers astutely had positioned sized and for Withprecisely were rightproduct the thatchairs rail mortises, crest of theShakerthe needed relatively First, chairs themarket. bench to to littlestock build-compared case stylemeetinghouse shownabove The ecoisfined ontothespindles. Shakers be furniture-sotheycould made to versions thebench of built longer Furthermore, models most nomically. meetings. serve pewsat religious as and be could built quitequickly, they for and were compact lightenough easy meetinghouse bench purposes, spindle-backed the house- forreligious Finally, chairs acommon are storage transportation. and on The shown applications. version many contemporary All factors has required several. of these holditem;mostbuyers roomfor a seat 48 signifi- page features solid-wood with ample enterprise contribute to enabled chair-making their users. two or three prosperity. to cantly Shaker of are exampleswhich stillintact Each these of chairs-early for presents instructions buildstep-by-step Thischapter belief once forthby Mother set the The chairs. Enfieldsidechair(page today-embodies Shaker ingthreeclassic Shaker "Build you to as though were livefor of that the featnres a simple design belies finecraftsmanship Ann,founder thesect 26) you joinery years, asyouwoulddo ifyou knew were and rails, precise needed buildit. Itslegs, andstretch- a thousand to and with to dietomorrow." are on and ers turned thelathe, thepieces connected are

joints.The chair mortise-and-tenon of that backconsists slats mustbesteambent.A traditionalmethodfor forming the chairseat-woven rush-is shown 34. beginning page The alternative on seatstyleillustratedin the photo at far material left, usinga tapeupholstery the Shakerscalled listing, is that 45. starting page on explained its turnedpartsand mortiseWith joinery,the Mt. Lebanonand-tenon many 38) stylerockingchair (page shares Enfield.However, the features with the rocker, which arebent rearlegsof the for comfort, and the rockersthemselves-fixed to the legswith dowelreinforcedbridle joints-are elegant The refinements. chairis namedafter the community in upstateNew York werebuilt. whereprototypes Despite traditionaluseasa pew its

Blueand whiteclothtape,or listing,is beingwoven shown left,providing at the of between rearlegs therocker seat attractive, lightweight back.Thisrocker and a strong, with blue-tinted with tungoil, thenrubbed was finished with thecolorof thelisting. beeswax harmonize to

25

ENFIELDSIDECHAIR
t]- h. most striking featureof the I Enfieldsidechairis its backward slantof 98o, shownin the sideview as on page 27.Thedesign allows chair the to conformto theanatomy thetypiof caluserandprovidecomfortable seating without needing steam-bent back posts. Theslant, however, does present a challenge executing joinery.Few in the ofthe jointsin thischairarecut square; most are assembled comoound at angles. is a goodideato referbackto lt the sideandtop viewsasyou build the chair,usingthe angles help setup to your drill whenboringthe round mortises. a resultof the seat's As trapezoidal shape, front legs spaced the are farther apartthanthe rearones. Also,the rear legsaresplayed ouhvardfrom bottom to top by 2o. Consequently, back the stretchers, rail, and slatsareproseat gressively longertowards top oithe the chair.Refer the cuttinglist on page to 27 for precise dimensions.

ANATOMYANENFIETD CHAIR OF SIDE

Kear leg

)ide aeat rail

Front aeat rail

Front atretcher

Front. leq

CHAIRS

96'\

Rear

96'

84"

aeat--\ rail \

84"

in of Asshown thetopview the the sidechair1eft,top), front Kear leo but legs parallel, therear are apart by slightly ones angled are to are 2". Theslats joined the The angle. rear legs a slight at Side aeat sideview(left,bottod illusrail lean. backward trates chair's the feature Although design this to the the Front eliminates need bend require carethe rear legs, joints teq ful execution.

SIDEVIEW

1l

\ ,,\ \ 17" \ \
113/u"

\ \

t\
\

\ 18"

ITEM Legs rail* Seat Rear Front Front Back Side Stretchers* Front Back Slats Side Top Middle Bottom

OTY 2
z

t 4r% 19Y^ r8% I4Y, I4 I8Y,

W (lRDIAM. IY4
IY4
I

I 1 2
z

1 1
% 3A 3A

I 4 1 1 I

r3%
T4
I43/4

2%
23/4 274

Y4

Y'
Y4

r4%

*Note: lengths. include Measurements tenon

Enfield sidechairshown Thecherry a above features fiber rushseatand a to tungoilfinish,whichcombine create a warm and naturalappearanca

27

CHAIRS

PTANNING J()B THE
FronL le1 9tory pole

E N F I E L . DC I A I R

IEG

S F

' F 5

s a

)lat mortiae mark

Kear le4

pole Using story a yousize To help andprepare chair the legs, mark dimenkey sions the location mortises a shop-made pole. and of on story Made pole froma stripof plywood, story the shown above includes length thefrontandrear the of legs, theplaceand ment thestretcher, andslatmortises. to theside of rail, Refer view illustrationtheEnfield of chair page27 theheight on for

of each element. marks thejig canthenbeused cut The on to thelegblanks length outline mortises theblanks. to and the on Note themortises thefront back that for or stretchersrails or 1/z areoffset inchlower thanthe mortises thesideones for to avoid weakening legs. pole the Label story the andkeep for it future chair-making.

PREPARINGLEGS. THE RAITS STRETCHERS AND
the 1 Routing slatmortises I intherear legs 0utline slatmortises your leg the on rear pole blanks using story shown the above, centering outlines theinside the on face of each blank. Then secure of the one blanks between bench dogs. Install %a i n c hm o r t i s i n gt i n a r o u t ee q u i p p e d bi r guide. withan edge Center bit over the the mortise outline adjust edge and the guide buttagainst stock; the to the use second blank support router. leg to the passes, Make several increasing cutthe pass tingdepth witheach untilthemortiseis completed a depth %inch. to of Repeat rout remaining to the mortises in (right),Ihen bothblanks square corthe ners thecavities a chisel. of with

28

CHAIRS

r) Turning rearlegs the L P l a c e r e a rl e gb l a n kb e t w e e c e n a n t e r so n y o u rl a t h e ,p o s i t i o nh e t o o l r e s t t t a s c l o s ea s p o s s i b l eo t h e w o r k p i e c e i w i t h o u t o u c h i n gt , a n dt u r n o n t h e g m a c h i n eS u p p o r t i na r o u g h i ng o u g e . g o n t h e t o o l r e s t ,c a r e f u l l m o v e h e b e v e l y t u n t i li t t o u c h ets e b l a n k n dt h e c u t t i n g h a e d g es t a r t s e m o v i n w a s t e C o n t i n u e r g . w o r k i n g l la l o n gh e l e n g t h f t h e b l a n k a t o ( w u n t i l y o uf o r m a c y l i n d e r l e f t ) , i t h t h e b e v e r u b b i n g n dt h e t o o l p o i n t i n gn t h e l a i directioof thecut. n

(above, Switch a skew /eff). chisel shape finial. the to to Set o g a on and it c y l i n d r i c a le c t i o n f t h e l e g .U s ea r o u g h i ng o u g e t f i r s t , s theblade thetoolrest advanceuntilit cutsinto the g . making thebevel rubis t h e ns w i t c h o a s p i n d l e o u g eH o l d i n gh e t o o l i n a n u n d e r - stock. t t Shape finial desired, the as sure h a n dg r i pa n d r u b b i n gh e b e v e o n t h e s t o c k s l i c ei n t ot h e t l , bing throughout cut (above, the right). sandpapershape Use to w o o da n d m a k ea s c o o p i nc u t d o w nt h e m i d d l e f t h e c o v e t h et i p .T u r n h eo t h e r e a r e g n di t sf i n i atl h es a m e a y . g o t l a w

Turning finials therear the on legs that from the Start cutting cove separates finial by the the

29

CHAIRS

Turning rails stretchers the and T u r n h er a i l s n ds t r e t c h ea sy o u t a r
did thc rpar lpos (naop 2Ql rrsino: n:ri\ f e b e 1 J ' '

i n pt o o lt o r : r rtth e t e n o n s t t h e e n d so f a
oach niocp (riohf)
t t t b t t ' / .

Fnc,tvp:
' ' ' J v '

c , n r r of i t h v

m a k i n gh e d i a m e t eo f t h e t e n o n s q u a l t r e t o t h a t o f t h e b i t y o uw i l l u s et o b o r et h e
mnriispq (naop
r r qbv v

? / ) Thp ipnnn

lpnoih

s h o u l b eo n e - h a lh et h i c k n e s st h e d t f of legs. Finally, thefrontlegs. turn

MAKING SLATS THE

i I S e t u p a s t e a m r njg g . r e f e r r i ntg t h e b a c ke n d p a p e r r o fo j ( c o n s t r u c t i o n t a i l sA l s oh a v e b e n d i n gi g r e a d y s t e p ) . de . a 2 T u r no n t h e s t e a ms o u r c e n d m a r kt h e c e n t e r f e a c hs l a t . a o p O n c e t e a m e g i n so e s c a p f r o mt h e 1 i g ' s r a i nh o l e , l a c e s b t e d a . s l a t i n s i d eC l o s e h e e n d c a p t i g h t l y n d l e t t h e w o o d t e a m t a s

the 1t Steamins slats -

g , u n t i li t i s s o f t .A s a r o u g h u i d e s t e a m i r - d r i e ld m b e f o r o n e u r a h o u rp e ri n c ho f t h i c k n e s s ;a l ft h a tt i m ef o r g r e e n o o d . v o i d h w A s c a l d i n y o u rh a n d s y w e a r i n w o r kg l o v e s n d u s i n g o n g s g b g a t t o h a n d l eh e s t o c k( a b o v e ) . l a c e h e n e x ts l a t i n t h e j i g a n d t P t b e n dt h e s t e a m e s l a tw i t h o u d e l a y . d t

30

CHAIRS

2 "x 2 " oupportboard

Preparing slats their the for mortises Q r-,f Lettheslats in thebending for dry form a c o u p l o f d a y st,h e n e s t - f t t e m n t h e e t ih i
r e a r l e s s : n d c r r t t h c m t n l "p n. o.i h F n r 2 q n r o ' "b " '

r) Bending slats the L to make bending shown the form above, center mortises theoowers the for along length thesupport the of boards. distance The between twooutside the dowels should slightly than span a slatwhen is curved. soon be less the of it As quickly it between dowels. asyouremoveslatfrom steamer, a the fit the Center theslats against middle the dowel push ends and the behrnd outside the dowels. pressure thejig. Alternate direction theslats equalize the of to on

f i t , s a n dt h e e n d so f t h e s l a t s n a s p i n d l e o s h a p e rC a r e f u l ls a n dd o w n h e p a r to f t h e . y t (abovd; backfacethatwill fit intothe mortise p e r i o d i c a lay y o ug o .A g o u g e ls c h e c kh ef i t t c a na l s ob e u s e d o c u t a w a v a s t e n t i lv o u t w u have goodfit. a

PREPARINGLEGS THE THE FOR RAITS STRETCHERS AND
Preparing frontlegsfor the I thefrontrailsandstretchers T h eo n l yr o u n d o r t i s ei s t h e E n ife l dc h a i r m n t h a ta r ed r i l l e d t 9 0 ' a r et h o s en t h ef r o n t a i l e g s o rt h ef r o n tr a i l s n ds t r e t c h e rU . e f a ss yourstory pole(page to outline hole 28) the l o c a t i o no n t h e f r o n tl e g s n db o r e h e m s a t . o n y o u r r i l lp r e s sC u ta V - s h a p e de d g e d w o u to f a w o o d l o c kc r e a t i na l i g t h a tw i l l b , g c r a d l t h el e g s sy o ud r i l lt h eh o l e sI.n s t a al e a l b i tt h es a m e i a m e t e r t h er a i la n ds t r e t c h d as e rt e n o n s ,n dc l a m ph ej i gt o t h em a c h i n e a t t a b l e ot h e b o t t o m f t h eV i s c e n t e r e d s o p u n d etrh eb i t .T h e n l a c eh e l e gi n t h ej i g t a n ds e tt h ed r i l l i n d e p t h o s l i g h t lm o r e g t y t h a nt h et e n o n e n g t h a b o ut w o - t h i r d h e l ts s t o c k i a m e t e H o l d i n t h e l e gw i t ho n e d r. g h a n d ,b o r et h e m o r t r s e( / e f t , ) . e p e afto r s R t h eo t h e r r o n tl e g . f 'l

CHAIRS

r) Preparing rearlegsfor the L me backrailsandstretchers T h em o r t i s eis t h e r e a rl e g s o r t h e b a c k n f r a i l s n ds t r e t c h e r s u s tb e a n g l e d o w n a m d b y 2 ' t o c o m p e n s afto rt h e s l i g h s p l a y i n g e t
nrri nf tho h:r'k lpsq Spf nnp nf thp lpoc

u p r r g hitn a b e n c h i s e ,m a k i n g u r ei t i s v s v e r t i c a lU s ea p r o t r a c t oo a d j u s t s l i d . tr a i n g b e v eIl o 9 2 " . W r a p s t r i po f m a s k i n g a t a p ea r o u n dh e b i t t o m a r k h e d r i l l i n g t t d e p t h - a b o u t w o { h i r d sh e l e gd i a m e t e r . t T o h e l py o u h o l dt h e d r i l l a t t h e c o r r e c t a n g l e s y o u b o r e h e h o l e , a p et h e h a n a t t d l eo f t h es l i d i n g e v etlo t h e l e ga n d k e e p b t h e b i t p a r a l l e lo t h e b l a d e f t h e t o o l . t o S t o pd r i l l i n g n c et h e d e p t hf l a gc o n t a c t s o t h e s t o c k . e o e atth e o r o c e sts d r i l lt h e R o , r e m a i n i nh o l e s n b o t hl e g s( / e l t )r e p o s i g i l e gi n t h ev i s e n dt h es l i d i n g t i o n i n gh e t a
hcvpl nn thp lpo 2q np.p(

' '---ssary.

WL

the andbackrails,stretchers, slats the legs and to C Gluing front r - J B e f o r e r i l l i n s h e h o l e s n t h e l e s sf o r t h e s i d er a i l s n d d t i s a t e n o n s n d i n t h e l e gm o r t i s e a n df i t t h e p i e c e s o g e t h e r . a t s t r e t c h e r s ,r r . r b l . t h e f r o n tt e g sa n Ot h e nt h e r e a rl e g s . u T a pt h e j o i n t si n t of i n a l p o s i t i o n i t h a w o o d e n a l l e t .R e p e a t w m g S t a r t i n w i t ht h e f r o n tI e g ss p r e a d l u eo n t h e r a i la n ds t r e t c h e r f o r t h e r e a rl e g s g l u i n g h e s l a t si n p l a c ea s w e l l( a b o v e ) . g , , t

JL

CHAIRS

Preparing legs the for rails stretchers theside and
T h em o r t i s eis t h e l e c s o r t h e s i d er a i l s n f a n d s t r e t c h e rm u s tb e d r i l l e d t c o m s a p o u n da n g l e s - t h e y r ea n g l e d n b o t h a i . t h e h o r i z o n t a ln d v e r t i c ap l a n e sS t a r t a l b y s e c u r i n g n e o f t h e r e a rl e g si n a o h a n d s c r ea n dc l a m p i n t h e a s s e m b l y w g u p r i g h t o a w o r ks u r f a c eT h e nu s et h e . c h a i rs e a ta n d s i d ev i e w s n p a g e 7 , a o 2 protractor, a sliding and bevel determine to t h e d r i l l i n g n g l e s y o ud i d i n s t e p2 . a a B u t i n s t e a o f t a p i n g w os l i d i n g e v e l s d t b p t o t h e s t o c k , u t t w os q u a r e i e c e s f p l y c o w o o d , l a m p i n g n et o t h e l e gt o i n d i c a t e c o l t h e v e r t i c aa n g l e n dt h e s e c o n do t h e a t r a i lo r s t r e t c h efro r t h e h o r i z o n t a ln g l e . a F o re a c hh o l e , l i g nt h e b i t w i t ht h e t o p a ( d g e d g e f t h e v e r t i c a l u i d e l a b e l eS I D E o i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i oa n dt h e s i d ee d g e f t h e n) o h o r i z o n t ag u i d e( l a b e l e d 0 P ) ( r i g h t ) . l T A g a i ns t o pd r i l l i n g h e n h e d r i l l i n g e p t h , w t d f l a gc o n t a c t t h e s t o c k . s i n g i m i l a r s U s m e t h o d s , r i l lt h e f r o n tl e ga s s e m b l y . d

ASSEMBTING CHAIR THE
G l u i n u pt h ec h a i r g 0 n c ea l l t h e m o r t i s ea r ed r i l l e ds p r e a d s , g l u eo n t h e t e n o n s f t h e s i d er a i l sa n d o s t r e t c h e r sn d i n t h e m o r t i s e s ,n df i t t h e a a n i e c e t o p e t h e I J s e w o o d e n a l l ea n d s r a m t a w o o db l o c k o t a p a l l t h e j o i n t s n t of i n a l t i ( p o s i t i o nl e f t ) . I h e n e tt h e c h a i ru p r i g h t . s T h ef o u rl e g s h o u l d l l b ef l a to n t h ef l o o r . s a l f n o t ,y o u m a y h a v e o a p p l yf i r m b u t t g e n t l e w i s t i n go o n eo r m o r eo f t h e c o n t t n e c t i o nts c o a x h e l e g si n t op o s i t i o n . o t

RUSHSEAT
like chairs, the Enfield f, arlyShaker I-.i chair featured the preceding on pages, werefinished with rush seats. Traditionally, rushwasnatural, the congrass sisting marsh of twisted into a cord which waswovenin a centerdiamond Dattern overthe frame.Rushseats are and and both comfortable durable, can bedonein anhouranda halfor soonce you getthe knack. This section how to rush a shows chairseat with a morecontemDorary ^paper material-tough-grade, fiber into knownasfiber twisted longstrands, rush.Craftsupply or manila dealers are goodsources usually ofidvice for the appropriate and amountof rush size project. needed a particular for Before starting, spray individuallengths the of rushwith waterto keepthem pliable. A fiber rushseatis woven ontoa Shaker-inspired Enfield chair. thk material and thesimple technique installUsing traditional for appearance anystick-style to ing it canimpart a charming chair.

RUSHING A CHAIR SEAT
rail the 1 Bridging front I Since rails form seat the that the of a n E n ife l dc h a i r o n o tf o r ma s o u a r e . d youmustuserush create square to a seat frame. Measure differencelength rn the between frontandback the seat rails and your in half. divide measurement Measure your result rail along front from the each of thefrontlegs make mark the and a on rail.Tack length slightly a of dampened rushing isabout that twice length the the of front to theinside a side about rail of rail 2 inches thefrontleg.Loop rush from the around front fromunderneath, the rail then rail Bring around side fromunderneath. the it therush across frontrailandlooo the around other the siderailandthefront (right). railin thesame manner Holding therush taut, tackit to theside opporail sitethefirsttack.

34

CHAIRS

r) Squaring seat frame the L Fasten length rush a of alongside the f i r s t n e , s i n gh et e c h n i q u e s c r i b e d o u t de i n s t e o1 . L o o ot a r o u ntd ef r o n t n d i h a rails, thefirst like side strands, fasten and i t t o t h eo p p o s i t e i l . o n t i n u e d i n g ra C ad lengths rush(left)untilyoureach of the you offset marks made thef rontrail. on
^ ^ R o c r r r p tLn r r u Lp n lLh reL Ir r r cl L d J^ + l;B lL t+ d l -l r w l\ p p r uJl L l U

s,tr:iohi :s nnscihlc

Weavingcomplete a circuit you you Once have squared seat the frame, canbegin rushing theseat around frame. all the Working anapproximately with 20footlengh rush, it totheside near rear andloop of tack rail the legs it around therails all left). Keep working around chair the bbove,

(above, pattern you using same the right). When getto theendof a lengh rush, of clamp temporarily seat it to the frame keep it to piece tautandattach to a new it using figure a eight knot. Locate theknots theundersidetheseat they notbevisible. on of so will

CHAIRS

,{ -f

Checking weave square the for O n c e v e r yh i r do r f o u r t h i r c u i t , e t c c h e c k h e t h etrh e s i d e s f t h e s e a ta r e w o p e r p e n d i c u lta re a c ho t h e r . o l d i n g H o t h e l e n g t h f r u s hi n a c o i lw i t h o n e o h a n d ,b u t t a t r y s q u a r en o n ec o r n e r i o f t h e s e a t( l e f D . I h eh a n d l e n d b l a d e a r o f t h e s q u a r e h o u l d e s tf l u s ha g a i n s t s t h e r u s h i n gl.f n o t ,u s ea f l a t - t i p c r e w s d r i v e r o s t r a i g h t etn e s i d et h a t i s o u t t h p y o f - s q u a r e ,u s h i n gh e l a s tc i r c u i t o u t i n s t a l l e a g a i n stth e a d j a c e no n e s . d t g R e p e aa t t h e r e m a i n i n c o r n e r s f t o the seat.

Stuffing seat the f, , . , 1 O n c e h e r u s h i n ss a b o u t w o l h i r d s i t d o n e , t i s t i m et o p r o v r O e t r a a d d i n g i ex p prevent rush by stuffing seat.To the the f r o ms l a c k e n i n g , ea s p r i n g l a m p o us c t y l s e c u r eh e l o o s e e n g t h o ua r ei n s t a l l t i n gt o a s e a tr a i l .U s ec a r d b o a rfd r t h e o p a d d r n g ,u t t i n g n et r i a n g u l a ri e c e o r p c o f e a c hs i d eo f t h e s e a ts o t h a tt h e t r i a n g l e ' s l o n gs i d ei s s l i g h t l y h o r t etrh a nt h e s e a t s g r a i l .S l i pt h e p a d d i n u n d e t h e r u s h i n g r (righ),Ihentrim the tips if theyoverlap in t h e c e n t e rC o n t i n ute e n o r m ac i r c u i t s . h l a b e f o r e n t i lt h e t w os i d er a i l s r ec o v e r e d . u a

CHAIRS

Completing bridge the 4i i \ , 1 S i n c e h e s e a to n a n E n f e l dc h a i ri s t , g d e e p etrh a ni t i s w i d e t h e r u s h i n b e i n g i n s t a l l eo n t h e s i d er a i l s i l lm e e ti n t h e d w m i d d l e f t h e s e a tb e f o r eh e r u s ho n t h e o t f r o n ta n d b a c kr a i l s . n c e h i s o c c u r s , O t u s ea t e c h n i q uk n o w n s b r i d g i ntg f i l l e a o o t h e g a p .L o o p h e r u s h i n g n t h e f r o n t t p a n d b a c kr a i l sw i t h a f i g u r e - e i g h ta t t e r n p a s s i n gh e r u s ho v e rt h e b a c k weave, t r a i l ,d o w nt h r o u g hh e c e n t e ru n d e r h e t , t s e a ta n d u p a r o u n dh e f r o n tr a i l .T h e n t t b r i n g h e r u s ho v e r h e s e a tf r o mt h e f r o n t t r a i la n d b a c kd o w nt h r o u g hh e c e n t e r t
( r i o h f ) P a c , ei , e r r r s h r r n d c r t h e c p : t h
\ t t b t t e ' '

a c o m eu p a r o u n dh e b a c kr a i la g a i n n d t
ronp:i thp nrnnodrrrp

the 7T Finishins iob -

/ O n c ey o u h a v eb r i d g e dh e g a p t b e t w e et h e f r o n ta n d b a c kr a i l s , e tt h e n s c h a i ru p s i d e o w no n a w o r kt a b l ea n d d t a c kt h e l a s ts t r a n d f r u s ht o t h e u n d e r o sideof the backseatrail (left).Cut off the excess.

SHAKERROCKING CHAIR
he Shakerrocker shown below shares manyfeatures building and techniques with the Enfieldsidechair. For example, crestrail mortises the in therearlegs routed(page2|)before are the legsareturnedand bent.(ln this chair,the rearlegsarebent from the armsto thetop,instead beingcanted of back,ason the Enfield.) The mortises for thebackstretchers, andslats rail, are then bored with an electricdrill (page 32);themortises mustbe angled to 2" compensate theoutwardsplay the for of legs from thebottomto the top. Drilling the mortises the legsfor in the otherstretchers railsis simoler and because areno holes comoound there at angles. mortises the front rails The for andstretchers 90o are holes that canbe (page boredon the drill press 31).The mortises theside for railsandstretchers canbeboredwith a drill andshop-made "TOP" (page drilling guides 33);adjust the guideto the appropriate angle, and set "SIDE" up the guideat 90". The followingpages present techniquesthat are uniqueto buildinga Shaker rocker,includingbendingthe rearlegs(page 40),and makingthearms (page androckers a1).

ANATOMY A SHAKER OF ROGKING CHAIR Kearlea
Creat rail

Arm Arm butLon

Rail and stretcher to leg joint

Leg to roaker joint \

)tetcher Front le4

tr

CHAIRS

'IDEVIEW

Asshown theoverhead of the in view rocking chak(|eft,top),the frontof is theseat wider theback the than and topsof the rearlegs farther are apart TOP atthetopthan bottom. a result, the As VIEW therails slats progressively and are longer thebottom thetopof from to thechair. therear Like legs, slats the aresteam-bent comfort. front for The Front aeat rail legs parallel ihefront rails are so and stretchers share same all the lengh. (|eft, Asshown thesideuiew in bottom), siderails the andstretchers areperpendicular legs the to the in vertical axis. comfortable is A angle achieved bending rear by legs, the rather thaninclining them. balFor ance, rockers the contact ground the \',1" 2 to 3 inches front therear in of legs. Theillustrations cutting proand list '%' videappropriate dimensions and angles youcantransfer your thai to \ 2&. storypole(page \ Kearleq

t

ITEM Legs rails* Seat front* rear front back Stretchers* side front back side Arms Rockers Slats* rail Crest top bottom

OTY
L

t
zz'/?

W OR DIAM. LY, I% 1 1 1 % % % 3Y,
6

TH

a

4rv,
22 17Y, t8Y,
lz

1 I
a z

1 4
a L Z

L7

t8v,
19 31 18 17/, t8%

% %

1 1 1

% %

* N o t e s D i m e n s i o n n c l u d ee n o nl e n e t h s . : is t

Built in HancockShakerVillage, the rockershown above features a woven-splintseat.The Shakers made this seatingfrom wood, which they soakedin water for severalweeks,then split into long stripsand wovearound the seatrails.

39

CHAIRS

PREPARING REAR THE LEGS
( I R o u t h e c r e s tr a i lm o r t i s eis t h e r e a rl e g s p a g e 8 ) , t u r n n 2 t h e mo n y o u rl a t h e( p a g e 9 ) , t h e ns t e a m h e l e g s( p a g e 0 ) 2 t 3 r f o r b e n d i n g . o b e n dt h e mt o t h e p r o p ea r c ,u s ea s h o p - m a d e T j i g , l i k et h e o n es h o w n t l e f t .F o rt h e j i g b a s e c u t a p i e c e f a , o p l y w o o d n g etrh a nt h e l e g s t h e nm a k e h e b e n d i n go r mf r o m lo , t f a p i e c e f s o l i ds t o c k l i g h t l yh i c k e r h a nt h e l e gd i a m e t e r .n o s t t 0 y o u rb a n ds a w ,c u t t h e d e s i r e d u r v e - a b o u t1 0 " - o n b o t h c e d g e s f t h e f o r m ,s t a r t i n gh e c u t a b o u th a l f w a y p t h e b o a r d . o t u T h e ns c r e w h e f o r mt o t h e b a s ea n d f a s t e n s t o pb l o c ko n t a e a c hs i d eo f t h e s t r a i g hp o r t i o n f t h e f o r m ;t h e g a p b e t w e e n t o t h e b l o c k s n dt h e f o r ms h o u l d q u a t h e l e gd i a m e t e r . s s o o n a e l A a s y o ut a k et h e l e g s r o mt h e s t e a m e rs,e t t h e mo n t h e j i g f p b e t w e et h e f o r ma n dt h e b l o c k sa l i g n i n g t h e o i n to n t h e l e g s n , t h a tw i l l b e j o i n e d o t h e s e a tr a i l s i t ht h e s t a r to f t h e c u r v e d t w c u t o n t h e f o r m .T h e n ,p r o t e c t i ntg e s t o c kw i t h w o o dp a d s , h i n s t a la b a rc l a m pj u s t b e l o w h e s l a tm o r t i s ets b e n dt h e l e g s l t o s n u g l y g a i n stth e f o r m .S e c u r eh e t o p o f t h e l e g s g a i n stth e a t a (/eff). form usinga handscrew

the 1 Bendins less t -

- - a, lFd
r) Preparing legsfor therockers the L O n c e h e l e g s a r ed r y , m a r kh o l e s o r t h e s c r e w sh a t w i l l t f t f a s t e n h e l e g s o t h e r o c k e r sl ; c a t e h o l eo n e a c hl e ga b o u tI t t o a i n c hf r o mt h e b o t t o m n d .C u ta V - s h a p ew e d g e u t o f a w o o d e d o b l o c k c r e a t i n g l i g t h a t w i l l h o l dt h e l e g s s y o u b o r e h e , a a t h o l e sC l a m p h e j i g t o y o u rd r i l l p r e s sa b l es o t h e b o t t o m f . t t o t h e V i s c e n t e r e u n d e r h e b i t . T h e np l a c e h e l e gi n t h e j i g d t t p a n da l i g nt h e m a r k e d o i n tw i t ht h e b i t . H o l d i n t h e l e gw r t h g o n e h a n d ,b o r ea c o u n t e r s u nh o l et h r e e - q u a r t eo st h e w a y k rf t h r o u g h h e s t o c k( a b o v el,e f t ) . f h e no u t l i n ea n o t c ho n t h e t b o t t o m n do f e a c hl e gp e r p e n d i c u lta rt h e h o l e , a k i n gt s e o m i w i d t he q u a t o t h e t h i c k n e so f t h e r o c k e ra n d l t s h e i g h a b o u t l s s t o n e - h a ltfh e r o c k e h e i g h tC u tt h e s i d e s f t h e n o t c h e o n y o u r r . o s b a n ds a w ,t h e nr e m o v eh e w a s t e e t w e e t h e k e r f s s h a v i n g t b n , a w a y h e w o o di n t h i n l a y e r w i t ha c h i s e lC l a m p s t o pb l o c k t s . a i n p l a c e i t h a n a r cc u t o u t o f o n ef a c et o s t e a d yh e w o r k p i e c e w t bbove, right).

