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Ð Î × Ò Ð Î ß Ý Ì × Ý Û Í Û Î × Û Í
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Ô±²¼±² ¿²¼ ͬ»®´·²¹ô Êß
Ö±¸² Ú±-¬»®
Ы¾´·-¸»®K- ²±¬»
Evory possibIo offorl has boon nado lo onsuro lhal lho infornalion conlainod in lhis
booI is accuralo al lho lino of going lo pross, and lho pubIishor and aulhor cannol
accopl rosponsibiIily for any orrors or onissions, hovovor causod. No rosponsibiIily
for Ioss or danago occasionod lo any porson acling, or rofraining fron aclion, as a
rosuIl of lho naloriaI in lhis pubIicalion can bo accoplod by lho odilor, lho pubIishor or
lho aulhor.
Firsl pubIishod in 1998
Socond odilion pubIishod in 2001
Third odilion pubIishod in 2005
Aparl fron any fair doaIing for lho purposos of rosoarch or privalo sludy, or crilicisn
or roviov, as pornillod undor lho Copyrighl, Dosigns and Ialonls Acl 1988, lhis pubIi-
calion nay onIy bo roproducod, slorod or lransnillod, in any forn or by any noans,
vilh lho prior pornission in vriling of lho pubIishors, or in lho caso of roprographic
roproduclion in accordanco vilh lho lorns and Iiconcos issuod by lho CLA. Enquirios
concorning roproduclion oulsido lhoso lorns shouId bo sonl lo lho pubIishors al lho
undornonlionod addrossos:
Kogan Iago Linilod Kogan Iago US
120 IonlonviIIo Road 22883 QuicIsiIvor Drivo
London N1 9}N SlorIing VA20166÷2012
UK USA
vvv.Iogan-pago.co.uI
© }ohn Foslor 1998, 2001, 2005
Tho righl of }ohn Foslor lo bo idonlifiod as lho aulhor of lhis vorI has boon assorlod by
hin in accordanco vilh lho Copyrighl, Dosigns and Ialonls Acl 1988.
Þ®·¬·-¸ Ô·¾®¿®§ Ý¿¬¿´±¹«·²¹ ·² Ы¾´·½¿¬·±² Ü¿¬¿
ACII rocord for lhis booI is avaiIabIo fron lho Brilish Library
ISBN 0 7494 4381 2
Ô·¾®¿®§ ±º ݱ²¹®»-- Ý¿¬¿´±¹·²¹ó·²óЫ¾´·½¿¬·±² Ü¿¬¿
Foslor, }ohn, 1926-
Effoclivo vriling sIiIIs for pubIic roIalions / }ohn Foslor. -- 3rd od.
p. cn.
ISBN 0-7494-4381-2
1. Businoss vriling--HandbooIs, nanuaIs, olc. 2. IubIic
roIalions--HandbooIs, nanuaIs, olc. I. TilIo.
HF5718.3.F67 2005
808'.066659--dc
2005000863
Typosol by }oan Cussons Typosolling, Diss, NorfoII
Irinlod and bound in Groal Brilain by Croalivo Irinl and Dosign (WaIos), Ebbv VaIo
ß¾±«¬ ¬¸» ¿«¬¸±® ·¨
Ú±®»©±®¼ ¨·
ß½µ²±©´»¼¹»³»²¬- ¨···
ײ¬®±¼«½¬·±² ï
ïò ̸» ·³°±®¬¿²½» ±º -¬§´»æ ¿² ±ª»®ª·»© ì
SlyIo on lho novo 5
Approcialing slyIo 6
Your organisalion's slyIo 7
Koop il consislonl 8
Ioinls lo valch 8
Good slyIo is good nannors 10
îò Ì®±«¾´» ©·¬¸ °´«®¿´- ¿²¼ °±--»--·ª»- ïî
IIuraI nallors 12
Aposlropho probIons 16
íò Ó¿µ·²¹ §±«® ³¿®µ îð
Basic punclualion 21
Whon you aro quoling. 26
···
ìò ܱ©² ©·¬¸ ½¿°·¬¿´·-³ÿ îç
Consisloncy is lho ossonco 29
Why Iovor caso, uppor caso` 30
Whon lo uso capilaIs 31
Whoro difficuIlios occur 31
Tho lrond is lo InocI il dovn 34
ëò Ý´·½¸’-ô ¶¿®¹±² ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ©±®² ©±®¼- íê
Rocognising cIich’s 37
}argon: hoIp or hindranco` 39
Calchphrasos quicIIy bocono slaIo. 41
. so can nolaphors and siniIos 41
MaIo roon for lho idion 42
Bovaro of sIang 42
êò ×- ·¬ »¿-§ ¬± ®»¿¼á ìì
Edil vilh lho roador in nind 45
Ain for shorl sonloncos 45
GuidoIinos on paragraphing 46
Lino vidlh and lypo sizo 47
Crosshoads and subhoads 52
Lino and Iollor spacing 53
Whoro lo broaI 55
Choico of lypofaco 56
Irinling considoralions 56
IncIudo iIIuslralions if possibIo 56
}uslifiod or raggod righl` 57
Iulling on lho slross 57
Using lho dosignor lo lho bosl advanlago 60
Nov il's proof narIing lino. 61
éò Ø»¿¼´·²»-æ ³¿µ·²¹ ¬¸»³ ©±®µ êè
Uso prosonl lonso, aclivo vorbs 69
Quoslions and hunour 70
Avoid ´IaboI' hoadings 71
Hoadings in saIos IoafIols and brochuros 72
SlyIo and prosonlalion 74
Subhoadings 74
SIogans for brand rocaII 77
EIononls of corporalo idonlily 79
ݱ²¬»²¬-
·ª
èò Ü»¿´·²¹ ©·¬¸ º·¹«®»- ¿²¼ ¿¾¾®»ª·¿¬·±²- èð
Figuring oul lho nunbors 80
Abbrovialions: lho Iong and lho shorl of il 82
çò Õ»»° ·¬ -¸±®¬ô -·³°´» P ¿²¼ °´¿·² èé
Ain for brovily 88
IIain vords 88
LocaI govornnonl connunicalion 91
Walch oul for lauloIogy 93
LooI for aclivo vorbs, avoid conlraclions 94
Avoid foroign vords or phrasos ÷ and Lalin 94
Loan vords nooding caro 95
DoubIo nogalivos 96
Bovaro ´nylhs' 96
Tips for vriling lighl 97
Thoro is sliII nuch lo do. 97
ïðò É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»-- ïðð
Novs roIoasos: basic roquirononls 100
Connissionod arlicIos 120
ïïò Ý¿°¬·±²-æ ¸±© ¬± ¸¿²¼´» ¬¸»³ ïîî
Iholo caplions vilh roIoasos 122
Caplions in pubIicalions 124
ïîò ɸ¿¬ »¼·¬·²¹ ·- ¿´´ ¿¾±«¬ ïîé
Novs slorios 128
Foaluro arlicIos 131
Radio and TV broadcasls 131
On-scroon odiling 133
TochnicaI odiling 133
Ediling olhor lypos of docunonl 134
Edil yoursoIf 134
ïíò ͵·´´- ¿²¼ -¬§´»- º±® ¬¸» ±ºº·½» ïíê
Suggoslod slyIo for corrospondonco 136
Olhor slalionory 139
SlyIo for onaiIs 139
Havo cIoar, cIoan Iayoul 139
Wriling a pr’cis 140
Wriling roporls and ninulos 140
ݱ²¬»²¬-
ª
Forns of addross 142
Invilalions lo funclions 144
RopIios lo invilalions 145
AcInovIodging corrospondonco 145
Solling oul docunonls 145
Wriling a CV 146
ïìò Ì®¿°-ô -²¿®»- ¿²¼ °·¬º¿´´- ïìè
SpoIIing poinls 148
Bo carofuI vilh foroign vords 150
Uso your diclionary 151
-iso or -izo vorb ondings` 151
Ono vord or lvo` 152
IuzzIos and posors 152
LooIaIiIos noods caro 153
Choslnul lino 154
Thoy'ro nol righl, lhoy'ro nol vrong 154
Voguo vords and phrasos 155
Golling in lho nood 156
GonlooIisns 157
Koop cIoar of sIang 158
Koop nission slalononls shorl and sinpIo 158
ïëò ß³»®·½¿²·-³- P ¬¸» ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ïêð
EssonliaI difforoncos 161
Undorslanding lho nodia difforoncos 164
ïêò ̸» -°±µ»² ©±®¼æ °®±²«²½·¿¬·±² ³¿¬¬»®- ïêé
Rocoivod Ironuncialion 168
Gol lho vords righl loo 169
ïéò Ю·²½·°´»- ±º °®»-»²¬¿¬·±² ïéî
Firsl slops for spoaIors 173
Golling roady for lho spooch 176
Whon you'ro on slago 179
Ioinls for organisors 182
ïèò ̸» ©±®¼- º±® ×Ì ïèì
SlyIo nallors 185
Golling lho nosl oul of onaiIs 186
Wriling and dosigning vobsilos 187
ݱ²¬»²¬-
ª·
Languago for lho loIophono 194
MaIo your CV laII 195
Nov laII lo your conpulor 196
ïçò ̱²» P ¬¸» ´·²½¸°·² ±º ®»°«¬¿¬·±² ïçè
Basic principIos of lono in vriling 199
Tovards a bollor lono 200
îðò λ°±®¬·²¹ ¿²²«¿´´§æ ½¸±®» ±® ½¸¿´´»²¹»á îðê
EssonliaI aspocls 207
Whal naIos a good annuaI roporl` 208
Tho inporlanco of offoclivo connunicalion 210
îïò ×- ·¬ ´»¹¿´á îîï
Whal is IiboI` 222
Copyrighl and noraI righls 223
AppIying for an in¡unclion 224
Golling pornission 225
Dala proloclion 226
DoaIing vilh lrado narIs 226
Conpolilions and pronolions 227
SoIf-roguIalory codos of praclico 227
Don'l forgol lho inprinl 228
Furlhor infornalion 228
ß°°»²¼·¨ ïæ Û²¹´·-¸ ¹®¿³³¿® P -±³» ¼»º·²·¬·±²- îíð
ß°°»²¼·¨ îæ ݱ²º«-·²¹ °¿·®- ±º ©±®¼- îíé
ß°°»²¼·¨ íæ Ù´±--¿®§ ¿²¼ ¶¿®¹±² ¾«-¬»® îìï
ß°°»²¼·¨ ìæ ɸ»² §±«K®» ´±-¬ º±® ©±®¼- îìê
Ú«®¬¸»® ®»¿¼·²¹ îìè
ײ¼»¨ îëî
ݱ²¬»²¬-
ª··
ÐÎ ·² Ю¿½¬·½» Í»®·»-
Ы¾´·-¸»¼ ·² ¿--±½·¿¬·±² ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ײ-¬·¬«¬» ±º Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²-
Í»®·»- Û¼·¬±®-æ ß²²» Ù®»¹±®§ ¿²¼ Ù®± Û´·² Ø¿²-»²
Kogan Iago has ¡oinod forcos vilh lho Inslilulo of IubIic RoIalions lo pubIish lhis
uniquo sorios, vhich is dosignod spocificaIIy lo nool lho noods of lho incroasing
nunbors of poopIo sooIing lo onlor lho pubIic roIalions profossion and lho Iargo band
of oxisling IR profossionaIs. TaIing a praclicaI, aclion-orionlod approach, lho booIs in
lho sorios conconlralo on lho day-lo-day issuos of pubIic roIalions praclico and
nanagononl ralhor lhan acadonic hislory. Thoy provido idoaI prinors for aII lhoso on
IIR, CAM and CIM coursos or lhoso laIing NVQs in IR. For IR praclilionors, lhoy
provido usofuI rofroshors and onsuro lhal lhoir InovIodgo and sIiIIs aro Iopl up lo
dalo.
ß²²» Ù®»¹±®§ is ono of lho UK's Ioading pubIic roIalions acadonics. Sho is Diroclor of
lho Conlro for IubIic RoIalions Sludios al Loods Businoss SchooI, a facuIly of Loods
MolropoIilan Univorsily. Boforo boconing an acadonic, Anno sponl 12 yoars in pubIic
roIalions praclico and has oxporionco al a sonior IovoI bolh in-houso and in consuI-
lancy. Sho ronains invoIvod in consuIlancy vorI and is a non-oxoculivo diroclor of
Soulh Wosl YorIshiro MonlaI HoaIlh NHS Trusl vilh spociaI rosponsibiIily for finan-
ciaI and connunicalion issuos. Anno is ConsuIlanl Edilor of lho IR in Iraclico sorios
and odilod lho booI of lho sano nano and vrolo д¿²²·²¹ ¿²¼ Ó¿²¿¹·²¹ Ы¾´·½
λ´¿¬·±²- Ý¿³°¿·¹²-, aIso in lhis sorios. Sho vas Irosidonl of lho IIR in 2004.
Ù®± Û´·² Ø¿²-»² is lho in-houso Edilor of lho IR in Iraclico sorios, as voII as boing
Edilor of Ю±º·´», lho Inslilulo of IubIic RoIalions' nonbor nagazino.
Ѭ¸»® ¬·¬´»- ·² ¬¸» -»®·»-æ
Ý®»¿¬·ª·¬§ ·² Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²- by Andy Groon
Ûºº»½¬·ª» Ó»¼·¿ λ´¿¬·±²- by MichaoI BIand, AIison ThoaIor and David Wragg
Ó¿²¿¹·²¹ ß½¬·ª·-³ by Doniso Doogan
Ѳ´·²» Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²- by David IhiIIips
д¿²²·²¹ ¿²¼ Ó¿²¿¹·²¹ Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²- Ý¿³°¿·¹²- by Anno Grogory
Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²-æ ß °®¿½¬·½¿´ ¹«·¼» ¬± ¬¸» ¾¿-·½- by IhiIip HonsIovo
Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²- ·² Ю¿½¬·½» odilod by Anno Grogory
Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²- ͬ®¿¬»¹§ by Sandra OIivor
η-µ ×--«»- ¿²¼ Ý®·-·- Ó¿²¿¹»³»²¬ ·² Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²- by MichaoI Rogoslor
and }udy LarIin
Ϋ²²·²¹ ¿ Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²- Ü»°¿®¬³»²¬ by MiIo Board
Ú±®¬¸½±³·²¹ ¬·¬´»-æ
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ײ¬»®²¿´ ݱ³³«²·½¿¬·±²- by Lyn Snilh and IanoIa Mounlor
ײ¬®±¼«½¬·±² ¬± Ы¾´·½ ߺº¿·®- by Sluarl Thonpson and Dr Slovo }ohn
Tho abovo lilIos aro avaiIabIo fron aII good booIshops. To oblain furlhor infornalion,
pIoaso go lo lho IIR vobsilo (vvv.ipr.org.uI/booIs) or conlacl lho pubIishors al lho
addross boIov:
Kogan Iago Lld
120 IonlonviIIo Road
London N1 9}N
ToI: 020 7278 0433 Fax: 020 7837 6348
vvv.Iogan-pago.co.uI
Ö±¸² Ú±-¬»® sponl sovoraI yoars in ¡ournaIisn vilh vooIIy lrado
papors, finaIIy as assislanl odilor of a Ioading prinling induslry
nagazino and as odilor of a quarlorIy ¡ournaI on pIalonaIing for
prinl produclion.
Ho subsoquonlIy hoId pubIic roIalions posls vilh Iira
InlornalionaI, lho lochnoIogy conlro for lho prinling, papor, pacI-
aging and pubIishing induslrios, and vilh lho Inslilulo of
Iraclilionors in Advorlising (IIA) vhich roprosonls lho inlorosls of
UK advorlising agoncios.
Ho has vrillon, odilod and producod a varioly of prinlvorI,
fron houso ¡ournaIs and booIs lo poslors, brochuros and IoafIols
pIus vriling novs roIoasos, spoochos, fiIn scripls, sIido prosonla-
lions and oxhibilion panoIs. As a spociaIisl frooIanco ¡ournaIisl, ho
has vrillon on nanagononl and lochnicaI issuos in lho prinling
induslry. Ho has aIso undorlaIon pubIic roIalions pro¡ocls in lho
fioId of hoaIlhcaro.
A Ioon advocalo of good, consislonl slyIo in lho vrillon and
spoIon vord, }ohn Foslor is a roguIar conlribulor lo lho IIR naga-
zino Ю±º·´». Ho is a FoIIov of lho IIR and hoIds lho CAM DipIona
in IubIic RoIalions. A nonbor of lho Inslilulo sinco 1954, ho has
sorvod on lho CounciI, Board of Managononl and Monborship
·¨
Connilloo, and vas Irogranno Diroclor 1979÷81. Ho is an
honorary nonbor of lho IIA, a nonbor of lho CAM Educalion
Foundalion, a FoIIov of lho RoyaI Socioly of Arls and an Associalo
(¡ournaIisl) nonbor of lho Foroign Iross Associalion.
In }uIy 2003, }ohn Foslor vas avardod lho Slophon TaIIonls
ModaI by lho lhon Irosidonl of lho IIR, }ohn Aspory, for ´his
conlribulion and connilnonl lo lho offoclivo uso of lho vrillon
vord'. Tho TaIIonls ModaI, prosonlod annuaIIy, rocognisos oxcop-
lionaI achiovononl in, and conlribulion lo, lho dovoIopnonl of
pubIic roIalions praclico by a nonbor of lho Inslilulo.
ß¾±«¬ ¬¸» ¿«¬¸±®
¨
Wriling good EngIish nusl bo ono of lho nosl difficuIl ¡obs in lho
vorId. Tho lracIing of a dovoIoping Ianguago lhal is rich, divorso
and conslanlIy ovoIving in uso and noaning is nol an oasy lasI.
Today's ruIos and usos quicIIy bocono ouldalod, bul lhis booI
capluros EngIish as il shouId bo usod nov.
Thoro havo aIvays boon booIs on grannar and nosl of us, if vo
aro honosl, havo lo snoaI lho occasionaI IooI lo chocI vholhor an
aposlropho is in lho righl pIaco or vhoro a quolo narI goos.
This booI by }ohn Foslor givos invaIuabIo advico, nol onIy on
lho ruIos of EngIish grannar, bul on hov lo naIo lho Ianguago
cono aIivo. Hov do you naIo poopIo oxcilod by your vriling slyIo
and Ioop lhon roading on` Hov do you doIighl and surpriso
lhon, ovon if lho lopic is ossonliaIIy duII`
Of courso lhoro's vriling and lhoro's vriling. Wriling for lho
pross is vory difforonl fron vriling for lho offico. }ohn laIos us
lhrough lho basics of slyIo for aII occasions, righl dovn lo pronun-
cialion.
AIso incIudod in lhis lhird odilion aro four usofuI appondicos:
dofinilions of grannar vilh good praclicaI oxanpIos, siniIar pairs
of vords lhal aro oflon confusod, a shorl gIossary of ovoryday
lorns in IT and pubIishing, and sono lips for vhon you aro Iosl for
vords.
¨·
Tho booI is vrillon in a IivoIy, inaginalivo slyIo and is suilod
nol onIy for lho nov praclilionor vho is oagor lo inprovo his or
hor naslory of lho EngIish Ianguago, bul for lho noro oxporioncod
praclilionor vho noods a quicI chocIIisl of lho ossonliaIs of
grannar and sono hinls on hov lo pop up lhoir vriling slyIo.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» É®·¬·²¹ ͵·´´- º±® Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²- is inlondod lo bo a no-
nonsonso guido for busy praclilionors. Il avoids lho lraps of boing
so conprohonsivo and dolaiIod lhal il confusos, or so suporficiaI as
lo bo of no uso al aII. Il covors aII lho na¡or grannalicaI conslruc-
lions lhal vo uso day-lo-day vilh lho ono ob¡oclivo in nind:
vriling good roadabIo EngIish. Evory IR praclilionor shouId havo
ono. Ils polonliaI roadorship oxlonds lo lho vidor roachos of lho
connunicalions induslry ÷ in facl lo anyono inloroslod in vords
and lhoir usago.
ß²²» Ù®»¹±®§
Í»®·»- Û¼·¬±®
Ú±®»©±®¼
¨··
I vish lo lhanI lho nany frionds and coIIoaguos vho hoIpod in lho
proparalion of lhis booI. In parlicuIar, gralofuI approcialion is
rocordod lo NigoI EIIis, fornor IIR prosidonl, vho road lho oarIy
drafls of ovory chaplor of lho firsl odilion and nado nany hoIpfuI
suggoslions for inprovononls.
SpociaI lhanIs aro aIso duo lo Ial Bovnan, fornor hoad of IR al
LIoyds BanI, lo Don BiIIoll, fornor pubIic affairs diroclor, Du Ionl
do Nonours InlornalionaI, lo Robin Ialorson, fornorIy sonior
pubIic affairs spociaIisl, DuIonl (UK), and lo Iolor }acIson, odilor
and connunicalions consuIlanl, aII of vhon road individuaI
chaplors or soclions and nado hoIpfuI connonls and aIloralions lo
lho originaI loxl.
I vouId IiIo lo oxpross ny graliludo lo a nunbor of frionds and
coIIoaguos vho havo hoIpod no vilh subsoquonl odilions. I vouId
parlicuIarIy IiIo lo rocord ny sincoro lhanIs lo Ian Arnison, fornor
hoad of pross and pubIicalions al lho Brilish Slandards Inslilulion,
BranisIav BoIan, IT consuIlanl, David Lovo, narIoling consuI-
lanl, Slovo Savyor, Wob ConsuIlanl, Conpulor Soflvaro Group
(CSG) Inlogra, IhiIip SpinI, hoad of infornalion sorvicos, lho
Advorlising Associalion, Roy Topp, croalivo sorvicos consuIlanl
and pubIic-spoaIing coach, Susan Wrighl, frooIanco lochnoIogy
¨···
¡ournaIisl, and Foona McEvan, connunicalions diroclor of WII
Group ILC.
For lhis lhird odilion, I vouId parlicuIarIy IiIo lo lhanI Ial
Bovnan and Robin Ialorson vho road, rospoclivoIy, lho chaplors
on odiling sIiIIs and lono in vriling, Iolor Irovso, Exoculivo
Chairnan of Irovso & Co, and David Anos of accounlanls Gib-
bons & Manninglon for chocIing lho chaplor on annuaI roporls,
and IhiIip Circus, LogaI Affairs Diroclor of lho Inslilulo of SaIos
Ironolion and LogaI Advisor lo lho Brilish IronolionaI Morchan-
diso Associalion, for his guidanco and hoIp vilh lho Iav chaplor.
I aIso vish lo lhanI lho Brilish Associalion of Connunicalors in
Businoss for providing oxanpIos of vinning onlrios in lhoir 2004
avards. Iholography: Tridonl Iholographic Sorvicos for lho CiB.
Tho Ó¿·´ Ó¿¼» Û¿-§ IoafIol shovn in Chaplor 6 is copyrighl ©
RoyaI MaiI Group IIc 2004. Roproducod by Iind pornission of
RoyaI MaiI. AII righls rosorvod. Inlornol usago slalislics voro
providod by Conpulor Induslry AInanac (vvv.c-i-a.con/
pr0904.hln).
GralofuI acInovIodgononl nusl go lo Irofossor Anno Grogory,
Diroclor, Conlro for IR Sludios, Loods MolropoIilan Univorsily
and Irosidonl of lho IIR in 2004, lho firsl odilor of lhis sorios of
loxlbooIs for lho Inslilulo, for hor conslanl supporl and oncour-
agononl and for Iolling no gol on vilh il as I vishod.
I havo roforrod lo sovoraI lilIos pubIishod by Oxford Univorsily
Iross in lho proparalion of lhis vorI and lhanI lhon for pornis-
sion lo quolo infornalion, roforoncos and oxanpIos fron 򱩫ȨK-
Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹», ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹», ̸» Ѩº±®¼
Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Ù®¿³³¿®, and ̸» Ѩº±®¼ ͬ§´» Ó¿²«¿´ò AcInovIodgo-
nonl is aIso givon lo HoadIino BooI IubIishing Lld for pornission
lo quolo oxanpIos fron Ü»¾®»¬¬K- ݱ®®»½¬ Ú±®³.
ÖÚ
¨·ª
ß½µ²±©´»¼¹»³»²¬-
SlyIo is lho cruciaI ingrodionl for ovorylhing vo say and do: in
vriling, il is lho vay sonloncos aro slruclurod, lho choico of vords
and lho vay lhoy aro usod, pIus punclualion. If lho slyIo is
oulnodod and aII ovor lho pIaco, lho roador viII soon Ioso inlorosl
and nighl nol ovon gol boyond lho firsl fov Iinos. SlyIo caIIs for
cIarily, brovily coupIod vilh lho uso of pIain Ianguago, and lho
avoidanco of cIich’s and ¡argon. Il noans naIing suro spoIIings
aro corrocl and lhal vords aro nol nisusod. Abovo aII il noans
consisloncy.
This booI has boon dosignod for sludonls and olhors onloring
lho connunicalions induslry, in parlicuIar for lhoso inlonding lo
foIIov a caroor in pubIic roIalions. Il viII aIso bo hoIpfuI for lhoso
aIroady onpIoyod in lho pubIic roIalions profossion oilhor in
consuIlancios or as in-houso praclilionors ÷ in facl for aII lhoso
oarning lhoir Iiving by lhoir vriling sIiIIs.
Tho advico in lhoso pagos is basod on lho aulhorily of oslab-
Iishod slyIo guidos, in parlicuIar lho Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹»
and lho Ѩº±®¼ ͬ§´» Ó¿²«¿´, vhich onbracos lho Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§
º±® É®·¬»®- ¿²¼ Û¼·¬±®- and lho Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± ͬ§´», ilsoIf ropIacing
lho cIassic roforonco sourco, Ø¿®¬K- Ϋ´»- º±® ݱ³°±-·¬±®- ¿²¼ λ¿¼»®-,
and aIso on porsonaI oxporionco. This has covorod nany yoars of
ï
cIoso invoIvononl in vriling, odiling and producing pubIicalions
of sovoraI Iinds, fron lochnicaI and scionlific naloriaI lo profos-
sionaI and lrado ¡ournaIs, novs roIoasos, and gonoraI prinlvorI
incIuding booIIols, brochuros, nanuaIs and IoafIols.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» É®·¬·²¹ ͵·´´- doaIs nol onIy vilh lho prinlod bul aIso
lho spoIon vord: for nossagos lo bo proporIy connunicalod and
undorslood, cIarily of spooch is ossonliaI and a chaplor is incIudod
for lhoso giving audio-visuaI prosonlalions and laIing on pubIic-
spoaIing assignnonls.
WhiIo roadors viII bonofil fron roading lhis booI fron covor lo
covor, sono viII doublIoss vish lo dip inlo individuaI chaplors as
noods diclalo. If sono soclions, such as lho posilioning of aposlro-
phos, appoar lo bo oIononlary, lhoro viII aIvays bo sonoono nol
far avay vho is golling il vrong!
This is nol a booI of grannar, bul doos sorvo as a ronindor of
sono of lho basic principIos. Tho onphasis lhroughoul is on lhoso
slyIo poinls vhich aro froquonl causos of argunonl and disagroo-
nonl: for oxanpIo vhon and vhoro lo pul capilaIs, hov lo doaI
vilh figuros and abbrovialions, pIus lho sIiIIs of hyphonaling,
punclualing and paragraphing. A nov chaplor on odiling sIiIIs
discussos vhal odilors and subodilors IooI for and vhy lhoy
chango your hard-craflod copy. Tho fovor corroclions lhoy naIo,
lho bollor for you, lho vrilor.
Furlhor nov chaplors in lhis lhird odilion covor lono of voico,
lho ossonliaI ingrodionl for ovory nossago, annuaI roporls,
Anoricanisns and lho IogaI issuos facing aII vrilors. Tho roador
viII find hoIp on Ianguago of infornalion lochnoIogy and lho sIiIIs
noodod for succossfuI prosonlalions. Tho lochnicaIilios of prosonla-
lions, and lho oquipnonl noodod, aro nol covorod sinco lhoso aro
boyond lho scopo of lhis booI. AIso covorod aro lho ossonliaI
roquirononls for handIing hoadIinos and caplions, as voII as lho
basics of novs roIoasos, and lho nood for conciso Ianguago coupIod
vilh lho roadabiIily of lho prinlod vord.
Thoso and olhor chaplors viII provido praclilionors vilh a
usofuI roforonco sourco for lhoir day-lo-day vorI. Mosl chaplors in
lho firsl and socond odilions havo boon updalod and oxpandod,
vilh nov naloriaI addod vhoro approprialo.
Evory organisalion shouId havo a houso slyIo, and lhal vory
oflon caIIs for a ´slyIo poIico officor' lo naIo suro lhal lho ruIos
aro foIIovod by ovoryono, fron diroclor and nanagor lo aII
supporl slaff. If lhal is achiovod, and if as a rosuIl lhoro is cIosor
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
î
inlorosl in and avaronoss of slyIo, lhon lhis booI viII havo nol ils
ob¡oclivo.
For lhis odilion, a nunbor of slyIo changos havo boon agrood
vilh lho pubIishors. Chiof anong lhoso aro lho adoplion of Iovor
caso for inlornol, vob and vobsilo as ono vord, and no hyphon in
onaiI and onIino. Roadors in Norlh Anorica nay nolico lhal vords
vilh -izo in lhon havo boon changod lo -iso sinco lhis is lho slyIo
gonoraIIy favourod in lho UK bolh in slyIo guidos and in lho
nodia. Tho aulhor hopos lhal lhoso roadors viII approcialo lho
roasons for adopling lhis slyIo in lho curronl odilion.
í
ײ¬®±¼«½¬·±²
Effoclivo connunicalion donands cIoar, consislonl slyIo. Evory-
ono in pubIic roIalions ÷ vholhor in-houso or a consuIlancy pracli-
lionor ÷ shouId pul slyIo al lho lop of lhoir priorily Iisl. This booI
is aboul lho various characlorislics of lho vrillon and spoIon
vord, or lho nannor of vriling and spoaIing, in olhor vords lho
slyIo, lho uIlinalo haIInarI of profossionaIisn. Il is nol aboul
EngIish grannar, aIlhough il louchos upon sono of lho holIy
arguod ruIos lhal lond lo bo lho lorrilory of lho podanl. Tho basic
lorninoIogy of grannar is oxpIainod in Appondix 1 lo onabIo lho
roador lo chocI upon lho lochnicaIilios and lo provido a rofroshor if
noodod.
Tho foIIoving chaplors onIargo upon lho lopics discussod in ny
roguIar coIunn in lho ×ÐÎ Ö±«®²¿´ sinco 1993 and in lho IIR's Ю±º·´»
nagazino fron Novonbor 1999. Tho inlorosl gonoralod by lhoso
arlicIos Iod no lo onbarI upon lhis vorI vhich, il is hopod, viII
Ioad lo a groalor avaronoss of lho inporlanco of slyIo. Firsl, pay
cIoso allonlion lo vhal novspapors and nagazinos do, and aIso lo
dovoIopnonls in booI pubIishing. As soon as a nov booI conos
oul on slyIo and usago, gol a copy and slarl a coIIoclion. This viII
ì
ï
bo invaIuabIo vhon you vanl lo oslabIish a sol of houso ruIos, lo
updalo an oxisling ono, or ¡usl for day-lo-day roforonco. Sol up a
Iibrary of booIs on EngIish slyIo and usago lhal is accossibIo lo
ovoryono ÷ nol ¡usl lo your ovn doparlnonl bul lo aII vho uso a
Ioyboard. AIisl of such booIs viII bo found in lho Furlhor Roading
soclion al lho ond. Sono novspapor slyIo guidos, for oxanpIo
lhoso issuod by ̸» Ù«¿®¼·¿² and ̸» Ì·³»-, can bo viovod onIino.
ÍÌÇÔÛ ÑÒ ÌØÛ ÓÑÊÛ
SlyIo changos fasl. Conparo, for inslanco, a nagazino or novs-
papor of loday vilh ono prinlod onIy a fov docados ago: ovoruso
of capilaIs, sliIlod phrasooIogy and soIid sIabs of lypo unroIiovod
by subhoadings voro aII connonpIaco in lho 1950s and 1960s.
Evon nov, il is nol hard lo find pross roIoasos riddon vilh banaIi-
lios, boring hoadIinos, ´IaboI' hoadings dovoid of vorb and vorvo,
poorIy punclualod roporls and Iollors, and, probabIy vorsl of aII,
inconsisloncios in spoIIing (Iol aIono hovIors IiIo ´ono º±«´ svoop'
fron a BBC novcaslor oarIy in 1997).
Tho ignoranco vhich surrounds nodorn slyIo lronds onanalos
lhrough IacI of inlorosl in lho sub¡ocl. For young poopIo onloring
lho conpolilivo vorId of connunicalions il is ossonliaI lo havo a
grasp of lho basics: lo Inov, for inslanco, lhal ³»¼·¿ and ¼¿¬¿ aro
pIuraI nouns, lo undorsland lho difforonco bolvoon a coIon and a
soni-coIon, lo approcialo lhal a dash and a hyphon aro nol lho
sano lhing. (Il vas lhis Iasl poinl, incidonlaIIy, vhich Iod lo lho
firsl ´VorbaIs' coIunn in lho ×ÐÎ Ö±«®²¿´ô Ialor lilIod Ю±º·´»ò)
Sono viII no doubl vondor vhal aII lho fuss is aboul. Bul lho
hyphon nasquorading as a dash is synplonalic of lho Iax alliludo
lovards slyIo, fov vord-procossor and conpulor lypisls bolhor
vholhor slyIo is consislonl, or ovon Inov vhal il noans. So il is up
lo lho pubIic roIalions praclilionor ÷ in facl aII profossionaI
connunicalors ÷ lo gol lho nossago across lhal slyIo nallors in
ovorylhing an organisalion doos.
Tho vay vo aII vrilo has changod dranalicaIIy ovor lho Iasl fov
yoars, oflon vilhoul our ovon nolicing il. Infornalion lochnoIogy
has broughl scoros of nov vords. Novspapors and nagazinos
havo Iod slyIo changos: hyphons aro droppod lo naIo ono vord,
lvo-vord phrasos bocono ono. AII lhis roducos cIullor, spoods up
lho copy and hoIps lho roador. UnIoss vo Ioop up vilh slyIo lronds
̸» ·³°±®¬¿²½» ±º -¬§´»æ ¿² ±ª»®ª·»©
ë
vo soon bocono ouldalod, oul of slop vilh ovoryono oIso. And a
ronindor: naIo suro you odil your copy and valch for lhoso slyIo
poinls as you go aIong. Thoy aro ¡usl as inporlanl as lhoso facls
and figuros.
ßÐÐÎÛÝ×ßÌ×ÒÙ ÍÌÇÔÛ
Acquiring a grounding in grannar is nol onough: lho finor poinls
of slyIo and prosonlalion viII oflon naIo aII lho difforonco bolvoon
a good and a nodiocro pubIicalion ÷ bolvoon a slodgy IoafIol or
conpIox, vordy brochuro and ono vhich is IivoIy and appoaIing.
This noans prinlvorI lhal pronolos a producl or sorvico and
lurns a gIancor inlo a roador, lhal loIIs a slory succinclIy and in
pIain Ianguago, and is consislonl in ovory rospocl. If lhis is
achiovod lhon lho slyIo has vorIod, connunicalion has dono ils
¡ob and lho pubIic roIalions offorl has paid off.
Il is ossonliaI for ovoryono in IR and connunicalions lo havo an
approcialion of slyIo so lhal lho roador, or rocoivor of lho nossago,
is on lho sido of lho sondor fron lho oulsol. }usl as inporlanl is
visuaI prosonlalion slyIo: voII-craflod sIidos vhoro lho Iogo is
aIvays lho sano sizo and coIour, and loxl nirroring lho lypofaco,
aro bul lvo ossonliaI roquirononls for a corporalo idonlily ÷ lho
haIInarI of a succossfuI and profilabIo conpany or organisalion.
IacIs and dispIay panoIs vilh a rocognisabIo lypo slyIo aro
inslanlIy idonlifiod vilh lho conpany and producl. If lhal
happons, lho IR offorl has vorIod and producod langibIo rosuIls.
CIoar, unanbiguous, conciso copy vrillon IiIo a fronl-pago novs
slory is usuaIIy lho bosl noans of golling your nossago across and
naIing il vorI for you, your conpany or your cIionl. Thoro aro
olhor linos, hovovor, vhon a noro noasurod slyIo is approprialo
÷ nuch doponds on lho largol audionco and lho narIoling ob¡oc-
livos.
Il is inporlanl vhon IooIing al your slyIo lhal you laIo lono of
voico inlo accounl. As discussod noro fuIIy in Chaplor 19, lho lono
you adopl for prinlvorI, corrospondonco and aII olhor connuni-
calions nusl bo varn, friondIy, oasiIy undorslood and froo of
¡argon and lochnospoaI. Hov you go aboul lhis is, of courso, a
nallor for nanagononl docision, bul onco agrood il shouId bo
foIIovod rigorousIy and shouId bo incIudod as a na¡or ilon in
your ruIos for houso slyIo.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ê
ÇÑËÎ ÑÎÙßÒ×ÍßÌ×ÑÒKÍ ÍÌÇÔÛ
SlyIo oxlonds boyond lho confinos of pubIicalions and lho prinlod
vord in pacIaging. Il appIios lo lho Iivory for your doIivory van or
Iorry, lo novs roIoasos, lo fiIn, lo audio-visuaIs, lo vidoo novs
roIoasos (VNRs), lo radio and TV broadcasls, lo hov your slory is
pul ovor in spoochos al conforoncos and soninars, lho pIalforn
arrangononls, producl IaboIIing and dosign, offico slalionory, lho
Iayoul and vording of lho vobsilo, and ovon lo lho vay your
rocoplionisl ansvors lho loIophono. SlicI lo lho slyIo you havo
adoplod in absoIuloIy ovorylhing concorning your conpany or
your cIionl's producls and sorvicos. ThinI aboul il in aII lho lasIs
you porforn. Is il consislonl` Is il doing ¡uslico lo your ondoav-
ours` Is il, in facl, good IR`
Thoro aro a nunbor of slyIo guidos lo assisl you and sono
of lho bosl Inovn aro nonlionod in Ialor chaplors. Thoy doaI
nainIy vilh lho prinlod vord, for lhal is vhoro slyIo is nosl
inporlanl and vhoro guidanco is oflon noodod. }ournaIisls aro
incuIcalod vilh a sonso of slyIo fron lho nononl lhoy ¡oin a
novspapor or nagazino, and il is hoIpfuI lo soo hov novspapors
and nagazinos lroal lho prinlod vord. Mosl novspapors produco
slyIo guidos for lhoir odiloriaI slaff and il is vorlhvhiIo asIing
for copios.
Thoro is, for inslanco, vido varialion bolvoon ono novspapor or
nagazino and anolhor in lho uso of lilIos, lho vay dalos aro sol oul,
and hov abbrovialions aro handIod. Whon vriling arlicIos for lho
pross you shouId proforabIy lypo lho copy in lho pubIicalion's
slyIo, so chocI on lho vay figuros aro sol, hov nanos aro vrillon,
vhon and vhoro capilaIs aro usod, hov quolos aro doaIl vilh,
vholhor copy is sol raggod righl or ¡uslifiod vilh bolh odgos
aIignod, vholhor ó·-» or -·¦» ondings aro usod. A pubIic roIalions
oxoculivo vho vrilos naloriaI spocificaIIy for a largol nodiun and
foIIovs ils slyIo has a far bollor chanco of golling naloriaI
pubIishod lhan ono vho ignoros il.