CHAIRS

THEROCKERS THE AND PREPARING ARMS
thearmsandrockers 1 Cutting I R e f e r r i ntg t h e a n a t o m iyl l u s t r a t i o n o for 38, makea template the arms. on page t o 0 u t l i n e h e s h a p e n o n ea r mb l a n kt,h e n t f l i p t h e t e m p l a t e v e r n do u t l i n eh e s e c o a t o n d a r m ;t h i s w i l l e n s u r eh a tt h e t w o a r e i s . m i r r o r m a g e o f e a c ho t h e r O n e a c ha r m , t a l s om a r kt h e m o r t i s eh a tw i l l a c c e pt h e t e n o n t t h e t o p e n do f t h e f r o n tl e g .C u t a on the armsto shape yourbandsaw(right). Reoeat orocess sawthe rockers. the to

r) Preparing arms assembly for the Z A t t t r o u sth e t e n o n s t t h e e n d so f h a r o u n dp a r t s f t h e c h a i r - l i k et h e l e g s , o r a i l s . t r e t c h e r a . ds l a t s - c a nb e d o n e s sn at 30), the tenons the on the lathe(page t b a c ke n d o f t h e a r m sc a n n o b e t u r n e d . l l I n s t e a di,n s t a l a d o w e c u t t e ro n y o u r a 9 d r i l lp r e s s , l t t h e m a c h i nte b l e 0 " a n d ti w c l a m ot h e a r m i n o l a c e r t ht h e t e n o n S e n d c e n t e r e u n d e r h e c u t t e r . e tt h e d t a f d r i l l r n d e p t h t o n e - h atl h e l e gd i a m e t e r g then cut the tenon(/eff).

CHAIRS

ASSEMBLING ROCKING THE CHAIR

\= /t

'l
l

I G l u i n g p t h e r o c k i n g h a i rf o l l o w s u c ht h e s a m e r o c e u c p m d u r eu s e df o r t h e E n f i e l d h a i r .S t a r tb y a t t a c h i n t h e c r e s t c g r a i l .s l a t s . a i l s .a n d s t r e t c h e rts t h e t w o r e a rl e p s( n a p c r o T 3 3 , ) . h e ng l u et h e a r m s ,r a i l s ,a n d s t r e t c h e rts t h e f r o n t o

Gluing front rear assemblies the and leg together -

legs. 0nce adhesive cured, the glue has spread onthetenons of theside rails stretchers in their and and mortisesthelegs in and (abovd. a dead-blow fit thetwoassemblies together Use hammer p t o t a pt h e . l o i nitn t o i n a l o s i t i o n . s f

r) Making armbuttons the L P r e p a rte o b l a n k s n dd r i l la m o r t i s e w a h a l f w a t h r o u g h a c ho n es i z e do a c c e p t y e t t h e t e n o n t t h e t o p e n do f t h e f r o n tl e g s . a G l u ea l e n g t h f d o w e i n e a c hh o l e t h e n o l , u s et h e d o w e t o m o u n t n eo f t h e b l a n k s l o o n y o u rl a t h e . u r nt h e b u t t o n o s h a p e , T t t h e ns m o o t ht w i t hs a n d o a o e rh i l ei t i s i w still spinning the lathe(righil.Remoue on t h e b u t t o n r o mt h e m a c h i n e n dd r i l lo u t f a t h ed o w e l .

CHAIRS

t) Installins arm the buttons < r-,1Once botharmbuttons ready, are glue spread in theirmortises onthe and endof thefrontlegs. tenons thetop at (/eft). position buttons thearms Then the on

the to ,{ Attaching legs therockers 't Settherockers a flatsurface on and positron chair themsotherear on legs the 2 the where sitabout inches behind point Use therockers contact surface. a the chisel shaoe bottom thenotches to the of flat in the legs theylie perfectly onthe so rockers, mark screw then the holes the on of using holes the in sides the rockers, as Remove chair the and thelegs a gurde. d r i l la h o l e t e a c h a r ks e tt h ec h a i r a m , down, reposition rockers and the upside Now and on thechair. screw less the (right). rockers together

+J

TAPESEAT
Q hakertape,calledlistingby the rJ Shakers, began supplant to other tlpes of woven materials seat after1830. Its rangeof colors, neatappearance, durabilitv. ease installation and of made it idealfor furniturebuildersbent on producingqualitygoodsasefficiently aspossible. unlikecaneor other And naturally occurringmaterials, does tape not dry out or split;nor doesit pinch or snag clothing. Shownbelowand on the following pages, weaving fairlysimple. is Onelength of tape,called warp,is anchored the to the siderailsand wrapped aroundthe front and backseat railsin adjoining rows. second A length, called weft,is the wovenalternately under and overthe strands form thewarp.Loose that ends arejoinedby weaving them backon themselves, ensuringthat the rows alwavs remainoarallel. Shaker tapeisavailable %-and 1in inchwidthsfrom folk-artsuppliers. You canweave basic the tabbystyleshown in this section create wide variety or a of designs include that basic and complexgeometric shapes.

TheShaker rocking chairshown at leftfeatures canvas seattape ing aswellasa tapeback.

WEAVINGTAPE A SEAT

Anchoring warp the rows 1 I Tack length tape theinside a side a of to of rail seat about theedge thematerial against rear bbove). of butts the leg Wrap 2 inches therear sothatthetape parallel therail. thetape from leg is to around front andpullit towards back the rail the rail Loop tape the around back from the rail underneath, ensuring fromunderneath.

CHAIRS

r) Stuffing seat the I Conlinue wrapping warp the around thefront back from and rails underneath, making adjoining of tape in rows sure are The contact. weave should tight,but be notsotautthatthere noplay the is for weftrows bewoven to between warp the you halfway the rows. Once areabout to opposite rail,it istimeto stuff side the seat. orevent taoefromslackenTo the ing, theloose length tape oneof tie of to t h es l a t sB u ya p i e c e f 1 - i n c h - t h i c k . o p f o a m a d d i nfg o ma c r a f t u p p l o r r s y hardware andcut it witha craft store knife fit within seat to the rails. the Slip (left), padding between tapelayers the it between rails. centerine the

Completingwarp the Continue weaving warprows the you until reach opposite railand the side wrapped in theback railisentirely seat Then tape. temporarily the loose tack length tapeto thesiderail(below) of andcutofftheloose end.

CHAIRS

Starting weft the
S e tt h e c h a i ru p s i d e o w n n a w o r k d o

you surface willenable to work that comfortably. Starting theback rail along seat you opposite place the where began the warp, theendof theweft slip tape under thefirststrand thewarp, thenext, of over a n dc o n t i n u ei t ht h i su n d e r - a n d - o v e r w weave youreach last until the warp strand. P u l t h ee x c e s s p e h r o u g he a v i n5 l ta t l, g point. inches soat thestarting or Weave thispart back itself anchor tape on to the (left). in place Flipthe chairupright andcontinue weaving thetopside on of theseat.

Filling gaps thewarp the in f, r-,/ Weave about three rows weft, of then b e g i ni l l i n gn t h et r i a n g u lg a p se f t f i ar l y a l o n gh es i d e a i l s h e r e o ui n s t a l l e d t r w thewarp. a length warp Cut of tapelong plus enough weave rows seating, to two of a b o u5 i n c h e s ,n d l i p h et a p e n d e r t a s t u thelaststrand weftbeneath seat of the andaround front the rail,butting seat it you against lastrowof warp wove the in step Then 3. return theback passto rail, ingthetapeunder last the weft and row over second (right). the one Weave another warp adlacent thelast thesame row to one way. Leave excess the hanging now; for y o uw i l lb ea b l e o w e a v ie i n t o h es u b t t t sequent rows. weft Weave three more weft process. rows repeat gap-filling and the

46

CHAIRS

weft the trl Completing rows

weaving weft, the wrapping \,f Continue each around side row rails weavthe and (left). ingover under warprows and the Avoid twisting material. youfinish the As pull each row, it tightagainst previous the your onewithyour ingers. youwork f As w a y o w a r t h es i d e a i l , h ew a r p i l l t d r w t become increasingly Tomake tight. space fortheweft, slide bluntknife a between thewarp rows necessary. you as When have down f inalweftrow, laid the weave it back itself holdit in place. on Also to weave anyloose in ends tapeonthe of undersidetheseat. of

tape I Splicing I lf yourunoutof tapebefore finishing warp theweft, the or youwill need jointwoends. canstitch to You them together withthread, a simpler but method to start is weaving new a length a pointabout inches at 6 before endof thefirst the

tapebbovd,overlapping tapes binding the and them together b yf r i c t i o n . s e h i st e c h n i q u e t h eu n d e r s i d et h es e a t U t on of w i t ht h ec h a i r p s i d d o w n ot h a tn os e a m o r b u l g ew i l l u e s s s b ev i s i b l e .

47

N,{EETINGHOUSE BENCH
-[t h. meetinghouse bench served a as I pewfor theShakers. Duringservices, faithfulwould andlisten the sit to a sermondelivered an elder.At the by would close themeeting, benches of the bemovedout of thewayandhungfrom (page138). Wth the floor a pegboard ritual dancingcleared, Shakers' the from which they derivetheir namewouldbegin. Although many Shaker communities had benches the styleshownin this of section, design believed have the is to originated Enfield, in NewHampshire. Typically, crestrail, legs, the and spindleswerebuilt from mapleor cherry and the seatfrom pine. Many early remainintact,asa resultof examples hansoundconstruction careful and dlingby their makers. As shownbelow,the bench's legs arerakedto the front andback,but are not splayed The and sideways. spindles crestrail are taperedand the rail is angled theends. at

Madeof cherrywith a pineseat, at themeetinghouse bench shown Ieft is modeled after those usedby peoBecause Shaker worshippers. ple arelargerthan theywerein the Shakers' time.theseatis wider than that of an originalbench.

ANATOMY A MEETINGHOUSE OF BENCH

CreaD rail

I

CHAIRS

CUTTING LIST
ITEM Seat Crest rail
Qnind lpc* I poq*

OTY I 1 11 4 2

t 44 44 I4 I7 I4

W OR DIA. I4 4 % LY, %

TH L% %

Stretchers*

* N o t e :D i m e n s i o nn c l u d ee n o nl e n e t h s is t

PREPARINGSEAT THE

Drilling legholes the 1 yourseatblank I Clamp bottom-face on a work up surface andmark reference across surface inches a line the 5 from each end, thenpinpoint holes thelegs; back the for the holes should 1%inches be fromthe back edge theseat of andthe frontholes should 1%inches be fromthefrontedge. a Fit hand brace witha spoon thesame bit diameter the legs. as y T o h e l p o ud r i l lt h eh o l e s t t h ec o r r e c t ; s f2 p o l em : k c a ts

twoguides froma short wood scrap, mitering guide the for t h ef r o n tl e g s t 5 " a n dt h eo n ef o r t h e b a c kl e g s t 1 5 " . a a guide Settheappropriate on edge thereference a few on line i n c h e fsr o mt h e h o l e a r k n dh o l d h e b i t p a r a l l eo t h e m a t tl (abovd, guide. mitered edge the of Thenbore hole the stoppingwhen areabout you two-thirds thewaythrough of the stock-about inchdeep. 1

49

CHAIRS

Trotractor

a''
/ )

7i_

\

Keference line

r) Drilling spindle the holes your f- Bore holes theseat the for spindles using drillpress j g a n da s h o p - m a di e . M a r k r e f e r e n cie eo n i h et o pf a c e a l n of theseatparallel the back to edge and1 inchaway fromit. T h e n a r k h es p i n d l h o l e s ,t a r t i na b o u2 % i n c h efs o m m t e s g t r t h ee n d s n ds p a c i ntg er e m a i n i n g l e e q u a l l y .oe n s u r e a h ho s T thatthespindles tiltedback thecorrect are at angle, adjust a jig protractor10"anduse shop-made table shown to the tilted a b o v te t i l t t h es e a t n r e l a t i otn t h eb i t .F o r h ej i g ,s e ta o i o t p i e c e f p l y w o oo nt h em a c h i nte b l e p l a c eh es e a t l a n k d o a , t b

pa o nt o p ,a n ds l i pa 2 - b y - 2 n d etrh ep l y w o o d r a l l e li t hi t s u w back edge. Holding protractor ontheseat the base andthe next the bit,reposition 2-by-2 blade to the untilthe blade is parallel thebit (above, fhenscrew Z-by-2Io plyto lefil. the the wood clamp jigto themachine and the To table. drilltheholes, s e tt h ed r i l l i n g e p t h t t w o - t h i r dh es e a t h i c k n e sa l,i g n d a ts s thefirstmark under bit,andclamp board thelig asa the a to fence along seat the front's Then, edge. holding seat the against thefence, bore eachholebbove, right).

to the top Q Preparingshape seat's r.,l Cutthe recess theseat's suron top faceonyour table saw. Start marking by the profile theseat theworkpiece. of on Referring theanatomy to illustration on page outline shape theends 48, the of on thebottom andendgrain theblank. face of Tooutline recess, theseat facethe set top d o w n n y o u r a b l e a wa n dc r a n kh e o t s t blade thedesired to depth cut.Position of theseat the recess be centered so will b e t w e et n em i d d l e n dt h eb a c k d g e , h a e e t h e no u t l i n t h eb l a d e nt h ee n do f t h e o s t o c k n dm a r k r e f e r e n cie eo nt h e a a l n (righil. saw table along seat's the frontedge Now clamp board a guide thatits a as so edge aligned thereference is with line.

CHAIRS

Cutting recess theseattop the in ,{ -T Adjust the blade a cuttingheight to of ' / , u n c h .S l o w l y e e dt h e s e a ta c r o s sh e i f t t a b l e i t ho n eh a n d w h i l ep r e s s i nig w , t a g a i n stth e g u i d eb o a r d i t h t h e o t h e r . w s M a k ea s m a n yp a s s e a s n e c e s s a ru n t i l y t h e b l a d e u t l i n e n t h e e n do f t h e s t o c k o o (left),raising blade%u disappears the inch a t a t i m e . F o ra s m o o t h i n i s h ,r a i s e h e f t b l a d e e r y l i g h t l y n d m a k e f i n a lp a s s . v s a a

Shaping topof theseat the f, s , / C l a m pt h e s e a tf a c e - u p n a w o r ks u r f a c e n d m a r ka o a g u i d e l i n a l o n g h e l e n g t h f t h e r e c e s s o uc u t a s a r e m i n d e r e y t o p o f w h e r e h e c u r v e d o r t i o n f t h e s e a t o p w i l l e n d .R e f e r r i n g t o t o t h e o u t l i n e n t h e e n do f t h e s t o c k , s ea h a n dp l a n e o f i n o u t ish shaping seatIop (above), the removing wastefrom end to . e n da n da l w a y c u t t i n g i t ht h e g r a i n C o n t i n uu n t i l y o u s w e y r e a c h o u ro u t l i n e .

Cutting ends theseat the of
F o l l o w i n g e c u t t i n g i n e s n t h e t o p f a c eo f t h e s e a t , u t th l o c t h eendson yourbandsaw(above). Keepthe workpiece on flat t h e m a c h i nte b l e sy o uf e e di t , t h e ns a n d h ec u t e n d s m o o t h . a a t s

CHAIRS

the ofthe I Shaping underside seat I Theends frontedge theseat and of arebeveled its underside. the on Bevel front edge theseat your of on table saw, tilting blade a 45' angle. ends the to The arebest shaped hand by witha carver's drawknife. Clamo seat the face-down on a work surface. Then, holding toolin the both hands theblade with bevel-down at a 4 5 ' a n g l t o t h ee n d f t h es e a tp u l li t e o , (left). you toward to shave waste off wood you Once aresatisfied thebevel, with sand theends smooth.

THE TO JOINING LEGS THESEAT
the for 1 Preparing legs thestretchers I Turnthe legs yourlalhe(page on 28), tapering themto a diameter % inch of at thetopdtldr%o at thebottom. inch Also turnthestretchers cylinders, into forming (page at each a tenon 29) end.Toensure t h a tt h es t r e t c h e r l e sn t h el e g s i l l ho i w b ea t t h ec o r r e c tn g l ed r i l lt h e m i t h w a , face-down a work theseat on surface and t h e l e g s r y -ift t e di n t h e i rh o l e sn t h e d i s e a t I n s t a la s p a d e i t i n a n e l e c t r i c . l b d r i l la n dw r a p s t r i po f m a s k i ntg p e a a around bitto mark drilling the the deptha b o u o n e - h atlh e d i a m e t e rf t h e l e g . t f o A l s o a r k p o i n t a l f w au p e a c h e g m a h y l (see anatomy page 48).Then the on holdingthelegin itshole thebit parallel and to theseat surface, thehole the drill at m a r ks t o p p i nw h e n h em a s k i ntg p e , g t a contacts stock(right). Ihe

52

CHAIRS

and Preparing legs the forwedges stretchers the to Reinforce joints the connecting legs legs with and to theseat thestretchersthe wedges. the kerfs thewedges Cut for on you your ing When arekerf the band saw. l e g sh o l d h el e go nt h em a c h i nt e b l e , t a hole straight up. withthestretcher facing in This ensure thewedges the will that of legs perpendicular grain the are to the preventing seat fromsplitting. the seat, Feed workpiece theblade, into slicing the a kerfto a depthof aboutlz inch (righil. in the Cutthekerfs thestretchers same making thatthewedges be will way, sure perpendicular grain thelegs. of to the

r--)
V.,

up and Q Gluing thelegs stretchers wedges the kerfs, for r.,l To make cut pieces the band some hardwood on saw slightly than%inchlong % inch less and o t h i c ka t t h e b a s et,a p e r i ntg a p o r n t . to Start gluing stretchersthe legs. by the and Spread some adhesive thewedges on in the kerfs wellason thestretcher as in tenons themortises the legs, and and insert wedges theirkerfs. the the into Fit and together, a woodusing stretcher legs into en mallet tapthepieces finalposito protruding tion.Youcanleave wedges the (insef); willsit f lush fromthe kerfs they withtheends the legs stretchers of and you Next, when tapthejoints together. glue wedges thelegs, the into spread adhesiveonthecontacting surfaces between and and the legs theseat, tapthelegs (/eff,). intoposition

53

CHAIRS

Sawing legs length the to
T h et e c h n i q us h o w n b o v e i l le n s u r e e a w lh t h a t a l l f o u rl e g s r ep r e c i s e t y e s a m e a l e n g t hC u tf o u rw o o db l o c k sr o ma s i n g l e . f b o a r dt,h e n n o t c ho n eo f t h e b l o c k s o t f i t a r o u n d l e g ( i n s e i l .P l a c e h e b l o c k a t a r o u n dh e f i r s tl e gt o b e c u t . H o l d i n gh e t t l e gf i r m l yw i t h o n e h a n d ,c u t i t t o s i z e w i t ha f l u s h - c u t t i n g w .O n c e h e f i r s t sa t l e gi s t r i m m e dr e m o v eh e n o t c h e d l o c k , t b a n dr e p l a c ie w i t ho n eo f t h e r e m a i n i n g t p b l o c k sP o s i t i otn e n o t c h e d i e c e r o u n d . h a t h e n e x tl e ga n dm a k e h e c u t .C o n t i n u ie t n this way until all four legsarecut (right). l f y o uw a n tt h e b e n c h o h a v e b a c k w a r d t a s l a n t , a c ks h i m st o t h e b o t t o m s f t h e t o f r o n tl e g sb e f o r er i m m i n gh e l e g s . t t

GTUING CREST AND THE RAIL SPINDLES THE T() SEAT
Preparing crestrailfor thespindles the I C u tt h e c r e s t a i lt o s i z e t h e nm a r k r , t h es p i n d l e o l e s n i t s b o t t o m d g e u s i n g h o e , y t h e h o l e s o ud r i l l e d nt h e s e a t s a g u i d e . r a d C l a m p p i e c e f p l y w o oa s a n a u x i l i a r y a o t a b l e o y o u r r i l lp r e s si,n s t a la b r a d - p o i n t t d l b i t ,a n da d l u st h e d r i l l i n g e p t h o a b o u t d t 1 i n c h .A l i g nt h e f i r s th o l em a r ku n d e r t h e b i t a n dc l a m p b o a r d o t h e a u x i l a t i a r y a b l ef l u s ha g a i n s t ef a c eo f t h e r a i l . t th T h i sw i l l s e r v e s a f e n c e o o o s i t i o tn e a t h r a i l .B u t t i n gh e r a i la g a i n stth ef e n c ed r i l l t , the holes (righil. 'l

J+

CHAIRS

r) Gluing thespindles crest and rail up L s"tthe seat face-uo a work on surglue of face, then spread ontheends the in and and spindles in theholes theseat t h ec r e s r a i l .F i tt h es n i n d l eis t ot h e t n each finalposition seat, tapping oneinto (above). hammer Once witha dead-blow are fit allthespindles in place, therailon For topand it intoposition. additional tap yo , r e i n f o r c e m e n tuc a np e g h ej o i n t s t thesoindle theseat rail and and between o f t h eb e n c hD r i l t h ep e g . l ateach nd e through back ihe holes thespindles into andtheoutside of face edge theseat of following procedure explained therail, the on page 110.

illl illr ljiltilJ illJ ili l]l] llrJ lllllltIIJ llilllil illt iliI lllt ltil llll
1HO?TI?
laperinglhe areEl rail on a planer eo lf you wiehNola?er the crest,railof the bench Xhelop edqeio aae and a bhop-m nirrowe,than tie bott om,usea Nhickneee elaner jiq, jig. ForNhe tack two woodetriVeIo a board and Nhat is longer ehould lwiceas thick as lhe be widerthan the rail.Oneof lhe eLrioe than inchlees Nhem ehould about,1 be oIher, and the 4ap beNween widlhof the rail,Clamp ji4 Lo Nhe Nhe plan' Nhe eNrioe extend er table so Lheboardand Nhe lrom eachside of the machine eeveral by J;i, inches. furn on Ihe planer Now and make throuahthe machine withIhe a Dao6 bottom edqebfthe rail fluehayainol the Nhicker otripandlhetop edqeproVped uV onlhethinner etriV.lltake many?aeoeo ae No Lhe ao neceleary achieve desired t a p e r . T h e n N u r n l h a i lo v e r n d re a
repeat,lhe proceee,Nhietime with Lhe rail'e boLIom

edgebuLbed aqainot thinnerelrip,ae Nhe shownabove,

55

"'w*
{

'

TABLES
The squares 12people. of three years Shaker he early of illustrated on 6-footlongtable were far communities page seats comfortably. 58 eight from bountiful.As oneresi(page DropJeaf tables 68), village dentof the Hancock "Our tops, with their expandable in foodwas said 1791, later were developed thantresBut veryscanty. whatwehad, tle types, becoming common we atewith thankfulhearts. Theywere in the used by 1820. we Forbreakfast supper, and or dininghall assidetables livedmostlyuponbeanporas occasionally,diningtables. porridgeJ' By water ridgeand ButthedropJeaf design so is ofthe 19th thesecond decade practical that the Shakers however, Shakers' the Century founda multitude applicaof hard capacityfor ceaseless from tionsfor it everywhere payoffinmateworkbegan to thedairyto theinfirmary. prosperiry rial Thepedestal (page table 78), dining tablesare Shaker stand, verypopwas or candle mutetestament the comto Strong ularwith theShakers. munities' success fields, in itwaslightenough andsturdy, As bams, gardens. increasand jig joined Its to move easily. tripodlegs on Wth help ingnumbers converts of from a shop-built that rests thebedof kept it from wobbling.The bit router with a dovetail plowssockets mealtimes a lathe,a the movement, fitted experimented endwill Shakers stand.Thesockets mate in thecolumnof a candle saw the Shakers crowded lessly thisbasic with form.The at the top endsof the legs. with slidingdovetails elbowto elbowaroundthe was stand built with convex, For instructions makingthisjtg, refertopage81. on eating solemn in dinnertable, Tops concave, turnedlegs. or silence and, as in most of round, or Sometimes, tops the were made square rectangular. separated. with their otheractivities, themenandwomen (page and featured undersimply rounded or lipped, some over fixtures most in Shaker were 58)were common Trestle tables tops to holdsewing supplies. Some hadagroove legroom slung drawers legs dininghalls. Wth theirnarrow andunobstructed (Ovalor octagonal of were people sitquiteclose together, tables well in thelip to helpin thepackaging seeds. the to allowing and however, beingfrivolous too as were the offoodacross shapes excluded, ethic. suited theShaker Tofacilitate passing to "squares" fourdin- worldly.) candle in is The stand shown thischapter but one into of tops, settings divided were thelarge design. of and tables builtto seat version a popular functional were Typically feet 10 long, Shaker trestle ers.

A wooden supportispivotedundertheleafof thedropJeaftable but shownat left. Overtime, thesupportmay tendto sagslightly, glued to the underside the leafwill compensate of the thin wedge allowing theleaf to sitat thesamelevelasthe top. for the change,

57

TRESTLE TABLE
theirlarge size, trestle tables f-\ espite LJ areeasy move.This is because to the joints connecting feetto the the legs, legs therails, the to andtherailsto the top are fixed not by glue,but by screws bolts.Thetableshown and below relies heavilyon knockdownhardware, a modernversionof the Shaker Dracticeof assembling tables with boltsthat drewagainst trappednut, allowingeasy a disassembly. frequentlyused Shakers cherryfor their tables; this remainsa goodchoice today. Toprevent top from warpingand the alsoto hideend grain,a tongueis cut alongeach endto positionthe mating groove ofa breadboard end.The ends arescrewed the top,with only a little to glueappliedat the middle.This allows the top to expand and contract across its width ashumidity changes without beinghindered thebreadboard by ends.

Asshown page thefirststep on 59, in making table gluing thetop. this is up Becauseitswidth, topcannot of the be passed through most planers thickness glueup.Instead, by assemafter start bling topin thelargest the possible sections yourmachine handle that can and plane themto a uniformthickness. Thenglue sections the together, being verycareful ensure theyare to that perfectly flush.

ANATOMYA OF TRESTLE TABTE
ToP 1"x41'/a"x7O%"

18"

7"

+

Trestle 1"x4%"x49"

,.t...Spare and sturdy,the trestle tableshownbelow is a perfect philosoplry. expression theShaker of With the trestle tuckedup underthe top,diners could sitclose together without havingto splay out theirknees legs. narrow at theends or The feet madeit easy sweep floor underthetable. to the

Rail

1"x5"x36"

/----=-% Croaa dowel /

y-----"'-

Drawbolt

TABLES

MAKING T(]P THE

Applying glue the I O n c e l l y o u r o a r da r el o i n t e d n dr i p p e do a c o m a b s a t w y r b i n e d i d t h h a ti s r o u g h l 1 i n c hw i d e t h a nt h ef i n i s h e d t e t o p ,a r r a n gte e b o a r d so r t h e b e s tp o s s i b l m a t c ho f c o l h f . , o r ,f i g u r e a n dg r a i n T o m i n i m i z e a r p i n gl,a yo u t t h e w p l a n k s o t h a tt h e e n dg r a i no f a d j a c e nb o a r d su n si n s t r o p p o s i t d i r e c t i o n sh e nm a r ka r e f e r e n ctei a n g l e n t o p e t, r o o f t h e b o a r d s . h i sw i l l h e l py o uc o r r e c t lry a l i g nh e mf o r T e t g l u eu p . T o h o l dy o u rb a rc l a m p s p r i g h tc u t n o t c h e d u , w o o d l o c k s n ds e tt h e c l a m p sn t h e b l o c k sS p a c eh e i b a . t 2 . c l a m p s u e r y 4 t o 3 6 i n c h e sT o p r o t e ctth e s t o c k a l s o e , c u t t w o w o o dp a d sa s l o n ga n d a s t h i c ka s t h e p l a n k s . A p p l y n a r r o w e a d f g l u et o o n ee d g e f e a c hj o i n ta n d a b o o u s ea s m a l l , t i f f - b r i s t l e d u s h o s p r e a dh e a d h e s i v e s br t t (above). evenly the boardedges on

'l

r ) T i g h t e n i n ga m p s cl L t u y t h e b o a r d f a c eu p o n t h e b a rc l a m p s n da l r g n s a t h e i re n d s , a k i n g u r et h e s i d e s f t h e r e f e r e n c ei a n g l e m s o tr a r el i n e du p . T i g h t e nh e c l a m p s n d e r h e b o a r d jsu s t t u t T e n o u g ho b u t t t h e mt o g e t h e r . o b a l a n c eh e c l a m p i n g t t p r e s s u ra n d k e e p h e p a n e fl l a t ,p l a c e a rc l a m p s c r o s s e t b a l t h e t o p o f t h e p a n e b e t w e et h e o n e su n d e r n e a t A.s y o u n h t i g h t e n h e c l a m p sm a k e u r et h a tt h e b o a r d s r ep e r f e c t l y t , s a f l u s h .P l a c e s c r a p f w o o do n a n y h i g hs p o t s h e r e w o a o w t b o a r dm e e t n dh i t i t w i t ha h a m m eu n t i l t h e w o l i ef l a t . s a r t F i n r s hi g h t e n i na l l t h e c l a m p s n t u r n ( l e f D n t i lt h e r ea r e t t g u n o g a p sb e t w e etn e b o a r d a n da t h i n ,e v e nb e a d f g l u e h s o s o r e e z eo r t o f t h e i o i n t s O n c e l l t h e t o n s e c t i o na r e s . a s g l u e d p ,p l a n eh e ma n dg l u et h e mt o g e t h e r . u t

59

TABLES

Preparing topfor the Q !,, thebreadboard ends Thebreadboard areattached the ends to joint. topwitha tongue-and-grooveStart byrouting tongue each of thetop. a at end Install piloted a three-wing slotting cutter in a router setthecutting and depth to % - i n c t h i sw i l le n a b ly o u o c l e atrh e h; e t waste fromeach side thetongue two of in passes. Secure tooto a work the surface andturntherouter withthebitclear on of thestock. Make firstpass both the on s i d e s f e a c h n dm a k i ns u r e h eb i t ' s o e g t p i l o t e a r i nig b u t t e d g a i n sh ee n d b s a tt of thetop.Then reset depth cut the of slightly deeper routthe rest the to of w a s t er o mh a l fo f t h et o n g u et;h e f t o n g u s h o u l d eo n e - t h i rt d et h i c k e b h n e s s f t h et o p .F i n i s hh et o n g u ea t o t s bothends//eft).