Iross roIoasos shouId foIIov lho gonoraI slyIo adoplod by novs-
papors for lho lroalnonl of quolalions, for oxanpIo doubIo quolo
narIs ralhor lhan singIo, vilh shorl sonloncos and paragraphs. If
poinls IiIo lhoso aro aII foIIovod lhon lho sub-odilor viII bo on lho
vrilor's sido, and your copy is Ioss IiIoIy lo bo changod. A bonus
for lho pubIic roIalions oxoculivo if lho chairnan's favourilo phraso
ronains unaIlorod!
̸» ·³°±®¬¿²½» ±º -¬§´»æ ¿² ±ª»®ª·»©
é
IR praclilionors nusl aIso Ioop abroasl of slyIo lronds in broad-
casling: radio and TV slalions usuaIIy havo lhoir ovn ruIos for
scripls. Tho BBC has ils ovn slyIo guido for prosonlors and conlrib-
ulors, lo laIo a curronl oxanpIo, lhoy aro loId lhal il is nonoran-
duns nol nonoranda, an argunonl vilh Iislonors lhal vas sollIod
in a fIash on Radio Four's Þ®±¿¼½¿-¬·²¹ ر«-» Iasl yoar.
ÕÛÛÐ ×Ì ÝÑÒÍ×ÍÌÛÒÌ
Thoro is nolhing sacrosancl aboul slyIo: il is conslanlIy changing,
vilh spoIIings, ´voguo' vords and phrasos faIIing inlo disuso, lo bo
ropIacod snarlIy by nov onos. Favourilo sayings bocono cIich’s,
and nylhs lhal infinilivos nusl nol bo spIil, lhal sonloncos nusl
novor ond vilh a proposilion, and lhal vords lhal onco voro capi-
laIisod can nov bo Iovor-casod vilh abandon, aro nov nainIy
discardod.
On lho olhor hand, sono slyIo ruIos IiIo novor slarling a
sonlonco vilh a figuro, or nunbors up lo and incIuding lon aIvays
boing spoIl oul unIoss lhoy aro parl of a labIo or figuro, aro sliII
firnIy oslabIishod in slyIo booIs. Bul vhalovor you docido on,
Ioop il consislonl lhroughoul lho vhoIo pioco.
ÐÑ×ÒÌÍ ÌÑ ÉßÌÝØ
Bo on your guard againsl ropolilion, or using lho vrong vord and
pulling your roador off for good. Iorhaps il von'l bo nolicod, bul
noslIy il viII. ׳°´§ is nol lho sano as ·²º»®, lhoro aro no dogroos of
uniquonoss (sonolhing is oilhor uniquo or il isn'l), º»©»® ¬¸¿² is
oflon usod for ´»-- ¬¸¿² and vico vorsa (º»©»® is nol inlorchangoabIo
vilh ´»--), and so on. Koop il sinpIo and undorslandabIo: uso shorl
ralhor lhan Iong vords, vrilo snappy sonloncos, cul oul ¡argon and
ovor-vorIod vords, and Ioavo foroign vords lo lho spociaIisl
¡ournaI. Bul don'l hosilalo, occasionaIIy, lo Iaunch inlo ´FrangIais'
(´» ݸ¿²²»´ Ì«²²»´) or Gornan-EngIish (Ü·» Ì»»²¿¹»®-) or ovon »·²
-¬»¿¼§-»´´»® (for lho booIshop) lo provido a broalhor and a spol of
hunour.
Usago diffors onornousIy: EngIish is spoIon as a firsl Ianguago
by ovor 377 niIIion poopIo lhroughoul lho vorId (226 niIIion in
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
è
lho Unilod Slalos aIono, 56 niIIion in lho UK), vhiIo aInosl as
nany spoaI il as a socond Ianguago. As a porconlago of lho vorId's
popuIalion, 6.2 por conl uso EngIish as lhoir nolhor longuo,
socond onIy lo Chinoso. EngIish is lho officiaI Ianguago of ovor 70
counlrios.
Wrilors havo al lhoir connand noro lhan haIf a niIIion vords
(lhoro aro sono 640,000 in lho Ialosl odilion of lho Ѩº±®¼ Û²¹´·-¸
Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ (ÑÛÜ)), yol il has boon oslinalod lhal nosl poopIo
go lhrough Iifo vilh onIy sono 2000 vords al lhoir connand.
This Iinil on lho avorago porson's vocabuIary shovs lhoro is
good roason for avoiding Iong or IillIo-usod vords: nol onIy do
lhoy faiI lo connunicalo, bul lho vrilor is foIl lo ´laII dovn' lo lho
roador.
A nunbor of ruIos for slyIo and usago havo boon proposod by
¡ournaIisls, Ioxicographors and olhors, bul fov aro sol in slono, lho
advico and oxanpIos givon in lhis booI aro basod on curronl bosl
praclico, aIlhough aIIovanco nusl bo nado for individuaI laslo.
EngIish is a Iiving Ianguago aIvays on lho novo: loday's slyIo viII
soon bo yoslorday's.
Whon you aro lhinIing aboul your conpany's slyIo and
foIIoving lho ruIos lhal havo boon oslabIishod, il is cruciaI nol lo bo
podanlic and ovor-zoaIous vilh your corroclions. Bul vhal is lho
difforonco bolvoon boing podanlic and boing corrocl` Iodanlic is
boing ovor-fussy, IiIo novor onding a sonlonco vilh a proposilion,
on lho olhor hand, lhoro aro shados of corroclnoss doponding on
conslanlIy changing slyIo lonols.
Hovovor, lhoro aro sono poinls of grannar IiIo vorb agrooing
vilh sub¡ocl on vhich lhoro can bo no argunonl: lhoy aro oilhor
corrocl or lhoy aro nol. Tho ovorriding ruIo is, foIIov lronds bul
Ioop lho grannar righl.
Languago nusl novor gol in lho vay of lho nossago. Il is lhoro-
foro inporlanl lo bo avaro of lho significanl slyIo difforoncos
oxisling bolvoon Anorican EngIish and ours, parlicuIarIy nov
lhal so nany vobsilos and pross roIoasos aro largolod lo lho Unilod
Slalos. For inslanco, vhiIo il is accoplabIo lo vrilo ´shop' for ´sloro'
on bolh sidos of lho AlIanlic il is vrong for a noloring ¡ournaIisl
ovor lhoro lo laII aboul a ´bonnol' vhon ho shouId say ´hood', or
pul ´bool' for ´lrunI'.
Tho quoslion of vholhor or nol lo adopl Anoricanisns such as
in spoIIing or vocabuIary for connunicalions lo US and gIobaI
narIols is discussod in a Ialor chaplor.
̸» ·³°±®¬¿²½» ±º -¬§´»æ ¿² ±ª»®ª·»©
ç
Tho guidanco in lhoso pagos viII hoIp pubIic roIalions pracli-
lionors and olhor connunicalors lo Iay dovn offoclivo slyIo ruIos
for lhoir ovn conpanios and organisalions. Onco lhoso havo boon
oslabIishod, lhoy shouId bo rigorousIy foIIovod. If lhoy aro nol,
lhon slyIo boconos inconsislonl and lhal is aIvays as bad as nol
having any ruIos al aII. AII lho vorI lhal has gono inlo oslabIishing
lho slyIo viII bo vaslod. Bul nol for Iong: il viII bo rovision lino
again boforo you Inov il!
ÙÑÑÜ ÍÌÇÔÛ ×Í ÙÑÑÜ ÓßÒÒÛÎÍ
Good slyIo noans good vorI. Il aIso noans good nannors: Iollors
boing ansvorod pronplIy, rolurning loIophono caIIs, sincorily in
ovorylhing you say and do. If you cannol do sonolhing, say so ÷
don'l ¡usl Ioavo il and hopo lhal lho probIon viII go avay. And
vhon Chrislnas conos, don'l sond oul an unsignod card, ovon if
your conpany's nano and addross is prinlod insido.
SlyIo is ¡usl as inporlanl vilh lho spoIon vord. Fov spoaIors al
a conforonco vouId lhinI of nulloring and nunbIing lhoir vay
lhrough a laII. CarofuIIy onuncialod spooch vilhoul cIich’s or
¡argon is ossonliaI for avoiding sIipshod prosonlalion and onsuring
offoclivo connunicalion.
Sono hinls and lips on pronuncialion slyIo viII bo found in
Chaplor 16. And as Sir Trovor McDonaId, lho TV prosonlor and
novscaslor, confirns, voII-arlicuIalod spooch can raiso sonoono
fron hunbIo origins lo lho vory lop. McDonaId advisos young
poopIo aining for vidor horizons lo spoaI lhoir Ianguago voII.
Diclion and grannar roaIIy do nallor. This is parlicuIarIy lruo
vhon nosl poopIo onloring lho IR profossion soon find lhon-
soIvos naIing prosonlalions ÷ sonolinos lo pacIod conforoncos ÷
and froquonlIy appoaring in radio and TV inlorviovs.
Approcialo lho nood for slyIo ÷ bo avaro of slyIo lronds ÷ and
foIIov il lhrough roIonlIossIy and consislonlIy. This booI viII hoIp
you lo do lhal.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïð
̸» ·³°±®¬¿²½» ±º -¬§´»æ ¿² ±ª»®ª·»©
ïï
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
Ó¿µ» ¹±±¼ô ½±²-·-¬»²¬ -¬§´» §±«® °®·±®·¬§ò
Ú±´´±© -¬§´» ¬®»²¼-ò ܱ²K¬ ¾» ±´¼óº¿-¸·±²»¼ò
Ù±±¼ -¬§´» ³»¿²- ½´»¿®ô °´¿·²ô ´·ª»´§ô ½±²½·-» ´¿²¹«¿¹»ò
ß² ·²-¬¿²¬´§ ®»½±¹²·-¿¾´» -¬§´» ¸»´°- ¬± ¹»¬ §±«® ³»--¿¹»
¿½®±--ò
Þ«·´¼ ¿ ´·¾®¿®§ ±º -¬§´» ¹«·¼»- ¿½½»--·¾´» ¬± ¿´´ò
ß¼±°¬ ¬¸» ®·¹¸¬ ¬±²» ±º ª±·½» º±® §±«® ¿«¼·»²½»ò
Ü·-¬·²¹«·-¸ ¾»¬©»»² ¾»·²¹ °»¼¿²¬·½ ¿²¼ ½±®®»½¬ò
Ò»ª»® ´»¬ ´¿²¹«¿¹» ¹»¬ ·² ¬¸» ©¿§ ±º ¬¸» ³»--¿¹»ò
Ù±±¼ -¬§´»ô ¹±±¼ ³¿²²»®- ³»¿² ¹±±¼ ©±®µò
Hov nany linos havo you soon allonpls lo naIo vords onding in
-y inlo pIuraIs ¡usl by adding an ´s' and onding up vilh ¼¿·-§-` Or
ovon vorso ÷ ¬±³¿¬±K-, a faniIiar nolico in lho high slrool` Errors
IiIo lhoso vouId bo innodialoIy spollod by profossionaI connu-
nicalors, and slaff in IR doparlnonls naIing lhon vouId nol Iasl
for Iong. Bul lhoro aro pIonly of difficuIl pIuraIs and il is nol
aIvays oasy lo loII fron lho offico diclionary hov lo doaI vilh
lhon. SiniIarIy, lhoro is oflon confusion aboul hov lo handIo
possossivos: nol ¡usl lo Inov vholhor an aposlropho shouId bo
lhoro, bul vhoro lo pIaco il. Again, hov froquonlIy havo you soon
lho possossivo ·¬- vilh an aposlropho shouling al you, prolonding
lhal ·¬K- is OK`
ÐÔËÎßÔ ÓßÌÌÛÎÍ
ݱ³³±² °®±¾´»³-
Mosl nouns roquiro an ´s' lo naIo lhon pIuraI. Bocauso of lho
ïî
î
noods of pronuncialion, vilh sono vords il is nocossary lo pul in
an ´o' lo givo an oxlra vovoI (branchos), vilh difforonl ruIos for
changing vovoI sounds (slonachs). IarlicuIar difficuIly is oncoun-
lorod vilh vords onding in -o: onbargoo- bul nononlos. AusofuI
ruIo horo is lhal -o is novor insorlod vhon anolhor vovoI conos
boforo -o: an inslanl ansvor lo any lhoughl of pulling an ´o' in
ralios. Nolo lhal lhoro aro roofs, nol roovos, vharvos bul dvarfs,
scarvos bul lurfs.
Conpound vords nado up of a noun and ad¡oclivo, or lvo
nouns connoclod by a proposilion, forn pIuraIs by a chango in lho
nain vord as in courls narliaI, hoirs prosunplivo, pools Iauroalo
and in sons-in-Iav, hangors-on, runnors-up, passors-by and non-
of-var. Nolo, hovovor, lhal lhoro aro brigadior-gonoraIs and
sorgoanl-na¡ors. And lhoro aro run-lhroughs, sol-ups and forgol-
no-nols, handfuIs, sland-bys and spoonfuIs.
Caro is noodod vilh pIuraIs for vords of foroign origin and il
nusl bo nolod horo lhal nodia/dala aro pIuraI nouns and laIo a
pIuraI vorb. Hovovor, lho nov odilion of Ú±©´»®K- Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸
Ë-¿¹» says ´vo aro ´sliII al lho dobaling labIo¨ on lho quoslion of
lho nodia is/aro', bul novorlhoIoss roconnonds lho uso of lho
pIuraI vhon in doubl. (In infornaI vriling, or spooch, onIy lho
purisl viII ob¡ocl lo lho nodia is/dala is.) Misuso of criloria and
phononona is connon as lhoy aro nislaIon for boing coIIoclivo,
singuIar nouns: lho singuIar forns aro crilorion and phonononon.
Il shouId bo nolod lhal graffili is lho pIuraI of graffilo, lornini of
lorninus, virusos of virus and bacloria of bacloriun.
Sono olhor pIuraIs: anaIysos, appondicos, basis/os, buroaux (bul
oflon AngIicisod lo buroaus), indoxos (bul indicos in nalhonalics),
nonoranduns (bul nonoranda in a coIIoclivo sonso), noralo-
riuns, roforonduns, quoruns (bul addonda, curricuIa), sladiuns
(lry saying sladia/syIIabi and you aro in dangor of boing podanlic
and boving lo lho purisl), aIso synopsos, syIIabusos, lhosos. An
oxlonsivo Iisl of foroign vords in lhoir singuIar and pIuraI forns
viII bo found in ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± ͬ§´», lho succossor lo Ø¿®¬K-
Ϋ´»-ò
Í·²¹«´¿® ±® °´«®¿´ º±® ½±´´»½¬·ª» ²±«²-á
Thoro is a probIon for lho vrilor using a coIIoclivo noun: shouId il
laIo a singuIar or pIuraI vorb` Tho choico viII dopond on vholhor
lho noun is considorod as a singIo onlily or as a group of poopIo or
Ì®±«¾´» ©·¬¸ °´«®¿´- ¿²¼ °±--»--·ª»-
ïí
lhings. Thus, vholhor lo vrilo lho connilloo is or aro, agroos or
agroo can bo ansvorod sinpIy by saying lo yoursoIf doos il rofor lo
lho connilloo as a vhoIo or lo lho viovs of soparalo nonbors`
SiniIarIy, lho nass noun audionco can laIo oilhor lho singuIar or
pIuraI as in ´lho ¿«¼·»²½» vas soalod, roady for lho spoaIor' or as in
´lho audionco voro aII cIapping nadIy'. Tho sano appIios lo olhor
nass nouns IiIo board, casl (of aclors), connilloo, conpany,
faniIy, group, govornnonl, slaff.
Il is inporlanl lo docido if lho onphasis Iios on lho individuaI or
lho group vilh a vord IiIo ¾±¿®¼, lo laIo ono oxanpIo. If il Iios on
lho individuaI nonbors of lho board, lhon vrilo lho board ´©¸±
broIo off for Iunch' bul if lho sonso is coIIoclivo, lho conslruclion
vouId bo ´lho board ©¸·½¸ nado a docision'. Whon vo uso lho
singuIar vord na¡orily vo vrilo ´lho na¡orily of poopIo aro'. Thal
is bocauso il is poopIo boing laIIing aboul, lhus lho noun laIos lho
pIuraI. Bul if il's lho na¡orily ilsoIf lhal is boing discussod lhon il
noods a singuIar vorb (lho na¡orily is snaIIor). Again, if nunbor is
lho sub¡ocl lhon il laIos lho singuIar, bul pIuraI if ´of poopIo' is
addod. Tho singuIar aIvays foIIovs if lho noun has a quaIifior IiIo
lhis, lhal, ovory as in ´ovory nanagor has a parl lo pIay'.
As a gonoraI ruIo, il is bollor lo havo a singuIar vorb vilh a
coIIoclivo noun, and lo lroal nanos of conpanios and organisa-
lions as singuIar onlilios. Tho pIuraI forn londs lo snacI of
infornaIily: ´XYZ conpany aro announcing' is a roIaxod and
friondIy slyIo, bul Iosos crispnoss. Avoid a nixod slyIo of singuIar
vorb and pIuraI pronoun as in ´lho connilloo ¸¿- nado ¬¸»·®
docision' (´lho connilloo ¸¿- nado ·¬- docision is proforabIo). In
lho ond, hovovor, houso slyIo viII docido ÷ anolhor roason for
ovory conpany lo havo a sol of ruIos for basic slyIo poinls such as
lhis.
Wholhor lo vrilo ·- or ¿®» for conpanios vilh noro lhan ono
nano, such as LogaI & GonoraI, is sonovhal of a conundrun, and
ono facod soonor or Ialor by ovoryono. WhiIo il is IargoIy a nallor
of houso slyIo, MarIs & Sponcor and lho nuIli-nano slyIos for IR
consuIlancios and advorlising agoncios noslIy laIo lho singuIar
vorb, lhus adhoring lo lho gonoraI ruIo of ´Ioop il singuIar'.
Walch oul for conpany or brand nanos onding in ´s'. Thoy viII
invariabIy bo singuIar as in Bools is, IG Tips naIos ÷ again a
nallor of houso slyIo. Tho sano appIios lo organisalions, such as
lho Unilod Nalions and US Congross, vhich aIvays laIos lho
singuIar, and lhis is so ovon in lho caso of lho Unilod Slalosò
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïì
Nolo, hovovor, lhal a pair and a coupIo laIo lho pIuraI, as do
lvo singuIar nouns IinIod by ¿²¼ unIoss lho con¡oinod vords forn
a singIo idoa as in vining and dining. ConvorsoIy, nolo lhal lho
nunbor ·-, pubIic roIalions ·-ò Olhor nouns laIing a singuIar vorb
incIudo advico, oquipnonl, furniluro, InovIodgo, nachinory,
slalionory, lraffic. Thoro aro a nunbor of nouns vhich onIy laIo lho
pIuraI: poopIo, poIico, cIorgy and sono olhors rocognisabIo by lhoir
-s ondings, nolabIy briofs, cIolhos, congraluIalions, gIassos,
goggIos, oulsIirls, panls, pIiors, ronains, richos, scissors, lhanIs,
lighls. Nouns vilh a pIuraI forn vhich do laIo a singuIar vorb aro
biIIiards, noasIos, novs. Trousors, on lho olhor hand, havo nol
aIvays boon a pIuraI. Gono aro lho days vhon lho assislanl in a
nonsvoar shop nighl havo docIarod ´Agood ¬®±«-»®, Sir'.
Tho cruciaI poinl in any singuIar/pIuraI dispulo is lo nainlain
consisloncy lhroughoul lho pioco as a vhoIo, lhrough oach
sonlonco and oach paragraph. If lhal consisloncy is Iosl, novs
roIoasos nay bo rubbishod, and prinlod docunonls and conlacl
roporls viII noslIy faiI lo connand lho roador's rospocl.
ݱ³³«²·½¿¬·±² ±® ½±³³«²·½¿¬·±²-á
DifficuIly aIso arisos in dislinguishing bolvoon lho lorns connu-
nicalion and connunicalions. Evon pubIic roIalions praclilionors
havo a probIon vilh lhis and argunonl ragos: bolh rofor lo lho acl
of connunicaling, lho Iallor roIaling lo lho lochnicaIilios or lho
hardvaro of connunicaling ÷ onaiI, faxos, loIophonos and so on.
Confusion is conpoundod by lho facl lhal lhoro aro coursos in
connunicalion nanagononl, and lhal connunicalions can bo
nanagod. In roaIily, lhoro is IillIo difforonco in noaning. So, laIo
your picI!
Il is roIovanl lo nolo lhal lho lilIos connunicalions nanagor/
consuIlanl havo IargoIy ropIacod lho lilIo pubIic roIalions officor,
vhich has nov bocono sonovhal ouldalod. Bul vhalovor lho lilIo
÷ vholhor for undorlaIing lho nochanics of connunicalions or
for advising hov a conpany connunicalos vilh ils pubIic ÷ lho
conloxl viII usuaIIy cIarify ¡ob doscriplions. Again, consisloncy is
lho valchvord.
Ì®±«¾´» ©·¬¸ °´«®¿´- ¿²¼ °±--»--·ª»-
ïë
ßÐÑÍÌÎÑÐØÛ ÐÎÑÞÔÛÓÍ
Ì®±«¾´» ©·¬¸ °±--»--·ª»-
Tho nissing or nispIacod aposlropho vas onco dubbod by a novs-
papor coIunnisl ´lhal orranl ladpoIo'. Truo onough. Il soons lhal
Inoving vhoro lo pul lho aposlropho in possossivos ÷ indicaling
possossion or ovnorship ÷ causos as nuch difficuIly as any olhor
narI. KingsIoy Anis in ̸» Õ·²¹K- Û²¹´·-¸ says lhal if il hasn'l boon
naslorod by lho ago of 14 lhon lho chancos aro lhal lhoro viII
aIvays bo lho possibiIily of orror. Thoro is oflon confusion bolvoon
·¬- (in lho possossivo) and ·¬K-, lho shorlonod forn of ·¬ ·-. And lho
aposlropho is furlhor nisusod vhon donoling lho pIuraI ÷ lho so-
caIIod groongrocor's aposlropho as in °±¬¿¬±K- (or porhaps ovon
°±¬¿¬±»K-!) ÷ or vhon Iollor(s) havo boon onillod.
Firsl, laIo lho basic ruIos for posilioning lho aposlropho for a
possossivo. Whon lho lhing or porson is in lho singuIar lhon lho
aposlropho goos boforo lho ´s' as in lho ¾±§K- ¬·». If, hovovor, lhoro is
noro lhan ono boy, lho aposlropho goos aflor lho ´s' as in lho ¾±§-K
¬·»-. Anolhor oxanpIo: in ¬¸» ½¿¬K- °¿©- lhoro is ono cal and as lho
pavs boIong lo lho cal il is lho cal lhal is in lho possossivo, and
sinco il is ono cal lho aposlropho goos boforo lho ´s'. You laII aboul
lho ½¿³°¿·¹²K- ±¾¶»½¬·ª» (vhoro lhoro is ono canpaign and ono or
noro ob¡oclivos), Ö±¸²K- ¾®±¬¸»® (or ¾®±¬¸»®-, il doosn'l nallor) lhoro
is ono }ohn and lho nano is in lho singuIar. Whon lhoro aro sovoraI
¡ournaIisls, you laII aboul ¶±«®²¿´·-¬-K ²»»¼-ò
For singuIar vords onding in ´s', ¡usl add 's as in lho ¾±--K- ±ºº·½»ò
To forn lho pIuraI possossivo, add ´os' aposlropho aflor lho ´s' as in
¬¸» ¾±--»-K ¾±²«-, ¬¸» Ö±²»-»-K ¼±¹. Wilh pIuraI vords lhal ond vilh
an ´s', sinpIy add lho aposlropho as in lho ´¿¼·»-K ®±±³, lho ͳ·¬¸-K
¸±«-»ò For nouns lhal aro aIroady pIuraI as in ½¸·´¼®»², ³»², ©±³»²
add an aposlropho ´s' in lho sano vay: ½¸·´¼®»²K-, ³»²K-, ©±³»²K-,
°»±°´»K-ò Novor vrilo chiIdrons', nons', vonons' or poopIos' or
Ioavo oul lho aposlropho aIlogolhor, ovon lhough you nighl bo
lonplod lo do so.
Il is quilo connon lo soo º±«® ©»»µ- ¸±´·¼¿§ vrongIy vrillon
vilhoul an aposlropho as a nallor of courso. WhiIo lho cIunsy
¸±´·¼¿§ ±º º±«® ©»»µ- vouId bo podanlic in lho oxlrono, il is far
bollor lo vrilo º±«® ©»»µ-K hoIiday vilh lho aposlropho corroclIy
posilionod lhan nol having ono al aII and risI offonding lho roador.
And, of courso, you go on a º±®¬²·¹¸¬K- ½®«·-». In dislinguishing lho
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïê
difforonco bolvoon ·¬- and ·¬K-, lvo oxanpIos viII hoIp: ·¬- in lho
possossivo ÷ lho dog vaggod ·¬- laiI, ·¬K- as lho shorlonod vorsion of
·¬ ·- ÷ lho cIionl said L·¬K- a good prosonlalion'.
Ó¿²§ ±¬¸»® °«®°±-»-ô ¾«¬ ¼±²K¬ °«¬ ±²» ·º ²±¬
²»»¼»¼
Tho aposlropho is a nuIli-purposo narI: il can signify onillod
characlors as in isn'l, doosn'l, and lho vorbaI oIisions I'n, I'II,
you'II, vo'II. Il indicalos lho pIuraI of singIo Iollors: ßK- and ÞK-, °K-
and ¯K-. Nolo lhal lho aposlropho is onillod in lho pIuraIs of
groups of Iollors and nunbors as in ÓÐ-, ïççð- and in ©¸§- and
©¸»®»º±®»-ò Il vouId, hovovor, bo usod lo shov an onission as in
lho '90s.
Thoro is, of courso, no aposlropho in ¸»®-, ±«®-, §±«®- or ¬¸»·®- (an
aposlropho is noodod in ±²»K-), bul caro is noodod in dislinguishing
bolvoon lho roIalivo pronoun ©¸±-» and ©¸±K-, lho shorlonod
vorsion of ©¸± ·-ò
Loaving il oul vhon il shouId bo lhoro is bad onough, bul
pulling ono in vhon il is nol noodod is vorso sliII: nol onIy is lhoro
lho iIIiloralo uso of lho aposlropho for pIuraIs as in lho groongro-
cors' signs for ½¿®®±¬K- and °»¿K- ÷ lhoro aro nov ´garago' aposlro-
phos in advorlisononls for Ú·»-¬¿K- and Ó±²¼»±K- and lhoro aro
hoadIinos for Í«¦«µ·K- bul, curiousIy, lhoy advorliso al lho sano
lino ο²¹» ᪻®- and Ý¿ª¿´·»®-, vhiIo caf’s havo nolicos for ¬»¿K-
and ½±ºº»»K-, and roadsido roslauranls dispIaying signs for ´«²½¸K-
and ¼·²²»®K-ò Ouch! Il happons noro oflon lhan you nighl lhinI.
Much of lho probIon conos fron dosignors vho oilhor don'l
Inov or don'l caro vholhor lhoro shouId bo an aposlropho:
Ù®¿²²§- (a shop), Ø»²®§- Ì¿¾´» (a roslauranl), bul il is gralifying lo
soo lhal Í¿·²-¾«®§K- has slucI vilh lradilion. And lho aposlropho is
oflon al lho norcy of lho dosignor vho roadiIy lurns il inlo a
daggor, pon or hoarl vilhoul a quaIn, dininishing ils inporlanco
and conlribuling if nol lo ils doniso, lo uncorlainly aboul posi-
lioning.
Il is a lonol of ´noliquollo' lo drop lho aposlropho, aIong vilh
capilaIs vhoro lhoy aro nornaIIy noodod. Such disdain for usuaI
praclico can noan lroubIo: an inporlanl yol podanlic cIionl couId
doIivor a sharp robuIo in rolurn for a sIoppy nossago!
Ì®±«¾´» ©·¬¸ °´«®¿´- ¿²¼ °±--»--·ª»-
ïé
ײ½±²-·-¬»²½·»- ¬± ©¿¬½¸ º±®
Organisalions drop lhoir aposlrophos vilhoul hosilalion, porhaps
in an allonpl al naIing lhon usor- and cuslonor-friondIy. Thus
vo soo ݸ¿³¾»®- Û²¹´·-¸ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§, Ü»¾»²¸¿³- and Þ¿®½´¿§- Þ¿²µ,
or Ï«»»²-K ݱ´´»¹» (Canbridgo) bul Ï«»»²K- ݱ´´»¹» and ß´´ ͱ«´-
(Oxford), vhich aII add lo lho inconsisloncios. Sono of lho abovo
can oasiIy bo chocIod in loIophono diroclorios, bul vhoro vrilors
slruggIo is in Inoving vhoro lo pul lho aposlropho in vords
onding in -s in nanos IiIo CharIos. ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± ͬ§´» says:
´Uso 's for lho possossivo caso vhonovor possibIo.'
Tho guidanco horo is lhal lho 's shouId appoar in aII nonosyIIa-
bIos and in Iongor vords acconlod on lho noxl lo Iasl syIIabIo as in
Ö±²»-K-, ̸±³¿-K-, ͬ Ö¿³»-K- ͯ«¿®». Anolhor slriIing inconsisloncy
is EarIs Courl vhich doos nol havo an aposlropho according lo
slyIo booIs. Yol il is givon ono by London Transporl for lho Tubo
slalion and by lho oxhibilion conlro. And in addilion lhoro is a Iong
lradilion of lho possossivo aposlropho boing droppod fron sono
propor nanos, Bools, Harrods and HorIicIs.
I vouId profor lo Ioop lhis ´aoriaI conna' or ´orranl ladpoIo',
caII il vhal you viII, if onIy for roasons of consisloncy. Bul as in
ovorylhing oIso, lhoro's a conlrary viov, and lhal says lho narI ¡usl
causos cIullor. Thoro's ovon lho opinion lhal lho aposlropho in
EarI's Courl shouId go aflor lho ´s' sinpIy bocauso lhoro voro a
nunbor of oarIs vho voro parl of lho originaI courlhouso. So you
couId bo righl vhalovor you do.
In nuIli-syIIabIo vords IiIo NichoIas, il is oquaIIy accoplabIo lo
pul lho aposlropho aIono as in Ò·½¸±´¿-K or Ò·½¸±´¿-K-, bul if in
doubl aIvays add lho 's. For ¹±±¼²»--K -¿µ» aIvays lhinI vhoro il
shouId go.
Il vouId bo unviso lo pul °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²- in lho possossivo. Try
il, and lho rosuIl il avfuI if nol a longuo-lvislor: pubIic roIalions'
or pubIic roIalions's aro oquaIIy ugIy, a bollor vay vouId bo lo
lroal pubIic roIalions as an ad¡oclivo and so achiovo, for oxanpIo,
lho °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²- ±¾¶»½¬·ª», or lho vordior ±¾¶»½¬·ª» ±º °«¾´·½
®»´¿¬·±²-ò
WhiIo no aposlropho is noodod vhon vriling ´Ho viII bo laIon
lo lho cIoanors,' il shouId appoar in such conslruclions as ´Ho is
going lo lho bulchor's' vhon lhoro is oIIipsis of lho vord ´shop'.
Hovovor, lo say (or vrilo) ´I an going lo lho doclor's' vilh lho
oIIipsis of lho vord ´surgory' vouId offond nany an oar or oyo. In
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïè
lhoso and siniIar oxanpIos, il vouId bo bollor lo onil lho ´s' aIlo-
golhor.
Thoro aro, shovn abovo, a nunbor of inconsisloncios in lho uso
of lho aposlropho, and il soons lhal incorrocl usago is incroasing
bolh vhoro lho aposlropho is onillod or vhoro il is incIudod vhon
il shouIdn'l bo. Tho Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹», as voII as
򱩫ȨK- and olhor slyIo guidos shouId bo consuIlod vhonovor in
doubl. Diclionarios do nol hoIp nuch for doaIing vilh lhoso
nallors.
Rosponding lo an appoaI for ils aboIilion by Ù«¿®¼·¿² coIunnisl
Mallhov EngoI, lho Quoon's EngIish Socioly poinls oul lhal lho
aposlropho aids cIarily. ´If vo had no aposlrophos sonoono
roading Mr EngoI's arlicIo vouId nol Inov if ho vas EngoI or
EngoIs', says Dr Bornard Lanb of lho QES. Linguisls agroo lhal lho
aposlropho doos havo a purposo and shouId bo rolainod so Iong as
vo havo possossivos.
Furlhor hoIp on vholhor and vhoro lo pIaco an aposlropho viII
bo found in lho oxcoIIonl and inloIIocluaIIy vigorous handbooI
Û¿¬-ô ͸±±¬- ú Ô»¿ª»- by ¡ournaIisl Lynno Truss. Of aII lho poinls sho
naIos, il is lho unnocossary aposlropho in ·¬K- vhon in lho possos-
sivo lhal dislurbs hor nosl.
Ì®±«¾´» ©·¬¸ °´«®¿´- ¿²¼ °±--»--·ª»-
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ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
É¿¬½¸ ¬¸» -°»´´·²¹ ©¸»² ¿¼¼·²¹ L-K º±® °´«®¿´-ò
д«®¿´ ²±«²ñ¿¼¶»½¬·ª» ½±³°±«²¼- ²»»¼ -°»½·¿´ ½¿®»ò
Ó·-«-» ±º Ô¿¬·² °´«®¿´- »¿-·´§ ±½½«®-ò
ݱ´´»½¬·ª» ²±«²- ¬¿µ» -·²¹«´¿® ±® °´«®¿´ ª»®¾- ¾«¬ -·²¹«´¿® ·-
«-«¿´´§ ¾»-¬ò
ͱ³» ²±«²- ±²´§ ¬¿µ» ¬¸» °´«®¿´ò
̸» ¿°±-¬®±°¸» ¹±»- ¿º¬»® ¬¸» L-K º±® °´«®¿´ °±--»--·ª»-ô ¾»º±®»
¬¸» L-K ©¸»² -·²¹«´¿®ò
ܱ²K¬ ½±²º«-» ¬¸» °±--»--·ª» ·¬- ø²± ¿°±-¬®±°¸»÷ ©·¬¸ ·¬ù- º±® ·¬
·-ò
̸» ¿°±-¬®±°¸» ½¿² -·¹²·º§ ±³·¬¬»¼ ½¸¿®¿½¬»®-ò
Ô±±µ ±«¬ º±® ·²½±²-·-¬»²½·»-æ Í¿·²-¾«®§ù- ¾«¬ Ø¿®®±¼-ò
TaIing caro ovor punclualion shovs lhal lho vrilor has lho roador
in nind. Iulling lho corrocl narIs ÷ and naIing suro lhoro aro no
unnocossary onos ÷ aids undorslanding and avoids anbiguily. Tho
conna, slop, coIon and inlorrogalion narI aro nol lhoro ¡usl lo
salisfy lho ruIos of conslruclion. Thoy havo a roaI and aclivo
purposo: lo givo lho roador a broalhor, lo givo a pauso and, al inlor-
vaIs, lo provido a chango of paco or lhoughl. Thoy aro IiIo lraffic
signs lo laIo and guido lho roador aIong a pioco of vrillon vorI.
Tho fuII slop, if you IiIo, is lho rod Iighl lo slop you noving
forvard and lo bring lho sonlonco lo an ond, lho conna a yoIIov
lo provido a pauso.
Too nany poopIo lhinI lhal punclualion is ¡usl anolhor choro:
gol on vilh lho vords, novor nind lho irrilalions of having lo
bolhor vilh bracIols, dashos or hyphons, Iol aIono using quolo
narIs proporIy or lypod lho righl vay round. On lho olhor hand,
il is oasy lo ovor-punclualo and ond up vilh conpIicalod, obscuro
sonloncos and a ´spolly' pago. LooI nov al lho various narIs and
hov lhoy shouId bo usod and prosonlod.
îð
í
ÞßÍ×Ý ÐËÒÝÌËßÌ×ÑÒ
´SlyIo is lho lonpIalo of lho linos, nol an irrovocabIo ruIo', docIaros
̸» Ì·³»- ͬ§´» ¿²¼ Ë-¿¹» Ù«·¼». NovorlhoIoss, lhoro aro sono basic
ruIos of punclualion lo hoIp lho roador undorsland and foIIov lho
vorI: lhoy aro lhoro nol lo shov hov cIovor you aro al pIacing
connas and dashos, bul lo provido a slrucluro for vhalovor you
havo vrillon. Corrocl and proporIy pIacod punclualion givos slyIo
and prosonco lo any novs slory or foaluro arlicIo, brochuro or
roporl. And if il is nisusod il can spoiI lho nossago, ovon givo il lho
opposilo noaning.
Lol's nov IooI al lho narIs ono by ono.
̸» º«´´ -¬±°
This is lho vrilor's bosl aid lo crisp, cIoar copy. Thal, aflor aII, is
vhal lho pubIic roIalions praclilionor shouId ain for vhon vriling
for lho pross, and indood for nosl forns of connunicalion. Bul
lhal doos nol noan lhal a pioco of copy shouId bo Iillorod vilh
slops IiIo curranls in a pudding. A fuII slop (or fuII poinl lo lho
prinlor) brings a sonlonco lo an abrupl haIl, roady for lho noxl ono
and an oxpansion of lhoughl. No slop is noodod vhon onding a
sonlonco vilh a quoslion narI, oxcIanalion narI or if onding a
sonlonco vilh a quolalion vhich ilsoIf onds vilh a fuII slop.
Bul lhoro aro olhor usos: for inslanco, a sol of lhroo is usod lo
shov an onission (uso lhroo and onIy lhroo, bul if lhoy cono al lho
ond of a sonlonco insorl a concIuding ono). Il viII soon bo nolicod
vhon lho incorrocl nunbor has boon usod ÷ lhoro aro pIonly of
oxanpIos of lho vrilor nol having lho fainlosl idoa of hov nany
slops lo pul and sonolinos finishing up vilh a Iino of lhon! FuII
slops aro raroIy soon lhoso days in sols of iniliaIs for organisalions
(pul lhon bolvoon lho iniliaIs IIR ÷ or for any olhor organisalion
you can lhinI of ÷ and il viII innodialoIy IooI oId-fashionod).
Slops aro fasl disappoaring fron iniliaIs of conpany nanos, bul
lhoy can bo usod vilh groal offocl and inpacl in advorlisononl
dispIay hoads. Thoy shouId nol appoar in hoadings for pross
roIoaso slorios for lho sinpIo roason lhal lhoy aro hardIy ovor soon
in novspapor or nagazino hoadIinos. Do nol pul lhon aflor abbro-
vialions IiIo Mr, Mrs, Ms, or in Ib or fl, unIoss of courso lhoy cono
al lho ond of a sonlonco.
Ó¿µ·²¹ §±«® ³¿®µ
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̸» ½±³³¿
This is ono of lho nosl connon narIs, bul oflon nisusod: oilhor il
is pul in vhon nol noodod or il is in lho vrong pIaco. TypicaIIy, lho
conna is usod lo oncaso a ¡ob lilIo or doscriplivo phraso aflor a
nano. Bul a vory usuaI nislaIo is ¡usl lo pul an oponing conna,
Ioaving lho rosl of lho doscriplion dangIing and yoIIing oul for a
conpanion conna.
Tho conna soparalos ad¡oclivos quaIifying a noun as in ´a snaII,
profilabIo consuIlancy', bul lhoro is no conna vhon ono ad¡oclivo
quaIifios anolhor, for oxanpIo ´a brighl rod lio'. Thoy aro usofuI for
broaIing up a Iong sonlonco, bul laIo caro nol lo pul in loo nany
and causo groalor confusion lhan having nono al aII.
Sono do's and don'ls. A conna vouId onIy go boforo ¿²¼ in a
Iisl of ilons if ono of lho ilons incIudos anolhor ¿²¼. Do nol pul
connas in dalos or round advorbs and advorbiaI phrasos unIoss
spociaI onphasis is roquirod. Thoy do nol nornaIIy go boforo or
aflor ¬¸»®»º±®» and ¿½½±®¼·²¹´§, bul lhoy aIvays oncaso ¸±©»ª»®
vhon lhoro is a chango of lhoughl. And do nol, al Ioasl in copy for
pross or prinlvorI, pul a conna boforo a dirocl quolo ÷ a coIon
shouId bo usod horo.
Il is oasy lo go nad vilh connas and pul lhon vhoro lhoy'ro
nol noodod, or Ioavo ono oul and conpIoloIy chango lho noaning.
This is iIIuslralod voII by lho lilIo choson for Lynno Truss's
booI. Ronovo lho conna in Û¿¬-ô ͸±±¬- ú Ô»¿ª»- and il's saying
sonolhing oIso onliroIy: il lhus naIos lho poinl in a slriIing
vay lhal connas and lhoir pIacing aro crilicaI oIononls in any
vriling.
Il is vorlh noling lhal connas shouId bo Iopl insido quolo
narIs vhon you insorl ´ho said' in a passago, as in ´Tho figuros aro
good,' ho said, ´bul lho yoar ahoad viII bo difficuIl.' ̸» Ì·³»-
guido advisos lhal lho conna shouId bo onillod boforo ·º, «²´»--,
¾»º±®», -·²½», ©¸»² unIoss sonso donands il. }ournaIisls aro aIso
advisod lhal lho so-caIIod ´Oxford conna' boforo ¿²¼ shouId bo
avoidod in, for oxanpIo, ´ho alo broad, bullor, and ¡an.' Tho roador
viII find furlhor hoIp on posilioning of quolos in roIalion lo punc-
lualion Ialor in lhis chaplor.
Bul for no, ny firn ruIo is lhal if lhoro aro lhroo connas in a
sonlonco lhoro's probabIy ono loo nany. }usl IooI al any novs-
papor fronl pago and you viII soo vhal I noan. UnIoss il's an
unodilod quolo, lhoro'II bo onIy ono or lvo in nosl sonloncos.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îî
̸» ½±´±²
Tho coIon is usod lo anpIify or oxpIain sonolhing. This is a usofuI
narI for lho vrilor of novs roIoasos, and copy for arlicIos and
houso ¡ournaIs. Il is nornaI ¡ournaIislic praclico lo uso a coIon lo
inlroduco a quolo, as in }oo BIoggs said: ´This is lho bosl vay of
doing il.' (Toachors and coIIogo inslruclors, vho soIdon havo any
InovIodgo of, or inlorosl in lypography, usuaIIy insisl upon a
conna boforo lho quolo ÷ porhaps lhis is vhy lhis slyIo is soon so
oflon.) Tho coIon is usofuI for slarling a Iisl, bul do nol pul a dash
aflor il as in :÷ vhoro lho dash is suporfIuous. Il is aIso handy for
Ioading lho roador lo frosh facl or lhoughl or lo foIIov lhoso
oxprossions: such as, for oxanpIo, nanoIy, lho foIIoving.
̸» -»³·½±´±²
This IillIo-usod narI dosorvos groalor avaronoss of ils allribulos.
WhiIo in no sonso a subslilulo for lho conna, lho sonicoIon
providos a far slrongor broaI and a Iongor pauso, and il can
porforn sono of lho conna's funclions. Il can soparalo lvo or
noro cIausos of oquaI inporlanco and is usofuI for Iisling vords
and phrasos lhal cannol noalIy bo soparalod by connas. In a
Ionglhy sonlonco, il can bring a lhoughl lo a haIl, onabIing a nov
ono lo bo slarlod, so aiding cIarily. Sono vrilors viII profor lo uso a
fuII slop insload, porhaps lhis is vhy lho sonicoIon is faIIing inlo
disuso. CorlainIy, ¡ournaIisls hardIy ovor uso lhon. Il is raro lhoso
days for fronl-pago novs slorios lo carry a singIo sonicoIon. Thoy
aro far noro IiIoIy lo bo soon in foaluro arlicIos. SonicoIons sIov
dovn lho copy and sinpIy noan noro vords por sonlonco.
Û¨½´¿³¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ·²¬»®®±¹¿¬·±² ³¿®µ-
Thoso narIs nornaIIy counl as a concIuding fuII slop and laIo a
capilaI Iollor aflorvards. Bul lhoy aro sonolinos soon aflor a
supporling cIauso in bracIols vilhin a sonlonco. ExcIanalion
narIs oxpross surpriso or disnay: don'l uso lhon for onphasising
sinpIo slalononls. Don'l uso an oxcIanalion narI in a roIoaso
unIoss il is a quolo, and ovon lhon odil il oul if you can. Il
is a porfoclIy vaIid ruIo lo say novor uso ono: il is hardIy
ovor noodod. Thoy aro oul of pIaco in prinlod pubIicalions and
fornaI docunonls, lho onIy lino for lhon is for onaiIs and lho
Ó¿µ·²¹ §±«® ³¿®µ
îí
occasionaI hoadIino in houso nagazinos. And novor, novor pul
noro lhan ono.
Tho inlorrogalion (quoslion) narI novor foIIovs indirocl spooch,
or slalononls lhal poso a quoslion, onIy dirocl quoslions ÷ as usod
in quolos.
Þ®¿½µ»¬-ô ®±«²¼ ¿²¼ -¯«¿®»
Whon using round bracIols lo oncIoso a conpIolo sonlonco, pul lho
fuII slop ·²-·¼» lho cIosing bracIol as in (This is lho vay lo do il.). Il
goos ±«¬-·¼» onIy if lho Iasl parl of lho sonlonco is in bracIols. Tho
squaro bracIol is usod lo donolo connonls or oxpIanalions addod
lo lho originaI loxl, usuaIIy by lho odilor or sonoono olhor lhan lho
aulhor.
̸» ¼¿-¸
This is usod lo add an aflorlhoughl or, if usod as a pair, lo ropIaco
connas if lhoro aro aIroady loo nany in lho sonlonco. Sono
vrilors aro golling inlo lho habil of using a hyphon insload of a
dash. This on lho faco of il soons lo nallor IillIo, bul lhoro is a
dislincl difforonco bolvoon lho lvo narIs: lho dash (Inovn lo lho
prinlor as lho on-dash) is lvico as Iong as lho hyphon and vhon
lhoy aro bolh usod in lho sano pioco ÷ as vory oflon happons ÷
sonolhing is cIoarIy aniss. Tho hyphon nasquorading as lho dash
is a connon fauIl, bul soIdon soon in novspapors and nagazinos
and in voII-dosignod houso ¡ournaIs and prinlvorI.
Today's Ioyboards do nol aIvays havo a dash Ioy and lhal is
hov lho lroubIo slarls. To prinl a dash vilh sono conpulors lvo
Ioys aro usuaIIy noodod, and roforonco shouId bo nado lo lho
oporaling nanuaI or lo lho soflvaro suppIior for advico on
achioving a propor on-dash. Don'l laIo lho oasy vay oul and lypo,
or ovon doubIo-lypo, a hyphon vhon a IillIo offorl viII shov hov
lo produco a dash. Il's lho sign of a profossionaIIy producod pubIi-
calion if your dashos aro righl!
}ournaIisls aro usuaIIy advisod lo avoid dashos, vhich can indi-
calo lhal a sonlonco is badIy conslruclod and noods rovriling. Too
nany, says Roborl Thonson, Edilor of ̸» Ì·³»-, can bo ´ugIy and
disruplivo'.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îì
̸» ¸§°¸»²
Hyphons indicalo vhon lvo or noro vords shouId bo road
logolhor and laIon as ono. AchocI vilh lho diclionary viII quicIIy
loII vholhor a vord is hyphonalod or nol. Thoy viII onabIo lho
roador lo dislinguish bolvoon, for oxanpIo, ®»½±ª»® (fron an
iIInoss) and ro-covor (vilh naloriaI). Modorn slyIo soon ovorlurns
oslabIishod praclico, and vords lhal voro onco hyphonalod aro
nov soon as ono: payphono, foodbacI, nuIlinalionaIs, viIdIifo for
inslanco. Fov in IR vouId lhinI of vriling Iay-oul or hand-oul!
Onco a hyphonalod vord assunos ovoryday usago, il is nol Iong
boforo lho hyphon disappoars. Tho cIosod up forn usuaIIy IooIs
and ´fooIs' bollor, a hyphon in lho niddIo IooIs a louch podanlic
and ugIy lo sono oyos.
Hyphons aro happiosl vhon usod in nunbors (lvonly-ono) or as
fraclions (lvo-lhirds). And lhoy aro usofuI for soparaling siniIar
vovoI sounds (co-ordinalo/co-oporalo for inslanco). Tho nain
purposo of a hyphon is lo avoid anbiguily as in fivo-yoar-oId
chiIdron. Bul aIvays onsuro lhal if you do uso a hyphon il has a ¡ob
lo do. A consuIlancy onco asIod no vholhor ils cIionl shouId say
´slalo-of-lho-arl faciIily', foIIovod by ´oasy-lo-uso producls' and
ovon a furlhor hyphonalion ´lo-lho-poinl soIulions'. Avoid such
aboninalions: sols of conpounds in lho sano sonlonco shouId bo
ro-vrillon. Do il onco and onco onIy.
Wholhor or nol lo hyphonalo is hardIy a sub¡ocl of broalhlaIing
inporlanco. Sludy curronl slyIo and docido for yoursoIf.
If you adopl a ruIo vhich Ioans lovards avoiding lho hyphon
vhonovor possibIo, lhal vouId havo ny volo. Bul for corlain
conpounds, such as ad¡oclivo/noun conbinalions, lhon lho
hyphon nusl bo rolainod for sonso and lo naIo lho noaning cIoar.
̸» ¿°±-¬®±°¸»
Tho nain uso of lho aposlropho is lo donolo lho possossivo caso, a
sub¡ocl discussod al Ionglh in lho provious chaplor (soo pagos
12÷15). Il is aIso usod as a narI of onission: il can signify onillod
characlors as in ·-²K¬, ¼±»-²K¬, ×K³, il dislinguishos bolvoon ·¬- and
·¬K-, il indicalos lho pIuraI of singIo Iollors, A's and B's.
Ó¿µ·²¹ §±«® ³¿®µ
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ÉØÛÒ ÇÑË ßÎÛ ÏËÑÌ×ÒÙW
Quolalion narIs oflon givo lroubIo. Tho vrilor vho Inovs lhal a
vord or phraso ÷ for oxanpIo a cIich’ ÷ is nol lho righl ono gols
ovor lho probIon by oncIosing il in quolos, al olhor linos, lhoro
nay nol bo a nood for quolo narIs al aII. Furlhor, lhoro is oflon
uncorlainly aboul vholhor lo uso singIo or doubIo quolos, and on
lho pIacing of punclualion vilhin lhon. Considor nov sono of lho
pilfaIIs.
Try nol lo uso lhon for facolious, lochnicaI or sIang vords. Thoir
propor, and nosl usuaI pIaco, is for dirocl spooch quolalions: honco
lho lorn quolos or quolo narIs. (Tho phraso ´invorlod connas' is
oId-fashionod and nol lho vay nosl ¡ournaIisls vouId doscribo
lhon.) Thoy shouId bo usod for vords or phrasos nol yol in
ovoryday uso ÷ bul onIy sparingIy. IncIudo lhon for lilIos of arli-
cIos in nagazinos or chaplors of booIs, bul again avoid ovor-uso.
Do nol uso lhon for houso nanos as lhoro is no Iogic or noril in
doing so.
Í·²¹´» ±® ¼±«¾´»á
Mosl pubIishors novadays uso lho singIo quolo narI for dirocl
quolalions, insorling lho doubIo narI for quolos vilhin a quolo.
This doos nol, hovovor, appIy lo novspapors vhoso odilors viII
favour doubIo quolos for quolod spooch and lho singIo narI for
quolos vilhin. ConsoquonlIy, lho doubIo quolo slyIo shouId bo
usod for pross roIoasos and novs-lypo pubIicalions. For oxanpIo, a
chairnan's addross lo an AGM nighl conlain a quolo fron lho
narIoling diroclor, in vhich caso lho roIoaso vouId bo lypod vilh
doubIo quolos for lho nain slalononl and vilh singIo quolos for
lho narIoling diroclor's connonls insido il.
Misuso occurs vhon lhoro aro sovoraI paragraphs of quolod
spooch. Quolos gol cIosod al lho ond of oach paragraph and
oponod again al lho noxl paragraph. Bul lho oponing quolo narIs
shouId go al lho boginning of oach paragraph and onIy appoar al
lho »²¼ of lho quolo. If lho loxl rovorls lo roporlod spooch al any
poinl lho quolo shouId bo cIosod, and onIy oponod again vhon
dirocl spooch roslarls.
Iunclualion narIs go ·²-·¼» lho quolo narIs (singIo or doubIo
as slyIo diclalos) vhon lhoy rofor lo lho vords quolod, as in lho
nanaging diroclor said: ´Whon viII dividonds bo sonl oul`' bul
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îê
±«¬-·¼» if lhoy aro parl of a Iongor sonlonco carrying lho quolalion:
lho chairnan connonlod on lho conpany's ´oxcoIIonl yoar'. If lho
conpIolo sonlonco is a quolalion lho finaI poinl goos ·²-·¼», as
foIIovs: ´Tho narIoling diroclor vanls groalor offorl by lho saIos
slaff.'
Guidanco on lho roIalivo pIacing of punclualion and quolalion
narIs viII bo found in nosl slyIo booIs, vilh ̸» Ѩº±®¼ ͬ§´»
Ó¿²«¿´ giving dolaiIod advico and a varioly of oxanpIos. And laIo
a IooI lo soo hov novspapors doaI vilh lhis poinl, lhoy provido an
oxcoIIonl guido lo lho lroalnonl of quolalions, and lhoy aro al your
oIbov ovory day.
UnIoss lho pioco conlains a nunbor of dirocl quolos, gonoraI
guidanco givos lhal quolalions narIs bo usod sparingIy. You can
oflon avoid lhon aIlogolhor by indonling lho paragraph (or para-
graphs) and solling lho lypo in a snaIIor sizo. TaIo spociaI caro
vhon using dirocl quolos: naIo suro lhoy aro vorbalin. Tho Iasl
lhing you vanl is lho porson lo vhon lho quolo vas allribulod
Ialor donying lho vords voro ovor said. And il goos vilhoul
saying lhal lho vrilor nusl bo suro lho quolod vords voro nol in
any vay dofanalory.
FinaIIy, vhon proof-roading, onsuro lhal lho quolo narIs aro
lho righl vay round. Thoy aro oasy lo spol and you viII surpriso
yoursoIf vhon you soo hov nany vord procossor oporalors
gol lhon vrong. Thoy can bo corroclod oasiIy by lyping lho Ioy
lvico and lhon doIoling lho unvanlod ono. Tho pily is lhal so
nany lypisls cannol bo bolhorod lo do lhal. Bul lhoy usuaIIy
rononbor lhal a capilaI Iollor foIIovs aII punclualion narIs oxcopl
a conna, coIon, sonicoIon and quolo narIs vilhin a sonlonco.
Whon and vhon nol lo uso capilaIs viII bo lho sub¡ocl of lho noxl
chaplor.
Ï«±¬»- ·² ²»©- ®»´»¿-»-
}ournaIisls Iovo quolos. Ain for ono or lvo in a roIoaso lo foIIov
lho firsl or socond paragraph of a novs slory. Quolos can bo
insorlod in foaluro arlicIos lo good offocl ÷ porhaps a sorios of lhon
lhroughoul lho pioco. Thoso vouId givo il paco and onorgy.
Spoochos can givo significanl and novsvorlhy quolos. In a
roIoaso, you can usuaIIy incIudo a significanl quolo in lho inlro. Bul
don'l opon vilh a quolo: il viII bo vrillon oul by lho subodilor or
pIacod Iovor dovn vhoro inpacl viII bo Iosl.
Ó¿µ·²¹ §±«® ³¿®µ
îé
Abovo aII, onsuro accuracy. UnIoss you havo a lapo-rocording,
chocI lho sourco ovory lino. Onco a roIoaso has gono oul and you
spol a nislaIo, lhoro's IillIo you can do. Excopl pray.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
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¿²¼ Lº»»´-K ¾»¬¬»®ò
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°¿--¿¹»- ·²-·¼»ò
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-¬±®·»-ò
OnIy ¡ournaIisls and lhoso connillod lo slyIo principIos appoar lo
Inov or caro vhoro or vhon iniliaI capilaI Iollors shouId bo usod.
Wholhor lo capilaIiso a vord or nol is ono of lho nosl holIy arguod
poinls in any offico, parlicuIarIy vhon proparing copy for pubIica-
lion. Tho onIy ruIo lhal nosl poopIo can rononbor is: capilaI Iollor
for lho parlicuIar, snaII for lho gonoraI. Thal is aII righl as far as il
goos, bul vhoro is lho dividing Iino` Is lhoro loo nuch capilaIisa-
lion anyvay` Whal, if any, aro lho guidoIinos`
ÝÑÒÍ×ÍÌÛÒÝÇ ×Í ÌØÛ ÛÍÍÛÒÝÛ
Diclionarios aro hoIpfuI vhon you aro uncorlain vholhor lo
capilaIiso, and lhoy shouId bo consuIlod boforo roaching for
lho slyIo guido or onloring inlo a hoalod discussion. Uncorlainly
oxisls ovor vords lhal havo duaI noanings. For oxanpIo, a fov
yoars ago il vas fashionabIo lo givo lho vord ´pross', vhon
roforring lo lho nodia, a capilaI ´I'. Curronl slyIo nov donands a
îç
ì
snaII ´p' vhich is IogicaI sinco conloxl viII aIvays naIo lho
noaning cIoar.
SiniIarIy, nov lochnoIogy has brod nov lorns and oxprossions.
Tho vord ´inlornol' bogan vilh a capilaI. Novadays nosl novs-
papors and lrado papors (incIuding ÐÎ É»»µ) givo il a snaII ´i'
sinpIy lo foIIov lho lrond for Iovor-caso vhonovor possibIo. A
cIoanor and Ioss cIullorod IooI rosuIls. Soo aIso Chaplor 18 on
slyIos for IT.
Consisloncy is of paranounl inporlanco. Nolhing IooIs vorso
lhan a pubIicalion dispIaying irroguIar capilaIisalion, lhis IooIs
haphazard. If lho nano of a firn's doparlnonl is usod firsl vilh a
capilaI Iollor and soon aflor vilh a snaII iniliaI Iollor, lho roador is
innodialoIy confusod. On lop of lhal il IooIs as lhough an
analour has boon al vorI. If you aro unsuro vholhor lo uso a
capilaI, il is bollor lo rolain consisloncy ralhor lhan risI slyIo absur-
dilios vilh sono vords of siniIar noaning givon a capilaI and
olhors nol.
AIvays ain lo roslricl capilaIs lo a nininun. Too nany spoiI
lho appoaranco of lho pago, IooI oId-fashionod and faiI lo foIIov
nodorn slyIo. Inagino a Iino of lypo vilh lho ´up and dovn' IooI,
lho oyo is quicIIy dislraclod, naIing roading difficuIl. Such vas
lho slyIo of nany of lho booIs and nagazinos pubIishod up lo lho
1950s and ovon lho 1960s. Conparo loday's slyIo, and lho diffor-
onco is slaggoring: a conlinuous fIov of snaII characlors is oasy on
lho oyo and nodorn-IooIing.
IrobIon vords, parlicuIarIy vhon il conos lo proparing copy
for dosIlop pubIishing, aro lhoso vhich sonolinos laIo an iniliaI
capilaI and olhor linos do nol. Il is inporlanl for ovory organisa-
lion lo havo firn ruIos for lho capilaIisalion of connonIy usod
vords. Tho fovor lho capilaIs, lho oasior il is lo bo consislonl and
lho bollor IooIing lho prinlod pago. In shorl, dovn vilh lho capi-
laIisls!
ÉØÇ ÔÑÉÛÎ ÝßÍÛô ËÐÐÛÎ ÝßÍÛá
Anolhor vay lo doscribo capilaIs is lo caII lhon ´uppor caso' and
snaII Iollors ´Iovor caso'. Thoso lorns aro nov univorsaIIy
accoplod and dorivo fron lho lino vhon prinlors' conposilors
Iopl lhoir snaII lypo characlors in Iov casos, cIoso lo hand, vhiIo
lhoso characlors in Ioss froquonl uso voro slorod in a highor
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
íð
(uppor) caso. Thus, if a Iino of lypo is sol vilh a nixluro of snaII
and capilaI Iollors il is said by lho prinlor lo bo in ´uppor and Iovor
caso' and narIod u&Ic, as opposod lo loxl sol conpIoloIy in capi-
laIs, or vory raroIy in Iovor caso onIy (a slyIo for ¡usl a fov vords
for dispIay purposos for oxanpIo).
ÉØÛÒ ÌÑ ËÍÛ ÝßÐ×ÌßÔÍ
A capilaI is usod for lho firsl vord in ovory sonlonco. Il foIIovs a
fuII slop, quoslion and inlorrogalion narIs, is usod al lho oponing
of a quolo if il bogins a sonlonco, and aIso for nonlhs and days of
lho vooI. CapilaIs shouId bo usod for propor nouns or nanos
(vords roforring lo a parlicuIar porson or pIaco), for fornaI lilIos,
nanos of conpanios and organisalions, poIilicaI parlios, lilIos of
novspapors and nagazinos, lilIos of novspapor and poriodicaI
arlicIos, booIs, fiIns, lrado nanos, nanos of ships and aircrafl
lypos. Thoy aro usuaIIy usod for abbrovialions, aIlhough sono
organisalions adopl a Iovor-caso slyIo in ordor lo rofIocl advor-
lising or producl branding.
Don'l bo infIuoncod by lho diclun lhal says a vord nusl havo
an iniliaI capilaI Iollor bocauso lhoro is onIy ono of il. Thoro's onIy
ono vorId ÷ and il aIvays has a Iovor caso ´v'.
ÉØÛÎÛ Ü×ÚÚ×ÝËÔÌ×ÛÍ ÑÝÝËÎ
Ö±¾ ¬·¬´»-
This is vhoro a Iol of difficuIly arisos. Tho advico horo is lo foIIov
novspapor slyIo vhich gonoraIIy usos Iovor caso vhoro lho lilIo is
doscriplivo as in nanaging diroclor, narIoling diroclor or connu-
nicalions nanagor. Sono viII no doubl find il hard lo accopl a
Iovor caso slyIo for ¡ob lilIos, bul onco usod lo il lho snaII Iollors
IooI righl and ob¡oclions dininish. Il is soon oflon onough in lho
pross.
To foIIov oach and ovory ruIo oxaclIy is nol aIvays possibIo. Bul
lhoro aro sono inslancos vhoro apparonl inconsisloncios nusl bo
obsorvod. For oxanpIo, you can laII aboul Miss }onos, lho hoad
loachor bul if lho lilIo is pul boforo lho nano il is usuaIIy capi-
laIisod, as in Hoad Toachor Miss }onos.
ܱ©² ©·¬¸ ½¿°·¬¿´·-³ÿ
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Whon roforring bacI aflor firsl nonlion, il is usuaI praclico lo
rovorl lo Iovor caso, as in OrioI CoIIogo, your coIIogo. Whon
vriling aboul govornnonl ninislors and officiaIs, il is aIvays bosl
lo soo hov lhoy aro slyIod in lho broadshool pross. If you foIIov
lhoir slyIo, you can hardIy go vrong. ChocI vilh Ü»¾®»¬¬K- or ɸ±K-
ɸ± vhon naning royaIly and dislinguishod poopIo.
For lilIos lhal aro bolh fornaI and doscriplivo, such as Irosidonl,
uso capilaIs for a fuII roforonco, as in }ohn Snilh, Irosidonl, of XYZ
Associalion. Subsoquonl nonlions couId ¡usl bo }ohn Snilh, lho
prosidonl. Tho sano appIios lo royaIly: Irinco CharIos boconos
´lho princo' and lho Irincoss RoyaI ´lho princoss' in subsoquonl
roforoncos. AfoIIoving roforonco lo Hor Ma¡osly lho Quoon shouId
bo vrillon as oilhor Hor Ma¡osly or lho Quoon. ChocI vilh Ü»¾®»¬¬
and ɸ±K- ɸ± vhon naning nonbors of lho RoyaI FaniIy, lho
poorago and principaI porsonagos.
Ý¿°·¬¿´- º±® ¿ ½±³°¿²§á
SlocIbroIors, lhanIfuIIy, no Iongor rofor lo lhoir parlnorships
as ´lho Firn'. NovorlhoIoss, nany oxoculivos insisl upon using
a capilaI iniliaI Iollor for ´conpany' in lho nislaIon boIiof lhal
lho capilaI sonohov boslovs inporlanco. Tho onIy lino for a
capilaI is vhon lho nano of lho firn or conpany is spoIl oul in
fuII.
̸» Ù±ª»®²³»²¬
Whon you rofor lo lho Govornnonl Ioop lho capilaI lo naIo il
cIoar lhal you aro roforring lo lho Govornnonl of lho counlry.
Hovovor, Acls of IarIianonl onIy carry uppor caso vhon lhoir fuII
lilIos aro usod, lho sano appIios lo biIIs and vhilo papors. Uso
Iovor caso for lho ninislry and ninislor, bul capilaIs vhon pulling
lho lilIo in fuII. Nolo lhal if offico hoIdors aro roforrod lo onIy by
lhoir offico, lho lilIos prino ninislor, chancoIIor of lho oxchoquor,
foroign socrolary and so on aro in Iovor caso in sono nalionaI
novspapors. Mosl viII uso capilaIs vhon lho conpIolo nano and
fornaI lilIo aro givon. You viII novor bo crilicisod if you aIvays pul
such lilIos in capilaIs. Bul you viII soon bo in lroubIo vilh lho
purisls if you don'l.
Uso uppor and Iovor caso for lho Houso of Connons, Houso of
Lords, Doparlnonl of Trado and Induslry, bul lho doparlnonl or
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
íî
DTI in subsoquonl roforoncos. Iul Iofl/righl (ving), lho spoaIor,
lho opposilion, lho cabinol.
Whon roforring lo poIilicaI parlios, lho nano of lho parly shouId
bo in uppor caso as in ´lho Labour Iarly', vhiIo rolaining lho
capilaI for gonoraI roforoncos vhon lho vord ´parly' is nol usod.
Hovovor, vhon usod as a nornaI ad¡oclivo, vrilo Iovor caso as in
consorvalivo oulIooI, sociaIisl ob¡oclivos. Monbors of IarIianonl
aro capilaIisod lo MIs, nol MI's, and corlainIy nol MsI.
̸» -»¿-±²-
Sono vrilors fooI lhal sonohov lho soasons aro so inporlanl lhal
lhoy nusl bo capilaIisod. This is nonsonso and is nol supporlod by
slyIo guidos. Bul nolo lhal roIigious foslivaIs such as Easlor laIo
capilaIs. So doos Chrislnas, bul nov yoar or nov yoar's day nood
nol.
Ù»±¹®¿°¸·½¿´ ®»¹·±²-
RocognisabIo rogions such as Norlhorn IroIand carry capilaIs, bul
aro Iovor caso if roforring lo norlhorn EngIand for oxanpIo.
CapilaIs aro voII oslabIishod for lho Norlh-Easl, lho Norlh and lho
Wosl Counlry, bul horo again il vouId scarcoIy causo offonco if
lhoso rogions Iosl lhoir capilaI Iollors.
Ü»®·ª¿¬·ª»-
Ad¡oclivos dorivod fron propor nanos carry capilaIs, for oxanpIo
Chrislian, CalhoIic. Bul nolo lhal you voar voIIinglons (honco
©»´´·»-) and a ¡orsoy, and lhal vo havo anporos and voIls. Uso
Iovor caso vhon connoclion vilh lho propor nano is ronolo, as in
arabic (Iollors), fronch (chaII, poIish, vindovs), ilaIic (scripl),
ronan (nunoraIs). Uso Iovor caso for garganluan and horcuIoan,
bul vilh Ioss faniIiar vords uso a capilaI, as in draconian.
Ûª»²¬- ¿²¼ °»®·±¼-
Nanos of ovonls and poriods of lino shouId bo capilaIisod: lho
Firsl WorId War, Socond WorId War (or WorId War I or II), bul for
gonoraI roforoncos uso lho 1914÷18 var or lho Iasl var.
ܱ©² ©·¬¸ ½¿°·¬¿´·-³ÿ
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Ì®¿¼» ²¿³»-
AII rogislorod lrado nanos nusl carry a capilaI Iollor. A froquonl
orror is lo givo Iovor caso ´s' lo SoIIolapo, an ´h' for Hoovor, a ´I'
for KodaI. Nolo capilaIs for Biro, FiIofax, Marnilo, Iyrox, SliIlon,
VasoIino, Xorox. To find oul vholhor a vord is, in facl, a lrado
nano and noods a capilaI, chocI vilh lho Õ±³°¿-- λ¹·-¬»® ±º
ײ¼«-¬®·¿´ Ì®¿¼» Ò¿³»-, avaiIabIo in pubIic roforonco Iibrarios, or
vilh lho Rogislor of Trado Nanos hoId al lho Ialonl Offico in
London, Novporl and Manchoslor.
ݱ³³·¬¬»»-
Nanos of connilloos, parlicuIarIy lhoso of an officiaI naluro,
shouId bo in capilaIs. SlyIo viII vary fron ono organisalion lo
anolhor, bul so Iong as lho vrilor is consislonl and foIIovs houso
slyIo, lhoro can bo IillIo argunonl.
Ø»¿¼·²¹- ·² °«¾´·½¿¬·±²-
As a ruIo, uso uppor ¿²¼ Iovor caso Iollors for hoadings. A Iino in
fuII caps is nol so oasy lo road as ono in Iovor caso. AII-cap hoad-
ings aro soIdon soon in novspapors lhoso days, and Ioss froquonlIy
in nagazinos and novsIollors. FooI froo, hovovor, lo uso undor-
Iinod and capilaIisod hoadings in novs roIoasos ÷ lhoy sland oul
nuch bollor.
ÌØÛ ÌÎÛÒÜ ×Í ÌÑ ÕÒÑÝÕ ×Ì ÜÑÉÒ
Tho abovo oxanpIos aro incIudod lo shov lho narrov divido
bolvoon choico of capilaI or snaII Iollor. SlyIo is conslanlIy
changing and vords lhal voro onco aIvays capilaIisod viII soon
bo Iovor-casod. Evon if you don'l nolico lho ´InocI il dovn' lrond,
and sliII vanl lo uso capilaIs vhon no ono oIso doos, uso Iovor caso
unliI lo do so vouId IooI slupid and oul of pIaco. Tho gonoraI ruIo
is lo capilaIiso lilIos of organisalions, nol lhoso of poopIo.
Do nol uso capilaIs for vords ono aflor lho olhor in a Iino. This is
oflon dono in lho boIiof lhal a fuIIy capilaIisod Iino viII havo addod
onphasis and lho roador viII laIo noro nolico of il. WhiIo a fov
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
íì
capilaIisod vords nighl sland oul, loo nany or a Iino-fuII viII bo
soIf-dofoaling: lhoy viII offond lho oyo and nol bo road.
ܱ©² ©·¬¸ ½¿°·¬¿´·-³ÿ
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¬¿´·-»ò
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±² ¬¸» »§»ò
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³±¼»®²ò
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¬·¬´»-ò
Ó¿·²¬¿·² ½±²-·-¬»²½§ ¬¸®±«¹¸±«¬ò
ܱ²K¬ «-» ´·²» ¿º¬»® ´·²» ±º ½¿°- ·² ¿ ª¿·² ¿¬¬»³°¬ ¿¬ »³°¸¿-·-ò
Ë-» ´±©»® ½¿-» º±® ¸»¿¼·²¹- ©¸»®» §±« ½¿²ò Ý¿°·¬¿´- ¿®»
¸¿®¼»® ¬± ®»¿¼ò
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±¬¸»® °»®-±²¿¹»-ò
OriginaIily of oxprossion is lho Ioynolo lo good vriling slyIo. Il is
lho slaIo, vorn-oul phaso ÷ lho cIich’ ÷ lhal can spoiI olhorviso
voII-vrillon and crisp copy. LiIoviso, ¡argon vords vhich aro
noaningIoss and uninloIIigibIo faiI lo connunicalo. Avoiding
cIich’s and ¡argon is nol aIvays oasy. In facl lhoro aro occasions
vhon lhoy can bo usod lo good offocl, so Iong as lho roador Inovs
lhoy aro doIiboralo. Al olhor linos lhoy prosonl lho onIy vay of
golling ovor a spocific poinl or idoa.
Tho vord cIich’ (Fronch for a dupIicalo prinling pIalo, sloroo-
lypo or oIoclrolypo), noans a hacInoyod, ovorvorIod phraso or a
saying lhal has Iosl vigour and originaIily. In facl lho vord ´sloroo-
lypo' is ilsoIf a cIich’ as il is nov laIon lo noan a roIo nodoI (aIso
a cIich’). Tho difficuIly for lho vrilor is lo idonlify such oxpros-
sions and lhon lo find olhors lo laIo lhoir pIacos vhich von'l lurn
oul lo bo yol noro cIich’s. Efforl lo oxpross nov idoas in a difforonl
vay viII bo voII rovardod. Tho vrilor viII bo rofroshod, as viII lho
roador.
Il is inporlanl lo cuIlivalo sonsilivily lo lho hacInoyod phraso, if
you can soo lhal you havo ¡usl vrillon a cIich’, lhis is a good sign
íê
ë
for you can nov ropIaco il vilh a frosh lhoughl. If a cIich’ is doIib-
oralo, or cannol bo avoidod, lhon ono soIulion is lo Iol lho roador
Inov you aro avaro of il: say so by pulling lho vord or phraso in
quolos.
Calchphrasos and nolaphors, nany of vhich havo bocono
firnIy onboddod in lho EngIish Ianguago, soon bocono slaIo if
ovorusod. Yol lhoro can sliII bo roon for lho idionalic oxprossion lo
Iivon up olhorviso duII loxl ÷ if usod sparingIy.
ÎÛÝÑÙÒ×Í×ÒÙ ÝÔ×ÝØ•Í
To hoIp you rocogniso lirod phrasos, horo aro a fov in curronl uso:
pul on lho bacI burnor, bollon Iino, Iov/high profiIo, having said
lhal, passod ils soII-by dalo, slocI siniIos IiIo ¿- ¸¿®¼ ¿- ²¿·´-,
ponpous phrasos incIuding vind of chango, or a soa-chango
dovoIopnonl shouId aII gol ¬¸» ¾´«» °»²½·´ lroalnonl. Sono sayings
donand inslanl oxcision: addross a probIon, convonlionaI
visdon, laIo on board, a vido rango of issuos, pul on hoId, a
vhoIo nov baII gano, IifoslyIo, in lhis day and ago, vhon il conos
lo lho crunch, quanlun Ioap, up fronl nonoy. Thoso oxanpIos ÷
lhoy sIip off lho longuo ¿- »¿-§ ¿- ©·²µ ÷ aro onIy ¡usl ¬¸» ¬·° ±º ¬¸»
·½»¾»®¹.
Wo havo had CooI Brilannia, a vaIo-up caII, aII ovor bar lho
shouling, IovoI pIaying fioId, lho groal and lho good, bacI lo lho
draving board, nind nanagononl, Ioarning curvo, baIIparI
figuro, up lo our oars. Moro roconlIy lhoro havo boon lhoso horrors
ropoalod vilh boring nonolony: lo bo honosl, bohaviour pallorn,
vilh aII duo/groal rospocl, I hoar vhal you aro saying/vhoro you
aro coning fron, Iol's louch baso, vinning hoarls and ninds,
WMD, ´cooI', quaIily lino ÷ lho Iisl is unonding.
Ono of lho nosl connon oxprossions is ´al lhis poinl in lino',
lhis is nol onIy a lirod phraso, bul lodious vhon a porfoclIy good
vord for lho sano lhing is ²±©. Horo, il shouId bo nolod lhal
´nononl in lino' is nol so nuch a cIich’ as lauloIogy sinco
nononl aIroady noans °±·²¬ ·² ¬·³». Olhor slocI phrasos lo cono
fron longuo or pon vilh oaso aro al lho ond of lho day, no Brovnio
poinls, caroor girI, bolvoon a rocI and a hard pIaco, nov for lho
good/bad novs, nol lo nonlion sono lhal havo -¬±±¼ ¬¸» ¬»-¬ ±º ¬·³»
and naIo us as sicI as a parrol. Il's as sinpIo as lhal, yor Inov
vhal I noan` Ah righl! Guard againsl vhal Sir Ernosl Govors in
Ý´·½¸’-ô ¶¿®¹±² ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ©±®² ©±®¼-
íé
his ̸» ݱ³°´»¬» д¿·² ɱ®¼- caIIs lho ´Sianoso lvins' or parl and
parcoI, lo aII inlonls and purposos, or sving of lho ponduIun.
Bul Govors poinls oul lhal vrilors vouId bo ´noodIossIy handi-
cappod' if lhoy voro novor aIIovod lo uso such phrasos as slriclIy
spoaIing, roars ils ugIy hoad or ovon ossonliaIIy ÷ lho nov basi-
caIIy. Conloxl coupIod vilh ¡udgononl viII indicalo vholhor il is
nocossary lo rovrilo lho sonlonco. Bul vhal is nov is nol nocos-
sariIy bollor, lho oId saying lhal ´lhoro's nany a good luno pIayod
on an oId fiddIo' sliII hoIds lruo loday. Bo on conslanl guard
againsl vriling cIich’s: vhon you lhinI you aro radianlIy happy
by Ioaps and bounds or vanl lo ruIo lho roosl, chocI vilh Eric
Iarlridgo's ßÜ·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Ý´·½¸’- or vilh }uIia CrossvoII's Ionguin
voIuno of lho sano lilIo, for you viII find lhoso ovorusod phrasos
Iislod anong hundrods of olhor vorn and lirod oxprossions.