Making installing breadboard and the ends Plane breadboard to thesame the ends thickness as thetop,thensaw them long thetop's as as width. the Cut grooves theinside along edges thebreadboard on of ends your tablesaw(page 62).fhegrooves should aswide be as you thetongues routed step andslightly in 3 deeper than theirlength. theends position counterbore Fit in and three holes through one each andinto top,locating hole the one at themiddle anotherfewinches each and a from end.Use a fileto elongate holes thebreadboard slightly; the in ends e t h i sw i l lf a c i l i t a tw o o d o v e m e n t p r e ag l u e nt h e m S. d o 1 tongues about inch each ofthecenter, repoto side then sition breadboard (right), the ends using mallet a a and w o o d l o c ki,f n e c e s s a t o t a pt h e mi n t of i n a lp o s i t i o n . b ry, gluewood plugs Drive screws secure ends, the to the over theheads, trimthem and flush witha chisel. Sand surthe face smooth.

60

TABLES

MAKING FEET THE

,/ // / --r'

,-/

/,,

Preparing feet thelegs the for r is w I O u t l i nte ef e e t n b l a n k a n dc u tt h em o r t i s e n t h e m i t ha r o u t ea n dt h e h o s j g p t T ts a c o m m e r c im o r t i s i nig s h o w n b o v e .h ej i g f e a t u r e w og u i d e i n s h a tb u t t al is on faces a workpiece, of ensuring themortise centered the that against opposite to mortising in a router setthecutting bit and depth cutthe edge. lnstall a'/t-inch bench mortise three fourpasses. in or Secure footedge onyour one up 1%-inch-deep at Plunge bit into stock one the the andmark beginning endof themortise. the and pins end, making theguide sure endof themortise, feed cutter theother then the to foot, the for then bothridealong workpiece the throughout cut.Repeat theother of with square corners themortises a chisel. the

'l

r) Sawing feet shape the to sawL cutthelegonyour bano saw, followed the ingthetopedgeirst, f by bottom edge(above). Sand cut ihe edges smooth.

of the Q Chamferingtopedges thefeet r-,1Install piloted 45-degree in a a bit router, mount toolin a table set the and depth a %-inch-wide for chamthecutting fer.Toprevent kickback, a clamp notched guide is board thetable itsedge in to so prlot Reinforce line withthebit's bearing. To theguide a support with board. indiwhere chamfer ends, mark line a cate the across topedge thefoot% inch the of from Feed foot the each endof the mortise. riding stock intothecutter, the along the guide board start pass, to the thenpivot theworkpiece from guide, away the makingsure stock the butts against bearthe i n p S t o n h ec l t a t t h ec h a m f e irn e . t l Repeat theother side the mortise, of on then turnthefoot over chamfer and the opposite (left). face

TABLES

MAKING LEGS RAITS THE AND
'l Sawing tenons the the at I bottom thelegs of C u tt h e l e g s o s i z et,h e no u t l i n eh e t t t e n o no n t h e i rb o t t o m n d su s i n gh e s e , t mortises thefeetasa guide. the in Cut t e n o n o n y o u r a b l e a w i t t e d i t ha s t s f w d a d o e a da d j u stth ew i d t h f t h eh e a d h ; o t o s l i g h t lm o r eh a n n e - h atlh et e n o n y t o f l e n g t h - a b o u ti n c h Y o u i l ls a w h e 1 . w t tenon sides edges twopasses and in each, eliminating need attach auxiliary the to an fence. position ripfence, To the align the s h o u l d eirn eo nt h e l e gw i t ht h ed a d o l head buttthefence and against end the oftheboard; fence the should well be clear of theblades. bycutting sides Start the of (page For edges, thetenon 71). the align theendof theboard thedado with head andmake pass, turnthelegover a then andrepeat. complete tenon, To the align theshoulder withthehead feed line and gauge, with theboard themiter riding the endof theworkpiece against fence. the (lefil. Turnthe board overandrepeal

r) Preparing legs thetrestle the for groove L me trestle intoa stopped fits a t t h et o po f t h e l e g . d u s tt h ew i d t h A j of thedado head thecutting and height to % inch. Center face thelegover the of the d a d o e a d n db u t tt h ef e n c e g a i n s t h a a theedge. Mark endof thegroove the on thelegs thepoints thetable and on insert w h e r eh eb l a d es t o p u t t i n g h i sw i l l t s c t; y h e l p o ud e t e r m i nh ep o s i t i o n t h e e t of dado head when is hidden theworkit by piece during cut.Tosaw groove, the the feed legface the down, holding edge the (right). against fence the Once cutting the l i n e nt h el e ga l i g n w i t ht h em a r k n o s o insert, theworkpiece the thetable lift off dado head. Square stopped of the end thedado a chisel. cannow a with You cut two-shouldered at each of the tenon end (page to fit intothegroove. stretcher 71)

62

TABLES

Preparing rails thelegs the for
T h er a i l s r ea t t a c h etd t h e t o p e n d so f t h e l e g s i t h b r i d l e a o w j o i n t s S t a r tb y c u t t i n g h e r e c e s s e s t h e r a i l s h a te n a b l eh e m . t in t t t o m e s h i t ht h e m o r t i s ey o uw i l l s a wi n t h e l e g s O u t l i n eh e w s . t r a i lp r o f i l e n y o u rb l a n k s n d m a r kt h e s h o u l d e r sf t h e r e c e s s e s o a o 2 i n c h e so e a c hs i d eo f t h e m i d d l e f t h e b o a r d s . d j u s t h e t o A d a d oh e a d n y o u rt a b l es a wa s w r d e s i t w i l lg o a n ds e tt h e c u t o a t i n g h e i g h t t % i n c h ,S c r e w n e x t e n s i otn t h e m i t e rg a u g e , a a o a l i g n n eo f t h e s h o u l d e r a r k s n t h e r a i lw i t ht h e d a d oh e a d , o m o a n d b u t t t h e f e n c ea g a i n stth e e n d o f t h e s t o c k .F e e d h e r a i l t , w i t ht h e m i t e rg a u g ep r e s s i ntg e s t o c k g a i n stth e f e n c e . l i p h a F t h e r a i lt o c u t a s h o u l d e rn t h e o t h e r a c e , h e nr o t a t eh e p i e c e o f t t a n d c u t t h e s h o u l d e ra t t h e o t h e re n d o f t h e r e c e s s e/s e f f ) . s / M o v e h e f e n c e u t o f t h e w a ya n dr e m o v t h e r e m a i n i nw a s t e . t o e g

Sawing mortisesthelegs the in
R e p l a cte e d a d oh e a d n y o u rt a b l es a ww i t ha c o m b i n a h o t i o nb l a d e c r a n ki t a s h i g ha s i t w i l l g o ,a n dc u t t h e m o r t i s ea t , s t h et o p e n d so f t h e l e g s i t ht h e h e l po f a c o m m e r c i t e n o n i n g w al j i g ; t h em o d e s h o w n b o v e l i d e s n t h e m i t e rs l o t .C l a m p h e l a s i t n l e gu p r i g hitn t h e j i g , p o s i t i o t h e j i g t o c e n t e t h e b l a d e n t h e r o e d g e f t h e w o r k p i e c e ,n d f e e dt h e s t o c ki n t ot h e c u t . T h e n o a m o v e h e j i g v e r ys l i g h t l y w a y r o mt h e b l a d e o e n l a r g t h e t f a t e m o r t i s e . a k e n o t h ep a s st,u r nt h e l e ga r o u n dn t h e j r g ,a n d M a r i feed it rntothe bladeagain(above). Next,test-fitone of the r a i l si n t h e n r o r t i s e f t h e f i t i s t o o t i g h t ,a d j u s t h e j i g t o l. s h a v e l i t t l em o r e o o d r o mt h e m o r t i s e n d m a k e w o m o r e a w f a t p a s s e s ,o n t i n u i nu n t i lt h e r a i l f i t ss n u g l yn t h e m o r t i s e . c g i

the f, Cutting railsto shape r . f T o b r i n gt h e t o p e d g eo f t h e r a i l sf l u s hw i t h t h e t o p e n d o f t h e l e g s y o uw i l l h a v e o n o t c ht h e b o t t o m d g eo f t h e , t e r e c e s s es e c t i o n f t h e r a i l s( s e e h e a n a t o m y n p a g e5 8 ) . d o t o F i t t h e r a i lu p s i d e o w ni n t h e l e gm o r t i s e n dd r a wa p e n c i l d a a l o n g h e t o p o f t h e l e gt o m a r ka c u t t i n g i n ea c r o s t h e r a i l . t l s C u t t h e n o t c ho n y o u rb a n ds a w ,s t a r t i n g i t h s t r a i g h c u t s w t a l o n g h e s h o u l d e r sf t h e r e c e s t o t h e m a r k e di n e .R e m o v e t s o l t h e r e m a i n i nw a s t e y m a k i n g c u r v e d u t f r o mt h e e d g et o g b a c ( o n e s h o u l d e r a b o v e ) , e n r o t a t e h e b o a r d1 8 0 " a n d s a w th t a l o n g h e c u t t i n g i n e .O n c e h e n o t c h e i n b o t hr a i l sa r er e a d y , t l t s s a wt h e r a i l s o s h a p e s y o ud i d t h e f e e t ( p a g e 1 ) a n d s a n d t a 6 t h e s u r f a c es m o o t h . s

TABLES

ASSEMBLING TABLE THE
'l
I

Preparing rails thetop for the

I T o a l l o w h et a b l e t o po m o v et,h e t t r a i l s r ef a s t e n etd i t w i t hs c r e w sa t h e r a o r t h a ng l u e .M a r k i xs c r e w o l e s l o n g h e s h a t t o n e d s e s f t h e r a i l s - t h r e e n e a c hs i d e o o o f t h e r e c e s s e sa n d b o r et h e mo n y o u r . d r i l lp r e s sH o l d r ntg e r a i lu p r i g ho n t h e h t m a c h i nte b l e d r r l a c o u n t e r b o rh o l e l a , ed e t h r o u g hh e w o r k p i e ca t e a c hm a r k ; s e t u c u r v e d a c k u p o a r d t o h e l py o us t e a d y b b s t h e r a i l .T h e nt u r nt h e r a i lo v e r n d a e n l a r g eh e b o t t o m f e a c hh o l e( l e f t ) , t o r r s i n a , / - i n c h i a m e t e ri t .T h r s r l l p d w b f a c i l i t a t w o o dm o v e m e nD.on o td r i l l e t r h ; t o od e e p , o w e v efro r p r o p ea n c h o r i n g , r s a s c r e w e q u i r e a t l e a s t1 i n c ho f w o o d w i t ha h o l en o l a r g etrh a ni t s s h a n k .

r) Preparing feetfor the legs the L U s t r g t w o i f f e r e nb i t so n y o u rd r i l l d t n r e s sh o r e h o l el h r o r r s e a c hf o o tf o r a h i t h e b o l tt h a tw i l la t t a c ht t o t h e l e g . h e T i b o l tw i l l b e t h r e a d e dn t oa c r o s s o w e l d (step4). to provide long-grain support S t a r t y d r r l l r na h o l e o c o n c e a l b o l t b g t a h e a d i t ha 1 l - i n c hs p a d e i t .M a r k w b a l i n eo n t h e f a c eo f t h e f o o t 1 l i n c h e s f r o mt h e b o l l o m d s e o i n d i c a tte e e l h H o l d i n t h e f o o tu p s i d e g d r i l l i nd e p t h . g d o w no n t h e m a c h i nte b l e u s et h e l i n e a ,
a c . : o r r i d pf n r c . p t i i n o h p d r i l l i n o d p n t h t

t h e n b o r et h e b o l t - r e c e s s r h o l e( r r g h f ) . ng T h e ns w i t c hb i t sa n d b o r e % - i n c h - d i a m a e t e rc l e a r a n ch o l ef o r t h e b o l tt h r o u g h e the foot.

64

TABLES

clearance inthelegs holes Q Drilling r-,1Use electric to prepare legs drill the forthebolts from an and the thefeet.Startbyfittinga footandlegtogether secure in vrse. Insert pencil a into assembly upside down your bench in its on at thehole thefoot andmark center thetenon theend

lefil.fhenremove footandusethedrill of thelegbbove, the into fitted witha%-inch spade to bore thetenon legto bit and a depth about inches. of 3 Keep toolperpendicular the to the (above, righil. endof thetenon throughout operation the

Clearance hole

Boring clearance in holes thelegs cross for dowels lnstall 'lu-inch a brad-point in your bit drill press settheleginside{ace onthe and up m a c h i n e b l eA d j u s t ed r i l l i nd e p t h ta . th g t o s l i g h t lly s sh a n h es t o c kh i c k n e s s . e t t t T o l o c a t eh eh o l e o rt h ec r o s s o w e l , t f d mark vertical along legaligned a line the w i t ht h ep i l o t o l e n da h o r i z o n tl an e h a il across leg%inch the fromtheshoulder Holding legsteady, of thetenon. the drill the hole(/efil.

65

TABLES

legs the F Bolting feetto the . . , 1 N o wv o u a r e r e a d v o a s s e m b l t h e t e w t a b l e ,s t a r t i n g i t h t h e f e e ta n d l e g s .F i t t h e p i e c e so g e t h ea n ds e tt h e a s s e m b l y t r d o n a w o r ks u r f a c eS l i p t h e c r o s s o w e l . i n t o i t s h o l ei n t h e l e ga n d i n s e r t h e b o l t s u p t h e f o o t .T o a l i g nt h e f a s t e n e rs o t h e b o l t e n g a g ew i t h t h e d o w e l ,h o l dt h e s w as d o w e li n p o s i t i o n i t h a s c r e w d r i v e r y o u d r i v et h e b o l t w i t h a h e xd r i v e r r o wrench(right).Oncethe bolt catchesin i t h e d o w e lt,i g h t e n t f r r m l y .

Assembling legs,railsandtrestle the 4i f t \ , f N o t c ht h e t r e s t l e o r t h e c l e a t ,t h e ns c r e w h e c l e a ti n p l a c eC l a m p h e c l e a tt o a w o r ks u r f a c e , t t h e l e g s n d r a i l s . fi a t t . t o g e t h e r , n d p o s i t i o nh e l e g sa g a i n stth e t r e s t l eT h e l e g s a w d a n d r a r l s r ej o i n e d o t h e t r e s t l e i t h b o l t sa n dc r o s s o w e l s . a t f T o m a k e h e c o n n e c t i o n d , i l lt w o p i l o th o l e s o r b o l t st h r o u g h t sr

(above). Locate the eachlegandrailintotheendof the treslle pass it, holes they so through rail,rather the thanbelow in the portion thestock. Next, near each notched of bore holes two for dowels youdidin theleg@age as 65), endof thetrestle cross (inset). and to thenbolttheless rails thetrestle

66

TABLES

Preparing top the I / B e f o r ea s t e n i ntg e t o p t o t h e r a i l s , f h r o u n do v e ri t s t o p a n d b o t t o m d g e s n d e a e n d s .L a yt h e t o p f a c eu p o n a w o r ks u r f a c ea n d s t a r tb y r o u n d i n t h e c o r n e r s g s l i g h t l y i t ha s a n d i n g l o c k T h e ni n s t a l l w b . a p i l o t e d - i n c ho u n d - o v e r t i n a r o u t e r % r bi a n d s e t t h e d e p t ho f c u t t o s h a p e h e t in top'sedges two passes. Press bit's the p i l o tb e a r i n g g a i n stth e s t o c k s y o u a a f e e dt h e r o u t e r o u n t e r c l o c k w as o n g c i le t h e e d g e s n d e n d so f t h e t o p ( r i g h t ) . a Turnthe top overand repeat process the w i t ha % - i n c h o u n d - o v e r t t o s h a p eh e r bi t b o t t o m d g e s n de n d s . e a

Attaching toptotherails the
Leave too facedownon the work the s u r f a c e n d p o s i t i o nh e r a i l - a n d - l e g a t a s s e m b lo n i t . U s ea n a w lt o m a r kt h e y s c r e w o l e sh r o u g hh e r a i l s n t h e u n d e r h t t o s i d eo f t h e t o p ,t h e nd r i l la p i l o th o l ef o r a s c r e w t e a c hp o i n t .M a k es u r et h e b i t a e d o e sn o t p e n e t r a t t h e t o p ' su p p e rs u r f a c e .R e p o s i t i o h e r a i l s n t h e t o p a n d tn o screw them in place(left).

67

DROP-LEAF TABLE
-l- h. Shakers appreciated versathe I tilityof drop-leaf tables. leaves The whena widertoDwas could raised be needed. folded and downafterwird so the tablewould occupylessspace. Shaker dropJeaftables ranged from10foot-long diningtables, sometimes
"harvest referredto as tables," small to just work tables 2 feetlong.At 41 incheslong,thetableshownin theillustration compromise. belowis a comfortable Thetop canexpand a width of more to four peoplecomthan 3 feet,seating fortably.With the leaves folded down, thetableis less than20 inches wide.As with mostdrop-leaf tables, version the shownhereuses jointsto attach rule the top to the leaves. ensure To adequate supportfor the leaves, the largest use drop-leafhingesavailable, which are typicallyll by 2'/,inches.

(lF ANATOMYA DROP.LEAF TABLE

Drop4eaf hinge
t/o"x19'A"x41"

ToP

Leaf t/0"x10"x41" Wood button 3l" x 3l" x'/r"

Groove for wood button End rail
'l"x5t/o"x15"

Drop4eaf auppott Dowel 7/u" 2" x Drawer alide
'/ztt xt/o" x'lB"

Shaker dropJeaftables, like theoneshown below, typicallyfeatureda drawerat oneendand slender, turned legs with a gradualtaper. This tablewasinspired by onemadearound1820 at theHancock Shaker village in Pittsfield,Massachusetts.

Drawer kicker 1 "x ' 1 " ' 1 5 " x

l+
13/tl

6"

t'
2Q r7.tt

413/ | /16

tt

1"x53/s"x36'/o"

Drawer rail '1" x'1" '15" x Note: Dimenarona includetenon and dovetaillen7tho

l t/u"

TABLES

()F DETAIT DRAWER
Drawer back '/o"x2"1"x13'1"

Drawer aide n/a"x3l"x15%" Drawer front "'/t"x3%"x13%"

tEG.AND-RAIt ASSEMBLY Leg 2"x2"x29%"

Drawer alide groove l" widex'ls" deep

False front '/r"x3%"x13%"

MAKING LEGS THE

m
Gutting mortises turning legs the and the illustration, thefourlegs size, cut to Referringtheanatomy to mortises hand, shown page or usea by as on 91, thenchop s bi sh d r i l lp r e se q u i p p e d t ha m o r t i s i n g t .T h em o r t i s e s o u l d wi g w a d e b e% i n c h r d e n d% i n c h e e pl,e a v i ns p a c f o ra V i n c h at end.Next, turnthe legs the to shoulder thetenon each on you To four legs, required shape. help produce identical make indiof The should a hardboard template thetaper. template points of at different cate finished the diameter thelegs several the or along theirlengths. byseparating pommel, square Start Mark line section, thecylindrical from section. thepommel on lathe. Define legblanks, mount of them your then one on the pommel a roughing gouge. a notch themarked at with Cut the l i n et,h e nr o u n dh ec o r n e r s t h eb l a n k e l o wh ep o m m e l . t of b t y t i u W i t h h et i p o f t h eg o u gte l t e d p ,g r a d u a lrla i s eh eh a n d l e t g tt a u n t i l h eb e v eils r u b b i na g a i n s h es t o c k n dt h ec u t t i n g t (above, into left),Work frombelow edge slicing the wood is un tl d o t h e p o m m e o w a r t h e b o t t o m f t h e l e g ,c o n t i n u i n g t i l F t r i al t h eb l a n ks c y l i n d r i ca n ds m o o t h . o r mh et a p e w i t ha gouge, for of adjustingseparate of calipers each a set spindle r k d e. c t h ed i m e n s i oa sm a r k eo ny o u t e m p l a t T h e n h e c t h e ns points right). at diameter theblank theappropriate of hbove, Deepen cutsif necessary themeasurements until onthe the ft o . t e m p l a ta n dt h ed i a m e t e rf t h ec u t sa r ee q u a lR e p e a o r e t h er e m a i n i b l a n k s . ng

TABLES

PREPARINGRAILS THE
t s 1 M a k i n gh ed r o p - l e a fu p p o r t s I T h e d r o p l e a v e s r es u p p o r t e b y a d p i v o t i n s u p p o r t s . o u s e d l o n g h et o p g H a t e d g eo f t h e s i d er a i l s , h e s u p p o r t p i v o t t s o n d o w e l so h o l dt h e d r o pl e a v e w h e n t s t h e ya r ee x t e n d e d h e n a l i g nw i t h t h e t, r a i l sw h e nt h e l e a v e a r en o t n e e d e dR i p s . a Z - i n c h - w i ds t r i pf r o mt h e e d g eo f e a c h e s i d er a i l ,t h e na d j u sy o u r a b l es a w ' s i t e r t t m g a u g eo a 7 0 " a n g l eC u ta 1 0 % - i n c h - l o n g t . p i e c ef r o m e a c he n d o f t h e s t r i p ( r 6 l h t ) . T h e p i e c e e t w e etn e c u t sw i l l b e t h e b h d r o p - l e a fu p p o r tt;h e t w o e n d p i e c e s i l l s w b e g l u e db a c ko n t ot h e s i d er a t l( s t e p ) . 2 M a k e h e o t h e rs u p p o rtth e s a m e a y . t w

r) Reassembling rails theside L tav fourbarclamps a work on surface setoneof the and s i d e a i l s nt o p .S p r e ag l u e nt h ec o n t a c t i n g g eo f t h e r o d o ed s y o u t s i ds t r i p s o uc u t i n s t e p1 a n dt h er a i l sa n dp r e stsh e e , . s t r i p sn p l a c eT h er a i ls h o u l e x t e n b e y o ntd ee n do f i d d h t h es t r i p s ya b o u % i n c h - t h ew i d t h f t h es a w u t sm a d e b t o c i n s t e p . ( T h e a i l s i l lb et r i m m e ld t e r .P r o t e c t i tn g 1 r w a ) he

, s t o c kw i t h w o o dp a d s t i g h t e n h e c l a m p s n t i la t h i n g l u e t u b e a ds q u e e z eo u t o f t h e j o i n t s( a b o v e ) . m e d i a t e lp o s i s lm y t i o n t h e d r o p - l e a fu p p o r b e t w e e nh e s t r i p s o e n s u r eh a t s t t t t i t b u t t s g a i n st th e s t r i p ss l i d e h e s t r i p s l o n g t h e a i l ,i f a ; t a r n e c e s s a rR e p e aw i t ht h e o t h e r i d er a i l ,t h e nt r i m t h e e n d s y. t s o f b o t hr a i l s l u s h . f

70

TABLES

rails thedrop-leaf for supports Preparing side the
of supMarkthe dowel holes the top edges the drop-leaf on p o r t s l,o c a t i n t h e ma b o u t i n c h e so o n es i d eo f t h e m i d d l e . 4 g t i t r O f f s e t t i ntg e d o w e l sn t h i s w a yw i l l a l l o w h e l o n g ee n do f h l b u t t h e s u p p o r ttso r o t a t e n d e r h e l e a v e sI.n s t a la % - i n c h i t i n y o u rd r i l l p r e s s n d a d j u s t h e d r i l l i n g e p t ht o t h e d o w e l a d n l e n g t h - a b o u 2 i n c h e sT h e np o s i t i o t h e s u p p o ro n i t s s i d e t . t e w r a i l ,c l a m pt h e a s s e m b lty t h e m a c h i n t a b l e i t ht h e m a r k e d o p o i n tu n d e r h e b i t a n d ,s t e a d y i ntg e r a i lo n e d g ew i t h o n e t h . s h a n d d r i l lt h e h o l e( a b o v dR e p e afto rt h e o t h e r i d er a i l . ,

Installing supports therails the on
g D a bs o m e l u ei n t ot h e h o l e s n t h e r a i l sa n dt a p a d o w e l i i n t oe a c hh o l e . n c e h e a d h e s i vh a sc u r e d s l i pt h e d r o p - l e a f O t e , (above). a chisel trim the dowUse to supports ontothe dowels i, e l sf l u s hw i t ht h e t o p so f t h e s u p p o r t s f n e c e s s a r r .

Sawing tenons therails the on f, r.,/ Install dadoheadslightly a wider thanthe lengh of the tenons - % i n c h - o n y o u r a b l es a w .( T h e e n o n h o u l d e % i n c hs h o r t t t s b y i e r t h a nt h e d e p t ho f t h e m o r t i s e o uc h o p p e dn t h e l e go n p a g e o 6 9 . ) S c r e w b o a r d s a n e x t e n s i otn y o u rm i t e rg a u g et,h e n a a e t a t t a c h n a u x i l i a rfy n c e n d r a i s e h e d a d oh e a d o n o t c hi t . T o a a t c u t t h e t e n o nc h e e k sb u t to n eo f t h e r a i l sa g a i n stth e f e n c ea n d , a t h e m i t e rg a u g e n d f e e di t f a c ed o w n .T u r nt h e r a i l o v e ra n d r e p e atth e c u t o n t h e o t h e r i d e ,t e s t - f i t t i ntg e t e n o ni n t h e I e g s h m o r t i s a n dr a i s i n t h e b l a d e s n t i lt h e f i t i s s n u g ( A l o o s ee n o n e g u . t s i s d i f f i c u l t o c o r r e c ts o e r r o r t h e s i d eo f t i g h t n e s w h e nf i r s t , t ) , c a a d j u s t i ntg e h e i g h o f t h e b l a d e s .N e x t c u t t e n o n h e e k s t h t t h e o t h e re n d ( l e f t )a n d r e p e a f o r e a c hr a i l .T h e nl i n e u p t h e l e gw i t ht h e r a i la n d m a r kt h e f i n a lw i d t ho f t h e t e n o n , s i n g u t h e m o r t i s e s a g u i d e . l i pt h e r a i lo n e d g e n da d j u s t h e s a w a F a r b l a d eo t h e p r o p eh e i g htto t r i mt h ew i d t ho f t h et e n o nA g a i n , t . f i a t e s t - f i t n t i l t h et e n o n i t s s n u g l yn t h e m o r t i s e n dt h e t o p so f u e r t h e r a i la n d l e ga r ef l u s h .N o wp r e p a r t h e d r a w er a i la n dt h e k i c k e t h e s a m e a y .B e f o r e s s e m b l r n h e l e g s n d r a i l s , r w a tg a remember prepare railsfor the woodbuttons(page93) to the t h a tw i l lh o l d h et o o i n o l a c e . t

TABLES

Preparing siderailsfor thecross the rail 4i t w \ , f J o i n e do t h e s i d er a i l s i t hs l i d i n g o v e d t a i l s , h e c r o s s a i la d d ss t r e n g t t o t h e t a b l e t r h s t r u c t u ra n da l s oa n c h o rts e c o r n e s t r i p s e h r t h a t h o l dt h e d r a w es u o o o r t s . i t ht h e e n d s r W o f t h e s i d er a i l s l i g n e dm a r ka c u t t i n g i n e a , l a c r o s t h e m i d d l e f t h e i n s i d ea c e s f b o t h s o f o r a i l s C u tt h e d o v e t a slo c k e tw i t ha r o u t e i n . i s r twosteps. Startby installing %-inch a straight b i t i n t h e t o o la n ds e t t i n gh e c u t t i n g e p t h t d y t o r e a c h o u rf i n a ld e p t h - % i n c h - i n t w oo r m o r ep a s s e s . e to n eo f t h e s i d er a i l si n s i d e S f a c eu p o n a w o r ks u r f a c e , l i g n h e b i t w i t h a t i y o u r u t t i n gi n e a n dc l a m p T s q u a r je g c l , a g a n e d g e u i d e i t ha f e n c e i x e dt o i t a t 9 0 ' w f p a g a i n stth e r o u t e r ' b a s e l a t e o t h e j i g s s f e n c eb u t t sa g a i n stth e e d g e f t h e r a i l .R o u t o t h e s l o t , h e ni n c r e a ste e c u t t i n g e p t ha n d t h d . m a k e n o t h ep a s s S w i t c ho a % - i n c h o v e a r t d t a i l b i t ,s e tt h e d e p t h I t / , i n c h ,a n d m a k e a a . l a s tc u t ( / e f f )R e p e ao n t h e o t h e r i d er a i l , t s m a k i n g u r et o p r e s s h e r o u t e r a s ep l a t e s t b g a g a i n stth e e d g e u l d e o r e a c hp a s s . f

ASSEMBLING LEGS RAITS THE AND
G l u i n t h el e g s o t h ed r a w erra i l , g t 1 I k i c k e ra n de n dr a i l . S a n d h e i n s i d ea c e s f t h e l e g s n dr a i l s , t f o a g t h e ns p r e a d l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i ns u r g f a c e s e t w e etn e k i c k e rd r a w erra i la n d b h , o n ep a i ro f l e g s F i tt h el o i n t s o g e t h e rn d . t a s e c u r eh e mw i t ht w o b a rc l a m p sa l i g n i n g t , t h e b a r s i t h t h e r a i la n d k i c k e r U s i n g w . w o o dp a d st o p r o t e c t h e s t o c ka n d d i s p t r i b u t e h e c l a m p i n g r e s s u r ei,g h t e n h e t t t g c l a m p s r a d u a l luyn t i la l i t t l e d h e s i v e a squeezes of the lotnIs(right).Repeat out t h e p r o c e d u rte a s s e m b lte e r e m a i n i n g o h t w o l e s sa n dt h e e n d r a i l

72

TABLES

Gluing siderailsto the legs the e , L O n c eh e g l u eh a sc u r e d r e m o v t h e t a o c l a m p s n da p p l y d h e s i vte t h e l e gm o r a a . t i s e s n d s i d er a i l t e n o n s F i t t h e j o i n t s t l t o g e t h ea n d i n s t a l t w o b a rc l a m p s o r w y h s e c u r t h e a s s e m b la l,i g n i ntg e b a r s i t h e as the siderails.Usewoodpads longasthe w e g t e n o n i d t ht o d i s t r i b u tc l a m p i n p r e s b s u r e .A s s o o na s y o u h a v et i g h t e n e d o t h o t c l a m p su s ea t a p em e a s u rte c h e c k h e , for the assembly square(left),measuring the between opposite comers; two distance m e a s u r e m e nst h o u l d e e q u a l .l f n o t , s b s i n s t a la n o t h eb a rc l a m pa c r o s t h e l o n g e r l r e t o f t h e t w o d i a g o n a l s , t t i n gh e c l a m p j a w so n t h o s ea l r e a d yn p l a c e . i g h t e n i T as t h e c l a m p l i t t l e t a t i m e ,m e a s u r i n g a a y o ug o u n t i lt h e t w o d i a g o n a la r ee q u a l . s

r)

) ,---1'

r

rail Making installing cross and the router to cutthesockused With same dovetail in your bit the
72), mountthe tool in a table.Setthe ets in the siderails(page t y c u t t i n g e p t ht o m a k e h e d o v e t a i lssl i g h t l s h o r t etrh a nt h e d d e n t ho f t h e s o c k e t sP o s i t i otn e f e n c e o t h a t o n e - h a lo f t h e s f h rail its the cutterprojects beyond face.Feed cross on end across t t . t h e t a b l e ,p r e s s i n ig a g a i n stth e f e n c e T u r nt h e r a i la r o u n do (abovdand repeat cutsat the other the the complete dovetail a a e n do f t h e r a i l .T e s t J i t h ej o i n t s n da d j u stth ef e n c e n dm a k e g s c y. a d d i t i o n a lu t s ,i f n e c e s s a r0 n c et h e f i t i s s n u g , p r e a d l u e s o n t h e d o v e t a i la n d i n t h e s o c k e t a n ds l i d et h e r a i li n t op l a c e , s t i ; t a p p i n gt w i t h a m a l l e t u s ea w o o db l o c k o p r o t e ctth e s t o c k ( r i s h f )f h e e d s e s f i h e c r o s s a i ls h o u l d i e f l u s hw i t ht h o s e f o l o r t h e s i d er a i l s .

73

TABLES

MAKING INSTALLING DRAWER AND THE
the for 1 Preparing drawer thebottom I Cutthefront. back. sides the and of drawer fit into opening thetable. to the in Theback narrower theother is than oieces to allow bottom slide place the to into after thedrawer glued Cutthethrough is up. joining pieces (page dovetails the 130, grooves thebottom panel thencutthe for pieces your in thefront side and on table saw. Position fence thegroove the so will pass through middle thebottomthe of most tails thedrawer andsetthe on sides blade height one-half stock to the thickness. a push Use stick feed pieces to the facedown across saw the table, while pressing stock the against fence. the pi R e p e a tnt h er e m a i n i n ge c e sh e n o t, move fence the awayromtheblade f by thethicknessthekerf repeat all of and on (right). threeboards fesl-fit yourbottom panel-typically plywood-in %-inch the grooves widen and them, necessary. if

a)4',Vt:' '

the J Assembling drawer glue Z- Spread onthecontacting surfacesthepins of and tails, then thefourboards tap together a wooden using mallet (above). posrtioning clamps push Clamp drawer, the the to (page thetailsintothepins. Check drawer square the for 73). Once adhesive cured, the has remove clamps slide the and panel place. thebottom into Then drive fewfinishing a nails through panel intothebottom the and edge thedrawer of back to f ix it in oosition.

Preparing drawer theslides the for
I n s t a la d a d oh e a d n y o u rt a b l es a wa n da d j u s t t s w i d t h l o i

you to accommodate drawer the slides willuse-typically Tu inch thick. thecutting Set height % inch position rip at and the f e n c eo c u t t h eg r o o vie t h e m i d d l e f t h ed r a w es i d e s . t n o r F e e dh ed r a w e ri d e - d o wh o l d i ntg ee d g e f l u s h g a i n s t t s n, h s a thefence. Turn drawer to cutthegroove theother the over in sidehbovd.

74

TABLES

r .'1 ir:lillilg il* coinestrips t-', :i::i :iifles d:'i,;lnl i t , . t f i i l s f r i : , . r ; r p l : o s i t i oin t h e t a b l e q; n ':r2:ii in 1.1''r,r ilr, p,t:;tion the grooves its of a . s ' i - . . : , i il r e i e g s n dr a i l s C u ta c o r n e r of st,'t';ir,i .;r;h ccrrter Ihe drawer(page 'rh,.: 10,i),-",4x:ng dadoes wide as the as g r r . r . : . . " . . w oc o r n e s t r i p s l u s h r f o g a i , 4 ': i r es i c er a i la n d l e ga t t h e d r a w e r f r o r , ; r r i l r : i i c l a m p st o h o l d t h e t w o i r e m ; , ; , r . ' i o sf l r r s h p a i n s h es i d er a i l a tt r ; a n d . ' . . . ; r i la t t h e d r a w eb a c k t h e n s d a d o e -i . r l l f o u rs t r i p s h o u l dl i n e u p m C w i t h t i : : :j i r c o v e a r k s . u t t w o d r a w e r s l i d e s , : ' a nt h e s a n h e t w e et h e d a d o e s i n a l o n g l ' . i d er a i l s . e s sZ " i n c hf o r c l e a r t l a n c e .N i . c h t h e f r o n te n d t o f i t a r o u n d 'hen theles. s l i nt h e s l i d e s n t ot h e i dadoesi-,ght).

the ti Installing drawer (/eff). ,.,f Slide drawer position into the move It should smoothly sitcentered and i a n dl e v eiln i t so p e n i n gf .n o t ,l o o s e n t h ec l a m ph o l d i ntg eb a c k - e n d r n e r s h co strips adjust height thestrips, and the of asnecessary. thef it is f ine,screw When theback strips thecross end to rail.

75

TABLES

Attaching falselront the fi \ , , S e tt h e d r a w efra c e - u p n a w o r ks u r o f a c ea n d d r i v et w o b r a d si n t ot h e f r o n t , p l e a v i n gh e h e a d s r o t r u d i n g .h e ns n i p t T o f f t h e h e a d s i t hp l i e r sI.n s t a ltlh e d r a w e r w i n t h e t a b l e , u t t h e f a l s e r o n tt o s i z ea n d c f p l a c e t b e t w e e t h e d r a w e r a i la n d k i c k i n r e r ,u s i n g l i p s f p a p ea ss h i m s o h o l d s o t y i t p r e c i s e lc e n t e r e a n d l e v e l S t e a d y i n g d . t h e f a l s e r o n tw i t ho n eh a n d , l i d et h e f s drawer towardthe board(left)and firmly p r e s s h e b r a d s g a i n sitt ; t h e p o i n t e d t a e n d so f t h e n a i l s i l l p u n c hi m p r e s s i o n s w y i n t h e w o o d , l l o w i n g o ut o r e p o s r t i o n a t h e f a l s ef r o n ta t g l u e u p . S p r e a d d h e a s i v eo n t h e b a c ko f t h e f a l s ef r o n ta n d c l a m pi t t o t h e d r a w ew i t ht h e t w o b r a d s r r e s t i n gn t h e i ri m p r e s s i o n s . i

ATTACHING T()P THE
Shaping topandleaves the 1 I T h e l e a v e s r ef a s t e n e do t h e t a b l e a t t o p w i t h r u l ej o i n t s , n w h i c ht h e t o p ' s i rounded-over mates edge with a covecut alongthe edgeof the leaf (lnsef). Startby r o u n d i n g v e r h e e d g e s f t h et o p , u s i n g o t o a p i l o t e dr o u n d - o v e ri t i n a r o u t e r T o b . s h a p et h e I e a v e si,n s t a l la p i l o t e d o v e c b i t w h o s e i a m e t ea n d p r o ifl e m a t c h h e d r t r o u n d - o v e rl t , t h e n m o u n t h e r o u t e r n b i a t a b l e .( T h et w o b i t sa r eo f t e ns o l da s a s e t . )T o s u p p o rtth e l e a v e d u r i n g h e c u t , s t c l a m pa f e a t h e r b o a t o t h e f e n c e b o v e rd a t h e c u t t e r A l i g nt h e f e n c ew i t ht h e b i t ' s . p i l o t b e a r i n g o t h e c u t t i n gw i d t hw i l l s e q u a o n e - h a t f e c u t t e r i a m e t e r . e tt h e l lh d S d e p t ho f c u t t o r e a c h h e f i n a l d e p t hi n t passes. several Feedone leaf intothe bit, bracing edgeagainst fencetight). its Ihe , ; A f t e re a c hp a s s t e s t - f i t h e p i e c e sc o n t i n u ec u t t i n gu n t i lt h e t o p a n d l e a fm e s h g w r t ha s l i g h t a p b e t w e e t h e t w o .R e p e a t n the process the otherleaf. on

76

TABLES

r) Attaching leaves thetop the to I lointhe leaves thetopbyinstalling to rule-joint hinges theundersidethe on of oieces. thetooandleaves down Set face ona work surface, mark then lines along theedges thetopin linewiththestart of of each round-over known thefilcut, as let.Install hinges each for leaf: three one in themiddle thejoint one inches of and 5 from With paper inserteach end. a shim ed between leafandtop,position the a hinge against topandtheother leaf the against leaf each the at hinge location so t h ep i ni sa l i g n ew i t h h ef i l l e t i n et,h e n d t l o u t l i n te eh i n g eC h i s e l u tt h em o r t i s . h o e s ,u s i n g w i d e r - b l atd e lt o c u tt h e a oo mortises the hinge for leaues 113) @age anda narrower to cuttheslots chisel for thepins(right). Screw hinges place. the in

rails the Q Attaching toptothetable r-,1Thetop is fastened therails to with wood buttons; screwed thetop,the to buttons feature thatfit intogrooves lips providing cut into rails, the a secure connection while for allowing wood movement. Make sure drop-leaf the supports in are place theside on rails, thenplace top the face down a work on surface clamp and n t h el e g - a n d - ra sls e m biln p o s i t i oo n ai y top.Make button every inches a for 6 of (page rail length 101). Spacing them about inches 6 apart leaving l|-inch and a gapbetween bottom the grooves the of andthelipped ends thebuttons, of screw (lefil. the buttons place in

77

CANDLESTAND
before electriciry Shakers the f n anera I depended candles see on to them though hours darkness. dilithe of These gent workers couldnot allowlatesunrises early or duslato interfere their with labor. were light,stable, Candle stands andeasy transport. to Although candle stands nota Shaker were invention. the makers theircommunities in furniture elevated commonplace to its this item mostrefined expression. Theelegancebf candle the standt tripod design sacrifices some strength. Becausetheangle which of at theysplay out,thelegs subjected a great are to deal of racking whichpulls stress themaway from thecolumn. TheShakers compensated thisweakness several for in ways. most The important attachwas ingthelegs thecolumn to withsliding dovetails-very strongand durable joints. Some Shaker candle have stands survived50years areassturdy I and as the daytheyweremade. givethe To
legsaddedstrength, metal plate, a "spider," known asa is naiiedtc ti:r: base thecolumnandlegs. design of The of thelegs alsofortifies stand. the They are3/a inch thickerat the top, which makes dovetails muchstronger. the that Also,the Shakers the legsso the cut grain runs alongtheir length,helping them resist stress.

ANATOMYA CANDTE OF STAND
Top -

7/u" x 19"

diameter Wed6e

DETAIT OF D()VETAITS
Column 19 incheelong

4" x 15";5/a" thick at bottom and 1"thick at top

Despite simple the appearance the of candle standshownabove, table the joinery.Positioned relies precise on 120"apart,thethreelegs exactly are anached thecolumnwith sliding to dovetaik, with angled cut shoulders to sit snugly against column. the

TABLES

EUILD ITYOUREELF

CIRCLE-CUTTING JIG T o c u t t h e c i r c u l atro p o f a c a n d l e stand yourbandsaw,usethe shopon j g b u i l tc i r c l e - c u t t i nig s h o w n t r i g h t . a R e f e t o t h e i l l u s t r a t i ofn r s u s s e s t r o eddimensions. R o u ta % - i n c h - d e e p v e t a clh a n do i n e l i n t h e m i d d l e f t h e 1 i g a s et,h e n o b usea iablesawto rip a thin board with a bevel alongbothedges produce to a b a rt h a ts l i d e s m o o t h liy t h ec h a n n n e l .( S e t h e s a wb l a d e n g l e y m e a a b suring angle the channel the of edges.) C u t o u t t h e n o t c ho n t h e b a n ds a w , t h e n s c r e w h e s u p p o ra r m st o t h e t t u n d e r s i do f t h e 1 i gb a s e s p a c i n g e , t h e mt o h u gt h e s i d e s f t h e b a n d o s a wt a b l ew h e nt h e j i g i s i n p o s i t i o n . D r i l lt w o h o l e s h r o u g h h e b o t t o m t t o f t h e d o v e t a cl h a n n eiln t h e j i g i b a s e 1 i n c ha n d3 i n c h e sr o mt h e , f u n n o t c h ee n d ;a l s ob o r e w o h o l e s d t t h r o u g hh e b a ra s s h o w n . t To prepare workpiece, the markthe c i r c u m f e r e n c e dc e n t e r f t h e c r r an o c l e o n i t s u n d e r s i d e .h e nu s et h e T b a n ds a wt o c u t o f f t h e f o u rc o r n e r s o f t h e p a n e lt o k e e pi t f r o m h i t t i n g

Jig baoe

'/,"x20"x24"

Notah /'"x7"

9crew holes

?upport arm 1"x3"xB" 9liding pivot bar '/," x 24"

theclamps secure jig.Next, that the make release f romtheedge a cut o ft h ep a n etlo t h em a r k ec i r c u m d
fprcncp ihpn vcer nff in iho odop

Screw pivot to thecenter the bar of theworkpiece through ofthebar's one holes, leaving screw the loose enough to pivot panel. the Turn workpiece and the over mark the point where blade the contacte d t h ec i r c u m f e r e n cu r i n gh e d e t r e l e a sc u t .C l a m ph ej i g b a s eo e t t

t h e b a n ds a wt a b l e , a k i n g u r e h e m s t s u p p o ra r m sa r eb u t t e d g a i n stth e t a t a b l e ' s d g e sS l i d e h e p i v o tb a ri n t o e . t t h e c h a n n eiln t h e b a s e n dp i v o t h e a p a n e u n t i lt h e m a r k e d o n t a c t o i n t l p c t o u c h e sh e b l a d e . c r e w h r o u g h t S t o n eo f t h e h o l e s n t h e j i g b a s e o i t l o c kt h e p i v o tb a r i n p l a c e( b e l o w . bfil. f urnon the sawand pivotthe w o r k p i e ci e t ot h e b l a d en a c l o c k n i (below, wisedirection righil, feeding
i h p n i p ep r r n i i l t h p n r r t i c n n m n l o t c d

79

TABLES

PREPARING T()PANDRAIL THE
Preparing top the h s I 0 n c et h et o po f t h ec a n d l e t a n d a s its been (page cut 79),shape circumference table twosteps. in Start installby ona router 1 i i n ga p i l o t e d / zn c hr a d i u s i t i n a r o u t e r b h . t a n dm o u n t i ntg et o o li n a t a b l eA l i g n h e w b g f e n c e i t ht h eb i t ' sp i l o t e a r i na n dc l a m p to to the a featherboardthefence support h t o pd u r i n gh ec u t .H o l d i ntg et o pf a c e - u p t press edge the against andflaton thetable, i a t t h ef e n c e n dr o t a t eh es t o c k n t ot h eb i t ( / e l f )C o n t i n up i v o t i ntg et o p u n t i lt h e . h e se t, e n t i r e i r c u m f e r e ni c s h a p e dh e ns w i t c h c 1/a-inch radius turntheworkbit, to a piloted piece its over, repeat shape topside. and to 'l

r) Making rail the illustration L Referringto anatomy the 7 o n p a g e 8 , c u t t h e r a i lt h a tw i l l c o n n e c t t a t h e c o l u m n o t h e t a b l e t o pt,h e nb o r e o m o r t i s en t h e c e n t e r f t h e r a i lt o a c c e p t i y t h e t e n o n o uw i l l t u r n a t t h e t o p o f t h e c o l u m na 1 - i n c h - d i a m eh e r ei s t y p i c a l . ; t ol o B e v etlh e e n d sa n de d g e s f t h e r a i lo n y o u rt a b l es a w .A t t a c h n a u x i l i a rfy n c e e a t a n d p o s i t i o nh e f e n c et o t h e l e f t o f t h e b l a d ef o r a ' / u i n c hc u t t i n gw i d t h .R a i s e s , t h e b l a d e o i t s m a x i m u m e t t i n ga d j u s t t 7 a t h e a n g l eo a b o u t 5 " , a n dc l a m p g u i d e t b l o c k o t h e r a i lt o r i d ea l o n g h e t o p o f t t t h e f e n c e .M a r ka l i n ea c r o s t h e f a c eo f s t a t t h e r a i ls l i g h t l y b o v eh e h e i g h o f t h e y b l a d e s a r e m i n d etro k e e p o u rh a n d s a F t w e l la b o v eh e b l a d e . e e d h e r a i li n t o t it t h e b l a d e n e n d ,k e e p i n g f l u s ha g a i n s t o i w t h e f e n c ea n d p u s h i n gt f o r w a r d i t ht h e g u i d e l o c k R e p e a t ec u t a t t h eo t h e r b . th . l e n d o f t h e r a i l ( r i g h t )T h e n b e v e t h e l o n ge d g e s y a d l u s t i n gh e b l a d e n g l e b t a t t o 4 5 " . S a n d h e r a i ls m o o t h .

80

TABLES

M A K I N G E O L U MN TH C
'l Turning thecolumn I Mount 3r/z-inch-square onyour a blank lathe turnit witha roughing gouge and folgouge, lowed a spindle by leavinglipand a enough stock near bottom theleg the for you sockets. help produce proper To the (page shape, to theanatomy refer illustration yourselftemplate, you 78)and fashion a as would turna drop-leaf leg(page to table 69). Use parting toturn rail a tool the tenon at periodically thetopof thecolumn, checkingitsdiameter outside with calipers tight). Smooth column progressively the with finer
bi

o r i' t v n' f cua n'dP uaun o r c v J ' vnv , !

,

r) Routing dovetail the sockets I Unplugthe andcutthesockets, a router a lathe using and shop-made consistinga'/uinch plywood clamped of box to lig t h el a t h e e d . a k eh ei n s i d w i d t h f t h eb o x sw i d e st h e b M t e o a a plate, router base attaching runners therouter will the so bit cutthesockets its base plate with sitting them. on Next, mark t h et h r e e o c k e o c a t i o n s t h ec o l u m n ,p a c i n g e m 2 0 " s lt on s th 1 apart. mark topends thesockets, inches Also the of 370 from thebottom thecolumn. of Transfer socket the marks the to lathe faceplate, rotate column hand then the by untilone of themarks thefaceplatevertical immobilize drive on is and the

( s h a f tw i t h a h a n d s c r e wa b o v el,e f t ) .C u t e a c hs o c k e ti n t w o ' / u i n c hs t r a i g h b i t . A d j u s tt h e c u t t i n g steps, tarting itha s w t d e p t ht o a b o u t t / izn c ha n d ,a l i g n i n gh e b i t w i t ht h e s o c k e t t e n d m a r k ,b u t t a s t o pb l o c ka g a i n stth e r o u t e r a s ep l a t e . b S c r e w h e b l o c k o t h e j i g . H o l d i n gh e r o u t e r n b o t hh a n d s , t t t i f e e dt h e b i t i n t ot h e c o l u m n t t h e b o t t o m n dg u i d et h e t o o l a a a l o n g h e r u n n e r s n t i lt h e b a s ep l a t ec o n t a c t t h e s t o pb l o c k . t u s R e p e aw r t ha % - i n c hd o v e t a ib i t ( a b o v er,i g h t ) . T oc u t t h e t l t w o r e m a i n i ns o c k e t s ,o t a t eh e c o l u m n n t i lt h e s o c k e t g r t u m a r kf o r e a c hc u t i s v e r t i c a l .

TABLES

THE MAKING LEGS
f n a o I R e f e r r i ntg t h e i l l u s t r a t i ob e l o wf,a s h i o n t e m p l a t eo r s f t o t h e l e g s T h eg r a i n h o u l do l l o w h e s l o p e f t h e l e g .t h e t o p . o a, a n d b o t t o m n d sm u s tb e p e r p e n d i c u l a rn dt h e s p r e a d f t h e e r l e s sm r s t b e l e s s h a nt h e d i a m e t en f t h p t n n O n c e h e t e m t t p l a t ei s c o m p l e t e ,a wa l o n g h e t o p e n do f t h e l e go n t h e b a n d t s t n , , s a w .N e x t c u t t h e d o v e t a i lis t h e l e g si n t w o s t e p sc u t t i n g h e A s c h e e k s n y o u rt a b l es a wa n dt h e s h o u l d e rb y h a n d . d j u s t h e o s b a t t t a b l es a w ' s l a d e n g l e o m a t c h h a to f t h e s o c k e t y o uc u t i n h t t h e c o l u m n n ds e tt h e c u t t i n g e i g htto s l i g h t l lye s s h a nt h e a t s d e p t ho f t h e s o c k e t sO u t l i n eh e d o v e t a i lo n t h e e d g eo f o n e . o , l e gb l a n k n d ,h o l d i n t h e b l a n k n e n do n t h e s a wt a b l e a l i g n a g a m . a c u t t i n g a r kw i t ht h e b l a d e B u t tt h e r i p f e n c e g a i n stth e . f d a s t o c k n d l o c ki t i n p l a c e C l a m p s h i m m e de a t h e r b o atro a M a t t t h e t a b l ea n da g u i d eb l o c k o t h e b l a n k . a k e p a s s o c u t t o n ec h e e k( l e f i l ,I h e n r o t a t e h e b l a n ka n d f e e dt h e o p p o s i t e g . t f a c ea l o n g h e f e n c e o s a wt h e o t h e r C h e c k h e r e s u l t i n d o v e t t y, l t a i l a g a i n sa s o c k e it n t h e c o l u m n . f n e c e s s a ra d j u s t h e t t a r w a o c u t t i n g i d t ho r b l a d e n g l e r h e i g h a n d m a k e n o t h es e to f p a s s e s . e p e afto r t h e r e m a i n i nd o v e t a i l s . R g
v I L | | v L v Y . \

the cheeks 1 Cuttins dovetail l "

'".}.

r) Cutting angled shoulders the L m e s h o u l d e ro f t h e l e gd o v e t a i l s s m u s tb e c u t a t a n a n g l e o t h e yl i e s n u g l y s ( on a g a i n stth e c o l u m n s e e h e i l l u s t r a t i o n t p a g e 8 ) . 0 n c et h e d o v e t a clh e e k a r ea l l 7 i s t e c u t .c l a m oa b l a n k o a w o r ks u r f a c w i t h T t h e c h e e k s x t e n d i no f f t h e t a b l e . h e n e g s u s ea b a c k s a w c u t t h e s h o u l d e ra t a to s li g h t l y h a r p ea n g l e h a nt h e c u r v a t u r e s r t f of the column(ilghD. esllit the dovetail i n i t s s o c k ea n dt r i m t h e s o c k e ti,f n e c e s t f s a r y , n t i ly o ug e ta s u i t a b l ei t . R e p e a t u f o r t h e r e m a i n i nd o v e t a i l s . s

TABLES

Shaping legs the Cutoutthe legs thecandle of stand on your band saw, thensmooth surtheir faces using sanding a block a spindle or (right). sander

the ils / Trinming doveta -TTrim off thetop% inchof each dovet a i lo nt h el e g sT h i s i l lh i d e h et o p s . w t of thedovetails view from when theyare p u s h e a l l t h ew a yi n t ot h e i rs o c k e t s . d Clamp legupright your the in bench vise andmark lineonthedovetail inch a % fromthetopend.Then holda'/o-inch chisel vertically score dovetail to the on your marked cutting theshoulder. line, to Next, holding chrsel the bevel andparup push allel thedovetail to shoulders, the blade along surface pare the to away the (left).Periodically woodin thin shavings test-fit legagainst column the the until theshoulders flush rest against surface. the

83

TABLES

Tapering legs the f, r - , f T o g i v et h e l e g sa n e l e g a n a p p e a r t a n c ew i t h o u s a c r i f i c i ns t r e n g t h , p e r t g ta p t h e mw i t ha b e n c h l a n e r o ma t h i c k n e s s f o f 1 i n c ha t t h e t o o t o % i n c ha t t h e b o t t a t t o m .M a r k a p e rl i n e s l o n g h e i n s i d e guide. of Then edges eachlegas a planing using secure legfaceup on yourbench, the woodblock fix the bottom to end a notched . i n p l a c eT o a v o i d a m a g i ny o u rp l a n e d g b l a d e m a k e u r e h e b e n c h o g s n dt h e , s t d a woodblockarebelow levelof the top the n t t a p e rl i n e .S t a r t i n g e a r h e t o p o f t h e l e g , f e e dt h e p l a n e l o n g h e s u r f a c ei , c r e a s n a t pressure youapproach ingthe downward as . t h e b o t t o m( / e f f ) C o n t i n u e n t i l y o u c u t u t o t h e t a p e rl i n e ,t h e nt u r n t h e l e go v e r o n t h e b e n c h n dr e p e atth e p r o c e s s . a

ASSEMBLING TABLE THE

K a i l6 Q e

'l Attaching railto thecolumn the the I Start drilling countersunk holes by six screw through rail;it willbe less cumbersome to prepare railforthetop the joining railandcolumn. Locate hole each one in corbefore the flatface therail's underside one each and on side nerof the of Then on surface of themortise. setthetopface down a work m a k i ns u r e h eg r a i n f t h et w o g t o a n dc e n t etrh er a i lo nt o p , pieces perpendicular. thecorners therailonthetop is Mark of withan awl(above, left). witha pencil the screw and holes p r e p a rte ec o l u m no rt h er a i l ,u s ea b a c k s atw s l i c e To f o h for in of to of a kerf a wedge thecenter thetenon a depth about

t h r e e - q u a r t e r s l e n g t h f t h e t e n o n . u tt h e k e r fa t a r i g h t the o C l a n g l e o o n eo f t h e d o v e t a is o c k e t s o t h e r a i lw i l l b e p a r a l l e l t . f d t o o n eo f t h e l e g s C u tt h e w e d g er o mh a r d w o oa b o u t1 i n c h i T l o n ga n d % i n c ht h i c ka t t h e b a s et,a p e r i n gt t o a p o i n t . o f a s g t e n t h e r a i lt o t h e c o l u m n s p r e a d l u eo n t h e i rc o n t a c t i ns u r , g f a c e s n df i t t h e p i e c e so g e t h ew i t h t h e k e r fi n t h e c o l u m n a t r t e n o np e r p e n d i c u l a rt h e g r a i n f t h e r a i l .T h e n , o l d i n gh e to o h t g c o l u m n p r i g ho n a w o r ks u r f a c e , p p l y l u ei n t h e k e r fa n d u t a w m o n t h e w e d g e n d h a m m e irt i n p l a c e i t ha w o o d e n a l l e t a r i g h i l . f r i mt h e w e d g el u s hw i t ht h e e n do f t h e t e n o n . f hbove,