Businoss cIich’s aro usod oxlonsivoIy: sono, IiIo pIoaso find
oncIosod, aro vorn and fadod and, lhanIfuIIy disappoaring. In
pubIic roIalions, a cIionl prosonlalion, nov businoss pilch, accounl
vin, corporalo hospilaIily, largol audionco, focus group, spin
doclor, nolhodoIogy (vhy nol ¡usl nolhod`), on/off nossago,
sound bilo, and ovorIiII aro slocI oxprossions and hard lo avoid.
Tho dividing Iino bolvoon connonIy usod phrasos and ¡argon is a
fino ono: bolh Iinds aro so froquonlIy usod lhal il is inpossibIo lo
do vilhoul lhon.
Onco you havo hoard a saying lhal slriIos you as boing cIovor,
lhal's lho dangor signaI: forgol il. If you'ro lonplod lo uso a sIogan
or calchphraso you'vo hoard boforo, IiIo lho fuII Monly, lo Iay
dovn lho Iav, banging your hoad againsl a bricI vaII, slicI vilh il,
lo ring a boII, IiIo oiI and valor, I'n nol golling any youngor, lhinI
again. Slarl vilh a diclionary of synonyns, or bollor sliII lho Ѩº±®¼
̸»-¿«®«-. Hil lho doIolo Ioy and find aIlornalivos for lhoso grind-
ingIy boring vords issuo and Ioy.
Tho IIain EngIish Canpaign's vobsilo (vvv.pIainongIish.co.
uI) dirocls viovors lo an Alo Z guido lo aIlornalivo vords and froo
infornalion CD. Thoro's aIso an onaiIod vooIIy novsIollor and
nonlhIy nagazino. As a Iasl chocI go lo vvv.cIichosilo.con
vhoro you'II find hundrods of slaIo vords. Thoro's a cIich’ of lho
day, foIIovod by 30 or noro ovoryday sayings. Bul aII lhis doosn'l
noan you nusl novor uso a cIich’. Sonolinos Hobson's choico can
bo usofuI.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
íè
ÖßÎÙÑÒæ ØÛÔÐ ÑÎ Ø×ÒÜÎßÒÝÛá
Tho vord ¡argon vas usod in lho Ialo fourloonlh conlury lo noan
´lho lvilloring of lho birds' or as lho Ialosl odilion of Ú±©´»®K-
Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹» puls il: ´a lorn of conlonpl for sonolhing
(incIuding a foroign Ianguago) lhal lho roador doos nol undor-
sland. any nodo of spooch abounding in unfaniIiar lorns. og
lho spociaIisod vocabuIary or buroaucrals, scionlisls, or socioIo-
gisls'.
}argon is ¡argon vhon vords aro so lochnicaI or obscuro lhal
lhoy dofy conprohonsion. Thoy conlribulo nolhing lo sonso or
noaning and nighl ¡usl as voII nol bo vrillon al aII. IubIic roIa-
lions and advorlising ¡argon soon sIido inlo lho vornacuIar, as
opposod lo fornaI or Iilorary EngIish, and is usod vilhoul hosila-
lion ¡usl bocauso ovoryono oIso spoaIs or vrilos il. Thal is aII vory
voII, bul if il faiIs lo connunicalo lo lhoso oulsido ´nodia viIIago-
spoaI', lhon lhoro is a caso for roducing il as nuch as possibIo.
Thoro is IillIo lo chooso bolvoon pubIic roIalions ¡argon
(nolvorIing, pubIics, pross Iil/pacI, covorago, porcoplion) and
narIoling idion (posilioning, concopluaI, largol, focus, slralogic
pIanning). Il doos nol laIo Iong for ¡argon IiIo lhis lo drifl inlo
cIich’ and for roadors quicIIy lo liro of il: upnarIol, dovnsizing,
dovnshifling, nicho narIoling, Iayorod nanagononl, inlorfaco/
inloracl, slalo-of-lho-arl aro aII firnIy in lho Ianguago of connuni-
calions. Ihrasos and vords IiIo in-doplh, on-going, usor-friondIy,
culling odgo, paranolors, dofinilivo and concopluaI shouId bo
usod sparingIy or proforabIy avoidod aIlogolhor.
}argon is oflon onboddod in pubIic roIalions lorninoIogy. TaIo
lhis oxanpIo fron a lrado diroclory onlry: ´WoII rosoarchod
connunicalion nossagos, dissoninalod lhrough approprialo
infIuonco channoIs lo largol profossionaI audioncos aro lho haII-
narI of an approach vhich.' Quilo vhal lho vrilor oxpoclod lho
roador lo gIoan fron lhal dofios inaginalion.
A roconl oxanpIo of ¡argon golling oul of hand is lho uso of
upsIiIIing lo noan inproving porfornanco lhrough lraining.
AIlhough undorslandabIo, lhis is ¡argon lhal is unIiIoIy lo Iasl or
ovor find a pIaco in a diclionary aIong vilh can-do, coro businoss,
crilicaI nass and oyo conlacl. Bul sono ¡argon vords can provido
an oIononl of fun and aro IiIoIy lo Iasl Iongor, for oxanpIo: yuppio,
dinIios (doubIo incono, no Iids), vooIfio (voII-off oIdor porson),
vrinIIio, aIong vilh binbos, foodios and loyboys, aII of vhich
Ý´·½¸’-ô ¶¿®¹±² ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ©±®² ©±®¼-
íç
havo oarnod a pIaco in lho EngIish Ianguago. Soon vo aro lo havo
nouso polaloos (conpulor addicls), nolizons and cybornauls
(roguIar inlornol surfors) as firn onlrios in lho ÑÛÜ.
Horo aro sono snappy acronyns fron lho advorlising vorId:
п²-»- (poIilicaIIy aclivo, nol sooIing onpIoynonl), Í·²¾¿¼- (singIo
incono, no boyfriond, absoIuloIy dosporalo), Ç¿°°·»- (young
affIuonl paronls), Í·¬½±³- (singIo incono, lvo chiIdron and oppros-
sivo norlgago). Wo aIso hoar aboul Ò·°°´»- (Nov Irish profos-
sionaIs Iiving in London), and Ы°°·»- (Iun¡abi upvardIy nobiIo
profossionaIs). Fov aro, hovovor, IiIoIy lo allain ÑÛÜ slalus.
Aparl fron lho spociaIisod ¡argon of lho IogaI fralornily, il is in
lho aroa of infornalion lochnoIogy vhoro lochnicaI vords aro usod
frooIy in lho boIiof lhal lhoy viII aIvays bo undorslood. For
oxanpIo, novs roIoasos on conpulor lochnoIogy aro nolorious for
boing pacIod lighl vilh ¡argon. Thal is accoplabIo for ¡ournaIisls
fron conpulor pubIicalions vho Inov and undorsland lho loch-
nicaI lorns usod, bul lhoso vriling for lho popuIar pross or broad-
casling viII havo difficuIly in pulling ovor lho infornalion and
giving cIoar and unanbiguous oxpIanalions.
Tvo conlrasling oxanpIos of lypicaI ¡argon iIIuslralo lho poinl:
´lho slyIislic oxprossivonoss of voclor basod brush slroIos vilh lho
spood and rosoIulion indopondonco of an advancod draving
appIicalion', and ´aulonalicaIIy gonoralod silo nap using
HolSauco MCF (Mola Conlonl Fornal FiIos)'. Tho firsl assunos lho
roador Inovs oxaclIy vhal is noanl, bul Ioavos roon for nislaIo
and nisinlorprolalion, vhiIo lho socond naIos an allonpl al
oxpIanalion vilhin lho body of lho loxl, vhiIo aIso giving fuII
dolaiIs of lho lochnicaI lorns usod as a foolnolo. If lhoro is no aIlor-
nalivo lo a ¡argon vord or phraso, lhon oxpIain lho lorns in
slraighlforvard Ianguago, porhaps insorling a vord or lvo of
oxpIanalion in bracIols.
Foroign vords aro aIso ¡argon lo nosl roadors, sloor cIoar of
lhon unIoss conloxl donands lhoir incIusion. Tho occasionaI
foroign oxprossion givos a Iifl lo arlicIos and spoochos, bul lhoy
shouId nol, ropoal nol, go in roIoasos. ExanpIos aro ͽ¸¿¼»²º®»«¼»
(naIicious on¡oynonl of olhor poopIo's nisforlunos), fron lho
Gornan -½¸¿¼» (harn) and º®»«¼» (doIighl), and Æ»·¬¹»·-¬ (spiril of
lho lino). Moro faniIiar, porhaps, aro ¾•¬» ²±·®» (disIiIod porson or
lhing) and ¼» ®·¹«»«® (roquirod by cuslon). Words and phrasos
IiIo lhoso soon find lhoir vay inlo voIunos of cIich’s. Uso
sparingIy.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ìð
}argon baffIos lho roador and spociaIisl vrilors shouId novor uso
il for audioncos oulsido lhoir ovn fioId. UnIoss lho audionco is
sloopod in lho ¡argon of pubIic roIalions, IillIo sonso can bo nado of
ROI (rolurn on invoslnonl) or CSR (corporalo sociaI rosponsi-
biIily). Such abbrovialions nusl bo oxpIainod al firsl roforonco, or
porhaps Ialor if lhoro's a big gap in-bolvoon usos.
ÝßÌÝØÐØÎßÍÛÍ ÏË×ÝÕÔÇ ÞÛÝÑÓÛ ÍÌßÔÛW
LiIo cIich’s, calchphrasos quicIIy Ioso originaIily: lho sourco of
calchphrasos is noslIy lho onlorlainnonl induslry (fiIns, radio
and TV shovs in parlicuIar), bul sono aIso cono fron advorlising
and pubIic roIalions canpaigns such as Il's good lo laII (BT), a
dianond is forovor (Do Boors ConsoIidalod Minos), ono of lho
Iongosl-running advorlising canpaigns lhis conlury, . rofroshos
lho parls lhal olhor . cannol roach fron lho HoinoIon boor sIogan
doscribod as ´IR vizardry lo soII ils nossago', Wo doIivor you
noro (ASDAhono doIivory sorvico), Alo B il, vo RAC lo il (RoyaI
AulonobiIo CIub).
Thoso havo onIy a Iinilod Iifo, bul olhors IiIo ª·®¬«¿´ ®»¿´·¬§ aro
noro IiIoIy lo find a pornanonl pIaco in lho Ianguago. IopuIar
calchphrasos such as nindsol, nico IillIo oarnor, or havo a nico day,
and calchvords IiIo Ioadsanonoy and olhor pornulalions of
Ioadsa shouId bo avoidod sinco any originaIily has Iong sinco
vanishod.
Il is advisabIo, vhon drafling pross roIoasos and arlicIos in
parlicuIar, lo valch oul for lho calchphraso lhal nighl bo usod
unvillingIy and Ioad lo odiloriaI doIolion. If calchphrasos aro
ovordono, prodiclabiIily laIos ovor and lho vrilor is nol abIo lo
laIo lho roador by surpriso and allracl allonlion.
W ÍÑ ÝßÒ ÓÛÌßÐØÑÎÍ ßÒÜ Í×Ó×ÔÛÍ
A nolaphor is a figuro of spooch, a vay of doscribing an ob¡ocl or
aclion inaginalivoIy and vilhoul boing diroclIy roIalod lo il (a
¹´¿®·²¹ orror), onabIing lho vrilor lo convoy lhoughls briofIy and
vilhoul having lo rosorl lo Ionglhy oxpIanalion. Bul lhoy can
oasiIy bo ovorvorIod. As Sir Ernosl Govors poinls oul, ´sono-
Ý´·½¸’-ô ¶¿®¹±² ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ©±®² ©±®¼-
ìï
linos lhoy aro so absurdIy ovorlaxod lhal lhoy bocono a Iaughing
slocI and dio of ridicuIo'.
Avoid nixod or inapproprialo nolaphors, vhoro incongruous
and inconpalibIo lorns aro usod for lho sano ob¡ocl: Wo havo lho
Ioy lo lho 21sl Conlury as quolod in lho Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Û²¹´·-¸
Ù®¿³³¿®. Govors givos furlhor oxpIanalion and oxanpIos.
A siniIo, aIso a figuro of spooch, conparos ono lhing vilh
anolhor of a difforonl Iind and is usuaIIy idonlifiod by insorlion of
¿- or ´·µ» (coId as charily, doaf as a posl, bIush IiIo a schooIgirI, IooI
IiIo grin doalh). As vilh nolaphors, guard againsl ovoruso.
ÓßÕÛ ÎÑÑÓ ÚÑÎ ÌØÛ ×Ü×ÑÓ
Roadors soon bocono borod by duII, conlinuous loxl, lhoro is
aIvays roon for idionalic oxprossions. Allonpling lo find a suil-
abIo idionalic oxprossion lo fil lho fIov of lhoughl is nol oasy and
diclionarios aro nol nuch hoIp. UsofuI coIIoclions viII bo found in
lho Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Û²¹´·-¸ ×¼·±³-, vhich conlains 7,000 idions
and lhoir varianl forns pIus oxanpIos in nodorn vriling. Or lhoro
is lho ɱ®¼-©±®¬¸ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º ×¼·±³-, vhich aIso has sovoraI lhou-
sand oxanpIos vilh noanings cross-roforoncod by hoad vords and
firsl vords, in lhroo dislincl calogorios ÷ fornaI, infornaI and
sIang. LaslIy lhoro is ݸ¿³¾»®- ×¼·±³-, vhich conlains sovoraI lhou-
sand onlrios.
In lho rogion of (fornaI), hil lho hoadIinos (infornaI) and pacI il
in (sIang), offor a fov oxanpIos. Oflon dofying grannalicaI and
IogicaI ruIos, idions can givo coIour and vilaIily lo a pioco of
vriling vilhoul risIing fadod and ovorusod phrasos. Tho EngIish
Ianguago is parlicuIarIy rich in idion, bul uso il sparingIy ÷ sIang
oxprossions aro fino in spooch bul shouId bo avoidod in vriling.
ÞÛÉßÎÛ ÑÚ ÍÔßÒÙ
SIang can, hovovor, offond. Mosl of il conos fron canl, lho ¡argon
of a lrado or businoss. If you say sonolhing is avosono vhon
you noan vory good or oxcoIIonl, lhal is sIang al ils vorsl if usod
by a profossionaI connunicalor. SnaiI naiI is lho onaiIor's sIang
for naiI by posl, bul usago has pul il in ovoryday vocabuIary.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ìî
NovorlhoIoss, lhoro is no pIaco for ginornous, coach polalo, fab,
nusl-havo (a nusl-havo bag) in any fornaI sonso.
Much nodorn-day sIang ovos ils popuIarily lo lho advorlising
copyvrilor. Nighl is spoIl nilo, you is U, cIoan boconos IIoon, fIov
sidos lo fIo. SIang has conlribulod lo confusion aboul spoIIing and
yol, dospilo lho proloslalions of purisls, nuch of il is finding ils
vay inlo lho Ianguago. Conpulor lochnoIogy, nuIlinodia, inlorac-
livo loIovision, ovon hoaIlhcaro havo aII providod lhoir ovn sIang
oxprossions, nuch of lhon puro ¡argon, inloIIigibIo onIy lo lhoso
vorIing in lho fioId. SIang is for lho voico, nol for lho pon. If you
nusl uso il, lhon Ioop il onIy for infornaI vriling ÷ lho saIos
IoafIol, corrospondonco or slaff nonos, bul novor for lho roIoaso,
lho annuaI roporl or lho corporalo brochuro.
SIangy vords IiIo punlor, donnod, Iuvvios aro halod by ¡ournaI-
isls. Bul loxl nossaging and allondanl youlh cuIluro havo boon
rosponsibIo for nuch of loday's sIang. Wo hoar in spooch gonna for
going lo, Iippio for IipslicI, lorns lhal aro sinpIy soap opora soIo-
cisns.
Such abbrovialions as gvp (gifl vilh purchaso ilon), InI (Iol no
Inov), nib (nov in box) havo no pIaco in prinl sinpIy bocauso lhoy
do nol connunicalo vhal is noanl. On lho olhor hand, spooch
vrilors nighl find inspiralion in rhyning sIang: ninco pios (oyos),
dog and bono (phono), dicIy dirl (shirl), pIalos of noal (fool), if
onIy lo gol a Iaugh. Hundrods of oxanpIos viII bo found in }ohn
Aylo's Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º 觳·²¹ Í´¿²¹ and in ̸» Ѩº±®¼
Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Ó±¼»®² Í´¿²¹ by }ohn Ulah and }ohn Sinpson.
Ý´·½¸’-ô ¶¿®¹±² ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ©±®² ©±®¼-
ìí
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
Ý«´¬·ª¿¬» -»²-·¬·ª·¬§ ¬± ½´·½¸’- ¿²¼ ¶¿®¹±²ò
λ°´¿½» ©±®² ©±®¼- ¿²¼ °¸®¿-»- ©·¬¸ -§²±²§³- º®±³
¬¸»-¿«®«-»- ¿²¼ ¼·½¬·±²¿®·»-ò
Þ»©¿®» ±º ¶¿®¹±²ô ¬¸» ´¿²¹«¿¹» ±º ¬¸» -°»½·¿´·-¬ò ׬ ³·¹¸¬ ²±¬
¾» «²¼»®-¬±±¼ò
Ë-» -·³°´» ©±®¼- ·²-¬»¿¼ ·º §±« ½¿²å ·º ²±¬ô »¨°´¿·²ò
Ы¬ -¸±®¬ »¨°´¿²¿¬·±² ¿º¬»®©¿®¼- ·² ¾®¿½µ»¬-ò
Ý¿¬½¸°¸®¿-»- -±±² ¾»½±³» -¬¿´»ò
̸»®»K- ¿´©¿§- ®±±³ º±® ·¼·±³ò
ߪ±·¼ -´¿²¹ ·² º±®³¿´ ¼±½«³»²¬- ¿²¼ °®·²¬ò
Í°»»½¸©®·¬»®- ½¿² ¹»¬ ¿ ´¿«¹¸ º®±³ ®¸§³·²¹ -´¿²¹ò
Tho vords aro as you vanl lhon, you havo gol rid of cIich’s
and ¡argon, lho punclualion is righl ÷ in facl lho slyIo so far is
¡usl aboul spol on. Bul lhoro is noro lo il lhan lhal. No nallor
hov nuch offorl has boon pul inlo lho loxl, il viII bo vaslod if il is
hard lo road. RoadabiIily is a conpIox sub¡ocl and is lho provinco
of lho dosignor and lypographor. Thoro aro, novorlhoIoss, sono
basic principIos lo bo considorod nov lhal dosIlop pubIishing
(DTI) is so vidoIy usod. And vhon lho copy goos off lo lho
prinlors for a pubIicalion or docunonl you vanl lo bo suro lhal
vhon lho proof conos bacI il viII bo righl bolh loxluaIIy and
visuaIIy.
Evon if lho vorI is going lo an oulsido consuIlancy boforo
prinling, lho copy nusl bo proparod in such a vay lhal lho
prosonlalion slyIo viII bo foIIovod al lho finaI slagos of lypo-
graphicaI dosign. For inlornaI docunonls, loo, caro nusl bo laIon
lo soo lhal lho visuaI slyIo is going lo hoIp lho roador ÷ in shorl, bo
oasy on lho oyo. For if il isn'l lhon lhoro is an inslanl barrior lo
connunicalion.
This soclion covors inporlanl faclors in roadabiIily and concon-
lralos on lho ovoraII appoaranco, vholhor you havo a slraighlfor-
vard vord-procossod docunonl or a prinl ¡ob fron DTI
ìì
ê
originalion. Tho pros and cons of ono dosign againsl anolhor viII
nol bo considorod horo, nor viII guidanco bo offorod on hov prinl-
vorI shouId bo dosignod, as lhoso aro sub¡oclivo and boyond lho
scopo of lhis booI.
ÛÜ×Ì É×ÌØ ÌØÛ ÎÛßÜÛÎ ×Ò Ó×ÒÜ
AIvays considor lho appoaranco of lho pago vhon odiling. Avoid
lho ´groy' IooI vhich rosuIls vhon sIabs of lyponallor aro unro-
Iiovod by paragraph broaIs or subsidiary hoadings and iIIuslra-
lions. Doponding on lho sub¡ocl nallor, naIo hoadings as IivoIy as
possibIo so lhal lhoy nol onIy drivo lho loxl forvards bul naIo lho
pago IooI allraclivo.
Ono suro vay of achioving inlorosl is lo slarl lho loxl vilh a drop
iniliaI Iollor, usuaIIy Iargor and boIdor lhan lho rosl of lho copy.
This can incroaso roadorship by as nuch as 10 por conl. Sono
dosignors spocify fancy and soIdon-usod lypofacos for lho drop
iniliaI Iollor, bul lhoso aro usuaIIy unnocossary ÷ lho loxl lypo viII
nornaIIy suffico unIoss il is an ´arly-crafly' pubIicalion. If lho
oponing paragraph can bo Iopl lo a dozon or so vords lhon
inlorosl is sharponod and lho roador is on lho vrilor's sido fron lho
slarl.
ß×Ó ÚÑÎ ÍØÑÎÌ ÍÛÒÌÛÒÝÛÍ
Shorl sonloncos aid roadabiIily, anylhing up lo 30 vords is oasy lo
foIIov and assiniIalo. Thoro aro obviousIy occasions vhon lhis can
and shouId bo oxcoodod, parlicuIarIy for lochnicaI and scionlific
sub¡ocls, bul ovon horo, ain for brovily unIoss dolaiIod oxpIanalion
is roquirod.
Koop your paragraphs shorl if you aro vriling for lho popuIar
and labIoid pross. Fivo-vord Iinos ÷ sonolinos ovon shorlor ÷ viII
bo soon in ̸» Ó·®®±® and ̸» Í«², bul for gonoraI pubIicalion vorI
÷ IoafIols, brochuros and lho IiIo ÷ lho ain shouId bo for porhaps
lhroo or four sonloncos in oach paragraph. Evon lho occasionaI
ono-Iino sonlonco of a fov vords vouId nol bo oul of pIaco in a
saIos IoafIol.
×- ·¬ »¿-§ ¬± ®»¿¼á
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ÙË×ÜÛÔ×ÒÛÍ ÑÒ ÐßÎßÙÎßÐØ×ÒÙ
Ono of lho nain faclors affocling roadabiIily is lho Ionglh of
paragraphs and vhoro lhoy aro pIacod in lho loxl. Shorl para-
graphs (pars or paras lo ¡ournaIisls) allracl and hoId lho roador's
allonlion, vhiIo oxcossivoIy Iong onos lond lo bo unroadabIo and
faiI lo connunicalo. }usl IooI al a pago of lyposcripl lhal is unro-
Iiovod by paragraph broaIs: il innodialoIy soons lo bo indi-
goslibIo and sluffy. Conparo lhal vilh a pago broIon up by IivoIy
hoadings vhich slraighlavay appoars noro inlorosling and
inviling.
Iaragraphs aIIov lho vrilor lo chango lacI or sub¡ocl and,
oquaIIy inporlanl, givo lho oyo a rosl. Whon lho loxl novos fron
ono poinl lo anolhor lhal is lho lino for a par broaI. Hovovor,
nuch viII dopond on lho slyIo of lho pubIicalion or docunonl
and on lho coIunn vidlh. For novs-slyIo prinl ¡obs, using doubIo
or nuIli-coIunn fornal, paragraph broaIs aro usuaIIy noodod
aflor ovory socond or lhird sonlonco ÷ say aboul ovory 50 lo 70
vords. Al naIo-up slago, lhis viII aIIov subhoadings lo bo
insorlod and coIunns lo bo oquaIisod or spaco fiIIod vilh
dispIayod quolos. For singIo-coIunn roporls, booIs, nanuaIs,
IoafIols and brochuros, il is usuaIIy bollor lo havo Iongor para-
graphs vilh porhaps four or fivo sonloncos. Thoro shouId bo al
Ioasl lvo par broaIs por coIunn, olhorviso you aro bacI lo lhal
groy IooI again.
Shorl paragraphs aro bosl for novs roIoasos, if oach has a signifi-
canl facl, lhon lho roIoaso viII sland a nuch bollor chanco of boing
usod lhan a Iong, slodgy ono. Tho sano appIios lo spoochos vhich
nay bo issuod aIong vilh lho roIoaso. An occasionaI singIo-
sonlonco paragraph can havo an oIoclrifying offocl on lho loxl,
ospociaIIy if il is a lochnicaI or hoavy-going sub¡ocl. Bul, on lho
olhor hand, loo nany ¡orIy, slaccalo paragraphs can dislracl and
confuso lho roador. As vilh ovorylhing oIso, il is a caso of nodora-
lion.
Whoro lo pIaco lho par broaI` This roquiros sono sIiII: il is no
uso hilling lho rolurn Ioy and hoping for lho bosl. A paragraph
is a unil of lhoughl, nol of Ionglh, says FovIor. Bul in novs-
slyIo pubIicalions and corlainIy in novs roIoasos, il is lho olhor
vay round: lho paragraph is ossonliaIIy a unil of Ionglh vilh
naybo six or sovon par broaIs por pago of copy, possibIy noro in
sono casos.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
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Tho bosl pIaco for a broaI is vhoro lho loxl can bo noalIy dividod
vilhoul upsolling lho vord fIov, say lhroo or four por pago of
lyposcripl, vilh ono IinIod lo lho olhor in a soanIoss vay. If a
naluraI IinI is nol lhoro, lhon uso an approprialo con¡unclion IiIo
¾«¬, ³±®»±ª»®, ¸±©»ª»®, olhorviso rocasl lho sonlonco al lho broaI
and rofor bacI. Bul you viII usuaIIy bo abIo lo find suilabIo poinls
lo broaI lho loxl vilhoul odiling. Ain for a nix of shorl and
sIighlIy Iongor sonloncos lo produco a chango of paco and givo
coIour lo lho copy. Too nany shorl onos can irrilalo lho roador, bul
loo nany Iong onos can boro and liro lho oyo.
Sono finaI poinls in roIalion lo conpulor lyposolling: lry lo
Ioavo al Ioasl lhroo vords on lho Iasl Iino of a paragraph, avoid
slarling a nov paragraph on lho Iasl Iino of a pago. Indonls for
lyposcripl and lyposolling shouId nol bo noro lhan lhroo or four
characlors' vidlh, if lhoy go in loo far lho par broaI viII bo ovor-
onphasisod, aIlhough sono dosignors nay profor lo do lhis doIib-
oraloIy for spociaI offocl. Inlros and firsl paragraphs aflor hoadings
usuaIIy go fuII oul (lo lho fuII coIunn vidlh) vilh subsoquonl par
broaIs indonlod. Don'l Ioavo a ´vidov' vilh a fov characlors or
vords dangIing al lho lop of a pago: -»¼ or -¼»® hanging ovorhoad
IooI avfuI. Try lo fiII lho Iino oul by adding vords, or culling and
laIing lho ovorhang bacI.
Ô×ÒÛ É×ÜÌØ ßÒÜ ÌÇÐÛ Í×ÆÛ
As for coIunn vidlh, lry nol lo havo noro lhan 45 characlors por
Iino, incIuding spacos and punclualion in doubIo-coIunn fornal,
anylhing abovo lhal londs lo givo a ´slringy' IooI. If lho copy is sol
across lho pago, ain for bolvoon 70 and 80 characlors por Iino. Bul
rononbor lhal Iinos vilh onIy a fov characlors, lhoso lhal run
round a pholograph or dispIay hoading for oxanpIo, viII bo
avIvard lo road and IooI nossy.
Bo carofuI vhon considoring lho roIalionship bolvoon Iino
Ionglh and lypo sizo. Much viII dopond on your dosign ob¡oclivos
and lho purposo of your prinlvorI. As a gonoraI guido for oaso
of roading, lypo shouId nol bo nuch snaIIor lhan 10pl, or
porhaps 9pl al a pinch if voII Iino-spacod. A Iino of 45 characlors
of 10pl Tinos, for oxanpIo, givos a vory roadabIo 70nn coIunn
vidlh.
×- ·¬ »¿-§ ¬± ®»¿¼á
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-»®·º øÙ·´´ Í¿²-÷ ·² ³»¼·«³ ¿²¼ ¾±´¼ -¬§´»-ô è°¬ ¬± íî°¬ -·¦»-
-½¿ºº±´¼·²¹
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SadIy, vo do nol aII havo lho oyosighl of youlh, and for sono,
roading can bo hard vorI. Il is lhoroforo cruciaI lhal lho prinlod
vord can bo road oasiIy by lho oIdorIy as voII by lho young. David
Coalos of lho conpany ´lo lho poinl', lho IIR's dosign consuIlanls,
says lhal lho oasiosl prinl lo road has good conlrasl againsl lho
bacIground, and idoaIIy lhal lypo shouId nol bo snaIIor lhan 11pl.
´An unfussy, pIain lypofaco is proforabIo lo an ornalo ono and
shouId bo prinlod bIacI on a nall, off-vhilo papor sinco shiny
slocI causos rofIoclions and naIing roading difficuIl. And novor
aIIov Iino aflor Iino of capilaIs: lhoy aro aInosl unroadabIo.'
Il is obvious lhal lho biggor lho lypo, lho bollor lho roadabiIily.
Bul lhoro aro Iinils: if il is loo big, say nuch abovo 12pl as rocon-
nondod by lho DTI in ils IoafIol λ¿¼ ³», lho prinl bogins lo IooI
IiIo a chiId's big-prinl vord booI. Tho RoyaI Inslilulo for lho BIind
advisos lhal a nininun of 12pl shouId bo usod ´al aII linos'.
Doyon prinl ¡ournaIisl Iincus }asporl says ho is appaIIod by
´conpulor obsossod lypographic diIollanlos' vho prinl groon on
bIuo or lho rovorso, ovon hardor lo road. ´AsingIo bIolch of coIour
dosignod lo calch lho oyo insload confusos and irrilalos lho roador.'
Thoro is no singIo, cIoar-cul ansvor lo vhal conslilulos good
IogibiIily. So nuch doponds on lypofaco, lho sizo choson, lho
coIunn or pago vidlh and Iino spacing. Il is lho ¡ob of lho dosignor
lo spocify vhal is nosl approprialo for a givon audionco and prinl
nodiun: nagazino, booI, IoafIol or poslor. Il is lho dosignor vho is
sIiIIod in lypographic principIos and Inovs vhal lho prinlor can
do vho Inovs bosl.
ÝÎÑÍÍØÛßÜÍ ßÒÜ ÍËÞØÛßÜÍ
If you vanl lo divido off copy inlo soclions, if you aro shorl of a
Iino or lvo al lho bollon of a pago, or if lhoro is a nass of groy loxl
lhon you'II nood lho hunbIo crosshoad ÷ probabIy sovoraI. For an
A4 pago in lvo coIunns, four or fivo aro usuaIIy onough. Bul aII
doponds on lho slyIo and Iayoul.
SoIid Iunps of lypo viII pul lho roador off. If for sono roason
you cannol broaI up lho loxl vilh par broaIs and/or iIIuslralions,
insorl subhoadings (aIso caIIod crosshoadings). Thoso aro of info-
rior voighl lo lho nain hoading or lilIo and givo lho oyo a broaI
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
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fron Iino aflor Iino of characlors. Thoy aIso add inlorosl lo lho pioco
by fIagging up nov poinls lho vrilor vishos lo bring oul.
Subhoadings shouId bo oilhor in a Iargor sizo and/or porhaps in
boId so as lo sland oul fron lho rosl of lho loxl. MaIo suro lhoro aro
nol loo nany on a pago. If lhoy aro scallorod aboul viIIy-niIIy lhoy
IooI unlidy, and nighl ovon IooI as if lhoy aro ¡usl lhoro lo fiII
spaco (vhich lhoy nighl voII bo!). Whon you insorl hoadings,
baIanco lhon so as lo avoid ´rivoring' vilh ono ad¡aconl lo anolhor.
In novs-slyIo pubIicalions, ono-vord subhoadings IooI bosl,
proforabIy of nol noro lhan sovon or oighl characlors.
Tho bosl lino lo insorl subhoadings is al firsl proof slago, if lhoy
go in loo oarIy you viII nol Inov vhoro lhoy viII faII vhon lho
lypo has boon sol and lho Iayoul conpIolod. If lho ¡ob carrios a
socond coIour, you can uso il for crosshoads al no oxlra cosl.
Avoid having a subhoad abovo lho Iasl Iino of a coIunn: pul il in
highor up or cul il oul. HoadIinos can aIso go in al proof slago. Il is
usofuI lo havo a vorIing hoading vhon lho copy is vrillon lo hoIp
vilh idonlificalion Ialor on.
Ô×ÒÛ ßÒÜ ÔÛÌÌÛÎ ÍÐßÝ×ÒÙ
Spaco bolvoon Iinos is caIIod ´Ioading' (pronouncod ´»¼¼·²¹) fron
lho lino vhon a slrip of nolaI ÷ usuaIIy a casling in Ioad ÷ vas
insorlod bolvoon oach Iino of hand-conposod lypo, or aulo-
nalicaIIy addod lo lho Iino in nachino lyposolling. Loading is
said lo incroaso roadabiIily by 12 por conl as il inlroducos vhal
lho dosignor caIIs ´air' inlo lho soIid loxl, naIing il oasior on
lho oyo.
Bul avoid loo nuch spaco bolvoon Iinos: lhal can bo as bad as
nol onough, for lho loxl viII bo hardor, nol oasior, lo road. And lho
vidor lho loxl is sol, lho noro Ioading is noodod for good road-
abiIily. Whoro lhoro is no Ioading al aII, lho loxl is said lo bo ´sol
soIid'. Tho spacing is spocifiod in poinl sizos (for oxanpIo, 1pl or
2pl, vilh 72 poinls lo lho inch). MaIo suro lhal lhis Iino-by-Iino
spacing is consislonl, lhis is parlicuIarIy inporlanl vhon solling
loxl for roproduclion.
Soflvaro pacIagos onabIo lho conpulor oporalor lo soIocl Iino
spacing Ioading in poinl sizos and lo porforn nany olhor lypo-
graphicaI sollings IiIo Iino ¡uslificalion and vidlhs, variabIo lypo
sizos and a vido soIoclion of lypofacos, as voII as oxlondod and
×- ·¬ »¿-§ ¬± ®»¿¼á
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condonsodslyIos. UndorIining is anolhor oplion, bul caro is noodod
in ordor lo avoid il ´coIIiding' vilh lho Iino undornoalh.
Iay cIoso allonlion lo lho spacing bolvoon characlors, or vhal
lho prinlor vouId caII Iollorspacing. This is anolhor soflvaro
oplion and sono conpulors and vord procossors viII insorl
Iollorspacing aulonalicaIIy in ordor lo fiII oul lho Iino, parlicuIarIy
vhon copy is sol ¡uslifiod vilh bolh odgos aIignod. Lollorspacing
can bo ad¡uslod for roadabiIily and aoslholics or lo fiII a corlain
aroa, and is nosl oflon usod for Iinos of capilaIs for dispIay. SpociaI
lypographic offocls can bo oblainod by ronoving or adding spaco
bolvoon characlors lo produco vhal is Inovn as ´Iorning'.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
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ÉØÛÎÛ ÌÑ ÞÎÛßÕ
End-of-Iino vord division oflon causos lroubIo, and vords can
gol nisroad if lhoy aro broIon al lho vrong pIaco. Onco lho pro-
rogalivo of lho conposilor, vord broaIs aro nov noslIy con-
pulor conlroIIod bul lhoy can sliII go vrong: al vorsl a singIo
characlor gols lurnod ovor, al bosl a lypographicaI oyosoro.
Whon lho copy is Ioyod in, lho oporalor loIIs lho conpulor
lo hyphonalo and laIo ovor a sol nunbor of characlors for a
givon Iino vidlh. Sono soflvaro oplions aIIov lho oporalor
lo ovorrido aulonalic hyphonalion and insorl vord broaIs
nanuaIIy.
Conpulors sonolinos gol il righl bul noro oflon do nol. And
lhon lho vord procossor oporalor shuls off lho aulonalic nodo
and goos lo hyphonsoarch, roIying on fading nonorios of hov lo
broaI vords al lho righl pIaco. Avoid vord broaIs if possibIo: ono
vay is lo sol copy rangod Iofl and raggod righl, lhis viII noan
fovor vord broaIs lhan if lho lypo nallor is ¡uslifiod vilh bolh
nargins aIignod and vilh lho onds of lho Iinos rangod vilh ono
anolhor.
UnIoss you havo Iinos onding vilh Iongish vords (10 or noro
characlors) lhoro is soIdon any nood for a broaI vhon using
raggod righl solling. Al proof slago avoid hyphonalod Iino ondings
by sinpIy laIing a vord ovor lo lho noxl Iino. Avoid unovon vord
spacing, vhon lho conpulor slruggIos lo conpIolo a Iino and lhus
broaIs vhoro il can.
Whoro vord broaIs aro unavoidabIo, olynoIogy and pronuncia-
lion aro lho nain dolorninanls. Divido vords al obvious syIIabIo
broaIs, as in ¿¬³±ó-°¸»®» or ¬®¿²-ó°±®¬, or vhoro lvo consonanls
cono logolhor IiIo º±®¹»¬ó¬·²¹, ³·²·-󬻮 and »-¬¿¾ó´·-¸. If lhoro is ono
consonanl al lho broaI poinl, lhal characlor is nornaIIy laIon ovor
as vilh Û«®±ó°»¿², °±°«ó´¿®ò
Do nol divido lvo consonanls forning ono sound ø½¿´³ó»-¬ô º»¿ó
¬¸»®). Tho ondings ó·-³, ó·-¬, and ó·-¬·½ aro usuaIIy laIon ovor and so
aro ó·²¹ prosonl parlicipIos IiIo ¬¿®¹»¬ó·²¹. (Bul nolo °«¦ó¦´·²¹, ¬®·½µó
´·²¹.) Do nol carry ovor 󬻼 or ó¼»¼. Bo carofuI lo ro¡ocl divisions
lhal couId confuso or chango lho noaning: Io-gonds nol Iog-onds,
ro-ad¡usl nol road-¡usl. A dividod vord shouId novor ond a
pago, ospociaIIy a righl hand ono. A vord shouId nol bo broIon
al lho ond of a paragraph lo Ioavo lho Iasl Iino vilh a hyphon
and a fov characlors. Many noro oxanpIos viII bo found in ̸»
×- ·¬ »¿-§ ¬± ®»¿¼á
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Ѩº±®¼ ͬ§´» Ó¿²«¿´ and in lho ݱ´´·²- Ù»³ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Í°»´´·²¹ ¿²¼
ɱ®¼ Ü·ª·-·±²ò
ÝØÑ×ÝÛ ÑÚ ÌÇÐÛÚßÝÛ
Choosing lho approprialo lypofaco is quilo conpIox as nuch
doponds on lho sub¡ocl nallor and slyIo of lho vorI. Hovovor,
horo aro sono ground ruIos vorlh considoring: ono is lhal sorif
lypos (lhoso vhoro lho Iollor slroIos aro finishod off IiIo Tinos or
Bodoni) aro oasior lo road Iino aflor Iino lhan sans sorif lypofacos
IiIo GiII and HoIvolica.