TABLES

r) Fastening legsto the column the g L S p r e a d l u ee v e n l y n t h e d o v e t a i l s o a n d i n t h e s o c k e t s . h e n , e t t i n gh e r a i l T s t f l a t o n a w o r ks u r f a c es l i d et h e l e g si n t o , p l a c e n dt a pt h e mi n t of i n a lp o s i t i ow i t h n a a woodenmallet (rrght).To strengthen t h e a s s e m b l y ,d d a t h r e e - a r m e d i d e r a sp cut from sheetmetal @age 78).

r . , l T o c o m p l e t eh e t a b l e ,s e t t h e t o p t u p s i d e o w no n y o u rw o r ks u r f a c e n d d a y d r i l l p i l o th o l e s n t o i t a t t h e p o i n t s o u i m a r k e dn s t e o1 . P o s i t i otn e r a i la s s e m i h b l yo n t h e t o p ,a l i g n i n gt s c o r n e r w i t h i s t h e m a r k so n t h e s u r f a c e n d i t s s c r e w a h o l e s i t ht h o s ei n t h e t o p .S c r e w h e r a i l w t in place(left).

the J Screwing railto thetop <'

PIE,SAFE,
the tesares wereoncecommonm sidethat discouraged intrusion American kitchens. The one of vermin.For maximumventilapie shown at left reflectsthe Shaker tion, Shaker safes traditionally devotion to utility. The cabinets featured oanels the sides tin on as wereessentially breadboxes, large wellasin thedoors. goods made One of the charmingelements designed store to baked pieces the holepattern. is and consumed Shaker by families. of these The designs were sometimes That the cabinets elegant are and pineappleattractive in a sense, is, coincidental, abstract sometimes and for it is a reflection ofthe Shakers' shaped floral,asin the example or soare and utilitarianethicrather shown page But again, on 86. these details werenot primarilyintendthanan exoression ofesthetics. in All propirty andgoods Shaker edto beornamental flamboyant. or Thepanels to beperforated, had communities wereownedcollecso tively, be usedasneeded. to Since the Shakers choseto ounch the puncha holethrough priholessymmetrically avoidan belongings not considered were A nail setandhammer to To vate, latches lockson the doors and a tin panelfor a pie safe. ensure all the that unnecessarily ornateor otherwise panels beidentical, wouldhave superwill each blankisplaced on distracting appearance. of a piesafe been paneland a papertemplate fluous. Doorssported wooda backup with the Piesafes weretraditionally made simple panernis tapedin placeon top. desired from cherry, althoughcommunien knobsand matingrabbets cut tieswherehardwoods werescarce alongthe inside faces theirstiles of The resorted pine.This chapter to provides sotheywould close flushandtightlytogether. mostclever frequently detailed The instructions buildinga Shaker-inspired for feature the safe in thedesign thetin door panels. of lies of step-by-step safe, from getting inside beginning with cuttingtherails,stiles panels thecabfor cabinets to keeprodents insects had and and (page whileallowing enough to circulate prevent foodfrom air to the inet (page 90)andcontinuing throughgluingup the case (page Wth the useof tin door panels, Shaker fur97),makingand installing shelves the 104), assemand becoming stale. niture makers at 106). Althoughrootedin the Shaker solved both problems once.The smallholes blingthe doors(page trapanels permitted passage air.And,by punching dition,a piesafe thisonewouldbea perfect like in the the of the additionto any modern,country-style kitchen. holes from theinsideout, theycreated sharpedges theouton

With itssturdy construction, adjustable shelving, and frame-and-panel perforated doorpanels, pie safe tin the shownat left is idealfor storing goods. a modern baked In incarnation, safe the couldbeused an as entertainment center, plentyof space audioor videoequipment. with for

87

ANATOMYOFAPIE SAFE
CONSTRUCTION OFCASEWORK DETAIT
ToP
Oroove for wood buttons

Crown molding Gluedto caaework frame Wood button
c)erttrea f nn

Lo caae; aits in groovenear the top edqeof caaeworkraila

Eack panel A veneeredpWood panel LhaLsits flueh with the outeide face of the frame

Coakbeading Glued tn rabbeta routed

Support board lnaerted into dadoeain corner eLripoto hold up ehelf

aroundinside of frame front

Corner atrip Dadoedat evenly apaced intervals Lo hold ehelvrn4 1upport boardeat variableheiqhta; 4luedto inoide cornergof caseworkstiles

Ledger atrip 9ecuree bot' tom Lo caae: fasLenedLo
botLom casework raile

thelf Cornere notched ta fit around corner oLripa

?t'ile

Rail

PIE SAFE

FRAME SIDE
Median rail

tl- h. pie safe featured this chapter in joinedat the four I comprises frames Eachframeis madewith rails corners. connected mortise-andwith andstiles The are to tenons. sideframes grooved The house floatingwood panels. back frameis dividedin halfby a mullionand to is rabbeted aroundthe insideedges The accommodate fixed backpanels. way front frameis madethesame asthe with holdingeach door sides, two hinges

To the to its stiles. assemble safe, side the framesare built first and then glued together with thefront andbackrails. Thetop andbottomaresolidpanels The ofedge-glued boards. top is heldin andthebottom olace woodbuttons bv is fastened ledger to strips.The solidthat woodshelves on support sit boards areheld by cornerstrips.The inside to edges the front framearerabbeted of cockbeadine. accommodate

CUTTING LIST
PIECE Frame stiles rails* Frame (sides) (front back) and (front back) and (side, andbottom) top, (side, median) OTY t 4 4 4 4 6 1 8 1 1 4 (top bottom) and (median)
4

w
2%
?il

TH
'/ou
3/^'

60' 60' 3ry,' 1A%', I4Y,'
6nu

2%' 2%' I3/4' 2%u

3/4u 3/ou 3/4u t/ou

Mullion* panels Wood Top Bottom Door stiles rails* Door Crown molding Gorner strips Shelves panels Back Shelf support boards Gockbeading *Note: Measurements tenon include lengths.
wood oanel

r3'/,'
40' 34', 48Y,"
16u

I2Vo 20'
l6r/q'
z
^il

Y,' %u
3/ou
i/ n

/

a

Z

7/au 7/a' 7/au

6 I 2
Z Z

I2' 7s%',
54Yo' 33%', 49Ya'

IY"' I/"'

1" rr/o' I6Ye' ,/", I4%e" yi' V;'
You

4 I

r6/,'
161'

r/ou

IoatinO

r:::i";'::,'f
draw attention ornamentation

9ide frame atile

89

MAKING THE CASEWORK FRAMES
tI- h. firststep buildinga piesafe in is J. to cut andprepare framestiles, the asshownbelow,andjoin them in pairs to form the corners the cabinet. of All of themortises cut in thestiles. are then thetenons cut at theends are ofthe rails. As shownon page 92,thebestmethod for cuttingtheblind tenons by handis with a backsaw a miter box. Next, and the frames are dry-assembled and grooves routed alongtheir inside are (page edges thefloatingwood panels for 93).Finally, top railsaregrooved the on thetablesawto accommodate wood the buttons thatwill secure top. the

A hollowchisel mortiser drillsa mortisein a pie safe framestile.Themortisewill accommodate tenon. a rail AlthoughtheShakers wouldhave painstakingly chiseled their morout tises hand,asshownon page91, by using powertoolisquickandaccurate. a

PREPARINGSTILES THE
the 1 Tapering stiles I Referring thecutting on page to list 89,cuttheframe stiles size, to thentaper t h e i rb o t t o m n d sT h et a p e r w i l lg i v e e . s the bottom the stiles elegant, of an leglikeappearance. one thestiles Clamp of faceup on a work surface make and one cutting mark its bottom 1%inchon end esfromtheinside edge another and mark ontheedge inches from bottom. 5 up the Join twomarks a line, the with thenuse a ripsaw cutthetaper to along Iheline(right). Use tapered asa template mark the stile to cutting lines theremaining on stiles, then taper them same the way. Sand thecut all edges smooth.

90

PIE SAFE

r ) G l u i n u pt h es t i l e s g L C l u e h e s t i l e s o g e t h eirn p a i r s o t t t formthe corner the piesafe.Remember of w o t h a tt h e f o u rw i d e r t i l e s i l l b e u s e d n s w t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ko f t h e s a f e , h i l et h e w n a r r o w e rt i l e s i l l f i t o n t h e s i d e st;h i s s w a y ,t h e c o r n e jro i n tw i l l o n l yb e v i s i b l e g f r o mt h e s i d e s S p r e a d o m e l u eo n t h e . s c o n t a c t i ns u r f a c eo f e a c hp a i ro f s t i l e s : g s o a t h e o u t s i d e d g e s f t h es i d es t i l e s n dt h e i n s i d e a c e s f t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ks t i l e s . f o Withthe sidestilefacedownon a worksurf a c e ,s e c u r eh e j o i n t ,s p a c i n gh e c l a m p s t t p a b o u t1 2 i n c h e s p a r t ; r o t e ctth e s t o c k a a n dd i s t r i b u t e e c l a m p i n p r e s s u r ei t h h g w w o o dp a d s . o s e c u r e h e j o i n t w h e r e T t t h e s t i l eh a sb e e nt a p e r e du s ea c u t - o f f , f r o mt h e t a p e rc u t sy o um a d ei n s t e p1 t o square clampon the stock(/eft). the

the in n Cuttins mortises thestiles r-,1 Eachstile needs mortise the top and bottom accoma at to m o d a t e r a i l t e n o n y o ua l s oh a v e o c u t t h r e em o r em o r t i s e s ; a t i n e a c ho f t h e s i d es t i l e s o r t h e m e d i a n a i lt e n o n sY o uc a n f r . r r 9 u s ea p o w e t o o l s u c ha s a h o l l o w h i s e lm o r t i s e( p a g e 0 ) t o c m a k e h e c u t , o r c h i s e t h e mo u t b y h a n d , s s h o w n b o v e . t l a a i n R e f e r r r n o t h e a n a t o m yl l u s t r a t i oo n p a g e 8 , o u t l i n eh e tg 8 t m o r t i s eo n t h e e d s e s f t h e s t r l e st.h e nc l a m no n eo f t h e s o g l u e d - u s t i l e s o a w o r ks u r f a c eS t a r t i n g t o n ee n d o f t h e p t . a

o u t l i n eh o l da m o r t j s c h i s e s q u a r eo t h e e d g e f t h e s t i l e , e l t o a n ds t r i k e t w i t ha w o o d e n a l l e t U s ea c h i s e t h e s a m e r d t h r m . l w a s t h e m o r t i s e n d b e s u r et h e b e v e l e s i d eo f t h e b l a d e s f a c a d i i n gt h e w a s t e M a k e n o t h ec u t % i n c hf r o mt h e f u s t h b o v e , . a r / e f i l .C o n t i n uu n t i ly o ur e a c hh e o t h e r n do f t h e o u t l i n et,h e n e t e lever the wasteto a depthof about'/^inch (above, out right). R e p e atto c u t t h e r e m a i n i n m o r t i s e sh e ns m o o t hh e b o t t o m g t, t o f t h e m o r t i s ew i t h a l o c k - m o r t i s e i s e l . s ch

9l

PIE SAFE

PREPARINGRAILS THE
I O u t l i n eh e t e n o n s t b o t he n d so f t h e t a r a i l s m a r k i n a s h o u l d e irn ea l l a r o u n d , g l w t h e e n d ss o t h e l e n g t h f t h e t e n o n s i l l o l b e s l i g h t l y e s st h a nt h e d e p t ho f t h e m o r t i s ey o uc u t i n t h e s t i l e s S e c u r e n e s . o o f t h e r a i l su p r i g h itn a v i s ea n dc u t a l o n g t h e l i n e s n t h e e n d o f t h e b o a r d i t ha o w b a c k s a w n t i ly o ur e a c h h e s h o u l d elr n e u t i (right).Repeat the tenonat the other for e n do f t h e r a i la n da t b o t he n d so f t h e r e m a i n i nrg i l s . a

the cheeks 1l Cuttins tenon -

Sawing tenon the shouldels Toremove waste the from tenon the cheeks. securemiter (above, a Ieft);Iurn overthe stockand repeat the operation on
b o xi n t h e v i s e , h e ns e t t h e r a i lo n t h e b a s e f t h e b o x ,a l i g n t o i n gt h e s h o u l d el r n ew i t ht h e 9 0 " s l o t . i g h t e t h e c l a m p sn i T n i . t h e b o xt o h o l dt h e r a i l i n p o s i t i o nS l i pt h e b a c k s a wl a d e n t o i b t h e s l o ta n d c u t a l o n g h e s h o u l d elri n eo n t h e f a c eo f t h e t w b o a r d s t o p p i n g h e ny o u r e a c ht h e k e r fy o u c u t i n s t e p i , t h e o t h e rs i d e .T o c u t a w a y h e w a s t e n t h e e d g e s f t h e t o o t e n o n , e c u r eh e t h e r a i l u p r i g h t n t h e v i s ea n d s a wt o t h e s t i i s h o u l d el r n eo n b o t he d g e s f t h e r a i l .F i n a l l yc,l a m p h e r a i l o t n e d g eu p a n d c u t t h r o u g hh e s h o u l d elr n eo n [ p i h o d o a c f t i
thp r:il /ahnvp rioht)

PIE SAFE

Preparing top railsfor woodbuttons the Q r . , l O n c e l l t h e t e n o n s r ef i n i s h e dy o u a a , will need cut a groove to along topframe the railsof the safeto accommodate wood the b u t t o n t h a tw i l l s e c u r eh e c a b i n etto p s t . i n p l a c e I n s t a la d a d oh e a do n y o u rt a b l e l saw,adlustrtswidthto % inch,andsetthe c u t t i n g e i g h t t a b o u l ' / on c h .P o s i t i o n h a i t h e r i o f e n c e b o u t% i n c hf r o mt h e b l a d e s a a n d i n s t a lt w of e a t h e r b o a rt o s u p p o r t l ds t h e r a i l s c l a m p i n g n et o t h e f e n c e b o v e , o a t h e d a d oh e a da n da n o t h etro t h e t a b l e . B r a c e h e s e c o n d e a t h e r b o a wd t h a f r i t suooort board. Feed railsintothe dado the h e a di n s i d e - f a cd o w na n d w i t h t h e t o p e e d g e p r e s s e d g a i n s tt h e f e n c e ( r i g h t ) . a F i n i s h a c hp a s s i t h a p u s hs t i c k . e w

PREPARING FRAMES FLOATING THE F()R PANELS
grooves Routing panel the l s C u tt h e p a n e g r o o v ea l o n g h e i n s i d e t e d g e s f t h e s i d ef r a m e s i t h a r o u t e r o w a n da p i l o t e dh r e e - w i nsg o t t i n g u t t e r . t l c D r y - a s s e m b la c hs i d ef r a m ea n dc l a m p ee oneof them facedownon a worksurface. A d j u s t h e r o u t e r 'c u t t i n g e p t h o c e n s d t terthegroove n theedges f the stock. o o W i t ha f i r m g r i po n t h e r o u t e rt,u r n o n t h e t o o l a n d l o w e r h e b a s eo l a t eo n t o t t h e s u r f a c eG u i d e h e b i t i n t ot h e s t o c k . t n e a ro n ec o r n e r f t h e f r a m e .0 n c et h e o p i l o tb e a r i n g u t t sa g a i n stth e e d g eo f b t h e s t o c k c o n t i n u eh e c u t i n a c l o c k w i s e , t d i r e c t i o nR e p e a t h e o r o c e s f o r t h e . s l o t h e rp a n e o p e n i n g s , p o s r t i o n itn g re he clam0s snecessarv. a

93

RAISINGTHE PANELS
panels, with their distinctive T) aised as l\ beveled edges, evolved a practical problems faced solutionto two common how to fit thick cabinetmakers: by Shaker panels frames madeof thinner stock into for andhow to compensate wood moveallowed them ment.Beveling panels the in of to fit in the grooves the insideedges was No so theframes. adhesive used, the panelscould swell and shrink with in lhanges humidity. Cut the panels'A inch longer and in wider than the openings the frames. ways Thereareseveral ofraisingpanels. builderslikely did the job by Shaker planes, as hand,usingpanel-raising shown in the photo at left. A more shownbelowand commonapproach, involves bevelon the followingpages, ing the edges ofpanels a routertable on or tablesaw. otherthan the Most furniture makers with the have the Shakers installed panels raised, centralportion facingoutward, to addingvisualinterest their pieces. in Although Shakers the Western whereGermaninfluence communities, might have admittedsomedecoration, frowned the creed donethe same, Shaker on extraneous ornamentation.As a pie wereoftenbuilt result,Shaker safes facingout, with the flat sideof the panels faces hidare attractive, raised whilethe from view on the inside. den

I I

planebevels endof a woodpanel.These handtools one A panel-raising models and right-hand a mustbeused pairs to raise panel Usingleftin of in allowsthepanelto bebeveled thedirection thegrain at all times.

TABLE RAISING PANETSA ROUTER ON
panel a router with Making raised a router Install panel-raisingin your a bit Position the andmount toolin a table. bearin withthebit'spilot thefence line depth % inchso at ingandsetthecutting your in thatyoucanreach finaldepth two Lower guard the the over or morepasses. To bit andturnonthe router. minimize of cut tearout, theendgrain thepanel before firsi,beveling topandbottom the flat Keep panel onthetable the thesides. the facedown flushagainst and inside Lhe fence youfeedit across biI (righl. as end Repeat cut at theother andalong the and Turn therouter test-fit off both sides. groove. the panel lf in a frame oneend in liesless Ihan% inchdeep thegroove, slightly and increase cutting the depth in allaround. Continue make another oass fits thepanel properly. thisfashion until

94

PIE, SAFE

MAKING RAISED PANELS A TABLE ON SAW
Beveling ends the I T o d e t e r m i nte e b l a d e n g l e o r r a i s h a f , i n g t h e p a n e l sd r a wa % - i n c h q u a r e t s a t h e b o t t o m o r n e o f o n ep i e c et,h e nm a r k c r a l i n ef r o mt h e i n s i d e a c eo f t h e p a n e l f t h r o u g hh e i n s i d e o r n e r f t h e s q u a r eo t c o t a p o i n to n t h e b o t t o m d g e ' / " n c hf r o m e i t h e o u t s i d ea c e ( i n s e i l . n s t a la 6 - i n c h I I l w i d ea u x i l i a rw o o d e n c e , o l dt h e p a n e l y f h a g a i n stth e f e n c ea n d a d j u s t h e b l a d e a n g l e n t i li t a l i g n s l t ht h e m a r k e di n e . u w l N e x t , d j u s t h e b l a d e e i g h u n t i lt h e a h t o u t s i d e i p o f o n et o o t he x t e n d s e y o n d t b , t h e i n s i d e a c eo f t h e p a n e l t h e nc l a m p f l a g u i d eb l o c k o t h e p a n e t o r i d ea l o n g t t h et o po f t h ef e n c e . e e d h e p a n e l n t o F t i t h e b l a d e , e e p i n gt f l u s ha g a i n stth e k i f e n c ew h i l ep u s h i n gt f o r w a r d i t h t h e i w g u i d eb l o c k( r i g h t )T e s t -ift t h e c u t e n d i n a f r a m eg r o o v el.f l e s st h a n % i n c h l , o f t h e p a n e e n t e r s h e g r o o v em o v e h e t t f e n c e l i t t l ec l o s etro t h e b l a d e n d m a k e a a . a n o t h ep a s s R e p e atth e c u t a t t h e o t h e r r e n do f t h e p a n e l . 'l

Beveling sides the
B e v e l i n gh e s i d e sa f t e ry o u h a v e t

b e v e l e d ee n dg r a i n e l p s i n i m i z e th h m tearout. the panel edge feed Set on and it into blade, the keeping back the flush against fence. the Turn panel to the over cuttheremaining (lefil. edge

PIE SAFE

A PANEL.RAISING JIG F()R TABTE THE SAW Toraise panel thetable witha on saw outadjusting angle theblade, the of jig use shop the built shown right. at Refer the illustration succestto for eddimensions. Screw lip along bottom the the edge theangled of fence; make sure youposition screws the where they will notinterfere theblade. with Prop theangled fence against auxilthe iary fence thesame at angle the as (page cuttinglinemarked a panel on 95),using sliding a bevel transfer to theangle. triangular Cut supports to f it precisely between twofences, the thenfix themin olace withscrews. C o u n t e r s i t h ef a s t e n e r s t h e nk so panel slide will smoothly the along angled fence. To use jig, position onthe the it sawtablewiththe jointbetween the lip andtheangled fence about % inch fromtheblade. thetable Butt saw's fence rip against jig's the auxiliaryfence screw twotogether. and the Turnonthesawandcrank the uo blade slowly cuta kerf to through the lip.Next, thepanel thejig and seat in adjust height theblade the of until protrudes a single tooth beyond the frontof thepanel. Make testcut in a a scrap board same the thickness as thepanel thencheck f it in and its thegroove; adjust position the the of fence blade, necessary. cut or if Then (rghf, the panel, beveling ends the bottom)before sawing sides. ihe

[f,t
il ,l

l
\\

i
\

Auxiliaryfence 9" x 30"

96

ASSEMBLING THE SAFE
nceallthefloating panels ready, are f\ V it is timeto gluetheframes together. Startby fitting the panels into their frames, shownbelow,then glueup as the railsand stiles, formingthe sides of the cabinet(page 98).The nextstep involves installing backpanelon the the frame(page 99). Thepie safe featured this chapter in includes of thefewdecorative nvo touches found in Shaker furniture:crown moldingand cockbeading aroundthe inside edges thedooropenings the of in front frame.The moldingprovides a smooth visual transition from thefront andsides thetop ofthe safe. to Although moldingmight appear be an extrato neous embellishment, restrained, the unadorned design shownis entirely in A ledger strip isfastened thebackbottomrail of a pie safe. to keeping with the Shaker ideals simof Oncestrips have been attached allfour bottom' to rails,thi plicity and harmony. panelwill bescrewed thetopedge thestrips. bottom to of

ASSEMBLING SIDE THE PANETS
thepanels their into frames 1 Fitting I Test-assemble frames. a theside lf jointistootight, disassemble pieces the andusea chisel pare to away some wood. you 0nce aresatisf withthef it, sand ied any surfaces willbedifficult reach that to glued and when frame been the has up, spread adhesive allthecontacting on surfaces therails stiles. notapply of and Do glue thepanel any in the frooves; panels must free move be to within frame. the Set oneof thestilepairs a work on surface, f it therailtenons their into mortises, then (left), sliptheframes theirgrooves into tapping themintoposition a mallet, with if necessary.theopposite pair Fit stile on therails clamp frame and the 2). Gtep

97

PIESAFE

frames Clamping side the
e S e tt h e f r a m ei n s i d e - f a cd o w no n a t w o r ks u r f a c e n ds e c u r eh e m o r t i s e - a n d a j A h w t e n o no i n t s i t hb a rc l a m p s . l t g n t ntg e u w t b a r s i t ht h e r a i l st,i g h t e nh ec l a m p s n t i l a g l u eb e a ds q u e e z eo u t o f t h e j o i n t s s (rrght). Protect stileswith woodpads. the t U s ea t r y s q u a r eo e n s u r eh a tt h e f r a m e t t r e m a i n s q u a r e s y o ut i g h t e nh e c l a m p s . a remove the has Once adhesive cured, the s a c l a m p s n dt h e ns a n d l l t h ew o o d m o o t h , a

GLUING THESAFI UP
o I P r e p a rte e r a i l s f t h e f r o n ta n d b a c k h o f t h e p r es a f ea s y o uw o u l df o r t h e s i d e s ( n a p e 2 la n da l s o r r ta m u l l i o no rt h e Q c f
tFsbv J4'

and to the 1 Gluine front back thesides t -

. a b a c kf r a m e C u tt e n o n s t t h e e n d so f t h e r o u to r c h i s eo u t m a t c h i n g l mullion nd a m n r t i s en n t h e e d p e s f t h e b a c kf r a m e s o
railc Thpn olrrp thp nipepc inopfhor rrc,ino'

. t a l o n gb a rc l a m p o s e c u r eh e j o i n t s S e t t inside-face onyour up t h e s i d ef r a m e s g s s h o pf l o o ra n ds p r e a d o m e l u eo n a l l t h e s b t c o n t a c t i n g u r f a c e s e t w e e nh e s i d e f r a m e s n d t h e f r o n ta n d b a c k .F i t t h e a i n b a c kf r a m e e n o n sn t ot h e i rm o r t i s eis t o n eo f t h e s i d e s( / e f f )t,h e n i n s t a ltl h e w f r o n tf r a m e h e s a m e a y .F i n a l l ys,e tt h e t r e m a i n i ns i d ef r a m e n t o p . g o

98

PIE SAFE

r) Clamping safe the I Carefully thecabinet set upright, working a helper, with if n e c e s s a r ys e o u rm o r e a rc l a m p t o s e c u rte es i d e so U. f b s h t t h ef r o n t n db a c ka l i g n i ntg oc l a m p w i t ht h et o pr a i l s f a , w s o thefront back theremaining withthebottom and and two rarls. Besure protect stock to pads. soon you the withwood As as h a v ei g h t e n ea l l t h ec l a m p s , s ea t a p em e a s u r o c h e c k t d u te

thesafe square for measuring distance the hbove), between opposite corners; twomeasurements beequal. the should lf not,install another clamp bar across longer thetwo the of j d i a g o n a ss ,t t i ntg ec l a m pa w s nt h o s e l r e a di y p l a c e . le h o a n Tighten clamp little a time, the a at measuringyougountil as thetwodiagonals equal. are

panels Installing back the S e tt h es a f e o w n i t hi t sb a c ka c i n g p ,t h e ni n s t a al d w f u l prloted %-inch rabbeting in a router adjust cutting bit and the depth %e to inchmore panels thanthethickness theback of youareusing. Rout rabbets the around inside the edges the of panel back openings, pressed keeping bit'spilotbearing the against stock the throughout cut (above, thensquare the /eff),

thecorners a chisel. twopieces plywood fit with Cut of to s n u g l iyn t ot h eo p e n i n g s da p p l y t h i nb e a d f a d h e s r v e an a o (above, along rabbets the right)andonthecontacting surfaces of theplywood. Spread glue the evenly, thepanels posiset in t i o n t h e n s e m a lfli n i s h i n g i l so s e c u rte e m t 6 - t o B , u s na t h a inchintervals.

99

PiE SAFE

NG C()CKBEADI INSTALLING
for the 1 Preparing safe cockbeading edge around inside of the I Cuta rabbet the using same frame thesafe, of thefront panyou procedure followed theback for time,install a'l-rnch els(page This 99). p i l o t e r a b b e t i n gt i n y o u r o u t ea n d d r bi to % the depth about inch. adjust cutting pilot butted against Keep bit's bearing the Ihen as the thestock youmake cut (right), with square corners a chisel. the

Auxiliaryfence

Featherboard

r) Milling cockbeading the from cockbeading /"L tuaxe enough 1, cut thick-stock therabbets in step to fit on it cutters a table shapingwithmolding (Do instead, stock; saw. notusenarrow 4 wide cutpieces areat least inches that from andthenripthecockbeading them.) a t I n s t a al na u x i l i a f e n c e n dr a i s eh e l ry fence notch to molding into wood head the the it. Use featherboard a to secure workpiece; it screw to a shimsothe pressure e w i l lb ea p p l i ea g a i n t h em i d d l o f t h e d st of the an stock. adlust cut,center edge To then theboard a cutter, buttthefence over Hold the against faceof thestock. the and workpiece against fence the flush the (/eff). table youfeedit intothecutters as the edge Shape opposite of theboard the has way. 0nce your all stock been same o a m i l l e di . s t aal r i ob l a d e nt h es a w n d n l makfrom cutthecockbeading theboards, by ingit wide enough protrude %inch to in fromtherabbets thesafe.

100

PIESAFE

r - , 1C u t t h e c o c k b e a d i n g f i t i n s i d e h e f r o n tf r a m e ,m i t e r - s e c u r e h e c o c k b e a d i na l o n gt h e t o p a n d b o t t o mo f t h e to t t g i n gt h e e n d s . u t a n df i t o n e p i e c e t a t i m e ,a l i g n i n t h e C a g o p e n i n gp r o t e c t i ntg e s t o c kw i t h w o o dp a d s ; o r t h e s i d e s , , h f m i t e r e d n d sw i t h t h e c o r n e r s f t h e r a b b e t sS p r e a d l i t t l e w e d g e h i n w o o ds t r i p ss l i g h t l y o n g e t h a nt h e g a p b e t w e e n e o . a t l r (above). g l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i ns u r f a c e s . s ea n ys u i t a b l e l a m pt o g U c the cockbeading

down J Gluing thecockbeading <'

FASTENINGT()P THE PANEL
Making woodbuttons the 1 I l f y o ua r eu s i n g o o d u t t o n t o i n s t a l l w b s y t h e t o p o n t h e p i es a f e , o uw i l l n e e d o t makeenough buttons space to themevery 6 i n c h e s l o n g h e e n d sa n de d g e s f t h e a t o p a n e l Y o uc a n m a s s - p r o d utc e b u t t o n s . he f r o ma s i n g l e o a r d f a t h i c k n e se q u a l b o s to the gapbetween top edgeof the top the s f r a m er a i l sa n dt h e g r o o v ey o uc u t i n t h e rails(page 93), lessZoinch.Cut a %-inch r a b b ea t e a c he n do f t h e b o a r dt,h e nr i p t i t i n t oi - i n c h - w i d s t r i p s n dc u t o f f t h e e a b u t t o n s b o u t1 %i n c h e sr o mt h e e n d s a f (inset).fo make holes the buttons, in screw i n s t a la l o - i n c h i t i n y o u r r i l lp r e s s n d l b d a p f a s h i o n c o r n e jri g f r o m% - i n c h l y w o o d a and L-shaped support brackets. Clamp the j i g t o t h e m a c h i n ea b l ea n ds t e a d t h e t y b u t t o n s i t h a p u s hs t i c k .D r i l lt h r o u g h w t h e c e n t e r f t h e u n r a b b e t ep o r t i o n f o d o eachbutton(/efu.