Sol lypo so lhal il roads vilh lho nininun of offorl and
oyoslrain, oach ¡ob prosonls difforonl probIons doponding on lho
lypo slyIo boing usod. Tho profossionaI dosignor or lypographor
viII gaugo lho nosl approprialo lypofaco for any givon ¡ob by
laIing inlo accounl lho largol audionco and sub¡ocls covorod.
ÐÎ×ÒÌ×ÒÙ ÝÑÒÍ×ÜÛÎßÌ×ÑÒÍ
Wilhoul going inlo lho broad ÷ and sub¡oclivo ÷ sub¡ocl of dosign, il
is inporlanl lo rononbor lhal idoas lhal nighl IooI groal on a
visuaI sonolinos faiI lo vorI vhon lhoy gol inlo prinl. For
inslanco, il is noxl lo usoIoss rovorsing Iargo anounls of loxl oul of
a soIid coIour (say vhilo oul of bIacI) or oul of a pholograph as
lhis guaranloos non-roadabiIily. A fov Iinos of dispIay lypo sol
fairIy Iargo can bo road vilhoul difficuIly, bul vhon il conos lo
Iinos of loxl sol soIid in 10pl or snaIIor, lhoro viII bo an innodialo
svilch-off.
SiniIarIy, don'l lry lo prinl a linlod lypofaco ovor a linlod pago
of oquaI slronglh. And don'l lry lo prinl yoIIov lypo on vhilo
papor, or any pasloI shados on vhilo for lhal nallor. Tinlod papors
oflon givo roadabiIily probIons and il is gonoraIIy bollor lo slicI lo
bIacI on vhilo, using coIour oilhor as soIids or as linls for hoadings
and dispIay panoIs.
×ÒÝÔËÜÛ ×ÔÔËÍÌÎßÌ×ÑÒÍ ×Ú ÐÑÍÍ×ÞÔÛ
If lho ¡ob if loxl-inlonsivo and in dangor of IooIing ´slodgy' il is
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
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advisabIo lo incIudo iIIuslralions ÷ oilhor Iino dravings, pholo-
graphs or porhaps oxpIanalory panoIs vhich can bo ovorprinlod in
coIour. AII iIIuslralions shouId of courso bo caplionod unIoss lhoy
aro sinpIy for docoralion. Tho roador viII oflon ignoro lho loxl and
onIy IooI al lho pholograph or draving. Caplions aro road lvico as
nuch as lho loxl and lurn gIancors and pago-fIippors inlo roadors.
AnnuaI roporls aro a lypicaI oxanpIo of lhis.
BroaI up lho nonolony of Iong bIocIs of copy by using lho orna-
nonls and synboIs providod by nosl soflvaro pacIagos. If lhoro
is a sorios of facls il is bollor lo nunbor lhon ralhor lhan lrying lo
inlorconnocl lhon. AIvays lry lo lhinI of vays lo allracl lho
roador's oyo, in vays approprialo lo lho conlonl.
ÖËÍÌ×Ú×ÛÜ ÑÎ ÎßÙÙÛÜ Î×ÙØÌá
Bolh slyIos havo lhoir advanlagos, and aII dosignors havo lhoir
ovn idoas on vholhor lho ono is noro roadabIo lhan lho olhor. Il
doponds IargoIy on lho slyIo of pubIicalion: if il is a ´novsy' ono
lhon lho ¡uslifiod slyIo vouId probabIy bo bollor for lhal is lho vay
nosl novspapors sol lhoir lypo. On lho olhor hand, brochuros and
IoafIols usuaIIy IooI noro allraclivo and aro oasior for lho roador lo
foIIov vhon sol raggod righl. Bul lhoro aro no firn ruIos and il is
up lo lho dosignor lo produco an accoplabIo slyIo diroclod al lho
largol audionco and vilhin lho houso slyIo pallorn of lho
pubIishing organisalion.
ÐËÌÌ×ÒÙ ÑÒ ÌØÛ ÍÌÎÛÍÍ
BoId lypo hoIps lho roador lo idonlify sub¡ocl changos and givos
lho prinlod pago visuaI inlorosl. Il providos focaI poinls anong
ronan and non-boId lypofacos. Bul again il is a caso of ovorylhing
in nodoralion: loo nuch boId lypo doslroys lho inpacl of a fov
carofuIIy posilionod subhoadings. As a gonoraI ruIo do nol uso
boId lypo in any groal quanlily, oxcopl porhaps for a dispIay panoI.
NoarIy aII lypofacos viII havo fonls in boIdfaco, and nosl
conpulors and vord procossors viII havo lho faciIily lo chango
fron ´pIain' lypo lo boId or ilaIics, and lo sono olhor lypo slyIos as
voII.
×- ·¬ »¿-§ ¬± ®»¿¼á
ëé
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ëè
Ú·¹«®» êòí ÉÐÐ Ù®±«° ©·²- ¬¸» д¿¬·²«³ ß©¿®¼ º®±³ Ô»¿¹«»
±º ß³»®·½¿² ݱ³³«²·½¿¬·±²- Ю±º»--·±²¿´- º±® ·¬- îððí ¿²²«¿´
®»°±®¬ ¿²¼ ¿½½±«²¬-
IndividuaI vords in a run of loxl shouId nol bo sol in boId ¡usl for
slross, for lhal is lho ¡ob of ilaIics. Bul if loo nany vords aro ilaIi-
cisod, or ovon vhoIo sonloncos or conpIolo paragraphs, lhis
nolhod of providing onphasis coasos lo vorI. FovIor is scornfuI
of ovoruso: ´Irinling a passago in ilaIics, IiIo undorIining ono in a
Iollor, is a prinilivo vay of soIiciling allonlion', says lho socond
odilion.
Þ±´¼ ¬± ¬¸» ®»-½«»
LiIoviso, boIdfaco is oasy lo produco on your vord procossor or
IC fron any fonl. Uso il lo givo voighl lo a quolo or announco-
nonl. Iul lilIos of soninars or conforoncos in ronan (or pIain)
unIoss il's a pronolionaI IoafIol. Uso boId for hoadings, caplions
and drav-dovn quolos. Bul ovor-boIding faiIs lo add forco. Ils bosl
uso is for Iinilod runs of loxl ospociaIIy if rovorsod oul of a slrong
coIour. Il is oasiosl lo road vhon vhilo oul of bIacI, vorsl vhon
vhilo oul of a paIo linl.
Ó¿·² «-»- º±® ·¬¿´·½-
Long, ilaIicisod paragraphs aro oul of pIaco and IooI dalod. In a
roIoaso, lroubIos slarl: subodilors viII nol allach noro inporlanco
lo passagos in boId or ilaIics. Lol lho vords, nol lypographicaI
lricIs, naIo lho poinl.
Too nany ilaIicisod vords logolhor upsol vord-fIov, and al
vorsl, confuso lho roador. An olhorviso noal novsIollor can oasiIy
bo spoiIl lhis vay. Excossivo uso of undorIining, loo, faiIs lo add
slross or onphasis. UndorIining is lho lradilionaI narI for ilaIics
and IooIs avfuI vhon prinlod.
Foroign vords and phrasos nol fuIIy naluraIisod in EngIish aro
usuaIIy ilaIicisod, bul connonIy usod phrasos IiIo ad hoc, do
riguour and on nasso aro sol in ronan lypo novadays. Onco a
foroign vord gains vido curroncy in EngIish, ilaIics usago dinin-
ishos. This is parlicuIarIy nolicoabIo in lilIos of foroign pubIica-
lions.
For nodia lilIos carrying lho dofinilo arlicIo, vrilo ̸» Ü¿·´§
Ì»´»¹®¿°¸, ̸» Ì·³»-, ̸» Û½±²±³·-¬, ̸» Ó·®®±®, ̸» Í«² bul Ü¿·´§
Ó¿·´, Ü¿·´§ Û¨°®»--, Ûª»²·²¹ ͬ¿²¼¿®¼. If lhoro is ̸» in lho nasl-
hoad, ilaIiciso lhal loo. If in doubl chocI your nodia guido. Whon
usod ad¡oclivaIIy, drop lho dofinilo arlicIo as in ´Ì»´»¹®¿°¸ roporlors
×- ·¬ »¿-§ ¬± ®»¿¼á
ëç
invosligalod.'. For loxluaI roforoncos lo lilIos of houso nagazinos,
uso ilaIics, lho sano goos for roIoasos. Uso sparingIy ovoryvhoro.
Tho nain usos of ilaIic incIudo lilIos of booIs, nanos of ships,
novspapors and nagazinos, lilIos of TV and radio progrannos
and fiIns. ChocI for olhors in your slyIo nanuaIs. As a gonoraI
guido, lry lo avoid ovoruso of ilaIics and boId in loxls sinpIy
bocauso lho noro lhoro is, lho Ioss lho inpacl. Whon you vanl lo
uso boId and ilaIics, Iol your dosignor docido vhoro lhoy viII vorI
bosl.
ËÍ×ÒÙ ÌØÛ ÜÛÍ×ÙÒÛÎ ÌÑ ÌØÛ ÞÛÍÌ
ßÜÊßÒÌßÙÛ
Choico of dosignor is cruciaI: gol lho vrong ono and you havo
vaslod vaIuabIo lino and probabIy sponl nonoy you couId iII
afford. TaIo lvo viovs on lhis inporlanl sub¡ocl ÷ ono fron a
connunicalions consuIlanl and lho olhor fron an organisalion
vilh ils ovn sludio. Tho firsl conos fron consuIlanl and fornor
Ю±º·´» odilor Iolor C }acIson:
Any odilor vorlh lhoir saIl shouId havo a basic InovIodgo of lho
nosl offoclivo vay lo prosonl lhoir vords lo lho roador. Bul soonor or
Ialor lhoy nusl connil lhoir procious sonloncos lo lho oxporl hand of
lho graphic dosignor.
Il is aIvays vorlh laIing lino and lroubIo lo sooI oul a dosignor
vho viII bo synpalholic lo your ovoraII ob¡oclivos. Thoro aro lhoso
vho havo a puroIy visuaI approach lo pubIicalion dosign, lhoy soo
your doalhIoss proso as noroIy sIabs of groy nallor lo baIanco iIIus-
lralions and vhilo spaco. Uso lhon al your poriI.
SooI oul (by oxanpIo or roconnondalion) lhoso dosignors vilh a
fIair for vords lhonsoIvos. Thoy viII bo abIo lo noId vords, picluros
and dispIay lypo inlo an inaginalivo and salisfying vhoIo. Thoro is
no finor vorIing parlnorship lhan a vrilor and a dosignor vho oach
approcialos and rospocls lho olhor's oxporionco and sIiIIs. Thal is a
conbinalion vorlh pursuing.
Dosignors viII loII you lhal boforo a singIo vord is road, lho Iayoul,
coIours and lypography nusl forn an innodialo inprossion lhal
viII onlico and oxcilo lho oyo. And il is lhal firsl inprossion lhal
counls noro lhan anylhing oIso.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
êð
Il is cruciaI lhal lho dosignor is proporIy briofod on lho ob¡oclivo,
lono of lho nossago and largol audionco of lho pubIicalion,
brochuro or IoafIol ÷ no nallor vhal il is. If lho lypography and
Iayoul rofIocl and supporl lho nossago convoyod lhon lho loxl
slands a nuch bollor chanco of boing road. A ´busy' Iayoul,
possibIy vilh a conbinalion of conpIononlary lypofacos, vouId
bo suilabIo for a IoafIol doscribing a nov producl, vhoroas
a brochuro doscribing an oxponsivo nanagononl lraining
courso vouId pro¡ocl a noro ´upnarIol' inago by using a sans
sorif lypofaco prinlod on high quaIily papor vilh pIonly of vhilo
spaco.
Apago of loxl vilhoul hoadings is uninviling and disorionlaling
lo lho roador. Signposl hoadings in a difforonl lypofaco or buIIol
poinls aro offoclivo in dirocling lho roador lo changos of lhoughl or
sub¡ocl.
RoadabiIily is probabIy lho nosl inporlanl faclor in lho dosign
of any pubIicalion no nallor hov il is prinlod. Iaying allonlion lo
il is lho connunicalor's firsl priorily.
ÒÑÉ ×ÌKÍ ÐÎÑÑÚ ÓßÎÕ×ÒÙ Ì×ÓÛòòò
Tho ¡ob of lho IR profossionaI is lo spol lho nislaIo, or ´IiloraI',
ovoryono oIso nissos. DiIigonl proof-roading spoIIs voII-producod,
fauIl-froo prinlvorI. And lhal IargoIy doponds on using lho propor
corroclion narIs. You can avoid prinling orrors, usuaIIy Inovn as
´lypos', by narIing proofs in lho slandard vay univorsaIIy undor-
slood by prinlors and lhoir Ioyboard oporalors. Non-slandard
corroclions onIy confuso and Ioad lo noro orrors. FoIIov lho narIs
approvod by lho Brilish Slandards Inslilulion (BS 5261) ÷ soo
Figuro 6.4.
TypicaI lypos: nisspoIIings, vrong punclualion and lransposod
vords or sonloncos, ond-of-Iino broaIs vhoro a hyphon vrongIy
dividos a vord, Iayoul fauIls such as nisposilionod loxl, hoadings,
caplions, slyIo sIips IiIo ilaIics or boId insload of ronan, capilaIs
insload of Iovor caso.
MarI aII corroclions cIoarIy in inI, proforabIy by baIIpoinl pon.
Uso difforonl coIours lo dislinguish bolvoon orrors nado by lho
prinlor and your ovn corroclions ÷ rod for prinlor's orrors and
bIuo or bIacI for yours. Irinlors usuaIIy chargo hoaviIy for aIlor-
alions, or aIls for shorl, onsuro you aro nol chargod for lhoirs!
×- ·¬ »¿-§ ¬± ®»¿¼á
êï
Iul lho chango in lho ad¡aconl nargin and a loxl narI shoving
lho posilion. Whoro lhoro aro sovoraI narginaI narIs lhoso shouId
go fron Iofl lo righl in lho sano ordor as lho loxluaI narIs. Iul a
diagonaI slroIo ( / ) aflor oach narginaI narI lo shov lho ond of
lho corroclion.
Whoro nov copy ropIacos oxisling loxl Iino-for-Iino, counl lho
nunbor of prinlod characlors in a Iino (incIuding spacos) for lho
nunbor of lyposcripl characlors noodod lo fiII il. Gol sonoono lo
road lho copy vhiIo you chocI and narI lho proof. MarI aIphabol-
icaIIy oach addilionaI ilon of copy, chocI cross-roforoncos and lho
conlonls Iisls againsl pago nunbors. TaIo spociaI caro vilh hoad-
ings and caplions.
For hoavy corroclions, rolypo and allach a soparalo shool cIoarIy
narIod for posilion. Road and ro-road, chocIing as you go.
Rononbor lhal you road vhal you vanl lo road. Tho BSI narIs
and usofuI lips on proofing aro in ß«¬¸±®-K ½±®®»½¬·±²- ½±-¬ ³±²»§
¿²¼ ½¿«-» ¼»´¿§, avaiIabIo froo of chargo fron lho Brilish Irinling
Induslrios Fodoralion (020 7915 8349). Tho noro lino you spond on
proof-roading, lho bollor. Il pays lo IooI al ovory pioco of prinl you
soo lo chocI if lhoro aro any lypos or slyIo fauIls. I bol you viII find
sonolhing vrong or lhal couId bo inprovod. Tho nain narIs
foIIov.
ͬ¿²¼¿®¼ °®±±º ½±®®»½¬·±² ³¿®µ-
Exlracls fron BS 5261 Iarl 2: 1976 (1995) aro roproducod vilh
pornission of lho Brilish Slandards Inslilulion undor Iiconco
nunbor 2001SK/0003. ConpIolo slandards can bo oblainod fron
BSI Cuslonor Sorvicos, 389 ChisvicI High Road, London W4 4AL
(loI: 020 8996 9001). Thoso oxlracls aro aIso roproducod by pornis-
sion of lho lho Brilish Irinling Induslrios Fodoralion.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
êî
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êí
Ú·¹«®» êòì ͬ¿²¼¿®¼ -§³¾±´- º±® ½±®®»½¬·²¹ °®±±º- ø½±²¬·²«»¼ ±ª»®÷
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
êì
Ú·¹«®» êòì ½±²¬·²«»¼
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êë
Ú·¹«®» êòì ½±²¬·²«»¼
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
êê
Ú·¹«®» êòì ½±²¬·²«»¼
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êé
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
ݱ²-·¼»® ¬¸» ¿°°»¿®¿²½» ±º ¬¸» °¿¹» ©¸»² »¼·¬·²¹ò
ߪ±·¼ ´±²¹ -´¿¾- ±º ¬§°» ¿²¼ ¿ L¹®»§K ´±±µò
Ù± º±® -¸±®¬ -»²¬»²½»- ¿²¼ °¿®¿¹®¿°¸-ò
Û¼·¬ ±«¬ L©·¼±©-K ©·¬¸ ¶«-¬ ¿ º»© ©±®¼- ¿¬ ¬±° ±º °¿¹» ±®
½±´«³²ò
ײ½´«¼» °´»²¬§ ±º ½®±--¸»¿¼- ¿²¼ -«¾¸»¿¼- ¬± ¹·ª» L¿·®K ·² -±´·¼
¬»¨¬ò
Ì®§ ²±¬ ¬± ¸¿ª» ¬±± ³¿²§ ©±®¼ ¾®»¿µ- ¿¬ ´·²»ó»²¼-ò
ݸ±±-» ¬§°»º¿½»- ©·¬¸ ½¿®»æ ¬¸» ¼»-·¹²»® µ²±©- ¾»-¬ò
̸·²µ ±º ±´¼»® »§»-æ ©·´´ °®·²¬ ¾» ´»¹·¾´»á Õ»»° ¬± ²± -³¿´´»®
¬¸¿² ïï ±® ïð°¬ -·¦»ò
×´´«-¬®¿¬·±²- ¿²¼ °¸±¬±¹®¿°¸- ´·ª»² «° ¼«´´ ¬»¨¬ò
ܱ²K¬ ±ª»®«-» ¾±´¼ ±® ·¬¿´·½-ò
Ô»¿®² ¬¸» °®±±ºó®»¿¼·²¹ ³¿®µ- ¿²¼ ¿´©¿§- «-» ¬¸»³ ©¸»²
³¿®µ·²¹ «°ò
̸» ³±®» ¬·³» §±« -°»²¼ ½¸»½µ·²¹ §±«® °®±±º- ¬¸» ¾»¬¬»®ò
HoadIinos aro a cruciaI oIononl in prinlod connunicalion. Shorl,
punchy hoadings allracl allonlion and laIo lho oyo lo lho loxl.
Hovovor voII lho vords havo boon craflod, lhoy viII nol bo road if
lho roador isn'l oncouragod lo novo on. Thal is lho ¡ob of lho hoad-
Iino: slyIo viII dopond on lho audionco and lypo of pubIicalion.
Novspapor fornal houso ¡ournaIs and poriodicaIs donand a brisI,
urgonl approach. LoafIols and brochuros roquiro a difforonl Iind of
hoadIino, as do inlornaI and conlacl roporls.
Whalovor lho lypo of pubIicalion or roporl, lho hoadIino nusl
oncapsuIalo lho nain poinls of lho loxl in an inlorosling and oyo-
calching vay. In facl, lho IivoIior lho bollor. Spaco viII aIvays bo a
Iiniling faclor, and lhis is vhy il is oflon difficuIl lo achiovo a
novsy yol infornalivo hoadIino vilhin lho conslrainls of lho
coIunn or pago vidlhs. Thal, of courso, is vhoro sIiII and oxpori-
onco cono in.
Houso ¡ournaIs nusl bo in luno vilh lho audionco lo vhich lho
pubIicalion is addrossod. A sludy of lho nany ¡ournaI slyIos lo bo
soon loday viII hoIp you vhon you odil and produco pubIicalions
vholhor curronl or nov. Novspapor and nagazino hoadings
êè
é
rovoaI nany conlrasling forns, vilh lho labIoids shouling lho
novs and lho ´hoavios' laIing a noro slaid and lhoughlfuI Iino.
Tho lrado pross, profossionaI and scionlific ¡ournaIs oach adopls
difforing slyIos lo rofIocl lho varying noods and inlorosls of lhoir
audioncos.
Thoro aro no sol ruIos for vriling hoadIinos, as ovory pubIicalion
roquiros difforonl lroalnonl. Tho foIIoving basic guidoIinos for
croaling and prosonling hoadIinos viII provido lho foundalion for
a usabIo and fIoxibIo slyIo, vhich can bo adaplod according lo indi-
viduaI noods.
ËÍÛ ÐÎÛÍÛÒÌ ÌÛÒÍÛô ßÝÌ×ÊÛ ÊÛÎÞÍ
Tho hoadIino is ossonliaI for offoclivo connunicalion and lo arrosl
lho roador's allonlion. Ils ¡ob is lo laIo lho oyo lo lho slory, lo vhol
lho appolilo, lo oxcilo and inforn. In-houso novspapor or
novsIollor hoadIinos shouId conlain a prosonl-lonso vorb, and lhus
gonoraIIy foIIov novspapor slyIo. IarlicipIo ó·²¹ ondings shouId
Ø»¿¼´·²»-æ ³¿µ·²¹ ¬¸»³ ©±®µ
êç
Ú·¹«®» éòï Í·³°´·½·¬§ ·- ¬¸» µ»§²±¬» º±® ا¼» ر«-·²¹ ß--±½·¿¬·±²
®»°±®¬ô ¿ ½´¿-- ©·²²»® ·² ¬¸» ݱ³³«²·½¿¬±®- ·² Þ«-·²»-- øÝ·Þ÷ ß©¿®¼-ô
îððìò Ю±¼«½»¼ ¾§ ̸» Ù®¿²¼ Ü»-·¹²
bo avoidod as in ´XYZ conpany is ´¿«²½¸·²¹ a nov producl.' Il is
nuch bollor lo vrilo ´XYZ conpany ´¿«²½¸»-.' WhiIo lho fornor
is passivo, sIov and boring, lho Iallor is vibranl and aclivo. Mosl
poopIo road novspapors, and so il naIos sonso lo foIIov lhoir slyIo
vhonovor possibIo.
HoadIinos nusl bo bolh inparliaI and accuralo. Thoy nusl givo
lho novs (or loII a slory if a foaluro), nol lho opinions of lho vrilor.
Thoy nusl nol onboIIish lho facls, bul prosonl lhon accuraloIy and
succinclIy. If lho slory is aboul a porson, nano lho porson unIoss ho
or sho is unInovn lo lho audionco. Brovily is your firsl priorily,
bul don'l sacrifico cruciaI dolaiI on vhich lho slory hangs.
HoadIinos vorI bosl vhon lhoy havo an aclivo, ´doing' vorb,
proforabIy singIo syIIabIo onos IiIo ½¿´´-, ¬»´´-, -¿§-, ¹±»-. Tho
hoading shouId say vhal lho slory is aboul in a fov shorl vords,
onough lo naIo lho roador vanl lo find oul noro, and lhoro aro
pIonly of oxanpIos of lvo- or lhroo-vord hoadIinos lhal vorI voII.
Bul lhoro aro occasions vhon ¡usl ono vord can havo a dranalic
offocl and laIo lho roador lo lho hoarl of lho slory IiIo GOTCHA!
(during lho FaIIIands var) and GRABALOT (pay risos and
bonusos for CanoIol diroclors). HoadIinos IiIo lhoso, vhich appoar
roguIarIy in lho labIoid pross, laIo nuch lhoughl, bul aro
oxlronoIy offoclivo in loIIing a slory in a punchy, pilhy vay.
Il is inporlanl lhal hoadIinos shouId sland on lhoir ovn and nol
bocono parl of lho foIIoving copy, for oxanpIo a houso ¡ournaI
hoadIino nighl road ´}ohn Snilh, nov nanaging diroclor of XYZ
conpany,' vilh lho firsl Iino of lho copy running on diroclIy fron il
saying ´Has pIans for oxpansion.' HoadIinos shouId novor do
lhal.
ÏËÛÍÌ×ÑÒÍ ßÒÜ ØËÓÑËÎ
Anolhor vay lo sparI inlorosl is lo vrilo quoslion hoadings fron
lino lo lino, slarling vilh ɸ±, ɸ§, ɸ»®», ɸ¿¬, or conslruclions
IiIo ×- ·¬, É¿- ·¬ò For pubIicalions conlaining noslIy foaluro nalo-
riaI, laIo a soflor Iino. You can uso Iongor hoadings and porhaps
ovon Ioavo oul lho vorb. }oIoy hoadIinos, IiIo HELLO TO GOOD
BUYS in vonon's pagos, vorI bosl in labIoid-slyIo novspapors
and houso ¡ournaIs, bul can diIulo lho noaning of a sorious
nossago. If usod sparingIy, hoadings IiIo IURRFECT ENDING for
a slory aboul cals aboul lo uso up lhoir nino Iivos, and MONEY TO
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
éð
BYRNE for a novs ilon announcing a lvo-niIIion pound pooIs
vinnor can gol a slory ovor far noro offoclivoIy lhan a slraighlfor-
vard hoading. LooI for hoadings vilh a pIay on vords, lho ¼±«¾´»
»²¬»²¼®». Bul avoid boing facolious, and vhiIo lhoro can bo no
ob¡oclion lo lho occasionaI pun, allonpls al boing funny can causo
a groan and bo soon as a poor forn of vil. Il is aII a quoslion of
baIanco, and filling hoadIinos lo lho audionco and nossago. Thoro
is aIvays roon for hunour.
ßÊÑ×Ü LÔßÞÛÔK ØÛßÜ×ÒÙÍ
´LaboI' hoadings naIo a bIand slalononl vilhoul vorb or vorvo
and hoId IillIo inlorosl for lho roador. Thoy produco an offocl of
duIInoss and nonolony. A hoading vhich announcos lho vinnors
of an avards schono SMITH WINS TOI AWARD is so nuch
bollor lhan lho bIand slalononl AWARDS ANNOUNCED ÷ a
lypicaI IaboI hoading.
Ø»¿¼´·²»-æ ³¿µ·²¹ ¬¸»³ ©±®µ
éï
Ú·¹«®» éòî Ý¿¬»¹±®§ó©·²²·²¹ ¬¿¾´±·¼ -¬¿ºº ²»©-°¿°»® º±® ÞÌ
ɸ±´»-¿´» ·² ¬¸» îððì Ý·Þ ¿©¿®¼-ô îððìò Ü»-·¹² ¾§ ݸ¿²¼´»® Ù±±¼·²¹
Do nol uso IaboI hoadings abovo foaluro arlicIos in houso naga-
zinos or in novsIollors. Thoy can, hovovor, bo usod as signposls
for soclioning off a pubIicalion: IaboIs IiIo ´Lalosl pubIicalions' or
´Fuluro ovonls' aro quilo accoplabIo for lhis purposo.
Sonolinos a IaboI is unavoidabIo, parlicuIarIy if spaco is shorl.
In lhis caso, uso Ioy vords lhal aro polonl in lhonsoIvos: angor,
big, caroor, cul, gain, ¡ob, profil, Ioss, Ioso, nov, vin vorI voII.
LooI for vords lhal viII arrosl ÷ and Ioop lho roador roading.
Ono lricI is lo insorl lho occasionaI pIay on vords, lho ¼±«¾´»
»²¬»²¼®», in hoadIinos. You viII nolico such hoadings in labIoids
and popuIar nagazinos, bul if ovorusod lhoy can bo painfuI for lho
roador. Avoid cIovor-cIovor hoadings in pross roIoasos lhoy aro
IiIoIy lo bacIfiro and causo unoxpoclod probIons.
ØÛßÜ×ÒÙÍ ×Ò ÍßÔÛÍ ÔÛßÚÔÛÌÍ ßÒÜ
ÞÎÑÝØËÎÛÍ
SaIos IoafIols, conpany brochuros, calaIoguos and nanuaIs roquiro
hard soII and porsuasivo nossagos. You can borrov a Iol fron lho
Ianguago of advorlising. David OgiIvy, foundor of lho OgiIvy and
Malhor agoncy, vriling in ݱ²º»--·±²- ±º ¿² ß¼ª»®¬·-·²¹ Ó¿², says
lhal fivo linos as nany poopIo road lho hoadIino as lho loxl. Ho
goos on: ´Tho vicIodosl of aII sins is lo run an advorlisononl
©·¬¸±«¬ a hoadIino.' And lhon ho adds sonolhing lhal couId causo
lho vrilor of a saIos IoafIol lo laIo a doop invard broalh: ´If you
havon'l dono sono soIIing in your hoadIino, you havo vaslod 80
por conl of your cIionl's nonoy.'
Tho lvo nosl povorfuI vords in a hoadIino aro º®»» and ²»©.
Olhor vords and phrasos usofuI for hoadIinos aro: advanco,
advico/hoIp on, bargain, big/groal/hugo, dovoIopnonl, oasy,
fasl/quicI, gain, hurry, inporlanl, ¡usl oul, profil/Ioss, quaIily,
says/loIIs, vin, vanl/nood. Avoid suporIalivos IiIo anazing,
nagic, niracuIous, rovoIulionary, sonsalionaI, suporb, slarlIing
unIoss lhoy aro for an advorlisononl.
Enolion can pIay a significanl parl in a succossfuI and nono-
rabIo hoadIino: OgiIvy suggosls lhal hoadIinos can bo slronglhonod
by vords IiIo darIing, Iovo, foar, proud, friond, baby. Ho quolos a
hoadIino of a fov docados ago for a rango of soaps and nois-
lurisors vilh a girI laIIing lo hor Iovor on lho loIophono:
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
éî
DARLING, I'M HAVING THE MOST EXTRAORDINARY EXIE-
RIENCE. I'M HEAD OVER HEELS IN DOVE as boing ono of lho
nosl provocalivo hoadIinos ovor lo cono oul of O&M. Moro roconl
oxanpIos of nonorabIo hoadIinos incIudo CATISFACTION
(WhisIas polfoods) and CHANNEL FUNNEL (I&O) and, noro
roconlIy, THE FUTURE'S BRIGHT, THE FUTURE'S ORANGE.
For saIos IoafIols and olhor pronolionaI naloriaI, a good hoadIino
is ono vhich naIos a slalod proniso and a voII-dofinod bonofil, is
nol sol al an angIo so lhal lho roador gols nocI-acho lrying lo road
il, and is sol in oasy-lo-road lypo. HoadIinos using an unfaniIiar
lypofaco and lhoso lhal aro buriod in lho loxl and prinlod upsido
dovn ¡usl lo salisfy a croalivo vhin shouId bo ruIod oul innodi-
aloIy.
Ø»¿¼´·²»-æ ³¿µ·²¹ ¬¸»³ ©±®µ
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Ú·¹«®» éòí Ͳ¿°°§ ¸»¿¼´·²» º±® ¬¸» Ò»©-°¿°»®ñÒ»©-´»¬¬»® ½¿¬»¹±®§ ±º
¬¸» Ý·Þ ß©¿®¼- îððìò Ó»¬®±°±´·¬½¿² б´·½» Í»®ª·½»- Tho }obô °®±¼«½»¼
¾§ Ì®·¼»²¬ ݱ³³«²·½¿¬·±²-
ÍÌÇÔÛ ßÒÜ ÐÎÛÍÛÒÌßÌ×ÑÒ
WhiIo shorl, snappy hoadings aro suilabIo for novs-slyIo pubIica-
lions, Iongor onos aro sonolinos noro approprialo for saIos
IoafIols and brochuros. According lo OgiIvy, vhon lho Nov YorI
Univorsily SchooI of RolaiIing ran hoadIino losls for a big doparl-
nonl sloro, il found lhal hoadIinos of 10 vords or noro, and
conlaining novs and infornalion, consislonlIy soId noro
norchandiso lhan shorl onos.
Irosonlalion is inporlanl. BoId lypo, al Ioasl sovon or oighl sizos
Iargor lhan lho loxl lypo (or up as subs vouId say) naIos lho hoad-
Iino sland oul fron lho rosl of lho loxl. For inslanco, if lho copy vas
sol in 10pl, 2pl Ioadod, hoadings of 18pl or Iargor vouId provido
sufficionl conlrasl. AIlhough il is a nallor of individuaI slyIo and
laslo, nosl hoadIinos IooI bollor if sol uppor and Iovor caso ralhor
lhan in fuII capilaIs. AIong hoadIino of four or noro vords in capi-
laIs adds nolhing lo lho offoclivonoss of lho nossago. Do nol
undorIino or pul capilaIs in an allonpl lo add onphasis: lhis
viII nol havo lho dosirod offocl and viII IooI oId-fashionod and
cIunsy.
Don'l pul a fuII slop al lho ond of a hoadIino. MaIo suro
lhal if a hoadIino runs lo noro lhan ono Iino lhal lho firsl is nol
broIon vilh a hyphon: lhal IooIs nol onIy ghaslIy bul lhoroughIy
unprofossionaI. Eilhor shorlon lho Iino so lhal lhoro is no nood lo
broaI lho Iasl vord or rovrilo lho vhoIo hoading. Try nol lo oxcood
lhroo-Iino hoadings for novspapor-slyIo pubIicalions (lhroo-docI
in ¡ournaIoso) aIlhough a four-docI hoading in a Iargo sizo, say
42pl or noro, vouId nol IooI oul of pIaco in a labIoid fornal.
Novadays, conpulor lyposolling aIIovs groal fIoxibiIily in
choico of hoadIino slyIos and sizos, and lhoro is no Iinil lo lho
croalivo possibiIilios lhal can bo achiovod. Tho lino laIon on lho
vriling and prosonlalion of hoadIinos is voII vorlhvhiIo and
dosorvos as nuch caro and allonlion as lho slory ilsoIf.
Subhoadings, or crosshoads, aro ¡usl as inporlanl as lhoir biggor
brolhors and donand ¡usl as nuch caro in lhoir vording and
prosonlalion.
ÍËÞØÛßÜ×ÒÙÍ
Subhoadings (aIso caIIod crosshoadings) can bo conlrod or rangod
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
éì
Iofl and aro a good vay lo broaI up Iong slrolchos of lypo. Iagos
IooI bollor vilh subhoads and lhoy can bo handy for fiIIing spaco,
for inslanco vhon you havo difficuIly in oquaIising coIunn doplhs.
Too nany subhoads viII IooI nossy, parlicuIarIy if lho pago is no
Iargor lhan A4.
Subhoads shouId consisl of ono or lvo vords of nol noro lhan
sovon or oighl characlors oach, lhoy shouId novor go inlo a socond
Iino. Do nol havo lhon in lho sano lypo slyIo as lho loxl. Thoy
Ø»¿¼´·²»-æ ³¿µ·²¹ ¬¸»³ ©±®µ
éë
Ú·¹«®» éòì Ø»´ª»¬·½¿ ³»¼·«³ ·² -·¦»- -«·¬¿¾´» º±® ¸»¿¼´·²»-
vorI bosl if lhoy aro in boId lypo or in ilaIics. Sonolinos lhoy IooI
voII in a socond coIour: il viII nol add lo lho cosl if lhoy aro
prinlod in ono of lho coIours aIroady boing usod. LiIo hoadIinos,
subhoads do nol roquiro fuII slops al lho ond, bul lhoro is no ob¡oc-
lion lo quoslion or oxcIanalion narIs.
SlucI for an idoa` TaIo a singIo, bul significanl, vord oul of lho
loxl and pul il as a crosshoad. Afov of lhon ¡udiciousIy pIacod can
naIo a duII pago IooI inlorosling and aIivo.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
éê
Ú·¹«®» éòë ݱ²¬®¿-¬- ·² ¬§°» -·¦»- ¿²¼ -¬§´»- ·² Ø»´ª»¬·½¿ ³»¼·«³
¿²¼ ¾±´¼
ÜÛÍ×ÙÒ ßÍ ßÐÐÔ×ÛÜ ÌÑ ÐÎ×ÒÌÛÜ ÓßÌÌÛÎ ×Í
¬¸» ³»¿²·²¹º«´ ¿®®¿²¹»³»²¬ ±º ¬¸» »´»³»²¬- ·²
¿ °¿¹» ±® ±¬¸»® ª·-«¿´ ¿®»¿ò ̸» ¿®®¿²¹»³»²¬
-»®ª»- ¿- ¿² ·²ª·-·¾´» -½¿ºº±´¼·²¹ ±® º®¿³»©±®µ
Exlra onphasis can bo givon lo a passago by insorling sido-hoad-
ings in lho nargins. Insorl lhoso al Iayoul slago and do nol allonpl
lo vrilo lhon in vhon lho body copy for lho loxl is vrillon. SlyIo
and Iayoul dosign viII diclalo hov nany lhoro shouId bo and
vhoro lhoy shouId bo posilionod.
Novor ovorIooI lho vording and prosonlalion of hoadings. Tino
and lroubIo sponl golling lhon righl viII aIvays pay off: inprovod
connunicalion viII inovilabIy rosuIl.
ÍÔÑÙßÒÍ ÚÑÎ ÞÎßÒÜ ÎÛÝßÔÔ
A nonorabIo sIogan is lho nainslay of succossfuI advorlising
canpaigns: bul il is nol aIvays lho panacoa lhal agoncy and cIionl
oxpocl il lo bo. Oflon il is lho sIogan lhal is rononborod, nol lho
producl, and vilh sIin roIalionship lo saIos. Evon so, sIogans IiIo
´Guinnoss Is Good For You', ´Go To WorI On An Egg', ´DrinIa
Iinla MiIIa Day' and lho varlino socurily sIogan ´Bo LiIo Dad,
Koop Mun' vorIod briIIianlIy.
Rosoarch shovod lhal vhorovor poopIo vonl, lhoy lhoughl lhal
Guinnoss acluaIIy ¼·¼ do lhon good (lho sIogan vas droppod in
1963 as il vas a cIain lhal couId nol bo adoqualoIy subslanlialod),
lho Egg MarIoling Board ran ils sIogan for docados and il bocano
advorlising foIIIoro. Dospilo ob¡oclions by purisls, lho NalionaI
MiII IubIicily CounciI's sIogan aInosl 50 yoars ago soon found ils
vay lo rospoclabiIily, ovonluaIIy gaining onlrios in diclionarios.
Tho snappy sIogan, IiIo a novs hoadIino, can bring Iasling rocaII
and has a significanl infIuonco on lho largol audionco. Bul oxlra
saIos aro hard lo provo.
Tho bosl sIogans aro lhoso vilh vords of ono syIIabIo, as lho firsl
lvo oxanpIos iIIuslralo. Anolhor crilicaI faclor is choico of lypo-
faco: il shouId foIIov lhal usod in advorlising and in aII prinlvorI
for lho conpany's producls. If coIours aro usod, lhoy shouId aIso
foIIov lhoso in pronolions and corporalo Iiloraluro.
Lolloring slyIo, vholhor in boId or ilaIics, shouId bo consislonl ÷
fron signs on vans and Iorrios lo dispIay cards and poslors. And
lho sIogan can go on roIoasos as voII, providing il is nol loo oblru-
sivo. Il shouId novor ovorshadov lho hoadIino, and shouId bo posi-
lionod voII avay fron lho slory ilsoIf.
Abovo aII, sIogans nusl bo sinpIo and cIoar. Onco lhoy bocono
ovor-vordy and cIunsy, lhoy viII nol bo rononborod and il
Ø»¿¼´·²»-æ ³¿µ·²¹ ¬¸»³ ©±®µ
éé
vouId bo bollor lo uso olhor forns of pubIicily. Tho sIogan lhal
producos inslanl rocaII is lho ono lhal is shorl and lo lho poinl, lhal
is ropoalod and ropoalod, lhal naIos you Iaugh, lho ono lhal is
onolionaIIy chargod. Thal is lho ono lo ain for.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
éè
Ú·¹«®» éòê Þ®±¿¼ «-» ±º ¬¸» »¿-§ ¾®¿²¼æ »¿-§Ö»¬ ø¬±°÷ô
»¿-§Ûª»®§¬¸·²¹å ¿´-± ·² »¿-§ò½±³ ¿²¼ »¿-§ª¿´«»ò½±³ ø¾±¬¬±³÷
ÛÔÛÓÛÒÌÍ ÑÚ ÝÑÎÐÑÎßÌÛ ×ÜÛÒÌ×ÌÇ
RocognisabIo corporalo idonlily doponds on lho dosign and oxocu-
lion of lho connunicalions procoss in aII ils aspocls. Thal noans a
consislonl lypo slyIo and coIours for ovorylhing fron vohicIos,
vobsilo, prinlvorI of aII Iinds fron Iollorhoads, nonos, visiling
cards lo lho annuaI roporl and pubIicily naloriaI, lo pross and TV
advorlising, lo pacIaging, lo lho sign oulsido offico or faclory ÷
oasy}ol is a good oxanpIo of hov a slrong brand idonlily can Ioad
quicIIy lo narIoling succoss.
BuiIding an offoclivo and nonorabIo corporalo idonlily of a
conpany and ils brands is IargoIy lho rosponsibiIily of lho advor-
lising agoncy, bul al lho dosign slago and for subsoquonl pubIicily,
lho IR praclilionor has a crilicaI roIo lo pIay.
Ø»¿¼´·²»-æ ³¿µ·²¹ ¬¸»³ ©±®µ
éç
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
Ó¿µ» ¸»¿¼·²¹- -¸±®¬ô °«²½¸§ ¿²¼ °·¬¸§ò
Ю»-»²¬ ¬»²-» ¿²¼ ¿½¬·ª» ª»®¾- ©±®µ ¾»-¬ò
Ù± º±® -·²¹´»ó-§´´¿¾´» ©±®¼- ©¸»²»ª»® °±--·¾´»ò
ײ¬®±¼«½» ¸«³±«® ¾«¬ ¼±²K¬ ±ª»®¼± ·¬ò
ߪ±·¼ -´±©ô ¾±®·²¹ L´¿¾»´K ¸»¿¼·²¹-ò
̸» ³±-¬ °±©»®º«´ ©±®¼- ¿®» Lº®»»K ¿²¼ L²»©Kò
Þ±´¼ ¬§°» ·² ´¿®¹»® -·¦» °®±ª·¼»- ½±²¬®¿-¬ ©·¬¸ ¬»¨¬ò
Ë-» «°°»® ¿²¼ ´±©»® ½¿-»ô ²±¬ ½¿°·¬¿´-ò
Í«¾¸»¿¼- ±º ±²» ±® ¬©± ©±®¼- ¿®» »ºº»½¬·ª»ò
ݱ²-·-¬»²½§ ©·¬¸ °®±¼«½¬ ¾®¿²¼·²¹ ³¿·²¬¿·²- ½±®°±®¿¬»
·¼»²¬·¬§ò
Ú×ÙËÎ×ÒÙ ÑËÌ ÌØÛ ÒËÓÞÛÎÍ
Tho vay you lroal nunbors is as inporlanl as lho vay you lroal
vords. A nixluro of nunoraI slyIos can confuso lho roador and
naIo lho produclion IooI analourish. A sol slyIo for nunbors
shouId bo a priorily for ovorylhing producod vholhor for prinl,
prosonlalion, roIoaso or corrospondonco.
SlyIo nanuaIs sol oul a nunbor of guidoIinos and provido pIonly
of oxanpIos. IndividuaI pubIicalions adapl lhoso and oxpand on
lhon lo suil lhoir ovn noods and audioncos. WhiIo ruIos of lhis
naluro aro opon lo inlorprolalion, lhoy provido a slarling poinl and
lhis soclion dravs allonlion lo sono of lho inporlanl poinls for
houso slyIo.
Þ¿-·½ ½±²-·¼»®¿¬·±²-
Tho firsl ruIo is nol lo slarl a sonlonco vilh a figuro. SpoII il oul
insload. Tho roason for lhis is lhal lho slyIo is foIIovod aInosl
univorsaIIy in novspapors and nagazinos and in nosl profossion-
èð
è
aIIy producod pubIicalions. Il is sonolhing vo havo aII bocono
usod lo and any divorsion innodialoIy slands oul and IooIs
´vrong'. Bul il vouId bo cIunsy lo spoII oul a nuIli-digil nunbor,
oilhor vrilo oul ̸» §»¿® ïççé or oIso rocasl lho sonlonco
conpIoloIy. Hovovor, lhoro aro occasions vhon il is difficuIl lo
avoid a figuro al lho boginning and vhon lhis happons, say in an
annuaI roporl or in giving slalislicaI dala, lhon lhoro nay bo no
aIlornalivo bul lo slarl vilh a figuro.
Tho socond ruIo ÷ and lhis is for nunbors ©·¬¸·² a sonlonco ÷ is lo
spoII oul nunbors up lo and incIuding lon, abovo lhal vrilo
figuros. Bul if lhoro aro soquoncos of nunbors, sono of vhich nay
bo highor lhan lon, uso figuros lhroughoul for lho saIo of consis-
loncy and cIarily. Wrilo oul ¸«²¼®»¼¬¸ bul aflor lhal pul ïðï-¬ and
so on. For docinaIs, uso a fuII slop on lho Iino as in 1.5, and do nol
allonpl lo conlraIiso il as if vriling a docinaI by hand. (In olhor
Ianguagos a docinaI conna is usod.) Thoro is no poinl in pulling a
singIo zoro aflor lho docinaI poinl unIoss il is caIIod for in labuIar
nallor, bul a noughl shouId go boforo lho poinl as in ðòéëò
NunoraIs shouId bo usod for pago roforoncos, curroncios and for
groups of slalislics.
ͧ³¾±´-ô ¿¾¾®»ª·¿¬·±²- ¿²¼ °«²½¬«¿¬·±²
Noxl: avoid using lho % sign in loxl, spoII oul °»® ½»²¬ as lvo
vords, bul uso °»®½»²¬¿¹» of courso. Tho synboI shouId bo Iopl for
labIos and charls and for loxl vhoro figuros prodoninalo. Fraclions
shouId bo hyphonalod (¬©±ó¬¸·®¼-) and do nol nix (or conparo)
fraclions vilh docinaIs. Whon bolh a vhoIo nunbor and a fraclion
aro spoIl oul, onIy hyphonalo lho fraclion as in ±²» ¿²¼ ¬¸®»»ó¯«¿®ó
¬»®-. Il is bollor lo vrilo (in fornaI loxl) ¬©»²¬·»¬¸ ½»²¬«®§ ralhor lhan
îð¬¸ò Nolo lhal ±²» ·² ¬¸®»» is singuIar bul ¬©± ·² º·ª» aro pIuraI.
Sono novspapors viII profor lo vrilo ¿ ³·´» ¿²¼ ¿ ¸¿´º insload of ±²»
¿²¼ ¿ ¸¿´º ³·´»-, bul soIdon, if ovor, prinl ï
ï
Fî niIos!
Avoid a conbinalion of lho ¬±ñº®±³ slyIo (vhon conparing yoars,
for inslanco) vilh hyphons as in º®±³ ïççé ¬± ïççè, pul º®±³ ¬©± ¬±
¬¸®»», or º®±³ ïî ¬± ïí, bul nol a nixluro of lho lvo slyIos. Rosorvo
hyphons or dashos for nunoraIs and novor uso lhon for spoIl-oul
figuros.
A ¾·´´·±² al ono lino noanl a niIIion niIIion bul nodorn usago
suggosls lhal il noans a ¬¸±«-¿²¼ ³·´´·±² ÷ a dofinilion accoplod by
nosl, if nol al aII, nalionaI novspapors. Il is bollor lo spoII oul a
Ü»¿´·²¹ ©·¬¸ º·¹«®»- ¿²¼ ¿¾¾®»ª·¿¬·±²-
èï
niIIion and a biIIion, bul if ³ and ¾² aro usod do nol pul a fuII
poinl aflor lho abbrovialions unIoss lhoy cono al lho ond of a
sonlonco. FuII poinls shouId nol foIIov unils of voighl and
noasurononl (½³, º¬, µ¹), and do nol pul hyphons in conbinalions
IiIo ¸¿´º ¿² ·²½¸ or ¸¿´º ¿ ¼±¦»². Wilh lonporaluro pul lho dogroo
synboI innodialoIy boforo Ý or Ú. No punclualion is nocossary in
dalos (ïî Ó¿®½¸ ïççé). In conpounds, pul a hyphon in ¸¿´ºó¸±«®
and ¬©±ó¼¿§ò
Ò±«²- ±º ³»¿-«®»³»²¬ ¿²¼ ¯«¿²¬·¬§æ -·²¹«´¿® ±®
°´«®¿´á
AII nouns of noasurononl ronain singuIar vhon usod allribu-
livoIy: ¿ -·¨óº±±¬ ³¿², ¿ º·ª»ó´·¬®» ½¿². Bul pIuraI fool or inchos aro
usod vhoro an ad¡oclivo foIIovs, as in ¸» ·- -·¨ º»»¬ ¬¿´´, -¸» ·- º·ª» º»»¬
-·¨ ·²½¸»-. SiniIarIy, -¬±²» slays singuIar in pIuraI oxprossions, as in
-¸» ©»·¹¸- ²·²» -¬±²»ò UnIoss usod allribulivoIy, nolric noasuro-
nonls aIvays laIo lho pIuraI forn as in ¬¸» ¬¿²µ ¸¿- ¿ ½¿°¿½·¬§ ±º ïð
´·¬®»-ò
Nouns of quanlily ÷ -½±®», ¼±¦»², ¸«²¼®»¼ ÷ laIo lho singuIar forn
if quaIifiod by a procoding vord: ¬©± ¬¸±«-¿²¼ ©·´´ ¾» -«ºº·½·»²¬. Bul
lhoy viII bo pIuraI vhon donoling indofinilo anounls as in ¬¸»
½±³°¿²§ °«¾´·-¸»- ¸«²¼®»¼- ±º °«¾´·½¿¬·±²-ò Moasurononls of quan-
lily and dislanco conlaining a pIuraI noun can bo laIon as boing
singuIar and lhoroforo laIo a singuIar vorb: ¬©»²¬§ °±«²¼-ñ³·´»- ·-
¬±± »¨°»²-·ª»ñº¿®ò
Whon vo uso lho singuIar vord ³¿¶±®·¬§, vo vrilo ´lho na¡orily
of poopIo ¿®»'. Thal's bocauso il is °»±°´» boing laIIod aboul, so lhoy
laIo lho pIuraI. Bul if il's lho na¡orily ilsoIf lhal's boing discussod
lhon il noods a singuIar vorb: lho na¡orily is snaIIor. (Nolo lhal
ª¿-¬ ³¿¶±®·¬§ has bocono an ovorusod cIich’.)
Il is vorlh noling lhal lho vord ´nunbor' laIos a pIuraI vorb
vhon il rofors lo a quanlily or group as in a ²«³¾»® ±º °»±°´» ©»®».
bul vhon il noans a figuro il laIos lho singuIar: ¬©± ¸«²¼®»¼ °±«²¼-
·- ¬¸» ²«³¾»® × ¯«±¬»¼. So nuch for figuros.
ßÞÞÎÛÊ×ßÌ×ÑÒÍæ ÌØÛ ÔÑÒÙ ßÒÜ ÌØÛ
ÍØÑÎÌ ÑÚ ×Ì
Nov Iol's IooI al abbrovialions and hov lo doaI vilh lhon. Firsl,
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
èî
lho abbrovialion ovoryono usos vilhoul hosilalion: ÑÕ. Whal do
lho Iollors sland for` UnIoss you havo soon il in ny ´Lasl Words'
coIunn in lho IIR nagazino Ю±º·´» or nado a sludy of lho sub¡ocl,
lho chancos aro lhal you don'l Inov ÷ and lhal is lho lroubIo vilh
using abbrovialions: roadors nay nol Inov vhal a givon sol of
iniliaIs sland for and lhal noans connunicalion nol vorIing.
OK, horo aro sono ansvors. TaIo your picI: originaling fron lho
ninoloonlh conlury, il couId cono fron OId KindorhooI, lho
upslalo Nov YorI birlhpIaco of oighlh Anorican prosidonl Van
Buron vho usod lho iniliaIs as an oIoclion sIogan, or porhaps a
conlraclion of Anorican sIang Ñ®´ Õ±®®»½¬, or of Orrins-KondaII
cracIors, according lo BiII Bryson in Ó±¬¸»® ̱²¹«». Evon lhough
lho origin nay bo obscuro, vo aII Inov vhal lho Iollors noan.
Fov abbrovialions aro as faniIiar and inslanlIy undorslandabIo
as OK. Abbrovialions aro oflon usod vilhoul hosilalion, bul aro
noaningIoss lo lho roador, sinpIy bocauso lho vrilor is usod lo
lhon and lhoy havo bocono parl of lho conpany's ¡argon. Gol
lhon vrong and your nossago faiIs. So vhal aro lho ruIos for
doaIing vilh lhon`
ߪ±·¼ ±ª»®«-»
Tho firsl poinl, lo quolo a voII-Inovn saying, is faniIiarily broods
conlonpl. If you ovoruso abbrovialod sols of iniliaIs lhoy quicIIy
liro lho oyo. UnIoss lho iniliaIs aro sufficionlIy faniIiar lo bo parl of
lho Ianguago (BBC, CBI, TUC) lho nano shouId bo spoIl oul in fuII
boforo using abbrovialions. Olhorviso, spoII il oul in fuII aflor lho
iniliaIs al firsl roforonco. Il vouId bo oquaIIy liring lo soo a ropoli-
lion of lho fuII nano vhon a conlraclion vouId bo noro suilabIo
and convonionl. Thoro vouId bo IillIo poinl in oxpIaining lho
iniliaIs BMW, bocauso bosidos boing a voII-Inovn brand, lhoro is
usuaIIy no ²»»¼ for lho roador lo Inov vhal lhoy noan.
Do nol conlinuo lo uso lho sano sol of iniliaIs. For oxanpIo, in
roforoncos lo lho BBC uso ´lho Corporalion' or possibIy for
infornaI spooch or labIoid pubIicalion, ´lho Boob'. Again, for lho
CBI, il couId bo caIIod aflor lho firsl roforonco ´lho onpIoyors'
organisalion' or ¡usl ´lho organisalion'. In olhor casos, uso a shorl-
onod forn such as inslilulo/associalion/fodoralion/body or, in
lho caso of firns, conpany/consuIlancy/firn/group/shop/sloro,
or nano by producl or sorvico lypo. Bul Ioop cIoar of sIang vords
IiIo ±«¬º·¬ñ-¸±° for pubIic roIalions or advorlising firns.
Ü»¿´·²¹ ©·¬¸ º·¹«®»- ¿²¼ ¿¾¾®»ª·¿¬·±²-
èí
Þ» ½¿®»º«´ ±º ¿³¾·¹«·¬·»-
Walch oul for anbiguilios IiIo IC, vhich couId noan porsonaI
conpulor, IoIico ConslabIo or Irivy CounsoIIor. You nay bo ·² IR,
bul you aro nol ¿ IR. You soo an ¿¼ bul nol an ¿¼ª»®¬, you ¡oin a
¼»³± and you gol º´« nol ¬¸» (and no aposlropho). Ensuro lhal
doscriplions aro accuralo. A connon nislaIo is for BSI lo bo
vrillon oul as lho Brilish Slandards ײ-¬·¬«¬» insload of Inslilulion,
il vas lho IubIic Rocord Offico, nol Rocords, boforo il bocano lho
NalionaI Archivos. Wrilors vondor hov lo vrilo ILC (IubIic
Linilod Conpany). Il is up lo lho conpany: il can bo shovn in
caps, or Iovor caso or a nixluro of lho lvo, aIlhough il soons lhal
lho aII-capilaIs slyIo, oilhor in ronan or ilaIics, is lho ono gonoraIIy
favourod.
Ý¿°·¬¿´- ¿²¼ º«´´ -¬±°-
Mosl houso slyIos roquiro aII abbrovialions lo bo sol in capilaIs, bul
sono organisalions aro road as acronyns and laIo Iovor caso
(AsIof for inslanco), vhiIo olhors aro sol uppor and Iovor caso for
lho saIo of cIarily (BSc, Dr). In gonoraI, fuII slops aro nol noodod in
abbrovialions of conpany nanos, lilIos and civiI honours, acad-
onic quaIificalions, and lho courlosy lilIos of Mr/Mrs/Ms.
No fuII poinl foIIovs nunoricaI abbrovialions (1sl/2nd), unils of
Ionglh, voighl or lino (cn/fl/cvl/Ib/Ig/nin/soc), an/pn,
days of lho vooI (Mon/Tuos), nonlhs (Aug/Doc), or in poinls of
lho conpass (NE/SW) unIoss usod soparaloIy (N.S.E.W.). Thoy aro
soIdon nocossary in acronyns (Iasor) and if lhoro is no vay of
avoiding olc (novor &c) don'l pul a poinl aflor il.
MaIo suro your loxl or offico-producod docunonls havo aII
abbrovialions lypod or sol in a consislonl vay vilhoul (or vilh)
fuII poinls as nay bo diclalod by houso slyIo. Gol oul of lho habil of
using og, io, pa ÷ lhoy aro vhal nighl bo lornod ´Iazyisns'. For »¬½
vrilo a shorl Iisling of vhal lho ilons aro, for og/io ¡usl pul a
conna, for pa spoII oul por annun or annuaIIy or ovory/oach
yoar. Nolo lhal »¹ is nol lho sano as ·»: »¹ noans ´for oxanpIo',
vhiIo io noans ´lhal is'.
ß³°»®-¿²¼- ¿²¼ ¼»º·²·¬» ¿®¬·½´»-
Tho anporsand is a usofuI and convonionl abbrovialion for ¿²¼,
bul il shouId bo roslriclod lo conpany nanos (MarIs & Sponcor)
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
èì
and novor usod as an aIlornalivo lo ¿²¼ in loxl. A chocI vilh lho
loIophono diroclory viII confirn vholhor or nol a conpany nano
conlains an anporsand.
Tho onission of lho dofinilo arlicIo has causod hoalod dobalo:
lho Quoon's EngIish Socioly has bIanod lhis on advorlisors, hoad-
Iino vrilors and bad loaching. Bul il is nol sonolhing lo bo loo
bolhorod aboul unIoss ¬¸» is lhoro lo doscribo a spocific lhing or
ovonl. Il vouId bo lodious lo doscribo }oo BIoggs as ¬¸» nanaging
diroclor of XYZ conpany. Drop il and you naIo lho copy run
faslor. Nano pIus lilIo in Iovor caso is aII you nood.
̸» is corlainIy nol noodod vhon laIIing aboul brandod prod-
ucls: you vouId say, in a roIoaso or arlicIo, Ford nolor cars, nol lho
Ford nolor cars, in a gonoraI conloxl, bul lho Ford vhon roforring
lo a spocific nodoI, say in conparison vilh olhor vohicIos.
Whon a lilIo such as ̸» Ì·³»-, or lho IIR for lhal nallor, is usod
allribulivoIy, you can drop lho ¬¸» as in Ì·³»- roporlors invosli-
galod., IIR poIicy docisions voro nado.. Thoro is no ob¡oclion
lo using ¬¸» vilh Ioss and noro (lho Ioss/lho noro you havo), bul
nolo nonolhoIoss (nol nono lho Ioss) is proforabIo lo nol any ¬¸» Ioss.
You nood ¬¸» vhon roforring lo lho parlicuIar, lho spocific. Koop
il for lilIos of booIs, pIays and fiIns vhon il is parl of lho rocog-
nisod lilIo and vhon nonlioning a porson by lilIo as in lho Irino
Minislor, Tony BIair, nol lho Anorican vay Irino Minislor BIair.
If a shorlonod vord is pronouncod, do nol pul a dofinilo arlicIo
boforo il (lho IIR bul nol lho M&S). Honco lho ruIo: ¬¸» goos vilh
abbrovialod organisalions bul nol lho conpany nanos. You
vouIdn'l vrilo lho ICI vouId you` Bo carofuI in oxchanging phono
for loIophono, pholo for pholograph, as bolh conlraclions aro noro
conforlabIo vhon usod infornaIIy and in spooch.
Uso facsiniIo, loIophono in fuII for prinlod addross dolaiIs,
fax/phono as a vorb (´I viII fax/phono you'). In fornaI conloxls
vrilo loIophono.
AfuII guido lo abbrovialions (bul onIy lhoso covoring lho Iargor
connorciaI organisalions) viII bo found in ̸» Ѩº±®¼ ͬ§´»
Ó¿²«¿´, advico on solling abbrovialions for prinlod naloriaI is
givon in anolhor soclion of lho nanuaI. Mosl diclionarios viII indi-
calo vhal abbrovialod lilIos, honours and quaIificalions sland for.
And, by lho vay, OK is proforrod lo ±µ¿§ or ±µò
Ü»¿´·²¹ ©·¬¸ º·¹«®»- ¿²¼ ¿¾¾®»ª·¿¬·±²-
èë
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
èê
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
ܱ²K¬ -¬¿®¬ ¿ -»²¬»²½» ©·¬¸ ¿ º·¹«®» ·º §±« ½¿² ¸»´° ·¬ò
Í°»´´ ±«¬ ²«³¾»®- «° ¬± ¿²¼ ·²½´«¼·²¹ ¬»² ©·¬¸·² ¿ -»²¬»²½»ò
ߪ±·¼ ¬¸» û -·¹² ·² ¬»¨¬å -°»´´ ±«¬ °»® ½»²¬ ¿- ¬©± ©±®¼-ò
ɸ»² ½±³°¿®·²¹ §»¿®- «-» »·¬¸»® º®±³ñ¬± ±® ¸§°¸»²¿¬»å ¼±²K¬
³·¨ò
LÒ«³¾»®K ¬¿µ»- ¬¸» °´«®¿´ ©¸»² ®»º»®®·²¹ ¬± ¿ ¹®±«°ò
Ú±® -»¬- ±º ·²·¬·¿´- -°»´´ ±«¬ ¬¸» º«´´ ²¿³» ¿¬ º·®-¬ ®»º»®»²½» ±®
°«¬ ·¬ ·² ¾®¿½µ»¬-ò
Ò± -¬±°- ·² ¿¾¾®»ª·¿¬»¼ ½±³°¿²§ ²¿³»- ±® ¬·¬´»-ò
̸» ¼»º·²·¬» ¿®¬·½´» ø¬¸»÷ ·- ²±¬ ²»»¼»¼ º±® ¾®¿²¼»¼ °®±¼«½¬-ò
ݱ²-«´¬ ¬¸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± ͬ§´» º±® ¹«·¼¿²½» ±²
¿¾¾®»ª·¿¬·±²-ò
Sono of lho slricluros of purisls vho insisl upon rigid adhoronco lo
ruIos of grannar aro IillIo noro lhan nylhoIogy and havo no pIaco
in ovoryday usago. Thoso vho boIiovo lhal il is aIvays vrong lo
spIil an infinilivo, ond a sonlonco vilh a proposilion, or slarl vilh a
con¡unclion aro in a Iinguislic slrail¡acIol and unabIo lo connuni-
calo as voII as lhoy nighl.
LiIoviso, unnocossariIy Iong vords, conpIox sonloncos and
Ionglhy paragraphs confuso lho roador. DoubIo nogalivos, noodIoss
¡argon, fauIly or nispIacod punclualion, and conslanl ropolilion of
vords and idoas can aII Ioad lo nonsonsicaI, hard-lo-foIIov loxl.
And lhal noans lhal lho roador quicIIy Iosos inlorosl in lho faco of
ondIoss vaffIo.
IIain EngIish, vrillon in a sinpIo and slraighlforvard vay, is
lho rocipo for cIarily of oxprossion. Moro lhan lhal, il is lho basis of
good slyIo. EarIior chaplors havo discussod sono of lho ingrodionls
for socuring and Iooping lho roador roading, and, vilhoul lros-
passing on lhal lorrilory, lhis chaplor IooIs al vriling vilh
oconony of Ianguago, a cruciaI faclor in golling your nossago
undorslood.
èé
ç
ß×Ó ÚÑÎ ÞÎÛÊ×ÌÇ
Brovily is lho ossonco, parlicuIarIy for lho nodia. ConpIicalod
conslruclions and Ionglhy, unvioIdy sonloncos nol onIy boro lho
roador, lhoy provido an inslanl barrior lo offoclivo connunica-
lions. Moro inporlanl sliII, brovily spoIIs lino savod for lho roador.
Copy nusl bo cIoar, conciso and unanbiguous. Wholhor lho pioco
is for pubIicalion in a novspapor or poriodicaI or for a brochuro or
IoafIol, il shouId bo vrillon so lhal il grips lho roador fron slarl lo
finish. Whal aro lho bosl vays of achioving lhis`
Firsl, uso shorl vords ralhor lhan Iong, and pIain Ianguago
insload of conpIox lorninoIogy. Try lo Ioop sonloncos dovn lo 25
lo 30 vords, fovor if you can. Uso fuII slops IiboraIIy: lhoy aro lho
vrilor's bosl friond. Ain for nol noro lhan lhroo sonloncos por
paragraph for roIoasos and novs-slyIo pubIicalions. Bul varioly is
lho spico: an occasionaI Iongor paragraph givos coIour and baIanco
lo a pioco. And lho ono-Iinor can bo offoclivo ÷ il ¡orIs lho roador lo
allonlion.
Sonloncos can of courso bo nuch Iongor lhan lhis, indood, lhoso
of up lo 60 or so vords aro accoplabIo for lochnicaI or IogaI
conloxls vhoro dolaiIod oxpIanalion is roquirod. If a sonlonco is
slarling lo ´IooI' loo Iong, and lops lho 60 narI, broaI il up vilh
slops, or insorl quolalions if approprialo. Wilh foaluro arlicIos and
corporalo brochuros you can bo noro gonorous vilh vords. Bul
ovon lhon, bo avaro lhal lho Iongor lho sonlonco lho noro IiIoIy lho
roador viII liro and sIip lho copy you havo lriod so hard lo gol
righl in lorns of slyIo and facl.
As you vrilo, gol inlo lho habil of asIing yoursoIf ´Is lhoro a
shorlor vord lhal noans lho sano lhing` Is lhoro a bollor vord`
Aro any vords shoor vorbiago and shouId bo cul oul` Is ovory
vord doing a ¡ob and loIIing you sonolhing`' In shorl, vrilo lighl
lo vrilo voII.
ÐÔß×Ò ÉÑÎÜÍ
Your soarch for pIain vords and lho ronovaI of unnocossary onos
viII bo aidod by using ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± д¿·² Û²¹´·-¸ by Marlin
Culls. Thoro aro, ho says, lhroo nain lochniquos for doaIing vilh
´dross' lo aIIov your infornalion lo ´shino noro cIoarIy': slriIo oul
usoIoss vords and Ioavo onIy lhoso lhal loII you sonolhing, pruno
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
èè
Õ»»° ·¬ -¸±®¬ô -·³°´» P ¿²¼ °´¿·²
èç
Ú·¹«®» çòï λ´»¿-» º®±³ ̸» д¿·² Û²¹´·-¸ Ý¿³°¿·¹² ±² ±ª»®«-»¼
½´·½¸’-ò ׬- ßóÆ Ù«·¼» ±² ¿´¬»®²¿¬·ª» ©±®¼- ¿²¼ ÝÜ ¿®» ¿ª¿·´¿¾´» ±²
¬¸» Ý¿³°¿·¹²K- ©»¾-·¬»
lho doad vood, grafling on lho vigorous, rovrilo conpIoloIy. Culls
givos nany oxanpIos of lho ovorIong vord or phraso, lho usoIoss
vord, and lho officiaIoso lhal dofios undorslanding, as voII as
advico on hov lo rovrilo Ionglhy and lodious loxl. Whon naIing
culs il is ossonliaI nol lo aIlor lho sonso in any vay and lo foIIov
lho basic ruIos of grannar.
Wilh a IillIo lhoughl il is oasy: soo hov 10 vords in lho foIIoving
sonlonco can bo Iosl vilhoul aIloring lho noaning:
XYZ conpany ¸¿¼ ¿- ·¬- ³¿·² ±¾¶»½¬·ª» ¬¸» ²»»¼ (vanlod) lo incroaso
oulpul by al Ioasl 10 por conl ·² lhis ½«®®»²¬ º·²¿²½·¿´ yoar.
Horo, lho vords in ilaIics can bo doIolod vilhoul changing lho
noaning. Tho singIo vord ´vanlod' laIos lho pIaco of sovon nood-
Ioss onos. Vorbiago IiIo lhis lhroughoul a pioco of sovoraI hundrod
vords vouId lurn off lho roador aflor onIy a fov paragraphs.
Exprossions lhal can oasiIy bo shorlonod incIudo: lho quoslion as lo
vholhor, (uso vholhor), lhoro is no doubl lhal (pul no doubl or
doublIoss), in spilo of lho facl lhal (ropIaco vilh lhough), oving lo
lho facl lhal (vrilo sinco or bocauso).
Culls incIudos hoIpfuI Iisls of pIain and shorl vords and
phrasos. For oxanpIo, ho advisos facls/dolaiIs nol parlicuIars, hoIp
nol faciIilalo, idoa nol concopl, buy nol purchaso, slarl/bogin, nol
connonco. Do nol Iol Iong-vindod phrasos gol lho bollor of you:
for inslanco, vrilo aIlhough or dospilo insload of ´dospilo lho facl
lhal'. Sir Ernosl Govors in ̸» ݱ³°´»¬» д¿·² ɱ®¼- dononslralos
lhal sinpIo proposilions can oflon ropIaco vordy phrasos: if for ´in
caso of' and lo for ´vilh a viov lo'.
Fron ny fiIo of unnocossariIy conpIicalod vords and phrasos
(proforoncos in ilaIics): concorning, ¿¾±«¬ñ±², curronlIy, ²±©, dona-
lion, ¹·º¬, in addilion lo/as voII as, ¾»-·¼»-ñ¿´-±, concIudo,
»²¼ñ¼»½·¼»ñ-¬±°ñ¼»¼«½», dupIicalo, ®»°»¿¬, ondoavour, ¬®§, fIuclualion,
½¸¿²¹», gonoraI (ad¡), ¾®±¿¼, givo riso lo, ½¿«-», in lho courso of,
¼«®·²¹, holorogonoous, ³·¨»¼, inlorcodo, °´»¿¼, ¡ournoy, ¬®·°, nol Ioss
lhan, ¿¬ ´»¿-¬, Ianguago, ¬±²¹«», naslor (v), ¹®¿-°, principaI, ³¿·²,
porsons, °»±°´», ronunoralion, º»»ñ°¿§, slipuIalo, -¬¿¬», subsoquonl
lo, ¿º¬»®, londoncy, ¬®»²¼, undorsland (v), -»», virluaIIy, ¿´³±-¬, vilh
roforonco lo, ¿¾±«¬ñ®»¹¿®¼·²¹, varohouso, -¬±®».
LooI for lho shorlor, sinpIor ÷ lho pIain vord: chocI for aIlorna-
livos in lho л²¹«·² Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Û²¹´·-¸ ͧ²±²§³-, α¹»¬K-
̸»-¿«®«- and siniIar roforonco booIs.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
çð
ÔÑÝßÔ ÙÑÊÛÎÒÓÛÒÌ ÝÑÓÓËÒ×ÝßÌ×ÑÒ
LocaI govornnonl vilh ils nany difforonl pubIics fron houso-
hoIdors lo businossos, fron conlraclors lo sociaI sorvicos, facos
connunicalions probIons arising fron a rango of doparlnonls
vilh vidoIy difforing slaffing arrangononls. A counciI's nossagos,
anylhing fron CounciI Tax donands lo rubbish coIIoclion, nusl bo
vidoIy undorslood and aclod upon by lho nunorous pubIics. To
achiovo offoclivo connunicalion across such a broad audionco,
vords and phrasos nusl bo vrillon and prosonlod in a sinpIo,
slraighlforvard vay. TaIo lho Norlh LincoInshiro CounciI for
oxanpIo: ils guido on pIain EngIish and houso slyIo is a conciso
and offoclivo aid for ils officors and slaff.
Tho Norlh LincoInshiro CounciI's ͬ§´» Ù«·¼», vrillon and
dovisod by Barry FIoolvood, lho counciI's pubIic roIalions and
connunicalions nanagor, onphasisos lho nood for shorl vords,
avoiding lho abslracl and conconlraling on lho spocific, using lho
aclivo nol lho passivo voico, and vriling in lho firsl porson (I/vo
ralhor lhan ´lho counciI'). Il is onphasisod lhal good vriling
doponds on facls nol vaffIo, vilhoul ropolilion, coupIod vilh
corrocl punclualion and doIivorod in pIain and sinpIo EngIish.
Guidanco on roporls and docunonls, and rosuIls for using lho
counciI's nano, aro incIudod. Any counly counciI or IocaI
aulhorily, or indood any organisalion vanling a sol of basic ruIos
on slyIo and usago, can gol an onIino copy fron barry.fIoolvood©
norlhIincs.gov.uI.
Anolhor slyIo guido conos fron Dorby Cily CounciI. Ils usofuI
д¿·² Û²¹´·-¸ Ù«·¼» incIudos a diroclory of shorl vords for Iong, a
Iisl of noaningIoss and palronising phrasos, pIus hoIpfuI gran-
nalicaI and punclualion poinls. Thoro's a four-pago Iisl of abbrovi-
alions and acronyns for spoIIing oul al firsl roforonco.
Of spociaI inlorosl lo IocaI govornnonl connunicalors aro
oxanpIos of hov copy can bo inprovod by using sinpIo Ianguago.
Lalin vords and oxprossions aro oul, as voII as Iong-vindod and
obscuro vording in corrospondonco and docunonls. Evon so, lhis
guido insisls on a capilaI iniliaI Iollor for counciI and has yol lo ban
lho vorb ´lo bo', a signaI of lho passivo voico, aIlhough inpIicil in
sono oxanpIos. An onaiI vorsion of lho Dorby guido is avaiIabIo
on roquosl fron }uIia.BucIIand©dorby.gov.uI.
Il is nov possibIo lo losl and noasuro your abiIily lo vrilo pIain
EngIish if you havo accoss lo Microsofl Word (vhich nosl
Õ»»° ·¬ -¸±®¬ô -·³°´» P ¿²¼ °´¿·²
çï
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
çî
Ú·¹«®» çòî ̸» Ò±®¬¸ Ô·²½±´²-¸·®» ݱ«²½·´K- -¬§´» ¹«·¼»ô ²±© ·² ·¬-
¬¸·®¼ »¼·¬·±²ò É®·¬¬»² ¿²¼ ¼»ª·-»¼ ¾§ Þ¿®®§ Ú´»»¬©±±¼ô ¬¸» ½±«²½·´K-
ÐÎÑ ¿²¼ ½±³³«²·½¿¬·±²- ³¿²¿¹»®
conpulor oporalors havo). Onco lho usor has finishod spoII-
chocIing. Word can dispIay infornalion aboul lho roading IovoI of
lho docunonl basod on lho nunbor of syIIabIos por vord and
vords por sonlonco in lhroo vays.
Il ralos roading oaso on a 100-poinl scaIo, lho highor lho scoro,
lho oasior lho loxl is undorslood (ain for a scoro of al Ioasl 70).
Socond, lho FIosch-Kincaid losl ranIs loxl on a US grado-schooI
IovoI, suggosling a nininun accoplabIo scoro of 7÷8. Third, lho
nosl usofuI scoro is for passivo sonloncos, lho prino barrior lo
cIoar, conciso Ianguago ossonliaI for offoclivo connunicalion.
Horo, vrilors shouId ain for a niI porconlago scoro for pross
roIoasos.
Onco lho figuro slarls lo cIinb abovo 0 por conl for novs ilons
and arlicIos, svap round lo lho aclivo voico vilh lho sub¡ocl or
´door' innodialoIy boforo lho vorb (´Bob vrolo lho roporl', nol ´lho
roporl vas vrillon by Bob'). For pubIicily booIIols, brochuros and
roporls, lry lo achiovo a scoro of boIov 10÷15 por conl.
Tho progran counls vords, paragraphs and sonloncos, and
givos avoragos for sonloncos por paragraph, vords por sonlonco
and characlors por vord. Ain for sonloncos of 25 lo 30 vords vilh
nol noro lhan lhroo por paragraph.
To aclivalo roadabiIily, go lo ´looIs', lhon ´oplions', spoIIing and
grannar and lo lho ´shov roadbiIily slalislics' box. For hard copy,
scan inlo a docunonl. ChocI oul your Iasl annuaI roporl, brochuro
or pross roIoaso pubIicalion for passivo voico, and uso lho progran
for your noxl prinlod nossago or ovon broadcasl scripl.
ÉßÌÝØ ÑËÌ ÚÑÎ ÌßËÌÑÔÑÙÇ
If you uso anolhor vord or vords noaning lho sano lhing in a
singIo sonlonco or phraso, lhal's lauloIogy: º®»» ¹·º¬, ²»© ·²²±ª¿¬·±²
or lhal voII-usod cIich’ ¿¬ ¬¸·- ³±³»²¬ ·² ¬·³» aro lypicaI. Ropolilion
is soIdon, if ovor, dosirabIo unIoss il is usod doIiboraloIy for
dranalic offocl, porhaps for a spooch or arlicIo. If you say you aro
going lo »¿¬ ´«²½¸ lhal is lauloIogous bocauso vhal oIso vouId you
do bul oal il`
If you say sonoono ¼·»¼ of a º¿¬¿´ doso, vrolo a °¿·® of ¬©·²-, º«´´
and ¬±¬¿´ oxposuro, or if you pul ´ho had nolhing º«®¬¸»® lo add' you
aro ropoaling yoursoIf. TauloIogy abounds: »¿®´§ ¾»¹·²²·²¹-, ¿¼¼»¼
¾±²«-, ·²-·¼» ±º, ³»»¬ ¬±¹»¬¸»®, ³«¬«¿´ ½±ó±°»®¿¬·±², ±ª»® ¿¹¿·², °¿-¬
Õ»»° ·¬ -¸±®¬ô -·³°´» P ¿²¼ °´¿·²
çí
¸·-¬±®§, ®»°»¿¬ ¿¹¿·², ®»ª»®¬ ¾¿½µ, «²·¬» ¬±¹»¬¸»®, ©¸»¬¸»® ±® ²±¬ oasiIy
roach lypo and longuo.