101

PIE SAFE

the O Installing top facedown the on L Set toppanel the f r th u s h o p l o o a n dp o s i t i o n es a f e p s i d e of down topof it. Align back the on the with edge thetopand of cabinet theback between panel the edges. center safe the near fit Starting thecorners, therabbeted buttons thegrooves into ends thewood of the about in thetoprails; space buttons e h 6 i n c h ea p a ra n dl e a v a % - i n cg a p s t the of and between bottom thegrooves e o o t h e l i p p e d n d s f t h eb u t t o nts a l l o w movement. screws fasDrive to forwood (right). in tenthe buttons place

INSTALLING CROWN MOLDING
the 1 Cutting molding I Fita moldins withbevel head cutters mount head your on table saw. and the notch auxiliary fence an wood Install and (page 100),andpositron fence the for you profile. thestock thedesired Secure with willuse make molding two to the featherboards, clamping to thefence one and to above blade, a second thesaw the a b a t a b l eC l a m p s u p p o r to a r d t a 9 0 ' . featherboard. Raise angle thesecond to the do thecutters inchabove table; % n o tm a k e f u l l - d e p ch t i n o n ep a s s . a tu as Press stock the against fence you the f inish slowly it into cutters; feed the the stick. Reverse board the cutwitha push (left). edge andrepeat cutontheother the passes necessary, raisMake many as as you at until ingthecutters inch a time, % deoth cut. of have reached desired the Install ripblade thesaw cutthe a on and molding both from sides theworkpiece, of lines the in asrepresentedthedotted by illustration.

r02

PIE SAFE

r) Installingthe molding side I FasIen side one molding then f irst, piece, f inally remainthefront and the piece. themolding pieces ingside Cut to length, mitering ends. their Spread glue some onthecontacting surfaces piece thetop between first the side and railof theside settheoiece and in position. allow wood To for movement, do notapply glue any between the molding thetopof thesafe. and Clamp piece thefront thefront to rail-without glue-tohelp align side you piece the properly. Install barclamps two along piece thetopto secure side the in place, gradually tightening clamps the until thinbead glue a of squeezes out pads protect fromthejoint;use wood to both molding thetop(above). the and

the molding Q Installing front r.J 0ncethesrde molding been has secured, remove clamps the holding the piece place apply to it glue front in and and thefront of thepiesafe. rail to Also spread some adhesive the mitered on ends themolding. handscrews of Use to clamp front the molding thecabinet, to spacing clamps the about inches 6 apart (left). Finally, install remaining the side piece youdidthef irst as one.

103

SHELVING
would doubt no shelvins A diustable A ttuu. appealed tishakerfurniture The gives flexmakers. feature a cabinet needs ibiliry adapting changing to and the to space enabling user organize most The can efficiently. shelves beheldin place shelf with supports fit in holes that as at drilledin thestiles, shown right. Another is wooden option shop-made (below), whichare corner strips dadoed andattached theinteriorcorners to of thepiesafe holdup theshelving. to

pin into sleeve in A metqlshelfsupport is beingscrewed a threaded intervals a pie safe stile.Inserted drilledholes evenf spaced into at the allowthepinsfrom thebottomto thetopof thecabinet, sleeves at and shelves-tobeinstalled virtuallyany heightinsidethesafe.

STRIPS USING CORNER

the strips 1 Making corner I You make strips, foreach can four one corner ihe pie of froma single 4-inch-wide thatis long board enough to safe, fromtopto bottom thecabinet. of Install dado a head extend saw equal thethickness to of onyour table andsetthewidth you Determine desired the spacing theshelf supports willuse. about cut of the notches-typically 2 inches-and twodadoes gauge in Align the thatdistance apart a miter extension board. to left-hand withthe blades screw extension the dado and the

gauge theother with dado offset the right. a 2-inch to Cut piece shelf and where it of support stock f it it intothatdado, (inseil. your irstdado willserve an indexingkey f as Cut about you fromoneend-or at whatever height wantyour 8 inches lowest shelf. thesecond subsequent Cut and dadoes movby ingthepiece theright fitting previous over to and the dado the key(above). When dadoes all cut,rip the board the are intofour1-inch-wide strios. corner

104

PIESAFE

r) Installing corner strips the L and shelf supports g o S p r e as o m e l u e n t h ec o n t a c t i n g d and surfaces between corner the strips s , t h es t i l e o f t h ep i es a f ea n dp o s i t i o n making thatthedadoes sure each strip, To of face interior thecabinet. clamp the in use scraps thestrips place. thinwood the slightly longer thegapbetween than (above). theshelf For supports strips (represented lines theillusin bydotted measure distance the between tration), stiles thesafe of and thefront back and c r r t h en i e c ets f i t E n s u rte a tt h e o h e o t s u p p o r as ew i d e n o u gth h o l d h e tr shelves securely.

the Q Preparing shelves shelf must be \, Allfour corners each of n o t c h etd f i t a r o u ntd ec o r n es t r i p s . o h r i M e a s u ae dm a r k a c h h e l fc l a m pt rn e s , face down a work to surface, cutout and (lefD. with thecorners a backsaw

TIN-PANELDOORS
h. doorsof the pie safe joined are I with the openversion the morof tise-and-tenon loint usedto assemble the cabinet. The reinforcing pegswill preventthe joints from racking,even undertheheaviest As shownbelow, use. you canmakethejoint on yourtable saw jig. with a shop-made Once doors the are assembled, arerabbeted accept they to (page the tin panels l0B). As shownon pageI I 1, a varietyof special punches are available piercingthe panels for themselves. thepanels installed, Once are the doorscanbe mountedto the safe with simplebutt hinges(page114). -f

MAKING D(IORS THE

Thedoorsof thepie safe assembled are with mortise-and-tenons, reinforced by woodpegs. Thetin panelssitin rabbets alongtheinsideedges thedoors of and areheldin placebystripsof molding.

the cheeks therails in 1 Cutting tenon I Cutopen jig mortise-and-tenons table using shop-madeshown onyour saw the in theinset. Refer thedimensions to suggested, making thethickness thespacer sure of andwidth thebrace of enable jig to slide the along ripfence the without wobbling. Cutthe body plywood theguide spacer andbrace from3/uinch and and fromsolid wood. anoval Saw hole a handle thejig body attach guide thebody for in and the to in front thehandle. of Screw wood a block thebody to below handle attach the and a toggle clamp theblock. to Finally, fasten spacer brace place. cutthetenon the and in To cheeks thedoor in rails, theworkpiece butt against guide clamp in place. the and rt Setthecutting height thetenon position fence align of thecutto length, the to one tingmarks therailwith blade slide jig along fence make cut on the and the the to the Turn bbove). therailaround cuttheother to cheek, repeat cutsat theother then the endof therailandat both ends theremaining of rails,

106

PIE SAFE

r) Cutting tenon the shoulders Z- Screwa board the mitergauge to as h g a n e x t e n s i oT h e n , o l d i n o n eo f t h ed o o r n. r a i l s g a i n s t ee x t e n s i oa d l u stth e b l a d e a th n, h e i g h t o t h e d e p t ho f t h e t e n o ns h o u l d e r . A l i g n h e s h o u l d e r i t ht h e b l a d eb u t ta t w , n o t c h e d t o pb l o c k g a i n stth e s t o c k a n d s a , c l a m p h e b l o c k o t h ee x t e n s i otn ;e n o t c h t t h in the stopblockwill prevent sawdust from it accumulating between andthe workpiece. H o l d i n t h e r a i lf l u s ha g a i n s t e e x t e n s i o n g th feedthe stock with the andthe stooblock. m i t e rp a r r p ie c r r it h e f i r s ts h o u l d e T.o n r s a wt h e o p p o s i ts h o u l d etru r nt h e r a i l e , over(right). Repeat cut the tenonshoulto d e r sa t t h e o t h e r n do f t h e r a i la n d i n t h e e : r e m a i n i n ga i l s .( C a u t i o nB l a d eg u a r d r for removed clarity.)

-) Cuttins mortisesthestiles the in <' r.,l Use tenoning to saw morthe the lig tises thedoor in stiles. 0utline morthe t i s e s nt h ee n d s f t h es t i l e su s i n g o o , a Then completed asa guide. tenon clamp
nnp nf the stiles tn thp iio resetthe hladp

h e i g h t o t h e t e n o nl e n g t ha n d p o s i t i o n , the fence alignoneof the cuttingmarks to w i t ht h e b l a d eS l i d e h e j i g a l o n g h e . t t f e n c e o c u t o n es r d e f t h e m o r t i s e , e n t o th t u r nt h e s t i l ea r o u n do c u t t h e o t h e r i d e t s ( / e f f ) R e p o s i t i o n e f e n c e n d m a k ea s . th a manypasses necessary clearout the as to wastebetween kerfs.Repeat cuts the the a t t h e o t h e re n d o f t h e s t i l ea n d a t b o t h e n d s f t h er e m a i n i n s i l e s . o st

t07

PIESAFE

up frames Gluing thedoor
D r y -rft t h e r a i l sa n d s t i l e s f t h e d o o r s n d o a e u s ea c h i s e l i.f n e c e s s a rt y ,f i n e - t u na n yi l l o j . g f i t t i n g o i n t s S p r e a d l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i n g s u r f a c eo f t h e m o r t i s e a n d t e n o n st,h e n u s e s s , b a rc l a m p s o s e c u r eh e j o i n t s a l i g n i n tg e t t h b a r sw i t ht h e r a i l s . s ew o o dp a d s o p r o t e ctth e U t s t o c k n dt i g h t e n h e c l a m p s n t i la l i t t l eg l u e a t u squeezes of the lotnIsbbove). out

P r e p a r i n g ed o o r r a m e f o r p a n e l s f s th f, r - , 10 n c et h ea d h e s i v e sc u r e dr.e m o vte ec l a m p s ha h i a n ds e c u r eh ef r a m e sn s i d e - f a c e o n a w o r k u r t up s f a c e . o c u t t h e r a b b e t is t h ef r a m e so rt h et i n T n f p a n e l sn s t a al p i l o t e d ' / a - i nrc h b e t i n gt i n a i, l ab bi yo f r o u t e r . l t h o u g h u r i n a l e p t h i l l e q u a h ec o m A d w tl s of g b i n e dh i c k n e s s t h ep a n e la n dt h em o l d i ny o u t r/ w r l lb e r n s t a l l i n gy p i c a l l y ei n c h a d j u stth eb i t t p n R t o c u t t h e r a b b e tis t w oo r m o r e a s s e s . o u t h e r a b b e tm o v i n c l o c n w i s e o u n t h e i n s i d e d g e s s g ar d l o f t h ep a n eo p e n i n gk e e p i ntg eb i t ' sp i l o tb e a r s, h d i n gp r e s s ea g a i n stth e s t o c k h r o u g h o u t c hc u t t ea ( r i g h t ) . n c e o ur e a c h o u r i n a ld e p t h s q u a r t h e y y f O , e c o r n e ro f t h e r a b b e tw i t ha c h i s e l . s s

108

PIE SAFE

Preparing doorframes thefalsemullion for the 4i pie safedoors closeproperly, a rabbet To enable the to cut \,1 f a l o n g h e i n s i d e a c eo f b o t hd o o r s t t h e i rc o n t a c t i ne d g e sa t a g ; w o o d t r i p , n o w n s a f a l s e u l l i o nw i l lb eg l u e d n t o t h e a b b e t s k a m , i r o f t h e l e f t - h a n d o o rs o t h e d o o r s i l l r e s tf l u s hw h e nc l o s e d d w (page gap l10.fhe t/e-inch between right-hand andthe the door edge the mullion prevent doors of will the frombinding whenthey in viewin the inset. the rabFor areclosed, shown the end-on as

install dado head your its bets, a on table andadjust width saw 1/z anditsheightto inch. 5/ro inch Attach auxiliaryfenceto to an your position fence thecutting for width, table ripfence, saw the andnotch wooden withtheblades. support door the fence To the frames. clamo featherboard fence a to the above dado the head. (above), Feed each frame inside-face with bothhands down keepingflatonthetable pressed against fence. it and flush the

109

PIE SAFE

mortise-and-tenons J Peggingthe peg / Mark holes all fourcorners each guide. at of frame, door cen- clamp in place anedge it as Then, holding frame the against (above, Bore remaining guide, thehole tering them thefront on face therails inches theside the of lr/z from drill left). the holes edge thedoor. of lnstall 5/ro-inch a brad-point in your bit drill in both frames same Cuta peg each froma piece the way. for hole press, place backup panel themachine to minimize of solid a on table stock, making slightly it shorter thedepth the than of tearout, setone thedoor and of frames top,centering on a drilling holes, pegs The should cutsquare, be tapered thebottom at end mark under bit.Adjust drilling the peg the depth about to two-thirds andwitha slight chamfer thetop.Tapeach intoits hole at 1/ro (above, thethickness theframe. a board of Butt against frame the and witha hammer right),lellingprotrude it about inch.

MAKING TINPANETS THE
thepattern thepanel to 1 Securing I Tinpanels thetools and used punch to holes them available folk-art in are from supply houses. best to punch The way the holes thepanels they allthesame in so are is to usea pattern a template. as Several patterns illustrated page common are on 111;usea photocopier anenlargewith ment feature oroduceversion the to a of pattern is thesame as desired that size your panels. Then oneof thepanels set inside-faceona backup up board, center thepattern thepanel, fixthepaper on and to thetin withmasking Tosecure tape. the panel thebackup pins, to board, push use tapping themintothe board every few inches around perimeter panel. the ofthe

110

PIE SAFE

TRADITIONAT PANEL TIN PATTERNS

TIN COMMON PUNCH TOOLS AND THE THEY CUTS MAKE

Basbpunch ldealfor makin4qeometric patterna becauae tL holeaof uniform producea erze; thts punchleavee a amooth edqeon both eideeof the panel

Lamp maker'achisel Froduceaa emooth,elon4aLedhole;traditionally uaedin lanLernmaktnq

Curvedchiael Makea creacent moon-eha ped cute; tradittonally ueed when ti4htinqwaopootttoned behtnd the panele

Star punch Traditionally one of the moat commonlyuoedohapeo

Diamond punch ldeal for Lhe edqee of patterne; a traditional choice when Iiqh'Ltn4 wao uaed behind Lhe panele

Pineapplepunch Froduceethe burra on pineapple paLterno

Courteey CountryAccents.MonLoureville. of 7A

lll

PIE SAFE

r') Punching holes the r L t J s e h a m m e a n dt h e a p p r o p r i a t e a p u n c ho r c h i s e f o r t h e t y p eo f h o l ey o u l . w i s ht o p r o d u c eH o l d i n gh e p u n c h e r t i v t h , c a l l yo n o n eo f t h e p a t t e r n o l e s s t r i k e the tool with the hammer(righil.A minim u m a m o u n t f f o r c ei s n e e d e do p u n c t o ; r t u r et h e p a n e l t h e h a r d e y o us t r i k e h e t p u n c ht,h e l a r g etrh e h o l e i l l b e .P u n c h w a l l t h e h o l e sh e s a m e a y ,c h a n g i ntg a t w o p u n c h r c h i s e a s n e c e s s a rly . o l f different y o ua r e u s i n g m e t a lo t h e rt h a nt i n f o r a t h e p a n e l ss, u c ha s m i l ds t e e ly o uw i l l , n e e dt o f i l e t h e s h a r p d g e s f t h e h o l e s e o . o n t h e o u t s i d ea c eo f t h e p a n e l sW i t h f t i n , f i l i n gi s n o t n e c e s s a r y .

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Installing tinpanels molding the and p l g M a k eo u rs t r i p s f m o l d i nfg re a c h a n ea sy o uw o u l d n a i l sh r o u gth em o l d i na n di n t o h ef r a m e v e r2 i n c h e s , f o o t h t e y for the glassdoorsof a wall clock (page125). fhen set the t h e nd r i v e h e n a i l s s i n g b r a d r i v e rT o u s et h ed r i v e r , t u a d . d o o rf r a m e s u t s i d e - f a cd o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c e n d p l a c ea i n s e ra n a i li n t oa p i l o th o l et,h e np o s i t i otn ej a w s n d o e a t h a p a n e a n d m o l d i n gn p o s i t i o n . h es h a r p d g e s f t h e p u n c h e d t i g h t e nh el o c k i n n u t .H o l d i ntg ef r a m e t e a d y ,q u e e z e l i T t g h s s e o h o l e s h o u l db e f a c i n gd o w n .B o r ep i l o th o l e s o r f i n i s h i n g thelaws setthe nail(above). f s to

PIESAFE

INSTATTING DO()RS THE

ili,llljlltliiliillllllillllllilljltllj ljJllitlll rill iiliijjjilll ltll
1HO?Tt?
M aking butterfly hingee WiLh Lheirwing-shaped leaves,butLerflyhinqee were commonly ueedon 3hakerfurniture. ay, Tod they are exVeneive anA ditricult Lo find. l, ow er, ev t ranof orming eNandard a butlhinqe inho buLterfly a hinqe a oimple io malter, Grind lopo and bollomsof butt hinqe the leaveo qrinder onyourbench unLilyou awayenough cuI melallo Vroduce characterieNic the ehape.

6

the on 1 Installing hinges thedoors I S e c u r e n eo f t h e d o o r s i n g e - e d g e o h u p i n a b e n c h i s e . O u t l i n e eh i n g e v on l e a fa b o u t6 i n c h e sr o mt h e t o p o f t h e f d o o ra n da n o t h e6 i n c h e sr o mt h e b o t r f t o m .T h e n . o l d r na c h r s ev e r t i c a l l y . h g l s c o r eh e o u t l i n e n dc u t i t s l i g h t l d e e p t a y e r t h a nt h e t h i c k n e so f t h e h i n g e e a f . s l H o l dt h e c h i s e l e v e u p t o p a r e h e b l t wastefrom the mortise(above). Once y o u h a v ec l e a r e d u t t h e r e m a i n i n g o m o r t i s eo n b o t hd o o r ss e tt h e h i n g e s s , i n t h e i rm o r t i s e s ,r i l lp i l o th o l e sa n d d , s c r e wh e m i n p l a c e . i

I IJ

PIE SAFE

on the O Installing hinges thesafe Z - P o s i t i o n n e o f t h e d o o r si n t h e o t o c a b i n e ts l i p p i n gw o o r t h r e es h e e t s f , p a p e r n d e r h e d o o ra s s p a c e r s , s ea U u t b a rc l a m p o h o l dt h e d o o ri n p l a c et,h e n t m a r kt h e t o p sa n d b o t t o m o f t h e h i n g e s o l e a v eo n t h e i n s i d e d g e f t h ef r o n t s e . f r a m es t i l e s( a b o v e )R e m o v eh e d o o r , t , s l i pt h e p i n so u t o f t h e h i n g e sa n do u t linc thp frpp hinsp lp:vpc nn thp s:fp

y t u s i n g h e m a r k s o um a d e o d e t e r m i n e t s t t h e h e i g h o f t h e o u t l i n e sM a k e u r e h e t . p a f h i n g e i n sw i l l p r o t r u dfe r e n o u g hr o m t h e s a f es o a s n o t t o b i n d a g a i n stth e wh c o c k b e a d i n g e nt h e d o o ri s o p e n e d m l a n dc l o s e dC h i s eo u tt h e h i n g e o r t i s e s . a o n t h e c a b i n es t i l e s s y o ud i d o n t h e t doors(pageI 13) and screwthe hinge . s n l e a v e is p l a c e R e p e atth e p r o c e sw i t h t h eo t h e r o o r . d

Hanging dool the i t L a l s O n c e l l t h e h i n g e e a v ea r ei n s t a l l e dt, i s t i m et o h a n g h e d o o r . i f to n eo f t h e (above). Slip on doors intoposition the hingeleaves the doorandthe safeengage so p d t w H t e a c hh i n g e i n i n p l a c eo j o i nt h e l e a v e s . a n g h e o t h e r o o r h es a m e a y . t

TI4

PIE SAFE

I n s t a l l i n Sef a l s e u l l i o n th m ,{ T C u tt h e m u l l i o nr o ml - i n c h - t h i c k f s t o c k , a k i n g t a s l o n ga s t h e d o o r s . m i S i z e h ew i d t ho f t h e m u l l i o n q u atl o t h e t e gap between shoulders the rabbets the of you cut in the doors(page 109), less'/" i n c h .T h eg a pb e t w e etn e r i g h t - h a n d h d o o r n dt h ee d g e f t h e m u l l i o n i l l p r e a o w v e n tt h e d o o r sr o mb i n d i n g h e nt h e y f w a r ec l o s e dS p r e a d o m e d h e s i vie t h e . s a n r a b b e t n t h e l e f t - h a n d o o ra n do n t h e i c o n t a c t i ns u r f a c eo f t h e m u l l i o na n d g s , . s e tt h e s t r i po f w o o di n p l a c e C l a m p h e t m u l l i o n g a i n sb o t hc h e e k n ds h o u l d e r a t a t o f t h e r a b b ew h i l et h e g l u ec u r e s( / e f t ) .

p I n s t a l l i n g ed o o r u l l s th R r . / M a k ea p u l l f o r e a c hd o o ro n y o u r l a t h et,u r n i n g r o u n d e n o n t o n ee n d , a t a o r b u yt h e p u l l sr e a d y - m a dM.a r ka p o i n t e i n t h e m i d d l e f t h e c o n t a c t i nd o o rs t i l e s o g a b o u t w o - t h r r d sf t h e w a yu p t h e d o o r s o a n dd r i l la h o l e h es a m e i a m e t e rst h e t d a g t e n o n s t e a c hm a r k . p r e a d o m e l u e a S s o n t h e t e n o n s n d i n s e r e a c hn r r l li n t o t a tls hole (right).

115

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SreRCLASSICS
i

feature was an 80-pound principles that ffi he same $ guidedthe Shakers bell in brass engine thatsoundedloudlyon thehour. their daily lives-purity, wholesomeness, usefulOval boxes,like those and in shownat left,wereusedto ness-arereflected everystore variety a ofdry goods. thingtheybuilt.Each the of With theirdistinctive swalsrnallShakerprojectsfealowtailfingers, straight sides, turedin thischapter-a wall finish, boxthe andsmooth clock,a stepstool,an oval eswereelevated Shaker by box, and a pegboard-is a from mere craftsmanship classic example this of singlevessels thingsof beauinto mindedphilosophy. ty. That the Shakers made TotheShakers, houseno these boxes thethousands by hold item, no matter how whileholdingto a highstansmall,couldbe considered is frivolousor simpleadorndardof excellenceremark"knickknack" able-and typicalof their menl Theterm and in lexicon. creed craftsrnanship. hadno place their Thetall cabinets built by Whatever theymadehad to the theShakers created need the durable, withand Madefi"ontquartersawn cherryverteer, bandfor the bestrong, to access shelves. high The It had box shownaboveis bett oroLffid dryingfonrr after first a ou[ [ault. also to beperThe stepstoolshownon page fectlysuitedto the purpose ltehrysonked hot water nnd softerrcd. band is in I 2 9 r n s w e r etd i sr e q u i l e h for which it wasdesigned. seuu'ed its bentshnpeby coppertacks. in nent, becoming mobile a Wall clocks, like the one its were grandfather staircase. Although treads oftendovetailed shownon pageI I B,andtall,freestanding clocks but sturdy justified lives, strength, rather thanappearance, the wereessential theShakers'disciplined but theShakers into thesides, to "wag-ondesigned othertypes special for needs. homely The attractive ioinerv. (page Thepegboard 135) an example is ofhow theShakers clockhad no case, onlya smallframeto probut the-wall" of itemuntilit became an and hungfrom a peg. Theyalso stretched usefulnessa hurnble the tectthemechanism, simply part Pegs linedthe wallsof most for made basic clocks theirbarns thathadonlyan hourhand. indispensable of theirlives. "tower from bookshelves Lake, Shaker homes, hanging everything and Evenless ornatewasthe clock"at Sabbathday had kitchen imolements clocks chairs. to and Maine. Thistimeuiece no face hands all.Its main or at

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i

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The rttils,stiles, and divider of thef'urrc for a Shnkerwnll clocknre beingglued ttp,seared by bnr chmtps The rails while and stiles showttat left orc joitretl with rabbets, the divider sirrrylylrtsitto dndoes across stiles. aff tlrc

WALL CLOCK
led T h. Shakers verydisciplined, I structured Theyrose 4:00 lives. at a.m. thesummer, in allowing themselves to sleep anhourlater winter. in in They stopped workingat7:30 p.m.on summerevenings at 8:00 p.m.in the and winter, one-half hourbefore evening worship. They ate also theirmeals preat cise times. Shaker A from Ohio elder "The once said, clockis an emblem of theShaker community because everythinggoes time.Promptness, on absolute punctuality, a sine nonof a sucqua is cessful community." In theearly,lean of theirmoveyears ment,Shaker communities considered themselves fortunate ownoneworkto ing "alarum" clock. thesect As prosjoined pered, asclock and makers the movement, availability thetimethe of pieces spread. Shakers carried The never pocket watches, however. These were considered unnecessary indulgences. Themechanisms original of Shaker cloclswere made frombrass wood. or A les mstlyandmore reliable modem alternative tobuyaquartz is clockmovement. These beordered can complete metwith aldialandwithorwithoutapendulum frommany hobby supply stores. folThe lowingpages howto assemble show a for case a Shaker-style clock. wall
Isaac NewtonYoungs one was of thefew Shaker clockmakers to design and construct cases to house timepieces. clock his The shownbelowwasinspiredby onethat hebuib in thespring of 1840 theNewLebanon at communityin New YorkState.

ANATOMYA WALL OF CTOCK
Caee top panel 5" x 9%"

Toptrim 4" x 1O3A"

Top-door etile Top-door rail (2) 1%" 10" x
'lt/o" x 10"

Baakboard 9%"x 32t"la"

Divider 1'/o" 10" x Eottomdoor
rail (2) Caae aide panel 3" x 3O"

2" x 10" preciThewallclock assembled thesame is with sion thatShakers brought their to daily routines. Thefourpanels thecase glued of are together withrabbets, therails stiles thedoors and and of joints. arejoined withopen mortise-and-tenon Thebackboard intoa rabbet along fits cut the panels, is nailed place. back thecase of and in glued thetopand Thetrim pieces simply are to panels thecase. divider glued bottom of The is intostopped dadoes thesidepanels thecase. in of Use %e-inch-thick forall butthedoors stock and divider, which made are from%-inch-thick wood.

Eottomdoor atile 2" x'19%"

Bottom ,iTtr;?;f

SHAKERCLASSICS

BUI L D I N H E A S E TG C
Rabbeting sidepanels the 1 f I P r e p a rte e c a s ep i e c e so r a s s e m b l y h b y r a b b e t i ntg e e n d so f t h e s i d ep a n e l s h l o n y o u rt a b l es a w .I n s t a la d a d oh e a do n i i t h e s a wa n d a d j u s t t s w i d t ht o % u n c h . S e tt h e c r r t t i n p e i p h a t I i n c h .S c r e w h t e a w o o d e n u x i l i a rfy n c e o t h e r i p f e n c e a t T a n d n o t c hi t w i t h t h e d a d oh e a d . o h e l p y o u f e e dt h e l o n gs t o c ka c r o s sh e s a w t a t a b l ea n dt o m i n i m i z ee a r o u ts c r e w t , b o a r d s a n e x t e n s i otn t h e m i t e rg a u g e . a o l T h e n ,b u t t i n g n es i d ep a n e a g a i n stth e o f, f e n c ea n dt h e e x t e n s i o ne e di t a l o n g w i t h t h e m i t e rg a u g e o c u t t h e f i r s t r a b t beI (right). Repeat the otherend of the at b o a r d n d a t b o t he n d so f t h e s e c o n d a . e f s i d ep a n e l T o p r e p a r t h e s i d ep a n e l so r t h e b a c k b o a r d ,u t a r a b b e t l o n g h e c a t b a c ke d s eo f e a c hb o a r d

r) Preparing sidepanels the L torthedivider 0 u t l i n e h e d a d oo n t h e f r o n te d g e f e a c h t o s i d ep a n etl h a tw i l l a c c e p t e d i v i d e r . th T h e l e n g t h f t h e d a d os h o u l d e a b o u t o b o n e - h a t f e w i d t ho f t h e d i v i d e rl.n s t a la lh l s t r a i g hb i t t h e s a m e i a m e t ea s t h e d a d o t d r l w r d t hi n a r o u t e rb u t to n es i d ep a n e o n a , worksurface board, against backup a and a l i g n h e b i t o v e r h e o u t l i n e B u t ta b o a r d t t . g a s a n e d g e u i d e g a i n stth e r o u t e b a s e a r p l a t e n dc l a m pt h e s e t u pi n p l a c eW i t h . a plate guide, the base flushagainst edge the p l u n g eh e b r t r n t o h e b a c k u p o a r d n d t t b a g u i d e t i n t ot h es i d ep a n e ls t o p p i ntg e , i h . c u t a t y o u re n d l i n e ( / e f t ) R o u t h e d a d o i n t h e s e c o n d i d ep a n e lt,h e ns q u a r e s b o t hd a d o e s i t ha c h i s e l . w

n9

SHAKER CLASSICS

Preparing divider installation the for Q r - , 1 L e a v i n gh e a u x i l i a r f e n c ea n d t y m i t e rg a u g e x t e n s i oo n y o u rt a b l es a w , e n n o t c h h e e n d so f t h e d i v i d etro f i t i n t o t t h e d a d o e y o uc u t i n t h e s i d ep a n e l s . s P o s i t i otn e f e n c e o c u t a % u - i n c h - w i d e h t n o t c h n d s e tt h e c u t t i n g e i g h o f t h e a h t d a d oh e a d o % i n c h .H o l d i n gh e d i v i d e r t t o n e d g ea n df l u s ha g a i n stth e f e n c e n d a e x t e n s i o ne e dt h e m i t e rg a u g en t ot h e f, i b l a d e sT u r nt h e b o a r d r o u n d n d n o t c h . a a the other end (right).

Rounding thedivider over R o u n d v e r h ef r o n t d e e f t h e o t e o
d i v i d e o n a r o u t e t a b l e .I n s t a la p i l o t e d r r l % - i n c h o u n d - o v e r t i n a r o u t e rm o u n t r bi , t h e t o o l i n a t a b l e ,a n d a l i g nt h e f e n c e w i t ht h e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n g . o s u p p o rtth e T d i v i d e ru s et h r e ef e a t h e r b o a r d sa m p , cl , i n gt w ot o t h e f e n c e o n eo n e a c hs i d eo f , t h e b i t , a n d o n et o t h e t a b l e .B r a c e h i s t second featherboard a support with board : s e c u r e t o t h e t a b l e .( N o t e T h ef e a t h e r d b o a r do n t h e o u t f e e d i d e o f t h e f e n c e s h a sb e e nr e m o v e f o r c l a r i t y . N o wu s ea d ) p u s hs t i c kt o f e e dt h e d i v i d e a c r o s sh e r t table (left). Maketwo passes round to o v e re a c hf a c eo f t h e s t o c k ,s t a r t i n g i t h w a s h a l l o w u t a n dr a i s i n t h e b i t s l i g h t l y g c
fnr ihp cpennd n:cc

r20

SHAKER LASSICS C

the Cutting backboard f, r - , / U s ea p i e c eo f s o l r dw o o df o r t h e S r r t b a c k b o a r d - a h a k eb u i l d ew o u l d y p i c a l l vh a v e r s e d i n e T o m a r ko u t t h e r n dr a r c ha t t h e t o p o f t h e b a c k b o a r f i , s t ne t m a r k c e n t e r l i n e a r h et o pe n do f t h e a a s t o c k n d u s ea c o m p a sts o u t l i n e c i r a o i w i t ha r a d i u o f 2 l i n c h e sn t h e m i d s cle f d l e o f t h e s t o c k c e n t e r e2 1 , i n c h e sr o m , d N e x t , a r ka s t r a i g hlti n e m t h et o p e n d . f a c r o s t h e s t o c k ' i n c h e sr o mt h e t o p s 3 p e r p e n d i c u llan e s s ir a e n d .D r a w w o t n o t c h e sn i e s h o w n o a c c o m m o d atth e t t h p t n n n a n p l I l q pv n r r b a n ds a wt o c u t o o u t t h e a r c h .S e tt h e s t o c k n t h e s a w w a t a b l e n df e e dt h e p i e c e i t hb o t hh a n d s , m a k i n gh e s t r a i g hc u t sf i r s ta n dt h e n t t s a w i n gh e s e m i c i r c l ( / e f t ) . t e

n D r i l l i n t h ep e g h o lie t h eb a c k b o a r d g f, t L , l T o e n s u r eh e c l o c kw i l l h a n gl e v e l , - h e n e sh o l em r r s t e c e n t e r e b e t w e e n d h t h e e d p e s f t h e b a c k b o a r d . a r ka o M t c 1Z d r i l l i n p o i n o ny o u r e n t e r l i n e i n c h e s g t f r o mt h e t o p o f t h e a r c h ,t h e nb o r e h e i h o l e n y o u r r i l lp r e s sI.n s t a la / - i n c h o d e b r a d - p o i b r tr nt h e m a c h i n a n dc l a m p nt pa t a b a c ' < u p n etlo t l ' e t a b l e o h e l pn i n i n m i z et e a r o u tP o s i t i oy o u rm a r kd i r e c t l y . id t u n d e t h e b i t ,c l a m p h e b a c k b o a r n r place, and drrllthe hole(rrght).

SHAKERCLASSICS

Preparingthe panelandtop top J I ttimpiece thebackboard for Y o uw i l l n e e d o c u t a n o t c hi n t h e b a c k t e d g eo f t h e t o p p a n e l n d t o p t r i m p i e c e a o f t h e c l o c kc a s et o a c c o m m o d a t e e h b a c k b o a r0 u t l i n e h e n o t c h n t h e m i d d l e d. t i of the edgeof eachpiece.Leave dado the h e a da n d m i t e rg a u g e x t e n s i oo n y o u r e n t a b l es a w ,b u t m o v e h e f e n c eo u t o f t h e t w a y .T o c u t t h e n o t c h e sa l i g nt h e d a d o , h e a d i t ho n ee n do f t h e o u t l i n er,a i s e w t h e b l a d e so t h e t h i c k n e s o f t h e b a c k t s b o a r d a n d u s et h e m i t e rg a u g e o f e e d , t the panel intothe cut.Then, slide workthe p i e c e l o n g h e e x t e n s i ob y t h e w i d t ho f a t n pass(/effl,conthe kerfand makeanother t i n u i n g n t i ly o ur e a c hh eo t h e r n do f t h e u t e o u t l i n eU s e h e s a m e e t u p o p r e p a rte e . t s t h t o p t r i m p i e c e o rt h e b a c k b o a r d . f

Assembling case the
Smnnththc casp nier^e5 pl llg 3

b a c k b o a r d , i n gp r o g r e s s i v eiln e rs a n d us f y p a p e rf,i n i s h i n g i t h2 2 0 - g r i tA s s e m b l e w . t h e c a s ei n t w o s t e p s s t a r t i n g i t ht h e , w s f o u rp a n e l a n dt h ed i v i d e rS p r e a g l u eo n . d a l l t h e c o n t a c t i ns u r f a c eo f t h e p i e c e s g s a n d c l a m p h e j o i n t s e c u r e l y ,s s h o w n t s a i n t h e c o l o rp h o t o n p a g e1 1 6 . C h e c k o t h e c o r n e r f o r s q u a r e y m e a s u r i ntg e s b h d i s t a n c e e t w e e d i a g o n a l oy p o s i t c o r b n lp e n e r so f t h e c a s e T h et w o m e a s u r e m e n t s . s h o u l db e t h e s a m e ; f n o t ,a d j u s t h e i p e c l a m p i n g r e s s u ru n t i lt h e ya r e . n c et h e 0 g l u eh a sc u r e d , e m o v eh e c l a m p ss e t r t , the assembly downon a worksurface, face a n d f i t t h e b a c k b o a rid p o s i t i o nl.t i s n s e c u r e d i t h n a i l s ; o n o t u s ea n yg l u e , w d s i n c e h e b o a r d u s tb e f r e et o m o v e s t m a t h e w o o d w e l l s n dc o n t r a c tw i t hh u m i d s a s i t y c h a n g e s . o r ep i l o th o l e s o r f i n i s h i n g B f n a i l s h r o u g hh e b a c k b o a r d d i n t ot h e t t an r a b b e t s l o n g h e b a c ke d g e s f t h e c a s e a t o n a n e l sS n a c eh e h n l e s b o u t i n c h e s t a 4 a p a r t t h e nd r i v e h e n a i l si n p l a c e( r i g h t ) . , t

t22

SHAKER LASSICS C

MAKING DOORS THE
i h 1 C u t t i ntg et e n o n sn t h er a i l s I U s ey o u rt a b l es a wt o c u t t h e o p e n m o r t i s e - a n d - t e n oh a t j o i n t h e r a i l s t ns a n ds t i l e s f t h e d o o r sS a wt h e p i e c e so o . t s i z e t h e ni n s t a la c o m m e r c i t e n o n i n g , l al l r g o n t h e s a wt a b l e ;t h e m o d e ls h o w n i o s l i d e s n t h e m i t e rs l o t . l a m o n eo f t h e C r a i l se n d - u p o t h e j i g , u s i n g w o o dp a d t a
in nrntpnt tho ctnrk l\/l:kp thc rrrttino

h e i g h t q u a lt o t h e s t o c kw i d t ha n d p o s i e t i o nt h e i i p s o t h e o u t s i d ea c e s f t h e f o b l a d e n dt h e w o r k p i e ca r ea l i g n e d . a e P u s ht h e j i g f o r w a r do f e e dt h e r a i l i n t o t t h e h l a d e( r i p h t )t h e n t u r n t h e s t o c k a r o u n d n dr e o e at h e c u t o n t h e o t h e r a edge. Move jig toward blade the the slightly t h et h i c k n e so f t h et e n o n i l l b e e o u a l s w so t o a b o u to n e - t h i r t h e s t o c k h i c k n e s s d t . m a k et w o m o r ep a s s e sR e p e atth e and p r o c e s t o c u t t e n o nc h e e k s n t h e o t h e r s o e n d o f t h e r a i la n d a t b o t he n d so f t h e a r e m a i n i nrg i l s .
\ r r b , r ! / t ! ' i v i i

r) Sawing mortises the I Clamp of the doorstiles one end-up to t h e j i g ,p o s i t r otn ej r gt o c e n t etrh e e d g e h with of the workpiece the blade, andfeed the stockinto the cut (left).Thenmovethe a f 1 i gv e r ys l i g h t l y w a y r o m t h e b l a d et o e n l a r g t h e m o r t i s eM a k e n o t h ep a s s , e . a r i t u r nt h e s t i l e r o u n dn t h e j i g ,a n df e e di t a i n t ot h e b l a d e g a i nN e x t t e s t - f io n eo f a . , t i f t h e r a i lt e n o n sn t h e m o r t i s el . t h e f i t i s tootight,move jig away the fromthe blade slightly and maketwo morepasses, continu i n g n t i l t h ee n o n i t ss n u g l iyn t h em o r u t f t i s e .U s et h e s a m ep r o c e d u rte c u t t h e o m o r t i s ea t t h e o t h e r n do f t h e s t i l ea n d s e a t b o t he n d so f t h e r e m a i n i ns t i l e sY o u g .
^^- ^r^^ ,,^^ ^ ^L^^ *^rp i o L d I d t 5 u u 5 t r d 5 i l u p - i l t d u - r ,i o f. n n r r i t h i c -

j o i n t ,a ss h o w n n p a g e 0 6 . 1 o

SHAKERCLASSICS

G l u i n u pt h er a i l s n ds t i l e s g a Q r - , 1 D r v - a s s e m btlh e t w o d o o rf r a m e s o c h e c kt h e f i t o f t h e e t joints.lf theyaretoo tight, usea chiselto pareaway excess wood;if anyof the tenons extends beyond outside the edges of g t h e s t i l e ss a n di t f l u s h . h e ns p r e a d l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i ns u r , T g f a c e s f t h e r a i l t e n o n s n d s t i l em o r t i s e s ,n d a s s e m b lte e o a a h

f r a m e sU s et h r e e l a m p so s e c u r e a c ha s s e m b l y , i g n i n g n e . c t al o w i t he a c hr a i la n dc e n t e r i na t h i r db e t w e etn e s t i l e s p r o t e c t g h ; . t h e s t o c k i t hw o o dp a d s T i g h t e nh e c l a m p s l i t t l ea t a t i m e w t a until a thin gluebeadsqueezes of the loinIs(above), out checki n gt h e f r a m e o r s q u a r e s y o ug o . f a

/ -t

Preparingthe frames glass panels door for p l E a c hd o o rw i l l h a v e g l a s s a n e t h a t a s i t si n r a b b e t s u t a l o n g h e i n s i d e d g e s f c t e o t h e f r a m e t h e g l a s s s h e l di n p l a c e y s t r i p s ; i b o f m o l d i n gO n c e h e g l u eh a sc u r e d r e m o v e . t , t h e c l a m p s n dc u t t h e r a b b e t s n a r o u t e r a o l t a b l e .l n s t a la ' / . i n c h t o p - p i l o t es t r a i g hb i t d t r n a r o u t e a n d m o u n tt h e t o o l i n a t a b l e . r A d j u s tt h e b i t h e i g htto t h e c o m b i n etd i c k h y n e s s f t h e g l a s s n d m o l d i n g o uw i l l b e o a using. Remove fenceandset a doorframe the o n t h et a b l e T u r no n t h et o o la n dp r e s sh e . t i n s i d e d g e f t h ef r a m e g a i n s t e b i t n e a r e o a th onecorner, thenrotate stockclockwise the to c u t t h e r a b b e t s l o n g h e r a i l sa n d s t t l e s a t ("rb i" s/ h f l 'K e e nt h e f r a m pf l a t o n t h e t a b l ea s \ ' ' youfeedit intothe bit. Square corners the of t h e r a b b e tw i t ha m a l l e t n da w o o d h i s e l . s a c R e p e atth e p r o c e d u r e r t h e o t h e r o o r . fo d

124

SHAKER LASSICS C

hinges thedoors on f, Mounting r - , 1T h ed o o r s r eh u n go n t h e c l o c kc a s e i t h b u t t h i n g e st:h e a w h i n g e e a v e a r ec o n c e a l eid r e c e s s e s t i n t ot h e i n s i d e a c e s l s n cu f o f t h e d o o r s n dt h e f r o n te d g e s f t h e c a s e . o s i t i o e a c hd o o r a o P n i n t u r no n t h e c a s e n do u t l i n eh e h i n g e e a v eo n t h e d o o r s n d a t l s a t h e c a s e T o c u t t h e r e c e s s e s t h e d o o r sc l a m pt h e f r a m e o a . in , t w o r ks u r f a c en s i d e - f a c e .C u te a c hr e c e sw i t ha c h i s e i n t w o i up s l s t e p sS t a r tb y h o l d i n gh e c h i s ev e r t i c a l lo n y o u ro u t l i n e i t h . t l y w t h e b e v efl a c i n g h e w a s t e n dt a p t h e h a n d l e i t h a m a l l e t , t a w m o v i n gh e c h i s e a l o n g o s c o r eh e e n t i r e u t l i n eT h e np a r e t l t t o . i a w a y h e w a s t e n t h i n l a y e r sh o l d i n gh e c h i s e h o r i z o n t a l l y , t , t l periodically, bevel-side (left). up TestJita hingeleafin the recess s t o p p i nw h e n h e r e c e s i s a b o u t% o n c hd e e p etrh a nt h e t h i c k g t s i n e s s f t h e l e a f . i t ht h e h i n g e e a fi n p o s i t i o n , a r kt h e s c r e w o W l m h o l e s n t h e r e c e s s , o r e p i l o th o l ea t e a c hm a r k , n ds c r e wh e i b a a t p h i n g e e a ft o t h e d o o r .U s et h e s a m e r o c e d u r e c u t t h e r e c e s s l to es in the frontedges the case. of

Tuahetick

the molding tri Making glass-stop

\ , f C u tt h e m o l d i n gh a tw i l l s e c u r eh e g l a s sn t h e d o o r sr o m t t i f a s i n g l e - i n c h - t h i c k a r dS t a r tb y r o u n d i no v e rb o t he d g e s % bo . g o f t h e p i e c e s y o ud i d f o r t h e d r v i d e( p a g e 2 0 ) ,t h e nr r pt h e a r J m o l d i n gr o mt h e b o a r d n y o u rt a b l es a w ,f e e d i n gh e s t o c k f o t w i t h a p u s hs t i c k( a b o v e ) . a wt h e m o l d i n go f i t i n t ot h e r a b S t b e t si n t h e d o o r sm a k i n g 5 ' m i t e r c u t sa t t h e e n d s f e a c h , 4 o p i e c eC u ta n df i t o n ep i e c e t a t i m e ,m a k i n g u r e o a l i g n h e . a s t t m i t e rc u t sw r t ht h e c o r n e ro f t h e r a b b e t s . s

Securing glass the I glass panels prepared the door,cuttingthem % I Have for i n c hs h o r t ea n d n a r r o w eh a nt h e i ro p e n i n g s .h i sw i l l l e a v e r tr T a % o - i n cg a pa r o u n dh e g l a s s o a l l o wf o r w o o dm o v e m e n t . h t t A p p l yy o u rf i n i s ht o t h e d o o rf r a m e s l,e t i t d r y ,t h e ns e tt h e d o o r r a m e s n dg l a s s n a w o r ks u r f a c e n d p l a c e h e m o l d f a o a t p i n g i n p o s i t i o n . o r e i l o th o l e so r f i n i s h i n g a i l s h r o u g hh e B f n t t m o l d i n g n d i n t ot h e f r a m ee v e r y i n c h e st,h e nd r i v e h e n a i l s a 2 t u s i n g b r a dd r i v e rT o u s et h e d r i v e ri,n s e r a n a i li n t oa p i l o t a . t n h o l e , h e np o s i t i o t h e j a w sa n dt i g h t e n h e l o c k i n g u t . t n t H o l d i n gh e f r a m e t e a d ys q u e e zte e j a w st o s e tt h e n a i l t s , h (above). a pieceof cardboard protect glass. Use to the

ltJ

SHAKERCLASSICS

FINAT ASSEMBLY
Gluing thetrimpieces on I Cutthetopandbottom pieces trim to size, thenround one over face their of side andfront edges a router on tableusing a 9%-inch round-over @age 120. To inbit stallthepieces, theclock set case its on glue back a work on surface spread on and thecontacting surfaces thetrimpieces of panels. andthetopandbottom Position thetrimpieces theirback so edges are flush withtheback thecase secure of and them withbarclamps spaced every to 6 4 (right) inches. Tighten clamps the unlila glue little squeezes of thejoints. out 'l

r) Preparing case thedialand for the clock mechanism L me dialandclock mechanism attached a thinplyare to glued wood backing board, which turnis screwed cleats in to to theinside thecase. twocleats f it along inside of Cut to the face panels of thecase side between toppanel thedivider. the and C u ta t h i r d n e o r u na l o n e t hie s i d f a c e f t h et o oo a n e l o t n e o

you between sidepanels. help mark positions the the To the of cleats, test-fit clock thecase, the in remembering to allow for position certain, glue thedoors. Once cleat the is spread onthe contacting surfaces between cleats thecase, clamp the and and (above). thecleats place in

126

SHAKERCLASSICS

Assembling clock the mechanism (lnsef), Assemble clockmechanism the following manufactur- the board's the edges. attach clockmovement To the insert position dialon er'sdirections. the model For shown, the theshaft through shaft the hole thedial, and thentighten the provided outline shaft the backing board and the hole the nut on the shaftby handhbovd. lf the shaftprotrudes far on too board. Remove dialandbore shaft the the hole through the from dial,loosen nut,remove movement slip the the the and . b a c k i n b o a r d n y o u r r i l lp r e s sF i xt h ed i a lt o t h e b a c k - oneor more g o d washers between movement the backing the and ingboard epoxy, with making thedialis centered sure between board. number washers supplied most A of are with models.

Securing clock the assemblythecase to Position backing the board theclock in case drilloilot and holes %-inch for No. 6 wood screws through board the and intothecleats. Bore hole each a at cor(/eff). ner,thendrivein thescrews

r27

SHAKER LASSICS C

r - , / S e tt h e c l o c ko n r t sb a c ka n d p o s i t i o nt h et o n d o o r n t h ec a s eW r t ht h e o .
h,noo nin noniorpd hcirnrepn ihp pdooc

r\

the fl Hansins doors

m o f t h e d o o ra n d c a s e , a r kt h e h i n g e l e a fs c r e w o l e s n t h e c a s e . o r e h e h i B t h o l e s n dd r i v e h e s c r e w s , e nr e p e a t th a t the nrncess ihe hottnmaoor(above). for l r e i t h e d o o r i n d s g a r n sh e d i v i d e r , r b a tt r t r y s a n d i ntg e b i n d i n ga i l N o wa p p l y h t c a f i n i s h o t h ec l o c k a s e .

Installing pendulum the
M o s tp e n d u l u m e i g h t s a v e b r a s s w h a
fini.h rh^r ;^ ^^",1,, ^^,^+^hod. lllll)ll LlldL l) Ud)lly )LldtLilLu, ic rrc'r:llv ino Dn nni nrntontod rpmnrip hv ihp 2 iL rp L u r o i r b ri r h r vyu oh an\/Arrrnlil lhp nl:ctra

envprins

p e n d u l u ma sb e e n o u n t e d . l i d e h e h m S t p e n d u l u m du n d e t h e c l o c k a c es o i t s ro r f s t o n e n d r - a t c h en n t h e h o o ku n d e r h e t m o v e m e nT.h ec l o c kc a n n o wb e h u n g t r o n a w a l lf r o ma h o o ko r a S h a k e p e g l o 1 b o a r di k et h eo n es h o w n n p a g e 3 8 .

128

STEP STOOL
for f n theirquest orderandefficienry, I theShakers chests drawers built of and cabinets madegooduseof available that space, oftenstretching from floor to ceiling.Step stools theoneshown like below evolved enable to household members to gainaccess the uppermost to shelves. Depending individualneeds, on the stoolsweremadein two-, three-,and four-step versions. tallerstools The often featured steadying rods screwed the to sideto providea handhold. Althbughthese stools appeal the to moderneye,usefulness the Shaker was builder's soleconcern. Throughdovetailswerechosen attachthe treads to to joints thesides because interlocking the gavethe stoolsstrength and stability. Step-by-step instructions cuttingthe for joints by hand,muchasa Shaker craftsman might havedone, are provided starting page on 130. Thestools weretraditionally from cut %-inch-thick cherryexcept theX-inchfor thickcrosspieces. youhave your Once cut stock thesides for ofthe stool, a penuse cil to mark the top,bottom,and front andbackedges each piece. of Thiswill helpyou avoidanyconfusion whenyou come cutthepinsatthesides'top to ends.

ANATOMY STEP OF A STO(IT

%

r29

C SHAKER LASSICS

THE CUTTING DOVETAILS
I T h es i d e s r em a d ef r o mt w o b o a r d s a p l r r e dn p e t h ea f t e rt h e n o t c h e a n d t r s t h e p i n so f t h e d o v e t a ij lo i n t a r ec u t i n o t t h e m .O u t l r n eh e n o t c h e s n t h e e d g e s o f e a c hs r d eo i e c e t. h e nc u t t h e mo n y o u rt a b l es a w .I n s t a l a d a d oh e a do n l h t h e s a wa n ds e tt h e c u t t i n g e i g htto t h e t a n o t c hw i d t h .S c r e w b o a r d o t h e m i t e r passes gauge an extension. Make several as f t t o c u t e a c h n o t c h( r i g h t ) , e e d i n g h e
ctnnk rrn nn odop rnrithhp mitpr s:ttoe t l l c p t h o r i n f p n c p , r c : q r r r d pf o r c r r t t i n o ,
i v i v v ! ! i I b

for the 1I Notching sides thecrosspieces "

e u pt o t h e n o t c h n dl i n e .

r) Laying the pins out g a t t s L S " t a c u t t i n g a u g eo t h e s t o c k h i c k n e sa n ds c r i b e l i n e p i e c e o m a r kt h e s h o u l d el rn e i t t a r o u n dh e t o p e n do f e a c hs r d e t h e p i n so n e N , i o f t h et a i l s . e x t u s ea d o v e t aslq u a r t o o u t l i n e b o s e t h es a m e n d ;t h ew i d ep a r t f t h e p i n s h o u l d e o n t h e i n s i d e a S f a c eo f t h e s t o c k . t a r tw i t h a h a l f - p i n t e a c he d g ea n d a d d
orronlv cnaned ninc in hoturppn Tn cnmnlptp thc m:rkino spattrp

t a i t h e p i e c e n a v i s ea n du s ea t r y s q u a r e n dp e n c itl o e x t e n dh e Mark he t i e l i n e s n t h e b o a r d n dt o t h e s h o u l d elr n e sh b o v e ) . o w a s t e e c t r o nw i t h X s a s v o u q o . s s

pins Q Cutting s r . J L e a v eh e p i e c e n t h e v i s ea n d u s ea d o v e t a i l a wt o c u t i t f o a l o n g h e e d g e s f t h e p i n s ,w o r k i n gr o mo n es i d eo f t h e t F b o a r d o t h e o t h e r . o re a c hc u t , a l i g nt h e s a wb l a d e u s tt o t l , s t h e w a s t e i d eo f t h e c u t t i n gl i n e .U s es m o o t he v e ns t r o k e s , ( C t a l l o w i n gh e s a wt o c u t o n t h e p u s hs l r o k e a b o v e ) . o n t i n u e i l s t r s a w i n gr g h t o t h es h o u l d e irn e ,m a k i n g u r e h a tt h e b l a d e s o e r o e n d i c utl o trh e l i n e a

SHAKER LASSICS C

Chiseling thewaste out
S e tt h e s i d ep i e c e n s i d ea c eu p o n a i f w o r ks u r f a c e n dc l a m po n a g u i d eb l o c k , a a l i g n i n gt s e d g ew i t ht h e s h o u l d elri n e . i U s i n g c h i s e l o w i d e r h a nt h e n a r r o w a n t s i d eo f t h e w a s t e e c t i o n b u t t t h e f l a t s , s i d eo f t h e b l a d ea g a i n stth e g u i d eb l o c k . H o l dt h e e n do f t h e c h i s es q u a r eo t h e l t f a c eo f t h e p i e c e n d s t r i k ei t w i t h a a w o o d e n a l l e t s c o r i n g l i n ea b o u t% m , a i n c hd e e p T h e n u r nt h e c h i s etlo w a r dh e . t t l e n do f t h e p a n e a b o u t% i n c hb e l o wh e t surface the woodand shaveoff a thin of layerof wasle(abovd.Continue shaving a w a y h e w a s t ei n t h i s f a s h i o n n t i ly o u t u areabouthalfway through thickness the of the piece, then move to the nextsecon you tion.When have removed the waste all f r o mt h i ss i d e . u r nt h e p i e c e v e r a n d t o , workfromthe otherside(left)until the p i n sa r ec o m p l e t e eyx p o s e d . l

131

C SHAKER LASSICS

did not have Abhough the Shakers jigs routers and conmtercinl at their disposal,the tools'efficacy cutting for dovetailjoittts quickly nnd precisely to would certainlyhavenppealed thent. of The jig shown at right consists two to backupboards. tenrplates fastened The workpieceis seun'edto the jig and a stop block helpswith positioningfor Here, a routerfitted with repe(ltcLtts. in n dovetailbit nroves and out of the slots the tail board template. of

out f, Laying thetails Hold surface. oneof up bottom-face ona work r,l Seta tread pieces down pins with itsinside aligned the face with theside p e n c t lo o u t l i nte et a i l s t i a h l n . a s h o u l d ei r eo f t h et r e a dU s e on thelines the thenextend each of thetread end hbove), withXsandrepeat Mark waste the a board using try square. p r o c e s si t ht h er e m a i n i nrg a d . t e w the

waste the and f, Cutting tails removing way the a saw V Use dovetail to cutthetails same youcut (above), rather than the the pinsGtep2). Angling board S s ln o c , t h es a w m a k efs re a s i e ru t t i n g . a w m o o t h ay de v e n l y , Y c c l s t o p p i nl g s ts h o ro f t h es h o u l d eirn e . o u a na l s o u t t u w th s . o b t h et a i l s ny o u r a n d a w R e m o v e ew a s t e i t ha c h i s e l as in steo4.

IJ/.

SHAKERCLASSICS

joints the 7 Testing fit ofthe gluing thestool, / Before up assemble it to check fit of allthejoints. the Stand pieces end, one theside of on then align a tread withit. Press jointtogether the by hand far as it willgo (right), as thenusea mallet tapthetread rest theway to the of intoplace. boards The should snugly, f it requiring a light only tapping; avoid using jointisclearly force. excessive lf any too tight, mark spot the where binds, it then disassemble boards use chisel the and a to pareaway littlemore a wood, Testf i t t h ej o i n ta g a i n n da d j u sitt f u r t h e r , a asnecessary.

GLUING THE UP STEP STOOT
Gluing thesides up I Seta pair barclamps a work of on surface laytwoboards make and that up a complete piece them. side on Spread glue thecontacting of theboards, on edges align their bottom ends, tighten and the clamps there nogaps until are between theboards a thinbead adhesive and of squeezes of the joint(left). out Glueup theother sidepiece same the way. 'l

r33

SHAKERCLASSICS

r) Relieving side pieces the L g Vc u t t i n g s e m i c i r c oe to f t h e a lu s i d ep i e c e s e a v i ntg ol e g s n e a c h l, w o the will stable on side, stool be more surfaces. Adjust compass a a to uneven r a d i uo f 3 %i n c h ea n dm a r k s e m i c i r s s a pieces, placing the cleononeof theside pornt compass at thebottom of the end midway sides between edges. the the Cut semicircle yourband on saw(right), feedingthestock across table the withboth h a n d s . h e n a k eh es a m e u to nt h e T m t c You other sidepiece. canthensmooth left away marks bythesawblade the on
e qnindlo candpr

Croeapiece

the ? Installing treads r-,1Spread even an layer glue thecontacting on of surfaces between pins tails, the and thenassemble stool, the setting (abovd. thetreads thesidepieces on with Secure joints the pieces using barclamps, aligning bars the withtheside and pads long thetread wood width distribute clampas as to the ingpressure.