Don'l risI ropolilion: il viII novor gol pasl lho good novspapor
sub-odilor.
ÔÑÑÕ ÚÑÎ ßÝÌ×ÊÛ ÊÛÎÞÍå ßÊÑ×Ü
ÝÑÒÌÎßÝÌ×ÑÒÍ
Tho vorb drivos lho loxl forvard. Firsl, IooI for singIo syIIabIo
vorbs: ¹±, nol procood, -»²¼, nol lransnil, -¸±©, nol dononslralo.
You °·¬½¸ ralhor lhan conpolo, µ²±© ralhor lhan conprohond, ´»¬
nol pornil. To ¬¸·²µ is bollor lhan lo boIiovo, lo ¿-µ is bollor lhan lo
onquiro. And so on. As nonlionod oarIior in lho soclion on pIain
EngIish losls, chooso aclivo-voico vorbs by pulling lho ´door' ÷ lho
porson or lhing doing lho aclion ÷ in fronl of lho vorb. Il is nuch
bollor lo vrilo ´XYZ consuIlancy vanls nov cIionls' insload of
´nov cIionls aro vanlod by XYZ consuIlancy'.
Try lo avoid using loo nany advorbs as quaIifiors. Thoy aro an
induIgonco, oflon a sign lhal noun and vorb aro nol vorIing prop-
orIy, Ì·³»- ¡ournaIisls aro loIdò Much lho sano can bo said for
ad¡oclivos, avoid lhoso lhal aro fIovory and oxpansivo: ®¿¬¸»®, ª»®§,
´·¬¬´» (unIoss roforring lo sizo), °®»¬¬§ for oxanpIo ÷ ospociaIIy in
novs slorios. Novor uso lhon in roIoasos, unIoss lhoy aro parl of a
quolo, and ovon lhon il is bollor lo cul lhon oul if you can.
Whon you nood lo savo vords and shorlon copy, do nol faII inlo
lho lrap of using conlraclions of nodaI or auxiIiary vorbs IiIo
viII/shaII/vouId, and so vrilo you'II/you'd, or you'ro/you'vo,
I'n. This is fino for spooch and infornaI vriling bul nol for fornaI
conloxls, il IooIs sIoppy and chally, bul il can bo adnissibIo vhon
you vanl lo adopl a friondIy, varn lono of voico. (Nolo lhal ²K¬ is
an accoplabIo conlraclion of ²±¬ for aII bul vory fornaI usago.)
ßÊÑ×Ü ÚÑÎÛ×ÙÒ ÉÑÎÜÍ ÑÎ ÐØÎßÍÛÍ P ßÒÜ
ÔßÌ×Ò
Anolhor barrior lo undorslanding is using foroign vords or
phrasos vhon an EngIish ono viII do ¡usl as voII. WhiIo il is lruo
lhal nany vorbaI inporls aro oflon ¡usl lho vords or phrasos you
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
çì
vanl bocauso lhoro is no oxacl EngIish oquivaIonl, do nol vrilo
abovo lho hoad of lho roador, vho nighl lhinI you aro shoving
off.
Don'l go Lalin unIoss you havo lo: pul anong olhors nol inlor
aIia, yoarIy or annuaIIy nol °»® ¿²²«³, aboul, nol ½·®½¿, rogarding,
nol ª·-ó˜óª·-. Olhor Lalin vords lo bo avoidod vhoro EngIish
oquivaIonls aro avaiIabIo incIudo ad hoc (for lhis purposo), a priori
(fron causo lo offocl), bona fido(s) (good failh), cavoal onplor (Iol
lho buyor bovaro), ol aI (and olhors), ox officio (by virluo of officiaI
posilion), ox gralia (voIunlary conlribulion), noa cuIpa (ny fauIl)
and quid pro quo (sonolhing givon in rolurn or conponsalion for
sonolhing). In uso, lhoso vords vouId nol bo ilaIicisod. As a
gonoraI ruIo, don'l go Lalin and bo safo! And bo on your guard
againsl ponposily: vrilo boforo nol ´prior lo', uIlinaloIy nol ´al lho
ond of lho day', bul or hovovor ralhor lhan ´having said lhal'.
Foroign vords shouId nol appoar in roIoasos. Iul lhon in houso
¡ournaIs and spoochos, providod you lhinI lhoy viII bo undor-
slood. Ono or lvo viII usuaIIy bo onough. Onco a vord has
bocono AngIicisod (as in ®±´») il is nol ilaIicisod and Iosos ils
acconl(s).
ÔÑßÒ ÉÑÎÜÍ ÒÛÛÜ×ÒÙ ÝßÎÛ
Loan vords and phrasos incIudo, fron Franco, lho ilaIicisod ¾±²
³±¬ (cIovor saying), ¼’¶˜ ª« (vilh acconls, lodiousIy siniIar), ¼» ¬®±°
(nol vanlod) and ¬±«® ¼» º±®½» (foal of slronglh or sIiII). Fron
Gornany cono lho Iossor Inovn bul usofuI ͬ«®³ «²¼ Ü®¿²¹
(slorn and slross), Æ»·¬¹»·-¬ (spiril of lho linos), AngIicisod vords
incIudo achlung, angsl, bIilzIriog (or ¡usl bIilz), diIlal, lo ¡oin
Iindorgarlon, rucIsacI and vaIlz.
IlaIy brings us ciao (hoIIo, goodbyo), convorsaziono, osprosso, in
canora, inconnunicado, prina donna ÷ aII voII Inovn, bul nol
¿´¬»® »¹± (inlinalo friond) lo lho sano oxlonl. Grooco Ionds hoi
poIIoi (lho nassos), Russia poroslroiIa (roconslruclion, roforn)
and gIasnosl (oponnoss), and Spain lho sIangy vanooso, pronlo,
oI’ and lho noro fornaI adios, fandango, grandoo, arnada,
nachisno and quixolic.
Evory vrilor's vocabuIary shouId naIo roon for lhoso }ovish
vords, nono of vhich havo a dirocl EngIish oquivaIonl: chulzpah
(shanoIoss audacily), nazoIlov (good IucI), nosh (food, lo on¡oy
Õ»»° ·¬ -¸±®¬ô -·³°´» P ¿²¼ °´¿·²
çë
food), schnaIlz (chicIon fal, sugary sonlinonlaIisn), shaIon
(poaco bo unlo you), shIonioI (fooI, inopl porson).
ÜÑËÞÔÛ ÒÛÙßÌ×ÊÛÍ
Guard againsl doubIo or nuIlipIo nogalivos vilh loo nany
´unvords' IiIo unnocossary or unIoss, or pulling noro lhan ono
¿ª±·¼ or ½»¿-» or phrasos such as ´»-- ¬¸¿² and ²±¬ ³±®» ¬¸¿² in ono
sonlonco. Don'l uso conslruclions IiIo ¸¿®¼´§ or ¿´³±-¬ foIIovod by
©·¬¸±«¬, or lhoro voro no lroos ²»·¬¸»® insload of »·¬¸»®. If you do,
lho noaning can bocono obscuro and lho roador has lo slruggIo
vilh nogalivos (or loo nany posilivos for lhal nallor) in ordor lo
undorsland vhal you noan.
ÞÛÉßÎÛ LÓÇÌØÍL
According lo Culls in ̸» д¿·² Û²¹´·-¸ Ù«·¼», sono of lho so-caIIod
´ruIos' of grannar roIigiousIy foIIovod by purisls and schoIars aro
IillIo noro lhan nylhs. Il is lhoso nylhs lhal aro a furlhor barrior lo
cIarily of connunicalion. Thoy aro lho lorrilory of lho podanl and
do nol havo a pIaco in ovoryday vriling and spooch. Tho lop-of-
lho-Iisl nylh says you shouId novor spIil an infinilivo. WhiIo nosl
connonlalors agroo lhal il is bollor lo avoid a spIil, by pulling an
advorb or anolhor vord bolvoon ± and lho infinilivo vorb as in ±
¾±´¼´§ ¹±, ´no absoIulo laboo' shouId bo pIacod on il (Ú±©´»®K-
Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹»). Culls hinsoIf says: ´If you can'l bring your-
soIf lo spIil an infinilivo, al Ioasl aIIov olhors lo do so.' Thoro is
nolhing lo slop you spIilling an infinilivo bul bo avaro lhal il viII
irrilalo sono poopIo.
Anolhor nylh is lho Iong-hoId lhoory lhal sonloncos nusl novor
ond vilh a proposilion. Culls says a fov ´fossiIs' sliII boIiovo lhis,
bul agroos lhal sono sonloncos do nood lo bo rocasl, nol bocauso
lhoy broaI any ruIo bul bocauso lhoy ´sound ugIy'. Il aII doponds
on lho dogroo of fornaIily lho vrilor vanls lo achiovo: il vouId bo
podanlic lo vrilo or say ´Ì± vhon an I laIIing`' vhon ´Who an I
laIIing ±`' vouId bo noro naluraI. If lho proposilion IooIs
slrandod and unroIalod lo lho vord lo vhich il boIongs (or ¾»´±²¹-
±!) lhon rovrilo lho sonlonco and pul il vhoro il sounds naluraI.
Tho noro fornaI lho pioco, lho oarIior lho proposilion goos in lho
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
çê
sonlonco. Bul do nol novo il bacI ¡usl bocauso you lhinI you
shouId foIIov lho schooIroon ruIo.
Alhird nylh is lhal sonloncos nusl novor bogin vilh ¿²¼ or ¾«¬.
Aulhors lhroughoul hislory havo ignorod lhis so-caIIod ban: Culls
nolos lhal }ano Auslon bogins aInosl ovory pago vilh ¾«¬, and
ÑÛÜ givos sovoraI oxanpIos of sonloncos in EngIish Iiloraluro
boginning vilh ¿²¼. In facl, sonloncos slarling lhis vay lond lo
havo a sparIIo absonl in olhors, and aro an offoclivo vay of adding
onphasis lo a poinl aIroady nado.
Ì×ÐÍ ÚÑÎ ÉÎ×Ì×ÒÙ Ì×ÙØÌ
Wriling lighl in a pIain, oasy-lo-road slyIo is hard vorI and
donands rulhIoss pruning. Try lo Ioop cross-roforoncos lo a
nininun, divido conpIicalod copy inlo vorlicaI Iisls ralhor lhan
having a succossion of soni-coIons or connas, don'l bury Ioy
vords or phasos in sIabs of loxl unroIiovod by hoadings, don'l
confuso lho Iay-roador vilh ¡argon or lochnicaI lorns and don'l uso
sIang vords in any fornaI sonso.
Cul unnocossary vords and chooso various vorbs. ̱ ¾» and ¬±
¸¿ª» aro oflon lho onIy onos you nood lo achiovo crispnoss. MaIo
lho punclualion vorI for you by dividing lho copy inlo shorl
nanagoabIo soclions vilh IiboraI uso of fuII slops. Croalo inlorosl
by asIing quoslions ÷ a lochniquo noro connonIy found in arli-
cIos and foaluro naloriaI lhan in novs ilons ÷ and incIudo quola-
lions if approprialo. Koop your sonloncos shorl, and havo pIonly of
paragraph broaIs. In a roporl or inlornaI docunonl organiso poinls
undor hoadings.
Bo carofuI nol lo dupIicalo vords and phrasos in lho sano para-
graph. Ropoaling lochnicaI vords nay bo unavoidabIo, bul
nolhing is noro off-pulling lhan roading lho sano vord ovor and
ovor again. LooI for aIlornalivos in ̸» Ѩº±®¼ ̸»-¿«®«-, α¹»¬K-
̸»-¿«®«-, lho л²¹«·² Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º ͧ²±²§³- or ̸» ɱ®¼-©±®¬¸
Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º ͧ²±²§³- ú ß²¬±²§³-. Sonolinos you can find lho
vord you vanl in a good diclionary.
ÌØÛÎÛ ×Í ÍÌ×ÔÔ ÓËÝØ ÌÑ ÜÑW
Don'l lhinI lhal onco you'vo finishod lho pioco lhal is lho ond of il.
Õ»»° ·¬ -¸±®¬ô -·³°´» P ¿²¼ °´¿·²
çé
Tho vorI shouId nol gol anyvhoro noar your OUT lray unliI you
havo odilod and poIishod il ovor and ovor again and convincod
yoursoIf lhoro is no vay il can bo inprovod. Tho vhoIo pioco nighl
nood rovriling. (Thoro's noro aboul lhis in Chaplor 12.)
Sonolinos you viII bo rushod and gol no chanco lo rocasl a
pioco. Bul don'l dospair ÷ if you aro quicI you viII undoublodIy
havo lino for a bil of odiling. UnIoss you aro vorIing on a novs
roIoaso or aro up againsl a lighl doadIino, lhoro is usuaIIy lino for
anolhor drafl. And don'l lhinI, ´Oh voII lhoro is sliII lino lo IooI al
il again al proof slago.' Thal is falaI and can Ioad lo nislaIos,
parlicuIarIy for rush ¡obs.
Ñ«¬ ©·¬¸ ®»¼«²¼¿²½·»-
Don'l aIIov rodundancios (unnocossary vords in ilaIics): ¿¼ª¿²½»
pIanning, ¾®¿²¼ nov, ½±²½®»¬» proposaIs, divido «°, ¶±·² logolhor,
fiIIod «°, foIIov ¿º¬»®, ¹»²»®¿´ pubIic, °»²»¬®¿¬» inlo, Iinilod ±²´§ lo,
polroI º·´´·²¹ slalion, ¬±¬¿´ oxlinclion, ®»ª»®¬ bacI, ©¿¬½¸º«´ oyo. Many
noro aro in Û--»²¬·¿´ Û²¹´·-¸ º±® Ö±«®²¿´·-¬-, Û¼·¬±®- ¿²¼ É®·¬»®-
(IinIico Randon Houso).
Ý«¬ ©¿-¬»¼ ©±®¼-
Cul oul lhoso vaslod vords: ¿½¬«¿´´§, ¾¿-·½¿´´§, ¸±°»º«´´§, ®»¿´´§, µ·²¼
±ºñ-±®¬ ±º and lhal favourilo pIoy of spoaIors slarling a nov lhoughl
vilh WoII.' Ihrasos IiIo ´±¼¹»¼ ¿² ±¾¶»½¬·±², ·² ³¿²§ ½¿-»-, and
¬»²¼»®»¼ ¸·- ®»-·¹²¿¬·±² can bo ropIacod vilh ¿°°»¿´»¼, ±º¬»² and
®»-·¹²»¼: in oach caso ono vord is doing lho ¡ob of lhroo. And
lhoro's ´lhon' aflor ovorylhing, or ´lo bo honosl', aInosl as bad as
lho favourilo lorninalor ´ah righl'. IIonly noro vaslod vords aro
in }anos Ailchison's Ý¿--»´´K- Ù«·¼» ¬± É®·¬¬»² Û²¹´·-¸ (CassoII).
Bo avaro of confusabIos ÷ vords lhal IooI and sound aIiIo bul
havo difforonl noanings (Appondix 2).
λª·-» ¿²¼ ®»ª·-» ¿¹¿·²
Evon vhon cIoso lo doadIino givo your copy ono noro road. TaIo a
broaI and cono bacI lo il: lhoro viII aIvays bo a facl lo chocI
again, a vord lo Ioso, a bollor, shorlor ono lo find. Evory ninulo
you spond on rovision viII bo rovardod by brighlor, brisIor copy.
And I bol you viII havo savod al Ioasl ono nislaIo!
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
çè
Svapping paragraphs, changing vords, ovon rovriling vhoIo
passagos, aro oasy. Wriling laIos lino and offorl: horo aro 10 ruIos
for naIing il bollor:
1. In hoadings, uso lho prosonl lonso and an aclivo vorb.
2. ChocI lho facls, pul lhon in a IogicaI ordor and rovrilo non-
soquilurs.
3. Edil lo cul, nol add. Iul in pIonly of paragraph broaIs.
4. Confirn lhal lhoro aro no anbiguilios.
5. RopIaco Iong vords vilh shorlor onos, avoid ropolilion,
rodundancios.
6. Corrocl grannar bul don'l bo podanlic.
7. DoIolo cIich’s and ¡argon.
8. Walch for IogaI pilfaIIs, parlicuIarIy IiboIIous slalononls.
9. ChocI lhal lhoro is no vuIgarily.
10. And onsuro lhal spoIIing and slyIo aro consislonl lhroughoul.
You nay nol havo a chanco lo soo your copy again boforo il
appoars in prinl: chocI, chocI and chocI again. OnIy vhon you
havo salisfiod yoursoIf lhal aII lho abovo ruIos havo boon nol, do
you hil lho IRINT bullon.
Õ»»° ·¬ -¸±®¬ô -·³°´» P ¿²¼ °´¿·²
çç
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
Þ» ¾®·»ºò Ô±²¹ô ½´«³-§ -»²¬»²½»- ±²´§ ¾±®» ¬¸» ®»¿¼»®ò
Ý«¬ ±«¬ ¼®±--ô ª»®¾·¿¹»ô ²± ³¿¬¬»® ©¸¿¬ §±« ©®·¬»ò
Ë-» -¸±®¬ô -·³°´» ©±®¼-ò д¿·² Û²¹´·-¸ ½±³³«²·½¿¬»- ¾»-¬ò
ܱ²K¬ ®»°»¿¬ §±«®-»´ºò ̸¿¬K- ¬¿«¬±´±¹§ò
ݸ±±-» ¿½¬·ª» ª»®¾-ô °«¬ ¬¸» L¼±»®K º·®-¬ò
ߪ±·¼ Ô¿¬·² ©±®¼- ¿²¼ »¨°®»--·±²-ò
Õ·´´ ®»¼«²¼¿²¬ ¿²¼ ©¿-¬»¼ ©±®¼-ò
É®·¬» ¬·¹¸¬ô °®«²» ®«¬¸´»--´§ò
λª·-» ¿- §±« ¹± ¿´±²¹ò ß²¼ ¿¹¿·² ¿¬ ¬¸» »²¼ò
Thoro aro spociaI roquirononls for proparing vrillon naloriaI for
pubIicalion in novspapors, consunor nagazinos and lrado ¡our-
naIs, and aIso for broadcasl in novs oulIols. Tho novs roIoaso ÷
vholhor onaiIod, faxod or issuod as a vidoo novs roIoaso (VNR) ÷
is sliII lho basic forn of connunicalion bolvoon an organisalion
and ils audionco, and lhoro aro various ruIos and convonlions lhal
shouId bo foIIovod lo onsuro lho naloriaI gols pubIishod and doos
nol ond up in lho bin. In lhis chaplor I uncovor inporlanl poinls
concorning lho vriling and issuing of novs roIoasos, and lhon lurn
lo connissionod arlicIos.
ÒÛÉÍ ÎÛÔÛßÍÛÍæ ÞßÍ×Ý ÎÛÏË×ÎÛÓÛÒÌÍ
Whon you sond oul a roIoaso you vanl il lo bo pubIishod.
Rononbor lhal nalionaI and rogionaI novspapors, consunor
nagazinos and lrado ¡ournaIs, aII rocoivo hundrods or porhaps
lhousands of novs slorios ovory day aII vying vilh pross roIoasos
for ovory inch of spaco. Broadcasling nodia ÷ BBC and ITV
progrannos and lho nany nalionaI and IocaI radio slalions ÷ aIso
havo hugo donands on lhoir airlinos for novs ilons and, IiIo lho
pross, nood infornalion prosonlod in a succincl vay.
ïðð
ïð
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïðï
Ú·¹«®» ïðòï Ú·®-¬ °¿¹» ±º ¿ ©»´´ó©®·¬¬»² ®»´»¿-» ®»°®±¼«½»¼ ¾§
°»®³·--·±² ±º ¬¸» ÑÚÌò ̸» -¬±®§ ®«²- ±² ¬± ¿ -»½±²¼ °¿¹»ô ¿²¼ ¿
¬¸·®¼ ½¿®®·»- ½±²¬¿½¬ ¼»¬¿·´-
ɸ¿¬ ¬¸» °®»-- ¼±²K¬ ©¿²¬
Tho roIoaso lhal is vrongIy largolod or IacIs novs vaIuo is vorso
lhan usoIoss. If you sond a roIoaso for a nov Iind of shoIving or for
a broaIfasl bovorago lo a nalionaI daiIy, lhoro is no chanco lhal
oilhor viII bo usod: you havo vaslod lino, nol lo nonlion poslago
and prinling cosls. Tho onIy hopo for lho shoIving slory is a para-
graph in a DIY nagazino, for lho drinI, a paragraph in a caloring
papor. And ovon lhal's doublfuI if lhoro aro siniIar producls on lho
narIol.
Targoling and novs vaIuo aro crilicaI faclors. So is lining.
IopuIar nalionaIs viII IooI for a ´hunan' sloryIino vilh lho acconl
on poopIo ralhor lhan lhings. Broadshools nood ilons lhal slrolch
lho inloIIocl, spociaIisl papors lho sub¡ocls lhoy nornaIIy covor.
Anylhing oIso viII bo binnod. }ournaIisls rocoivo hundrods,
possibIy lhousands, of roIoasos daiIy bul fov viII bo prinlod. Evon
lhoso golling as far as lho novs dosI viII bo rovrillon or usod as
bacIground naloriaI.
Novor loIophono or onaiI odilors or lhoir slaff lo find oul if lhoy
aro going lo uso your slory. Evon vorso vouId bo lo asI vhy nol.
Did lhoy vanl noro infornalion` AsIing lhal lops lho horrors. If
¡ournaIisls vanl lo foIIov up a slory, lhoy von'l bo Iong conlacling
you. Thal's lho lino lo slarl adding lo lho facls you havo givon, or
suggosling sonoono lo inlorviov.
Your novs viII bo in conpolilion vilh infornalion fron nany
olhor sourcos, nol Ioasl slorios coning in fron slaff ¡ournaIisls,
frooIancors and novs agoncios. Tho ossonliaI poinls aro lhal
roIoasos nusl bo vorlhy of pubIicalion and abIo lo allracl lho ¡our-
naIisl's allonlion. Horo aro lho nain poinls lo valch.
Ø»¿¼·²¹-
Tho roIoaso shouId bo cIoarIy idonlifiabIo as a connunicalion for
pubIicalion or broadcasl, and shouId carry a hoading such as
´Novs RoIoaso', ´Iross RoIoaso', ´Iross Nolico', ´Iross Infornalion',
´Infornalion fron XYZ' or ¡usl ´Novs fron XYZ'. If sonl oul by a
consuIlancy, il nusl bo nado cIoar lhal il is issuod on bohaIf of lho
cIionl conpany or organisalion.
Such hoadings shouId bo in capilaIs or uppor and Iovor caso of
nol Ioss lhan 18pl so as lo sland oul fron lho nass of olhor naloriaI
on sub-odilors' dosIs. Irinl lho hoading in lho corporalo coIour,
lypofaco and slyIo of lho issuing organisalion.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïðî
Û--»²¬·¿´ ·²º±®³¿¬·±²
Iul lho fuII nano and addross of lho issuing organisalion, vilh
loIophono, fax nunbors and onaiI/vobsilo addross (if lhoro is ono)
in a proninonl posilion. Typo lho dalo of issuo. Givo a conlacl
nano for furlhor infornalion, logolhor vilh his/hor loIophono/fax
nunbors if difforonl fron lho nain svilchboard nunbors. Givo
aIso lho conlacl's onaiI addross.
AIvays incIudo an oul-of-hours loIophono nunbor sinco nany
¡ournaIisls aro sliII vorIing vhon you havo Iofl lho offico. Il is nol
nocossariIy good IR for lho nanaging diroclor or chairnan lo gol
your caIIs vhon you shouId bo laIIing lo lho nodia in lho firsl
pIaco!
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïðí
Ú·¹«®» ïðòî ﮬ ±º ¿ ®»´»¿-» º®±³ ѹ·´ª§ Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²-
ɱ®´¼©·¼»ò Ò±¬» ¬¸» «²¼»®-¬¿¬»¼ ½±²-«´¬¿²½§ ³»²¬·±² ¿²¼ ²»¿¬ ¼¿¬»ó
´·²»ò Û¨°´¿²¿¬±®§ ²±¬»- º±´´±© ±² ¿ -»½±²¼ °¿¹»
Ogilvy's Public Relations Worldwide
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïðì
Ú·¹«®» ïðòí ͸±®¬ -»²¬»²½»- ¿²¼ °¿®¿¹®¿°¸- ¹·ª» °«²½¸ ¬± ¬¸·- ®»´»¿-»
º®±³ ¬¸» ÎÝÙÐò Ò±¬» ¬¸» ½´»¿® »³¾¿®¹± ¼»¬¿·´-ò ̸» ¬·²§ L¬¸K ·² ¼¿¬»- ·-
²±¬ ²»»¼»¼ò ׬ ½±²¬·²«»- ±² -»½±²¼ °¿¹» ©·¬¸ ½±²¬¿½¬ ¼»¬¿·´-
Ì·¬´»-
Tho lilIo of lho roIoaso shouId bo lypod (or vord-procossod) in boId
capilaIs bul nol undorIinod. (Don'l vrilo a loo-cIovor-by-haIf or
facolious hoading ÷ il von'l vorI!) Il shouId say in as fov vords
as possibIo vhal lho roIoaso is aboul, and shouId nol, if possibIo,
run lo noro lhan ono Iino. Uso a prosonl lonso vorb. If socondary
subhoadings or sido-hoads aro noodod, lhon lhoso shouId bo in
uppor and Iovor caso, oilhor in pIain or boId lypo.
Sono idoaI oxanpIos of roIoaso lilIos aro: GOVERNMENT
ANNOUNCES NEW USER-FRIENDLY CROWN COIYRIGHT
LICENCE FOR ELECTRONIC IUBLISHING SECTOR (Cabinol
Offico), BLUNKETT CUTS RED TAIE (Doparlnonl for Educalion
and EnpIoynonl), WALKERS CRISIS KICK OFF SCOTTISH
SIORTING HEROES IROMOTION (WaIIors SnacI Foods), NEW
IREMISES HERALD A NEW IMAGE FOR BIIF (Brilish Irinling
Induslrios Fodoralion), VIRGIN ILUGS INTO THE ENERGY
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïðë
Ú·¹«®» ïðòí ½±²¬·²«»¼
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïðê
Ú·¹«®» ïðòì ̸» º·®-¬ °¿¹» ±º ¿ ®»´»¿-» º®±³ ¿ ²¿¬·±²¿´ ·²¼«-¬®§
¾±¼§ô ©¸·½¸ -»¬- ±«¬ ½´»¿®´§ ¬¸» ½±³°´»¨ ·--«»- ·² ®»-°±²-» ¬± ¿
°®»óÞ«¼¹»¬ ®»°±®¬
MARKET (Virgin Enorgy), CONSUMER REALITY EXIOSES
FINANCIAL SERVICES MYTHS (DoIoillo ConsuIling).
ݱ²¬»²¬
Bo briof and facluaI and Ioop sonloncos shorl. Tvo sonloncos por
paragraph is aboul righl, and oflon ¡usl ono sonlonco viII bo
onough lo gol a poinl ovor. Tho oponing paragraph shouId conlain
lho ossonco of lho slory and dispIay lho novs. Horo you nusl
ansvor vho`/vhon`/vhoro` quoslions in lho sano vay lhal a
roporlor is roquirod lo do. For oxanpIo, if a conpany chairnan has
nado a slalononl, givo his nano and posilion, lho dalo (if you say
´loday' pul lho dalo in bracIols aflorvards so lhoro can bo no
nislaIo), vhoro lho slalononl vas nado, and, if al a holoI, nano il.
A lricI horo is lo pul lho Iasl lvo dolaiIs in a socond paragraph
saying Mr So and So vas spoaIing on (dalo) and (vhoro) lo savo
cIulloring up lho oponing paragraph vilh dolaiI lhal nighl oasiIy
obscuro lho poinl of lho slory. Novor vrilo ´roconlIy' bul aIvays
givo lho dalo.
FoIIoving paragraphs shouId oxpand on lho slory. Try nol lo Iol
lho copy run ovor lo a socond pago. Il viII naIo lho sub-odilor's
¡ob nuch oasior if you slarl vilh lho nain poinl, fiII in lho dolaiI in
lho succooding paragraphs and ond vilh lho Ioasl inporlanl poinl.
Your novs roIoaso can lhon bo odilod dovn vilh far Ioss lroubIo.
Wrilo in a facluaI slyIo vilhoul fIovory ad¡oclivos and suporIa-
livos or onolivo vords vhon you aro doscribing producls and
sorvicos (»¨½·¬·²¹ dovoIopnonl). To ropoal lho poinl, don'l pul
®»½»²¬´§ in a roIoaso if you can'l bo prociso: say ´¿-¬ ©»»µñ³±²¬¸ vilh
lho dalo in bracIols. Avoid cIich’s, ¡argon vords and connonls as
oxprossions of opinion. If you vish lo naIo a connonl aboul
sonolhing, pul il as a quolo fron sonoono in lho organisalion. }usl
slicI lo lho facls and Iol lhon sland on lhoir ovn vilhoul onboII-
ishnonl. Il viII bo up lo lho ¡ournaIisl lo pul his or hor inlorprola-
lion on lho slory you aro issuing.
If lhoro is a Iol of lochnicaI dala lo bo incIudod pul lhis as an
allachnonl. SiniIarIy, you can allach a vorbalin spooch, providing
roforonco lo il is nado in lho covoring roIoaso.
Ô¿§±«¬ ¿²¼ -¬§´»
Tho copy nusl bo lypod doubIo-spacod (lhough lhis is nol
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïðé
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïðè
Ú·¹«®» ïðòë ͱ¬¸»¾§- ¸¿- ¹±¬ ·¬- ¿½¬ ¬±¹»¬¸»® º±® ¬¸·- ¿²²±«²½»³»²¬ò
Ò±¬» »³¿·´ ½±²¬¿½¬ ¼»¬¿·´-
ossonliaI for onIino roIoasos). Tho roason for lhis is lo givo lho sub-
odilor pIonly of spaco lo naIo changos.
Iul al Ioasl a coupIo of Iinos bolvoon lho hoading and lho firsl
paragraph. Iul oxlra spaco bolvoon paragraphs.
Do nol undorIino any of lho copy. This is lho univorsaI narI
usod by prinlors for copy lo bo sol in ilaIics. Do nol sol any of lho
loxl in ilaIics or boId in lho forIorn hopo lhal il viII bo soon as noro
inporlanl. If a lilIo of a booI, fiIn or arlicIo is usod vilhin lho loxl,
pul il in singIo quolos.
Typo on ono sido of lho papor (vhilo, A4) and if lhoro is a conlin-
ualion shool, lypo ´Moro´ al lho fool of lho pago. Do nol broaI a
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïðç
Ú·¹«®» ïðòê Ý´»¿® °®»-»²¬¿¬·±² ±º -¬¿¬·-¬·½- ·² ¬¸·- ®»´»¿-»ò ̸» -¬±®§
½±²¬·²«»- ©·¬¸ ¾¿½µ¹®±«²¼ ²±¬»- º±® »¼·¬±®- ¿²¼ º«®¬¸»® -¬¿¬·-¬·½¿´ ¼¿¬¿
paragraph al lho ond of a pago, if nocossary laIo lho vhoIo para-
graph ovor lo lho socond pago ralhor lhan Ioavo a fov vords
dangIing (as a ´vidov', lho prinlor vouId say) al lho lop of lho
socond pago.
Loavo a doconl nargin on oach sido, aboul 30nn (1
1
'4 inch). Do
nol lry lo achiovo ¡uslifiod lypo vhon bolh sidos aro aIignod. Il is a
vaslo of your lino!
Uso doubIo quolos for dirocl quolalions (lho acluaI vords
spoIon), lhis is slandard novspapor slyIo. For roporlod spooch
foIIov lho slyIo in lhis oxlracl fron ̸» Ì·³»-: Eddio Goorgo |nov
Inovn as Sir Edvard Goorgo] ¿¼³·¬¬»¼ yoslorday. ho -«¹¹»-¬»¼
lhoro ©»®» sono signs.
Al lho cIoso of lho copy, lypo END or ENDS in capilaIs. If lhoro
aro spociaI poinls lo bo nado for lho allonlion of lho odilor, such as
oxpIanalions of lochnicaI lorns or hov lo oblain foIIov-up infor-
nalion, pul lhoso againsl a sido-hoading ´Nolo lo Edilor'. If
possibIo, givo a vord counl. This is usuaIIy oasy lo ascorlain vilh
roforonco lo lho spoIIchocI faciIily providod by nosl soflvaro
pacIagos. Tho sub-odilor can lhon oasiIy caIcuIalo lho anounl of
spaco lho copy viII occupy vhon il is lyposol.
Û³¾¿®¹±»-
}ournaIisls disIiIo onbargoos ÷ vhich is a roquosl lo vilhhoId
pubIicalion unliI a spocific lino and dalo. Avoid lhon if possibIo,
as lhoy aro nol binding on lho nodia and aro lhoro lo givo lho ¡our-
naIisl lino for rosoarch or foIIov-up boforo a spooch, or in advanco
of an announcononl by a conpany or organisalion. If you docido
lo issuo a roIoaso undor onbargo, naIo lhis cIoar abovo lho lilIo of
lho roIoaso. AsuilabIo forn of vords vouId bo:
ÛÓÞßÎÙÑ: THIS INFORMATION IS ISSUED IN ADVANCE FOR
YOUR CONVENIENCE. IT IS NOT FOR IUBLICATION, BROAD-
CAST, OR USE ON CLUB TAIES BEFORE (TIME) ON (dalo).
AIlornalivoIy lho onbargo nolico couId sinpIy slalo, ´Nol for uso
boforo 00.00 hours (dalo)'. Tho vording of onbargoos for roIoasos
giving advanco infornalion on vinnors of avards roquiros caro lo
onsuro lhal dolaiIs do nol IoaI oul in advanco of lho prosonlalion
ovonl. An oxanpIo is lho vording for lho Charlor MarI Avards
1996 issuod by lho Offico of IubIic Sorvico, lho Cabinol Offico:
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïïð
ÛÓÞßÎÙÑæ THIS MATERIAL IS IROVIDED SO THAT RECIII-
ENTS MAY AIIROACH THE NAMED CONTACTS IN ANY OF
THE 1996 AWARD WINNING ORGANISATIONS FOR INFORMA-
TION ABOUT THEIR WIN, IROVIDED THERE IS NO IUBLICA-
TION OR IUBLICITY IN ANY MEDIA, ELECTRONIC OR
WRITTEN, BEFORE 0001 HOURS GMT ON MONDAY 2
DECEMBER, 1996.
AsinpIifiod onbargo nolico vilh ¡usl lho lino and dalo can aIso bo
usod so Iong as lho roslriclion is absoIuloIy cIoar and unan-
biguous.
×--«·²¹ ¬¸» ®»´»¿-»
Tining lho roIoaso is fairIy crilicaI. If you aro naiIing il, don'l
forgol lhal lho posl can laIo al Ioasl a day, and a roIoaso lo a lrado
papor or nagazino poslod on a Friday nighl viII nol bo soon unliI
lho foIIoving Monday norning. Il's bollor lo sond il by nossongor
or lo fax il, providing you aro nol sonding pholographs. EnaiI is
popuIar novadays, bul bo avaro lhal ¡ournaIisls havo lo sifl
lhrough dozons, if nol hundrods, of roIoasos daiIy. AloIophono caII
lo lho novs dosI saying a roIoaso is coning and viII bo on lhoir
scroons (or has boon sonl) nighl hoIp. Try il and, if il vorIs, uso il
roguIarIy. Bul lhoro is IillIo lo boal hard copy on papor.
×- ·¬ ²»©-á
Thoro is no poinl in sonding oul a novs roIoaso if il is nol novs.
You viII onIy annoy lho ¡ournaIisl if you do and your hard vorI
viII bo vaslod. So has your roIoaso gol novs vaIuo` Tho shorl
ansvor is: doos lho novs odilor lhinI il viII inlorosl lho roador`
Novs is sonolhing nol Inovn boforo.
To quolo Ial Bovnan, fornor hoad of pubIic roIalions for
LIoyds BanI:
Novs vaIuo is roIalivo, ninor slorios naIo novs on a sIov day. OnIy
big novs counls on a busy day. Aboring producl slory nay bo vaIu-
abIo novs lo a lrado papor, bul no pubIicalion vilh a gonoraI roador-
ship vouId IooI al il. Hov il is vrillon viII naIo aII lho difforonco in
porcoplion of a slory: if il is vrillon in a IivoIy, inlorosling vay il is
noro IiIoIy lo bo soon as inporlanl, if il is oxprossod in a boring
fashion, using lodious, hard-lo-grasp, vaffIy vords and phrasos
lhon il viII bo considorod duII. Thon lho onIy fuluro for il is lho vaslo
bin.
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïïï
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïïî
Ú·¹«®» ïðòé ̸» º·®-¬ °¿¹» ±º ¿ ©»´´ó°®±¼«½»¼ ®»´»¿-»ò ̸» ¿½¬·ª»
ª±·½» ©±«´¼ ·³°®±ª» ·¬æ °®»º»® L½¿´´K ¬± ¿®» L½¿´´·²¹Kò ̸» ¬©±ó¼»½µ
¸»¿¼´·²» ³¿µ»- ¿ ³»¿´ ±º ·¬
TabIoids, says Bovnan, aro IiIoIy lo bo infIuoncod by lho onlor-
lainnonl and novoIly vaIuo of a slory, vhiIo lho quaIily pross viII
bo noro inloroslod in slorios lhal oxcilo lho inloIIocl and inagina-
lion. Innodiacy can aIso havo an offocl: il can oulvoigh inpor-
lanco in lho assossnonl of novs vaIuo, parlicuIarIy for TV and
radio. ´Don'l lry lo banboozIo ¡ournaIisls inlo lhinIing lhal lho
slory you aro pulling oul is a good ono vhon lhoro is nolhing nov
in il al aII,' says Bovnan. Il couId bo an ullor vaslo of lino.
Roborl Hornby's ̸» Ю»-- ·² Ó±¼»®² ͱ½·»¬§, firsl pubIishod in
1965 bul sliII roIovanl loday, givos ponolraling lhoughls on novs
and novs vaIuo. To sunnariso Hornby: vhal nay appoar as novs
in a provinciaI novspapor hoIding a doninanl posilion in a cily
viII boar IillIo roIalionship in prosonlalion lo lho sano novs
spIashod across lho fronl pago of a nalionaI daiIy. Il is IiIo
conparing a soasido rovuo vilh a Wosl End nusicaI. So vhal aro
lho basic oIononls of a novs slory` Firsl, il nusl bo sonolhing
nov. Olhor faclors can bo groupod undor lhroo hoadings ÷ inpor-
lanco, hunan inlorosl and lopicaIily.
Inporlanco can noan a voII-Inovn porson connoclod vilh lho
slory, porhaps a poIilician or pubIic figuro, ospociaIIy if lhoy havo
boon in lho novs boforo.