Attaching crosspieces the glue the Setthestep stool its back on edge apply and to contacting surfaces between crosspieces thesides the and andtreads. Place crosspieces the in their notches clamp and them securely place. in Near each of thecrosspieces, end drill hole screw through crosspiece the a counterbored fora wood andintothefront edge thesidepiece. of Drive screw a into holebbovd.Fora perfect match, a plugcutter each use on your fromthewaste wood byrelievleft drillpress cut plugs to pieces glue ingtheside 2). and Gtep Spread ontheplugs tap into holes, them their ensuring thegrain that direction each of runs thesame in direction thecrosspiece. a chisel as Use to trimtheplugs flush withthesurface, sand then them smooth.

r34

SHAKE,RBOXES
BUILDING KIT A B()X
Firstproducedin tlrc 1790s, Slnker ltoxes werertnde irr grnduntedsizes hold to houseltold goor/s; wherrurrpty, they cotildbe rtested irrside nrrotlrcr. The orre ovsl boxes rentoirtpoptrlar todcry, atul cortbe nnde easily corrtttterciol .frottr kits. The box showtrut right wosrrrttde by craftsnratr Johrt\\lilsortoJ'Chnrlotte, Michigarr.He trddeda.fewhmrn'iotrs refulenrcttts tlrc utilitsrintt yet elegnttt to Slnker desigtt, srtch usingltird's-eye ns qrul trraple thebox ltorrds n wsltuft Jbr burl verrcer.fbr top. tlrc

I T o m a k e S h a k eb o xf r o ma c o m m e r c i a l t ,f r r s tp r e p a r e a r kr the stock the two bands-onefor the boxandonefor the top. for T h eb a n d s r et y p i c a l l ye s a w nr o mh a r d w o os t o c k o a t h i c k a r f d t
n e S SO f / , 0 i n C h . F O f [ 9 5 { l o c r r l t c r r c o c t r a i o h t - o r r i n o r l , q g 3 ; [ g ; 5 2 y y 1 1

the 1 Cuttins finsers t -

s t o c k i r - d r i etd a m o i s t u rc o n t e no f 1 5 t o 2 0 o e r c e n t . n c e a o e t O the bands have been to size,usethe proper-sized temcut finger plateto outline fingers the boxband(above), the on then mark t h e t a c kh o l e s i t ha n a w la n dd r i l lt h e mw i t ha X , , - i n cb i t . w h

SHAKERCLASSICS

Beveling fingers the board L Cla p the bands a backup to s k a n db e v etlh ef i n g e r w i t ha u t i l i t y n i f e . w H o l d i n t h e k n i f e i r m l y i t hb o t hh a n d s , g f c u t a t a n a n g l e f 1 0 " a r o u n dh e f i n g e r s o t faceof hbovd. Thentaperthe outside a t h e o p p o s i te n do f e a c hb a n du s i n g e the beltsander, starting taperaboutIY, i w i n c h e sn f r o mt h ee n d .T h i s i l le n s u r e a s m o o t h v e r l aa n du n i f o r mh i c k n e s s o o t oncethe bands bent. are

r)

M a r k i n t h ej o i n t g Q r - , f S o a k h e b o xa n d l i d b a n d s n b o i l i n g i t w a t e ru n t i lt h e ya r es o f t - t y p i c a l l y b o u t a 2 0 m i n u t e s R e m o v eh e b o xb a n df r o m . t t h e w a t e ra n d w r a pi t a r o u n d h e p r o p e r t l b f s i z e d o xc o r es o t h e b e v e l e di n g e r sa p o v e r h e t a p e r e d n d . M a k ea r e f e r e n c e t e m a r ka c r o s t h e e d g e s f t h e b a n dw h e r e s o (right). Keepthe beveled the endsoverlap p f i n g e r s r e s s etd g h t l y g a i n stth e c o r et o a r p r e v e n t e mf r o ms p l i t t r n g . th

r36

SHAKER LASSICS C

Tack-nailing box the
q , W o r k i n g u i c k l ys l r pt h e b a n do f f t h e c o r e , e b e n dt s o t h a t t h e p e n c i l r i m a r k s i n eu p , a n dt a c k - n a i lt t h r o u g h l y t h e h o l e s o ud r i l l e d n s t e pI u s i n g h e i t a p p r o p r i a ce p p etra c k s T o c l i n c h h e to . t t a c k si n s i d eh e b a n d , s ea l e n g t h f t u o i r o np i p ec l a m p e do y o u rb e n c h s a n t a anvil (above). 0nce the box bandsare pl t a c k - n a i l e d , a c e w os h a p e - h o l d e r s t i n s i d e h e b a n d - o n ea t e a c he n d - t o t m a i n t a i nh e o v a lf o r ma s i t d r i e s . t

h f , S h a p i ntg el i d b a n d r - , 1S h a p e n dt a c k - n a t l e t o p b a n df o r a ih the boxlid as described above, usethe but d r y i n g o xb a n da s a b e n d i n go r ma n d f b shape-holder it dries(lef). fhe f ingers as f o r t h e t o p a n dt h e b o xs h o u l d i n eu p l evenly. Allow twodays the bands dry. for to T o c o m p l e tte e b o x , u t a l i d a n db o t t o m h c f r o mo u a r t e r s a w no c k o f i t i n s i d e h e st t t b a n d sb e v e l i ntg e e d g e s t 5 " t o p r o v i d e , h a a t i g h tf i t l i k ea c o r ki n a b o t t l eT h e nd r i l l . \ r t n c h p i l o th o l e s n d u s et o o t h p i c ka s a s oess secrrre nieces. boxes be to the The can f i n i s h e d i t h m i l k p a i n to r a c l e a rl a c q u e r . w

r37

PEGBOARD
'A place and for everything everything in itsplace"werewordsthe Shakers livedby,and manyhouseholditems Shaker in homes hung pegs. assigned from

-|a h. pegboard a fittingsymbol is of I theShaker's approach bothdaito ly lifeandcraftsmanship.with other As Shaker-made items,the clean,unadorned ofthepegboard lines reflected itshumble rather anyconfunction than cernwith appearance. thesimple But design belied pegboard's the versatility. Theboards notjustholdhats did and coats. Lining walls Shaker the of homes, part they were integral of household an life-convenient, organized, tidy, and hangers everything for from bookpipe shelves, holders, towel and racks to candle sconces, chairs, clothes hangers (a Shaker invention), wallclocks and (page 118).

For the modern woodworker,the pegboards reveal Shaker also the devotion to craft.The simplemushroompegswereaccorded same shaped the attentionto detail asthe finest cabinet. For this reasonperhaps, Shaker pegboards wereremarkably consistent in design construction matter and no when or wherethey weremade.The pegsweretypicallyfashioned from mapleor cherryandaveragedinches 3 in length.Theyweresecured 3-inchto wide back boards usually mount-

ed 6 feetabove floor. The spacing the of the pegsvaried according the to board'suse. In New Lebanonand Hancock,the pegswere sometimes threaded and then screwed into the backboard.Normally,however, they wereattached with a friction fit, as described this section. in You can buy pegsready-made or turn them on your lathe.In eithercase, the baseof the pegswill needto be kerfedto accommodate wedges the that secure them in place.

MAKING A PEGBOARD
the board 1 Shaping back I Cutthe backboard sizefrom%to inchthick stock; make width its 3%inchesanditslength dependentthenumber on you of pegs will mount. Shape board the on a router tableusing different two bits. Start rounding thefront by over faceof the board the edges ends(page at and 120,Ihen switch a piloted to bead bit. Align fence the withthebit'spilotbearing andadjust cutting the height thebeads so willbeabout inchfrom edges the % the of you board. help feed workpiece, To the clamp featherboard table, a to the braced witha support board. Feed back the board intothe bit on edge, keeping front the facepressed against fence. the Then turn the board andrepeat procedure over the to routthebead theopposite (righil. on edge

138

SHAKERCLASSICS

r) Preparing back the board thepegs for
Z - S t a r t i n g e a r n ee d g e f t h e b a c k n o o b o a r dm a r kt h e p e gh o l e s l o n g h e m i d , a t
dlp nf f hp qtnnlr (Thc nooa nn tho hnarrJ .a ^,

s h o w n t l e f tw i l l b e s p a c e d i n c h e s a 5 a p a r t . l)n s t a la Y - i n c hb r a d - p o i n ti t i n l b y o u rd r i l lp r e s s n da t t a c h b a c k u p a n e l p a a t o t h e m a c h i n ea b l et o m i n i m i z t e a r o u t . t e l S e tt h e b a c kb o a r d n t h e p a n e s o t h e o f i r s tm a r ki s d i r e c t l y n d e r h e b i t a n d u t c l a m pa b o a r d s a g u i d e e n c e o t h e a f t t a b l ef l u s ha g a i n stth ew o r k p i e c e .h e n , T b u t t i n gh e b a c kb o a r d g a i n stth e f e n c e , t a d r i l lt h e h o l e s / e f f ) . /

Driving thewedges in
Tapping the pegs in Q r - . f T o m a k et h e p e g se a s i e t o i n s t a l l u s ea s a n d i n g l o c k o r , b t s h a p e s m a l lb e v e a r o u n d h e b a s e f e a c ho n e .T h e ns a wa a l t o k e r ff o r a w e d g e c r o s sh e b a s e f t h e p e g ;t o a v o i d p l i t t i n g a t o s t h e w o o d i t ht h e w e d g em a k et h e c u t a t a r i g h ta n g l e o t h e w , t g r a i n O n c e h e p e g s r er e a d ys p r e a d l u eo n t h e i rb a s e s n d . g , t a a tap the pegsintothe holes(above). F o re a c hp e g ,c u t a Z , - i n c h - l o nw e d g e r o ms c r a p o o d g f w g S p r e a d l u ei n t h e k e r f s n d o n t h e w e d g e ss e tt h e p e g b o a r d a , f a c ed o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c et,h e nt a p t h e w e d g e sn w i t h a i ) h a m m e ( a b o v eA.v o i d s i n g o o m u c hf o r c e t h i s m a yc a u s e r u t ; a p e gt o s p l i t .T r i mt h e w e d g e f l u s hw i t ht h e b a c kf a c eo f t h e s b o a r dF a s t e nh e p e g b o a rtd t h e w a l lb y c o u n t e r b o r i n c r e w . t o sg h o l e s n dd r i v i n gh e s c r e w sn t ow a l ls t u d s C o n c e a h e f a s a t i . tl teners with woodplugs(page134).

r39

GLOSSARY
Counterbore:Drilling a hole that perA-B-C Auxiliaryfence wooden A attachment mits the headof a screwor bolt to sit to a tool's rip fencethat serves an as anchor for accessories prevents and accidental damage the metalfence. to Blank A pieceof solid or glued-up wood usedto create furniture part, a suchasa turned leg. Bridle joint A type of openmortiseand-tenonjoint in which the tenon is aslong asthe width of the mortise pieceand the mortiseextends across the entirewidth of the board. Candlesconce: candlestick A holder. Chamfer:A bevelcut alongthe edge of a workpiece. Cheek The faceof the projecting joint. tenon in a mortise-and-tenon hole:A hole drilled in a Clearance workpiece accommodate shank to the of a screw. Cleat:A strip of wood fastened one to furniture part to supportanother, such asa shelfor a tabletop. Cockbeading: Narrow proj ecting molding surroundingthe insideedge of the door opening a cabinet. of Compound-angle hole: A hole drilled into a workpiece with the bit presented at angles other than 90orelative to the faceand edgeofthe stock. Corner strip: A notchedwood block fastened the stileof a cabinetor the to rail of a tableto hold up a shelfsupport or drawerslide. Crown molding: Decorativetrim installedaroundthe perimeterof a pieceof furniturejust belowthe top; alsoknown ascornicemolding. D-E-F-G-H-r-l Dado:A rectangular channel into cut a workpiece. Edgegluing: Bondingboardstogether edge-to-edge form a panel. to End grain:The arrangement and directionof the wood fibersrunning across the ends the ofa board. Fiber rush: A naturalfiber madefrom the twistedleaves cattails of usedto for seating materialin chairs; more a is commonlyusedalternative made from twisted kraft paper. Finiah An ornament-usually turned and carved-projecting from the upper cornersof a furniture piece suchasa chair. Glass-stop molding: Decorative strips of wood usedto hold a paneof glass in a door frame. belowa wood surface that it canbe so concealed a wood plug. by Countersinlc Drilling a hole that permitsthe headof a screw bolt or to lie flush with or slightlybelow a wood surface. Cross-doweftAwooddowelor metal cylinderthreaded across axisto its accommodate screwor knockdown a fastener; usuallyusedto providelonggrain strengthwhen screwing into end grain. Half-blind dovetail A dovetailjoint in which the structureof the ioint is concealed oneside; by commonly usedto join drawerfrontsto the sides. K-r-M-N-O-P-Q Kerf:A cut madein wood by thewidth of a sawblade. Kickback The tendencyof a workoieceto be thrown backin the directionof the operatorof a woodworking machine. Kicker:A board fastened across a draweropeningand positioned above the drawerto keepit from tilting down when opened. Knockdown hardware:A fastener that allowsthe quick assembly and disassembly a pieceof furniture. of LeafiA panelthat is extended to increase sizeof a tableand the retracted when not in use:it can be hingedor sliding. kdger strip: A short, narrow piece of wood usedto supportthe top or bottomofa cabinet. Listing: Canvas wovenwool cloth or tapeusedfor weaving chair seats; also known asShaker tape. Miter gaugeA device that slides a in slot on a sawor router table,providing supportfor the stockasit moves pastthe bladeor bi! canbe adjusted to differentangles miter cuts. for Molding: Decorative stripsof wood usedto embellish pieceof furniture. a

140

Mortise A hole cut into a pieceof wood to receive tenon. a Mortise-and-tenonjoint: A joinery techniquein which a projectingtenon cut in oneboard fits into a matching hole,or mortise,in another. Mullion: A slim verticalmember dividing sections a frame;also of known asa muntin. Panel-raisingplaneA hand plane with an angledsoleusedto bevel the sidesof a panelin frame-andpanelconstruction. Pilot hols A hole drilled into a workpieceto preventsplittingwhen a screw is driven;usuallymadeslightlysmaller than the threaded section the screw. of Pilot bearing:A free-spinning metal collar on a piloted routerbit that followsthe edge a workpiece a temof or plateto guidethe bit during a cut. Pommel The square sectionleft on a turned furniture leg;allowsroom for mortises needed receive to rails. Pushblock or stick A device usedto feeda workpiece into a bladeor cutter to protectthe operator's fingers. Quartersawnlumber: Wood sawnso the wide surfaces intersect growth the rings at angles between and 90o; 45o alsoknown asvertical-grained lumber when referringto softwood. R-S joint:A method of joining Rabbet wood in which the end or edgeof one workpiecefits into a channel, or rabbet,cut alongthe edgeor end of another workpiece.

Rail In a table,the railsjoin the legs and supportthe top; in a chair,one of four boards that framethe seat. Also the horizontal memberof a frameand-panel assembly. stile. See panel In frame-and-panel Raised construction, cabinetor door panel a with a bevelcut aroundits edges, a "raises" decorative effectthat the center and allowsthe panelto fit into the groovecut in the frame. Rakeangle The angle at which a chair leg deviates from the vertical when viewedfrom the sideof the chair;seesplayangle. Rocker: The curvedrunnersof a rockingchairjoined to the chairlegs. RoughinggougeA turning tool usually usedto shape square a blank into a rylinder. Rulejoint A pivotingjoint commonly usedin drop-leaftables; features mating convexand concave profilescut into the edges the tableleafand top. of Shoulder: a mortise-and-tenon In joint, thepart ofthe tenonthat is perpendicularto the cheek. Sliding dovetailjoint Similar to a joint, except tongue-and-groove the slide,shaped the pin of a dovetail like joint, is held by a mating groove. Splayangle: The angleat which a chair leg deviatesfrom the vertical when viewed from the front of the chair;seerakeangle.

Stile:The verticalmemberof a frameand-panel assembly. rail. See Stoppeddado:A dadothat stops beforecrossing full width or the thickness a workpiece. of Storypole:A shop-made measuring gauge usedto determine dimenthe sionsandthelocation thejointsin of a project,suchasa chair. T-U.V-W-X-Y-Z Tearout The tendency a bladeor of cutterto tearwood fibers. Template A pattern usedto guidea tool in reproducing identical copies of a piece. Tenon:A protrusionfrom the end of a workpiece that fits into a mortise. Through dovetail joint A method of joining woodby means interlocking of pins and tails,which pass entirely through the matingpiece. joint A joinery Tongue-and-groove methodfeaturinga protrusionfrom the edgeor end of oneboardthat fits into the grooveofanother. Tiestle:In a trestletable,a board running alongthe underside the top to of which the legsareattached. Wood button: A small,square-shaped blockwith a rabbetat oneendthat fits into a groove; usedto secure top the of a pieceof furniture. WoodmovementThe shrinkingor swellingof wood in reactionto changes in relative humidity.

I4I

INDEX
Page references italicsindicatean in matter. Page illustrationof subject references bold indicatea Build It in project. Yourself A-B 10, Architecture, 15,17 Band saws IigS g circle-cuttin jigs,79 Baskets,22 Benches l8 Dining room benches, 19, Meetinghouse benches, 25,48 crestrails,54-55 cutting list,49 legs,52-54 50-52,54-55 seats,4& 50,54-55 spindles, Blanketchests, 2l joints,90, Blind mortise-and-tenon 91-92 137 Boxes, 17,117, 1358-9, Build It Yourself Band saws g circle-cuttin jigs,79 Piesafes jigs panel-raising for the tablesaw,96 Butterfly hinges Making butterfly hinges (Shop Tip), 1lj C-D Cabinets,20 23 Candlesconces, l& Candlestands, 78 78,81,84-85 Columns, Legs,78,82-84,85 Rails,Z& 80,84,85 Sliding dovetailjoints, 57, 78, 81-83 Tops,79,80 Canterburycommunity, 10 Chairs.25 l8 Dining room benches, Enfieldsidechairs,12, 19,25, 26-27 i0-i1, 32,33 backslats, cutting list,27 joinery,26,28,31-i2, 33 legs,27, 28-29, 31-33 railsand stretchers, 30,32-33 rushseats, 34-37 Listing,24,44-47 Revolvingchairs,19 Rocking chairs,19,24,25, 38-39 arms,41, 42-43 assembly,42 backs,24 cutting list, 39 legs,40,43 rockers,4l,43 tape seats,44-47 Rushseats, 34-32 19 Splint-seat dining chairs, See alsoBenches Circular cuts g Circle-cuttin jigs,79 117,118 Clocks, 23, 116, 17, 126-128 Assembly, Cases,119-122 Dial and clock mechanisms, 126-127 Doors,123-125 Pendulums, I28 Clotheshangerc,23 100Cockbeading, 101 Crownmolding,102-103 Cupboards Cabinets,20 Sill cupboards,2l See alsoPie safes Cutting lists Enfieldsidechairs,27 49 Meetinghouse benches, Piesafes, 89 Rockingchairs,39 18 Dining room benches, Dovetailjoints Slidingdovetails, 57,78, 81-83 Throughdovetails, 129,130-133 Drawers Drop-leaf tables,69, 74-76 l& Drop-leaftables, 56,57,68 Drawers, 69,74-76 Legs,69,72-73 Ptails,69,70-73 Tops,76-77 Drying racks,22 E-F.G 12, Enfieldsidechairs, 19,25,26-27 Backslats,30-31, 33 32, Cutting list,27 33 foinery,26,28,31-32, Legs,27, 28-29, 31-33 Railsand stretchers, 30,32-33 34-37 Rushseats, ap Finishes, t endp er /ron Footstools,22 Greaves, Charles,l6

H-r-l-K
Hinges Making butterfly hinges (Shop Tip), 113 IigS Bandsaws circle-cuttingjigs,79 Pipe steamers, backendpaper, 30 Rocking chairlegs,40 Routers dovetailjigs,1j2 5Z sliding dovetails, 8l Thblesaws jigs panel-raising for the table saw,96 foinery joints, Blind mortise-and-tenon 90,91-92 26,28,31Enfield sidechairs, 32,33 joints, 106Mortise-and-tenon 107,110 Slidingdovetailjoints, 57, 78, 81-83 Through dovetailjoints, 129, 130133

t42

L-M-N-O-P-Q Lamb,David,6-7 Lee,Ann, 14 10, Listing,24 Rocking chair seats, 47 44Meetinghouse benches, 25,48 19, Crestrails,54-55 taperingcrestrails on a planer (Shop Tip),55 Cutting lists,49 Legs,52-54 Seats,4& 50-52,54-55 Spindles, 50,54-55 Milk paint,/ro nt endpaper joints, 106Mortise-and-tenon 107, 110 Ovalbaskets,22 Ovalboxes, 8-9, 17,117,135-137 Paints, front endpaper Panels Glass,124-125 Raised,94-95 jigs panel-raising for the table saw 96 Tin,87, 110-112 Pantries. Piesafes See Pegboards, ll7, 138- 39 23, 1 Pegs, front endpaper Piesafes, 86-87,88-89 20, Assembly, 97-103 joints, Blind mortise-and-tenon 90,91-92 Cockbeading, 101 100Crown molding,102-103 Cutting lists,89 Doors, 89,106 frames,106-110 installation, 13-114 1 making butterfly hinges(Shop Tip),113 mortise-and-tenon ioints,106107,110 pulls,l15 tin panels, 110-112 87, Floatingpanels,93, 97 jigs panel-raising for the table saw 96 raisingpanels,94-95 Framestiles.90-91

Rails,92-93 Shelving, 104-105 Pipesteamers, backendpaper 30, Planers Thperingcrestrails on a planer (ShopTip), ss Pulls,front endpaper R.S Raised panels,94-95,96 Revolvingchairs,19 Rocking chairs,19, 25, 38-39 24, Arms,41,42-43 Assembly,42 Backs listing,24 Cutting list, 39 Legs,40,4j Rockers, 43 4I, Tapeseats,44-47 Routers, 94 IigS dovetailjigs, I32 sliding dovetails, 8I 57, Raisingpanels,94 Rushseats, 34-37 Sewing desks,20 Shaker boxes. Boxes See Shaker culture,I0, 13-17 Shaker style,6,16-17 See alsoArchitecture ShopTips,55,113 Sill cupboards,2l Slidingdovetailjoints, 57 Candlestands, 78, 81-83 57, Spinningwheels, 23 Splint-seat dining chairs,l9 Sprigg, fune,10-ll Stepstools, lI7, 129 22, Gluingup,133-134 Through dovetailjoints, 129, 130-133 Stools Footstools,22 Stepstools,22 gluing :up,133-134 through dovetailjoints, 729, 130133 Storypoles, 28

T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z Thbles. 57 DropJeaf tables,I & 56,57, 68 drawers, 69,74-76 legs,69,72-73 rails,69,70-73 tops,76-77 Trestle tables,18,57, 58 feet,61,64,66 legs,62-63, 66 65, rails,63,66, 67 tops,58, 59-60,64,67 See alsoCandlestands Tablesaws, 16 Raisingpanels,95 jigs panel-raising for the table saw 96 Tapeseats,44-47 Through dovetailjoints, I 29, 1i0- 133 Tin panels, 110-112 87, Tin punches, lll Tools,16 Band saws circle-cuttingjigs,79 j0 Pipe steamers, backendpaper, Planers, 55 Routers dovetailjigs, 132 sliding dovetailsjigs,57,81 Storypoles, 28 Table saws, 16,95,96 Tin punches, 111 Trestle tables,18, , 58 57 Feet,61,64,66 Legs,62-63,65, 66 Rar7s,63, 67 66, Tops,58, 59-60,64,67 Yarnish, ap front endp er Washstands,2l Wells, Freegift, 16 Wilson,John,8-9, 135 Workbenches,2l Work stands,20 Yarn reels,22 Youngs, Isaac Newton,16,118

143

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Theeditors wish to thank thefollowing SHAKERDESIGN MA; Village,Pittsfield, HancockShaker Fitzsimmons, Lexington,KY; Elizabeth famesArchambeault, MA Pittsfield, Richmond,MA; JuneSprigg, PaulRocheleau, CHAIRS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools, CT; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterTowson,MD; ConnecticutCane& ReedCo., Manchester, Co.,Inc., NH; General ToolsManufacturing Cable, Guelph,Ont.; Mike Dunbar,Portsmouth, Village,Pittsfield,MA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; New York, NY; HancockShaker Montreal, Que.;RyobiAmericaCorp.,Anderson,SC; Masse, Ian Ingersoll,West Cornwall,CT; Jean-Pierre Works, New Britain, CT Tools,Division of the Stanley and Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Stanley SandvikSaws TABLES AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Montreal, Que.; (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; LesRealisations Loeven-Morcel, Tools, PA; Stanley and Tools Co., Scranton, Ryobi AmericaCorp., Anderson,SC;SandvikSaws ' Works, New Britain, CT; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont. Division of fhe Stanley PIE SAFE AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; RobertBourdeau,Laval,Que.; Guelph,-Ont.; Montouriville, PA; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Country Accents, Masse, Montreal,Que.; GreatNeckSawMfrs. Inc. (BuckBros.Division),Millbury, MA; Jean-Pierre Works, New Britain, CT; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; Tools,Division of the Stanley Stanley Troy, MI Wainbee Ltd.,PointeClaire,Que./DE-STA-CO, SHAKERCLASSICS Guerin Enr., St-Rdmi,Que.; R6jean AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Atelier d'Ebdnisterie Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros. Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, CA; Murray Clock Division), Millbury, MA; The Home Shop,Charlotte,MI; David Keller,Petaluma, Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont. Craft, Willowdale,Ont.; Sears, ofthis book: in also Thefollowingpersons assisted thepreparation Laberge, Monette,Tim Reiman, Lorraine Dor6, Solange Genevidve David Simon.DianaVon Kolken

PICTURE CREDITS
Cover RobertChartier 6' 7 SteveLewis 8,9 Ed Homonylo Lewis 10,ll Steve Archambeault 12 James Village 13 CourtesyHancockShaker (both) 14,15 James Archambeault Village 16 CourtesyHancockShaker Village (rop) 17 CourtesyHancockShaker Archambeault(boxom) 17 James Photography 19 PaulRocheleau Village 20,23,39,4 CourtesyHancockShaker

r44

WORKSHOP IDE GU
A SHOP-MADE STEAMER PIPE
Use jig shown the below steam to chair parts, legs. ecoThe such slats rear as or illusnomical durable steamer and wood trated befashioned 2-by-4s can fron A e ro a a n d4 - i n c h - d i a m e tB S i o e n df i t The features support racks tings. device inside pipe the anda removable at cap The each endfor easy access. steam is source a water connectedthe can to steamer a length plastic by of hose; the water thecanis heated a propanein by (This fired cooker. setup should be only used outdoors,) steam The source should have removable, a screw-type cap. To build steamer, witha the start pipe length Schedule ABS longer of 80 you than piece wood wish bend. the of to Cutit in half andbore series holes a of through pieces accommodate both to %inch zinc-coated machine andnuts bolts These willsuooort wood asshown. bolts inside steamer oreventfrom the and it lying condensed (The coatin water. zinc ingwillprevent bolts the from staining thewood.) theholes Drill below centhe terline thepipe provide forthe of to room wood. Install bolts, the using steel both
(DETA|L) 1TEAM ?OURCEF|TT\NG
Machine nul,
(inai,.le afeam

water can)

Tlasttc hose to gteamer

Kubber 4aeket. w a n d r u b b e r a s h e r s n b o t hs i d e st o o m a k ea n a i r t i g hs e a l .N o wg l u eb o t h t halves the pipeto an ABST-connector. of D r i l la % - i n c h r a i nh o l ea t o n ee n dt o d t r e l e a s e o i s t u r e n d p r e v e ne x c e s s m a pressure. pipe Thengluea connector cut f r o m 1 % - i n c h B S p i p et o t h e s p o u to f A t h eT c o n n e c t o r . e x t , u t a l e n g t h f N c o plastic hose thatwrllconnect steamer the to the water can;the fittingsrequired for the watercan end areshown above. ( T h ef i t t i n g s o r t h e s t e a m ee n do f t h e f r h o s e r ei d e n t i c a e,x c e ptth a ta n A B S a l end cap is usedinstead the water of can

cap.) Make thef ittings airtight. sure are Lastly, build 2-by-4rame support a f to thesteamer. a small Nail support block at one will endsothesteamer rest a on s l i g hitn c l i na n d a t ew i l lr u no u to f e w r thedrain hole. Touse steamer, the carefully connect thegas cooker a propane Fillthe to tank. w a t ec a n , e a il t t i g h t l y , n ds e ti t o n r s a thecooker. Secure removable the end caps thesteamer, thecooker, on light a n dl e tt h es t e a m e ru i l d o s t e a m . b u (Caution: notletthesteamer steam Do or pressurized.) source become

9chedule 8C AES.ptpe F.anctabie and ca,t:)

T connector Kemovable end cap

ConnecLor PiPE 2 x 4 frame

Fropane-fired 4ae cooker

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