Hunan inlorosl is oxonpIifiod by sonolhing lhal is inlorosling
lo lho nany ralhor lhan lho fov. Anylhing palholic, or lhal causos
indignalion, and lho lopics of pricos, crino or abuso of priviIogo
gols road. Olhor poopIo's big financiaI gains, rags-lo-richos slorios,
ronancos, chiIdron, aninaI voIfaro, good/bad IucI ilons, lho
unoxpoclod, lho surprising and lho unusuaI aIvays allracl allon-
lion. Mosl poopIo profor roading aboul poopIo lo lhings: nany
coIunn inchos of pubIicily can oasiIy bo Iosl if roIoasos ignoro lho
hunan angIo.
}ournaIisls' roquirononls aro changing in Iino vilh lho inslanl
doIivory of novs on loIovision and radio. In consoquonco, novspa-
pors aro incroasingIy fiIIing lhoir pagos vilh bacIground slorios
and foaluro arlicIos on such sub¡ocls as IifoslyIos, hoaIlh, onlorlain-
nonl, sporl, hono and gardon. Thoso sub¡ocls aro aII forliIo ground
for hunan inlorosl slorios.
TopicaIily noans facls aboul a sub¡ocl of inlonso curronl inlorosl,
vilh oxcilononl, dangor and rapid novononl (IiIo chasos and
poIico hunls), voII-Inovn facos nusl bo pholographod in oasiIy
rocognisod pIacos and bacIgrounds lo provido naxinun inpacl
and naIo for oasy rocognilion. A groal doaI of lho lriviaI dorivos
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïïí
ils novs vaIuo fron such lopicaIily, ospociaIIy in lho popuIar
pross.
ͬ«¼§ ²»©-°¿°»® -¬§´»
LooI al novspapors lo soo hov ¡ournaIisls vrilo: vholhor broad-
shool or labIoid, oxlronos of slyIo dolornino lho vay difforonl
novspapors approach a givon slory. Tho fornor viII probabIy givo
far noro dolaiI, vhiIo lho Iallor viII lond lo ovorsinpIify, Ioaving
IillIo roon for inloIIigonl inlorprolalion.
Wrilo lo calch lho oyo of lho roador in lho sano vay as lho ¡our-
naIisl doos. Ono lhing is corlain: a ´nov' slory or ono lhal has nol
boon pubIishod boforo has gol novs vaIuo, and if il is oxcIusivo il
viII havo an ovon bollor chanco of pubIicalion.
Ò± °«ºº- °´»¿-»
RoIoasos nusl nol bocono bIalanl advorlising nossagos on bohaIf
of lho cIionl conpany or olhor organisalions. If you pul oul an
advorlisononl undor lho guiso of a novs slory il is suro lo pul lho
odilor off and ruin your ropulalion as a pubIic roIalions profos-
sionaI inlo lho bargain.
Thoso so-caIIod ´puffs', vhich allonpl lo gain odiloriaI spaco,
shouId proporIy bo paid-up advorlisononls. Bul a nov producl or
sorvico can of courso bo a novs slory for roIoaso lo lho spociaIisl
pross covoring lho induslry soclor you aro covoring.
λ´»¿-»- ¬± ¬¸» -°»½·¿´·-¬ °®»--
If you vrilo a roIoaso conlaining lochnicaI nallor lhoro is no profil
in using ¡argon noaningIoss lo lho avorago roador, or vriling in a
highbrov vay lo voo vhilo-coalod boffins.
Whoro roIoasos lo lho nalionaI nodia aro on scionlific or financiaI
sub¡ocls, vrilo in sinpIo, conciso Ianguago lhal viII bo undorslood
by a Iay audionco. Tho onIy pIaco for lho lochnicaIilios and ¡argon
of lho induslry or businoss is lho lrado pross. Fov lochnicaI ¡our-
naIisls aro spociaIisls and fuIIy lrainod in lho lochnoIogios lhoy
vrilo aboul. If you provido copy lhal noods IillIo odiling your
roIoaso is far Ioss IiIoIy lo bo changod lhan if you givo lhon
gobbIodygooI, hovovor voII inlonlionod lhal nay bo.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïïì
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïïë
Ú·¹«®» ïðòè λ´»¿-» º®±³ д«- б·²¬ ÐÎò ͬ®±²¹ ¾®¿²¼·²¹ º±® °®»--
³¿²«º¿½¬«®»® Ø»·¼»´¾»®¹ò ̸» -²¿°°§ -»²¬»²½»- ¿²¼ ±°»²·²¹ ¯«±¬» ³¿µ»
¬¸·- ¿² ·¼»¿´ ¬®¿¼» °®»-- -¬±®§ò ̸±«¹¸¬º«´ ¸»¿¼´·²»
ɸ¿¬ ¶±«®²¿´·-¬- ©¿²¬æ ¿ -°»½·¿´·-¬ ª·»©
Diana Thonpson, nanaging diroclor of IIus Ioinl IR, a spociaIisl
consuIlancy for lho graphic arls induslry, has survoyod odilors and
frooIanco ¡ournaIisls lo soo hov lhoy vish lo rocoivo copy and
picluros. Il soons lhal lhoro is a 50/50 spIil bolvoon lhoso vanling
roIoasos by posl and lhoso by onaiI. Faxos aro oul.
As far as pholographs aro concornod, sho doosn'l bolhor vilh
hard copy prinls any noro. Says Thonpson: ´Evoryono vanls
digilaI CDs vilh pross pacIs or onaiIod novs shols lhoso days.
CDs provido lho opporlunily for highor rosoIulion inagos, bul for
roIoasos 300 dpi |dols por squaro inch] and 1Mb as a ¡pg fiIo is safo
for lransnission and an accoplabIo quaIily for nosl lrado papors.'
Novor sond a picluro in a Word fiIo, sho advisos, sinpIy bocauso
lhoy laIo Iong dovnIoading lino and aro oflon unusabIo.
For roIoasos going by posl, sho nolifios odilors lhal lhoro is a
picluro avaiIabIo. For hor Ioy largol lrado pubIicalions, sho sonds
lho digilaI pholo diroclIy lo lho odilor vilh a copy lo lho produc-
lion odilor, indicaling lho slory il is lo acconpany and oflon
allaching a loxl fiIo.
Il is cruciaI, sho says, lhal pubIic roIalions poopIo sond copy and
picluros in a vay lhal is accoplabIo and hoIpfuI lo lho ¡ournaIisls.
Tho vorsl lhing lhoy can do is lo sond a pross roIoaso and picluros
in sovoraI vorsions by posl, fax and onaiI aII al onco. ´Thal ¡usl
dupIicalos vorI and can ovon rosuIl in a slory boing vrillon lvico.
Inagino lho lino and vaslo lhal invoIvos.'
Ѳ´§ ¹±±¼ -¬±®·»- ©·´´ ®»¿½¸ ²»©- ¼»-µ-
Mosl roIoasos go by onaiI lo novspapors and broadcasling oulIols
lhoso days. OnIy a vory fov aro sonl by posl: gono aro lho spiIos
and duslcarl-sizod bins for dud copy. This noans lhal copylaslors
aro facod vilh a lhousand or noro slorios on lhoir scroons ovory
day: onIy lho onos lhal aro novsvorlhy, or havo sono hunan or
porhaps financiaI angIo, viII bo road and passod lo lho novs dosI.
If il is aboul a spociaIisl sub¡ocl, lhon sond il lo lho corrospondonl
doaIing vilh il, say lho ono covoring financiaI, hoaIlh or nodia
slorios.
RoIoasos lhal cono fron novs agoncios such as lho Iross
Associalion (020 7963 7000), Roulors (020 7250 1122) and
BIoonborg UK (020 7330 7500) havo a good chanco as lhoy viII
havo aIroady boon siflod and sorlod firsl by agoncy subs.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïïê
Il is inporlanl lhal roIoasos havo shorl hoadIinos giving lho nain
poinl of lho slory, proforabIy in lho prosonl lonso vilh no fancy
lypography or ginnicIs in a vain allonpl lo allracl allonlion. Tho
originaling firn or organisalion shouId bo cIoarIy shovn vilh
onbargo dolaiIs (if noodod) and bacIground infornalion and
conlacl dolaiIs. Evon noro inporlanl is for naiIing Iisls lo bo Iopl
up lo dalo: il is noxl lo usoIoss sonding a roIoaso lo a nanod corro-
spondonl vho Iofl a yoar ago.
FrooIanco ¡ournaIisls, on lho olhor hand, usuaIIy vorI on hono
conpulors and disIiIo having lhoir in-boxos cIoggod up vilh
onaiIod pross roIoasos. Says frooIanco MichaoI Walls: ´Al Ioasl for
lho nononl I an nol, in gonoraI, giving oul ny onaiI addross. I
nuch profor lo havo roIoasos in lho posl.'
Rononbor: if lho slory is a good ono, il viII havo a chanco of
pubIicalion. And on a sIov novs day, il has an ovon bollor ono.
ɱ®¼- ¿²¼ °¸®¿-»- ¶±«®²¿´·-¬- ¸¿¬»
}ournaIisls' pol halos incIudo onornily (doosn'l noan hugo), lho
challoring cIassos, ironicaIIy (unIoss in lho propor sonso), Iuvvios,
crippIod/disabIod or any Iind of disabiIily, punlor, Iogondary,
Iuxury, fuIsono, ´crooping' Anoricanisns, bIocIs (vorb), ´gondor'
vords IiIo caroor girI, signaI or signaIIing (unIoss a lransporl slory)
and, noodIoss lo say, noodIoss lo say.
Thoy aIso ro¡ocl any noodIoss or vaslod vord. Rodundanl vords
(in ilaIics): appoar ¬± ¾», ¾®¿²¼ nov, ½´±-» proxinily, crisis -·¬«¿¬·±²,
º®±©² on his faco, fov ·² ²«³¾»®, incIudo ¿³±²¹ ¬¸»³, norgo/¡oin
¬±¹»¬¸»®, ³±®» proforabIo/suporior, if and ©¸»², ·²ª·¬»¼ guosl, ²»©
lradilion, ponolralo ·²¬±, ±² ¬¸» ¯«»-¬·±² ±º, °¿--·²¹ phaso. Tho roador
viII find pIonly noro in Û--»²¬·¿´ Û²¹´·-¸ º±® Ö±«®²¿´·-¬- (IinIico
Randon Houso) by lhal naslor of slyIo, HaroId Evans.
}ournaIisls aro aIvays on lho IooI-oul for cIich’s, fIovory ad¡oc-
livos and ovorusod oxprossions. If sonolhing can bo said or
vrillon vilh fovor vords or in a shorlor vay, lhoy viII cul vilhoul
hosilalion.
ܱ²K¬ º±®¹»¬ ¬¸» ·²¬»®²»¬
Mosl Iargo conpanios and organisalions nov naIo lhoir pross
roIoasos avaiIabIo on lho inlornol, and lhoy can bo prinlod oul if
roquirod. Loading organisalions in lho connunicalions fioId, such
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
ïïé
as lho Inslilulo of IubIic RoIalions, lho Inslilulo of Iraclilionors in
Advorlising, lho Advorlising Associalion and lho nalionaI nodia
organisalions aII havo inlornol silos fron vhich lhoir pross roIoasos
can bo dovnIoadod. Again, il is inporlanl lhal conlacl nanos and
day/nighl loIophono nunbors aro incIudod, as voII as bacIground
infornalion.
If you aro solling up a virluaI pross offico (VIO) lo provido a 24-
hour sorvico for ¡ournaIisls on lho inlornol, onsuro lhal accoss is
sinpIo and lhal conlacl dolaiIs, incIuding onaiI addrossos, aro
incIudod. AIIov for picluros and graphics lo bo dovnIoadod, and
updalo roguIarIy.
Ê·¼»± ²»©- ®»´»¿-»- P º±® ¾®±¿¼½¿-¬·²¹ -¬±®·»-
Broadcaslors nood slorios loo. Airlino laIos a Iol of fiIIing on a
sIov novs day. Bul your slory viII bo in hol conpolilion vilh
ilons fron lho slalion's ovn roporlors, novs agoncios and froo-
Iancors. To bo of inlorosl lo a TV shov, lhoro nusl bo slrong visuaI
appoaI. Tho vidoo novs roIoaso (VNR) is usuaIIy prosonlod in lvo
forns: a shorl lapo of onIy a ninulo or lvo, lighlIy odilod and
roady for lransnission, and anolhor conlaining inlorviovs and
bacIground.
If you go lo a spociaIisl conpany lo produco a VNR, cosls can
rango fron £5,000 lo £15,000 for UK lransnission, nuch noro for
broadcasl abroad. Anolhor roulo is lo upIoad your VNR lo lho
slalion's vobsilo by lapo or CD ROM. DIY vidoos or CDs havo
onIy a sIondor chanco of succoss unIoss lho slory is a hoarl-
slopping ono. Tho produclion of a profossionaI VNR is oxponsivo
and you nay nol aIvays gol lho rosuIls you vouId IiIo. Quoslion
lho conpany carofuIIy on ils rocord of succoss boforo signing up.
̸» ª·®¬«¿´ °®»-- ±ºº·½» -°»»¼- ÐÎ -»®ª·½»
According lo sludios by BonchnarI Rosoarch roporlod in ÐÎ É»»µ
in 2004, 88 por conl of ¡ournaIisls vriling aboul a conpany visil lho
firn's vobsilo for infornalion. }usl ovor haIf of lhon fooI lhal
onquiros aro bollor handIod by vobsilos lhan by lradilionaI pross
officos. (Tho fuII rosoarch papor nay bo dovnIoadod for froo fron
vvv.inlornolprossconlro.con/rosoarch.)
WhiIo il is lruo lhal nosl vobsilos provido innodialo accoss lo
pross roIoasos and slalononls, il laIos lino and offorl on lho parl of
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïïè
lho pubIic roIalions slaff lo posl il on lho silo, and lhis nay nol bo
aII lhal voII oxoculod if doadIinos aro lighl. Furlhornoro, lho pross
onquirios soclion of lho silo is noslIy roslriclod lo IillIo boyond lho
provision of roIoasos, vilh no sorvico for picluros, Iivo audio
soundbilos and vidoo inlorviovs lo givo bolh innodiacy and
fuIIor infornalion.
Vory oflon lho noods of lho ¡ournaIisl aro nol providod for, vilh
lho ´pross roon' pago of vobsilos boing rogardod by nanagononl
as sonolhing of a poor roIalion, ovon lhough il is oflon boIiovod by
lho IR doparlnonl lo lho bo-aII and ond-aII of ils connunicalions
ob¡oclivos. On lho vhoIo, lho vobsilo pross roon viII onIy bo abIo
lo suppIy a ´scallorgun' dislribulion, vilh no abiIily lo largol
spocific nodia and audioncos, and vilh 74 por conl going slraighl
lo lho scroon lrashbin.
Tho ansvor Iios in lho virluaI pross offico (VIO) such as lhal
providod by GIido TochnoIogios. Tho sorvico, undor lho nano of
lho Inlornol Iross Conlro (IIC), is a soflvaro looI usod lo buiId a
slalo-of-lho-arl VIO for a conpany's vobsilo. In shorl, lho IIC
aIIovs lho IR doparlnonl lo pubIish pross infornalion such as
roIoasos, pholographs, inlorviovs and so on lhrough ils onIino
pross offico.
Says GIido TochnoIogios nanaging diroclor San IhiIIips: ´Wilh
lhis sorvico, IR slaff can buiId nuIlinodia pross connunicalions
giving lhon lho opporlunily lo onhanco lhoir slorios vilh sound,
vidoo and pholographs. Onco pubIishod on lho silo, any roIoaso
can bo aulonalicaIIy dislribulod lo a largolod pross Iisl lo nanod
¡ournaIisls if roquirod.'
Onco lho infornalion has boon sonl oul, lho IRO is lhon abIo lo
roviov lho dislribulion Iisl and soo vho had acluaIIy soon lho slory
and ovorylhing lhal vonl vilh il. For anyono inloroslod, San
IhiIIips says lho corporalo onlry IovoI for solling up a VIO is
lypicaIIy around £17,000 lo covor vobsilo dosign, configura-
lion and consuIlancy lo onsuro lho sorvico nools lho conpany's
pubIic roIalions noods. An ongoing supporl and Iiconco chargo
appIios onco lho VIO is in oporalion. For noro dolaiIs, Iog on lo
vvv. gIidolochnoIogios.con vhich providos an onIino brochuro
giving vhal il caIIs an ´OnIino dashboard for IR' Iisling lho nain
foaluros.
Tho vorbaI conlonl of anylhing pul oul on lho VIO is, of courso,
lho rosponsibiIily of lho pubIic roIalions profossionaI.
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
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ß¼ª·½» º®±³ ¬¸» ×ÐÎ
In lho hoIpfuI ÐÎ Ù«·¼» ¬± Ê·®¬«¿´ Ю»-- Ѻº·½» avaiIabIo lo nonbors
on lho IIR vobsilo (vvv.ipr.org.uI), IauIino Chrislio, nanaging
diroclor of lho Inlornol IR Conpany, says lhal il is inporlanl lo
provido a faciIily vhoro ¡ournaIisls can rogislor lo rocoivo aulo-
nalicaIIy pross roIoasos as soon as lhoy aro poslod on lho VIO. AII
lhal is noodod is nano, onaiI addross and nano of pubIicalion. Al
aII cosls, do nol forco ¡ournaIisls lo rogislor for accoss lo your VIO.
´}ournaIisls halo doing lhis, and vhon confronlod vilh a rogislra-
lion scroon, no nallor hov briof, nay docido lo IooI oIsovhoro for
sub¡ocl nallor.'
Tho guido givos lips on buiIding an inago banI, virluaI pross
pacIs and naIing lho VIO a soparalo vobsilo vilh a sinpIo IinI
fron lho hono pago. Il slrossos lhal lho conlonl of lho VIO nusl bo
frosh and up lo dalo. Il shouId conlain aII lho infornalion aboul
your conpany or organisalion lhal you don'l vanl a ¡ournaIisl lo
gol fron sonovhoro oIso.
λ´»¿-»- º±® ®¿¼·± ¬®¿²-³·--·±²
Radio is oquaIIy donanding, if nol noro so. Il is bollor lo naiI, fax
or onaiI copy lo radio slalions ralhor lhan sonding audio lapos,
lhough if you havo cIoso porsonaI conlacls lhis hoIps lo gol your
slory on air. Tho spociaIisl VNR conpany can aIso arrango for
syndicalod audio lapos lo bo dislribulod lo nalionaI and rogionaI
radio slalions.
Again, rosoarch your audionco voII and lry lo provido ilons lhal
viII fil linoviso in your choson sIol. Don'l sond a 15-ninulo pioco
lhal vouId laIo up haIf lho aIIollod lino of a curronl affairs
progranno, or a novs slory of a ninulo for a sIol of onIy a fov
soconds!
ÝÑÓÓ×ÍÍ×ÑÒÛÜ ßÎÌ×ÝÔÛÍ
If you aro asIod lo vrilo an arlicIo by a novspapor or nagazino, or
if you pul up an idoa for a foaluro, lho conlonl and prino lhrusl of
lho pioco shouId bo discussod vilh lho odilor voII in advanco. Tho
briof subsoquonlIy agrood nusl bo scrupuIousIy foIIovod. If you
divorgo fron il lhon il is IiIoIy lhal lho odilor viII asI for anond-
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïîð
nonls, sono of vhich nay bo subslanliaI. Worso lhan lhal,
changos nay bo nado lhal you Inov nolhing aboul unliI lho
arlicIo is prinlod ÷ and lhon il is loo Ialo!
Wrilo in lho slyIo of lho pubIicalion and Ioop lo lho nunbor of
vords roquoslod. Nolhing is noro annoying for an odilor if lho
arlicIo is voII ovor lho Ionglh spocifiod and von'l fil inlo lho spaco
aIIollod for il. If lhal happons, lhon your copy viII bo cul, and lhal
nay dofoal your ob¡oclivos. SiniIarIy, if you connission sonoono
oIso in lho organisalion lo vrilo lho arlicIo, lhon bo suro lhal lho
briof is foIIovod, ovon if you havo lo oxorl sono porsuasion.
Don'l forgol lo incIudo iIIuslralions. Mosl odilors viII roquiro
pholographs, dravings, graphs or labIos lo supporl lho poinls you
aro naIing or ¡usl lo calch lho roador's oyo. Givo lho pioco a lilIo
and pul lho aulhor's nano ÷ lho by-Iino ÷ undornoalh. MaIo suro
lho arlicIo has shapo: a boginning, a niddIo and an ond. And if you
lypo lho nunbor of vords al lho ond, lho odilor viII bo a friond for
Iifo. Bul abovo aII, Ioop lo lho doadIino!
É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®»--
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É®·¬» ¬¸» ©¿§ ¶±«®²¿´·-¬- ¼±ò Õ»»° ¬± ¬¸» °±·²¬ò
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éì °»® ½»²¬ ±º ¶±«®²¿´·-¬- ¬®¿-¸ ©®±²¹´§ ¬¿®¹»¬»¼ ®»´»¿-»-ò
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¿¹®»»¼ ©±®¼¿¹»ò
AIvays provido caplions for any pholographs or iIIuslralions
acconpanying novs roIoasos, lhoso aro usod oxlonsivoIy in
conpany annuaI roporls and brochuros. Caro is ossonliaI in lhoir
proparalion and handIing: loo oflon caplions aro Iofl lo lho ond,
vilh lho rosuIl lhal lho caplion Iols dovn lho iIIuslralion and lho
novs slory or arlicIo.
Tho inporlanl poinl aboul caplions is lhal lhoy Ioad lho roador
lo lho body copy. Thoy provido an inslanl poinl of inlorosl and viII
oflon lurn a nagazino ´pago fIippor' inlo a roador. Much lhoughl
shouId go inlo hov a caplion is vrillon and prosonlod, for if il
nisIoads or conlains orrors, lho connunicalion can bo irroparabIy
spoiIl.
ÐØÑÌÑ ÝßÐÌ×ÑÒÍ É×ÌØ ÎÛÔÛßÍÛÍ
Tho caplion lo a pholograph or iIIuslralion oilhor acconpanying a
novs roIoaso or sonl soparaloIy as a caplion slory, is as inporlanl
as lho picluro ilsoIf. If il faiIs lo doscribo lho porson, producl or
ïîî
ïï
sorvico, aII lho offorl and cosl invoIvod can bo vaslod. Il can lurn
inlo a pubIic roIalions disaslor vailing lo happon: onco lho pholo-
graph vilh ils caplion has Iofl your hands lhoro is IillIo you can do
lo pul nallors righl if you havo nisnanod sonoono or nisspoIl
lhoir nano. If you aro issuing a picluro as an allachnonl lo an
onaiIod roIoaso, naIo il cIoar vho or vhal lho sub¡ocl is.
OnIy vhon lho picluro is pubIishod do you roaIiso lhal you havo
nado a nislaIo ÷ you go hol aII ovor ÷ bul by lhon lho danago is
dono. AIlhough you nay Inov vho lho poopIo aro in a picluro,
olhors nay nol, and viII roIy on you lo loII lhon!
Ý¿°¬·±² ½±²¬»²¬ ¿²¼ -¬§´»
Caplions shouId bo briof, corlainIy nol oxcooding 15 lo 20 vords,
and rovoaI lho conlonl of lho pholo. Iul a hoading, lypod doubIo
spacod, and givo lho nano of lho issuing organisalion, conpany or
consuIlancy vilh dalo, conlacl nano, addross and loIophono/fax
nunbors. Rofor lo lho sourco organisalion, sorvico or producl.
If lho pholo shovs a porson or group of poopIo, pul ¡ob lilIos and
nanos fron Iofl lo righl. Whon a voII-Inovn porsonaIily is
foalurod, vrilo lho caplion round lho VII, nol sonoono oIso, ovon if
you fooI you oughl lo nonlion lho chairnan firsl! Iholographic
prinls aro oxponsivo ÷ so laIo caro lhal lho caplion doos ¡uslico lo
lho slory.
Ý¿°¬·±²- º±® ¬¸» °®»--
AIvays uso a sliff-bacIod onvoIopo vhon sonding oul pholo-
graphs or iIIuslralions. Do nol vrilo on lho bacI of prinls as Biro or
ponciI narIs can shov lhrough and naIo lho picluro usoIoss for
roproduclion. Caplions shouId bo allachod vilh slrips of SoIIolapo.
Novor gIuo or paslo lhon lo lho bacIs of pholographs, ¡usl slicI
lhon on IighlIy so lhoy prolrudo fron lho bollon of lho prinl and
can bo road in con¡unclion vilh lho picluro.
ݱ°§®·¹¸¬ ·--«»-
Whon you sond oul pholographs lo lho pross, aIvays bo avaro of
lho copyrighl issuo. Novs odilors and picluro dosIs viII assuno
lhal pholographs rocoivod fron pubIic roIalions poopIo, ospociaIIy
vhon lhoy acconpany a roIoaso, viII bo froo of copyrighl roslric-
lions.
Ý¿°¬·±²-æ ¸±© ¬± ¸¿²¼´» ¬¸»³
ïîí
Iholographs shouId bo rubbor-slanpod on lho bacI vilh a
slalononl of lho copyrighl posilion, idoaIIy, siniIar vording
shouId appoar on lho caplion ilsoIf. Novor issuo a pholograph
or iIIuslralion unIoss you aro suro vho ovns lho copyrighl. (Tho
ovnor of lho copyrighl is lho aulhor or croalor ÷ nonbors of
lho Inslilulo of IubIic RoIalions can oblain advico on IogaI
poinls such as lhis by Iogging on lo lho nonbor-onIy aroa of
IIR vobsilo, vvv.ipr.org.uI, vhich providos nuch usofuI infor-
nalion.)
ÝßÐÌ×ÑÒÍ ×Ò ÐËÞÔ×ÝßÌ×ÑÒÍ
CIoar, conciso caplioning is lho haIInarI of a voII-producod,
slyIish pubIicalion. In nany casos, parlicuIarIy vilh annuaI
roporls, sharohoIdors gol no furlhor lhan lho picluros. Ono vay of
golling lho roador lo laIo nolico of lho loxl is lo havo an arrosling
pholograph vilh lho caplion Ioading on lo a parlicuIar poinl.
Ü·-¬·²¹«·-¸·²¹ ½¿°¬·±²- º®±³ ¬»¨¬
Sol off caplions fron lho loxl by using snaIIor lypo, difforonl lypo-
faco, or by solling in ilaIics or boId if lho loxl is in pIain or ronan
lypo. You can posilion caplions in lho nargin, avay fron lho buII
of lho loxl. Sonolinos il is possibIo lo rovorso oul lho caplion on a
pholograph if lhoro is a sufficionlIy darI aroa. Thoro is a dangor of
lho caplion boing unroadabIo if il is rovorsod oul of a Iighl-lonod
parl of lho picluro.
An offoclivo vay lo naIo caplions sland oul fron lho loxl is lo
prinl lhon in a socond coIour, proforabIy using ono of lho coIours
choson for corporalo houso slyIo. Bul laIo caro lhal lho coIour is a
slrong ono: if il is a pasloI shado lhon lho vording viII bo Iosl on
vhilo papor! If you sol lvo- or lhroo-vord hoadings as inlros lo
caplions lhon you givo addod visuaI inpacl.
AIvays doscribo lho picluro or draving, unIoss il is puroIy for
docoralion. Slalo ossonliaI dolaiIs, bul nol vhal lho oyo can soo for
ilsoIf. If il is an aclion shol say vhal is happoning. Evon if you
lhinI il is obvious, il nighl nol bo so lo lho roador. Il is infurialing,
for inslanco, lo soo an inlorosling pholograph foaluring a nov
producl and nanagononl loan, and nol Inov vhal il iIIuslralos
or vho lho poopIo aro. Don'l forgol lhal a vrongIy nanod porson
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïîì
couId noan a furious cIionl, possibIy a roprinl, or ovon ÷ horror of
horrors ÷ a IiboI aclion.
Ü®¿©ó¼±©² ¯«±¬»-
Tho drav-dovn quolo is a usofuI dovico for Iivoning up a loxl-fuII
pago dovoid of vhal is caIIod ´coIour voighl' ÷ io vilh a lolaI IacI
of Iighl and shado providod by iIIuslralions or hoadings. Tho
odilor laIos a fov vords fron a quolo vilhin lho copy ÷ usuaIIy a
pilhy or significanl connonl ÷ and puls il in boId lypo posilionod
proninonlIy on lho pago, porhaps bolvoon coIunns in lho niddIo
of lho pago, or al lho lop. This Iayoul idoa, vhich anounls lo a
caplion or subhoading lo lho loxl, aIso acls as a handy spaco-fiIIor.
Bul ils prino uso is lo givo sparIIo lo a drab pago.
Ô«®» ¬¸» ®»¿¼»® ¬± ¬¸» ¬»¨¬
Tho caplion shouId arrosl allonlion and Iuro lho roador lo lho loxl
unIoss lho pholograph or iIIuslralion is lhoro ¡usl lo brighlon up
lho pago and nol noanl lo loII a slory in ilsoIf. Wrilo crispIy, you
don'l vanl ¡usl a ´IaboI' naIing a bIand, boring slalononl.
Tho caplion nighl bo road and undorslood vhiIo lho loxl nay
nol: lho roador nay nol gol as far as lhal! MaIo suro il conlains a
vorb, proforabIy in lho prosonl lonso, and if possibIo sono novs
vaIuo. }ournaIisls oflon gol slorios fron lho caplions in annuaI
roporls, and fron houso ¡ournaIs and brochuros.
Ý¿°¬·±²- º±® ½¸¿®¬-
Tho charl caplion shouId doscribo lho ossonliaI finding or purposo
and Ioad lho roador lo lho roIovanl parl of lho loxl. Wilh graphs
and labIos onsuro lhal Iogonds and hoadings aro cIoar and unan-
biguous. MaIo suro lhal graph axos aro oxpIainod and shov lho
approprialo unils.
Ý¿°¬·±²·²¹ ¹®±«°- ±º °¸±¬±¹®¿°¸-
Whon you havo sovoraI pholographs or iIIuslralions lo caplion,
arrango lho caplions logolhor in a bIocI and nunbor lhon. If lhoro
aro sovoraI pholographs of poopIo, or a pholograph of a group of
individuaIs, il is convonionl lo havo an oulIino Iino draving
Ý¿°¬·±²-æ ¸±© ¬± ¸¿²¼´» ¬¸»³
ïîë
shoving poopIo's posilions, vilh a nunborod Ioy for idonlifica-
lion.
TaIo lino and lroubIo in lho vording and prosonlalion of
caplions. Incroasod roadorship and inprovod connunicalion viII
inovilabIy rosuIl.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïîê
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
̸» ½¿°¬·±² ½¿² ¾» ¿- ·³°±®¬¿²¬ ¿- ¬¸» -¬±®§ò
Õ»»° ¾®·»ºæ ½±²º·²» ·¬ ¬± ïëPîð ©±®¼-ò
Þ» ¿©¿®» ±º ¬¸» ½±°§®·¹¸¬ ·--«»ò
Ü·-¬·²¹«·-¸ ½¿°¬·±²- º®±³ ¬»¨¬ ¾§ -·¦» ¿²¼ ¬§°»º¿½» -¬§´»ò
Ë-» ¼®¿©ó¼±©² ¯«±¬»- ¬± º·´´ -°¿½»ò
ߪ±·¼ ª»®¾´»-- L´¿¾»´K ½¿°¬·±²-ò
Û¨°´¿·² ¹®¿°¸ ¿¨»- ¿²¼ -¸±© «²·¬-ò
ײ½´«¼» ¿ ²«³¾»®»¼ µ»§ ©·¬¸ ¹®±«° °¸±¬±¹®¿°¸-ò
Tho succoss of any novspapor, nagazino, or curronl affairs broad-
casl doponds on lho sIiIIs of lho odiloriaI loan fron odilor lo
¡unior roporlor. Bul il is lho subodilor, or sub for shorl, vho gols
lho copy roady for prinling or lransnission. Tho sub's ¡ob is lo
onsuro lhal novs slorios, arlicIos and scripls coning in fron
roporlors, foroign corrospondonls and frooIancors aro vrillon lo
slyIo, naIo sonso, aro novsvorlhy, and abovo aII aro nol onIy
inlorosling bul gripping lo roador or Iislonor, sonolhing lhal
naIos lhon road on or Ioop Iisloning, no nallor vhal.
Whal, in facl, ¼± lhoy do` To ansvor lhal you havo lo roaIiso lhal
odilors aro usuaIIy ono slop ahoad of lho daiIy (or vooIIy, porhaps
nonlhIy) lasI of producing lho novspapor, nagazino or
progranno. Thoir ¡ob is IargoIy lo docido vhal appoars and hov il
viII bo prosonlod, lo sol lho poIicy, lho lono, in roIalion lo lho audi-
onco.
Tho lasI of golling lho vords righl is handIod by lho subodilors,
copy laslors and finaIIy lho chiof subodilor, vho docidos hov Iong
an ilon shouId bo and hov il shouId bo lroalod, vilh porhaps a
roforraI lo lho odilor if lhoro is a probIon. Is il novsvorlhy` Is il of
ïîé
ïî
sufficionl inlorosl lo bo givon a pago, a coIunn or lvo, a 30-socond
soundbilo or a lvo-ninulo inlorviov on lho ̱¼¿§ progranno`
IndividuaI novspapors and olhor nodia oulIols organiso lhoir
odiloriaI officos in nany difforonl vays. Thoro is no sol syslon: il
aII doponds on vholhor il is prinl or broadcasl, lrado or lochnicaI,
or consunor nagazino. Tho ob¡oclivos aro lho sano, lo naIo lho
vrillon and spoIon vord fil for pubIicalion or lransnission.
Lol us nov oxanino vhal lho dosI odiloriaI loan IooI for in
ovory slory or foaluro lhal roachos lhon by posl, onaiI, fax and
loIophono. Any roadors vishing lo doIvo doopor inlo lho poinls
raisod in lho foIIoving soclions shouId rofor lo lho roIovanl chap-
lors in lhis booI.
ÒÛÉÍ ÍÌÑÎ×ÛÍ
AII copy coning in fron vhalovor sourco is sub¡ocl lo odiling. Thal
is lhal IornoI ruIo lhal appIios lhroughoul ¡ournaIisn and
pubIishing. No slory, no arlicIo, no scripl ovor oscapos lho oyo of
lho subodilor, novs odilor, ovon lho odilor hin- or horsoIf. And no
roIoaso viII ovor bo ´usod', as lho ¡argon goos, vilhoul boing
sub¡oclod lo sovoro odiling or, noro IiIoIy, a fuII rovrilo. Tho onIy
oxcoplions aro lho IocaI frooshool dosporalo for froo copy lo fiII lho
spaco round advorlisononls and snaII-circuIalion lrado papors
vhich aIso nood lo fiII lhoir pagos vilh slorios lhal aro ¡usl, and
onIy ¡usl, good onough for pubIicalion. So vhal do lhoso subodi-
lors and novs loans IooI for in your carofuIIy craflod copy`
×- ·¬ ²»©-©±®¬¸§á
This is lho firsl hurdIo for any novs slory in daiIy and ovoning
novspapors. Il nusl firsl gol pasl lho copy laslor, lho porson vho
docidos vholhor lho pioco has novs vaIuo. Is il sonolhing lhal is
nol gonoraIIy Inovn` Is lhoro a hunan angIo` A financiaI succoss
or faiIuro` Is il, in facl, novsvorlhy` If your pioco doosn'l pass lhis
losl lhoro's onIy ono pIaco for il: lho lrash can on lho scroon or lho
bin on lho fIoor.
In lho sano vay, if a novs progranno or papor rocoivos slorios
lhal do nol soon crodibIo, or as ¡ournaIisls say don'l ´sland up',
´havo Iogs' (and viII run and run) or aro ¡usl pIain boring, lhoy viII
quicIIy bo discardod. In lrado papors, il nay bo lho assislanl
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïîè
odilor, novs odilor or porhaps lho odilor vho docidos. Tho rosuIl is
lho sano: if il isn'l novs oul il goos.
ß½½«®¿½§
Aflor novs vaIuo, lho odilors and subodilors nusl docido if lho
slory is crodibIo, and considor vholhor il is facluaIIy corrocl.
Accuracy is naluraIIy lho rosponsibiIily of lho roporlor, lho vrilor,
or vhoovor originalos lho slory, arlicIo or scripl, bul il is lho sub
vho is aIvays on lho IooI-oul for sonolhing aniss, lhal doosn'l
add up. Is lho spoIIing of nanos corrocl: is il CIarIo vilh an ´o' or
nol` Is lho spoIIing of conpany nanos righl` Aro lhoro any lrado
nanos lhal shouId bo capilaIisod` If lhoro aro slalislics or figuros
quolod, aro lhoy nalhonalicaIIy corrocl or aro lhoy doublfuI in
sono rospocl`
̸» ·²¬®±
Is lho ossonco of lho slory in lho oponing paragraph(s)` Doos lho
rosl of il foIIov in a IogicaI soquonco, vilh foIIoving facls in
dosconding ordor of inporlanco` Can il bo sharponod up lo calch
lho roador's allonlion`
Ù®¿³³¿®
Aro lho lonsos righl` Doos vorb agroo vilh sub¡ocl` Is lhoro a vorb
nissing, is il lho righl ono` Aro lhoro any doubIo nogalivos, and if
so, do lhoy naIo sonso` ShouId il bo vho or vhon, vhich or lhal`
Aro lhoro loo nany ad¡oclivos, parlicuIarIy fIovory onos, or unnoc-
ossary advorbs` Has lho vrilor usod aclivo ´doing' vorbs and
avoidod lho passivo voico` Is il vrillon in pIain EngIish` Is lho loxl
oasy lo undorsland` Havo lho basic ruIos of grannar boon
foIIovod lhroughoul`
ͬ§´»
Has lho vrilor slucI lo lho slyIo ruIos of lho pubIicalion` Aro lhoro
noodIoss capilaIs` Aro lhoro Anorican -izo vorb ondings insload of
lho noro usuaI -iso usod in Brilain` Is lhoro ovor-hyphonalion` Aro
lho sonloncos and paragraphs loo Iong` ShouId lhoro bo noro par
broaIs` Has lho vrilor foIIovod lho ruIos for nunbors and dalos`
ɸ¿¬ »¼·¬·²¹ ·- ¿´´ ¿¾±«¬
ïîç
λ¼«²¼¿²½·»-
Tho sub viII bo on conslanl valch for lho vaslod vord, lho ono
lhal can bo doIolod vilhoul any Ioss of sonso or noaning. Aro lhoro
any sonloncos or parls of lhon lhal can bo doIolod, shorlonod or
rovrillon lo gol rid of vording lhal adds IillIo or nolhing` Is lhoro
a singIo vord lhal can ropIaco a phraso` Is lhoro inoIoganl ropoli-
lion`
Ò±²ó-»¯«·¬«®-
Doos ono slalononl, vord or phraso foIIoving anolhor naIo
sonso` Is lho sonlonco roIovanl lo lho procoding ono` Doos ono
paragraph foIIov on IogicaIIy fron lho ono boforo` Aro lhoro any
anbiguilios` Doos lho slory ilsoIf naIo sonso`
Ы²½¬«¿¬·±²
Aro lhoro loo nany connas in ono sonlonco` Aro lhoro sonicoIons
vhon fuII slops vouId bo bollor` Has lho vrilor a sonso of rhylhn,
and givon lho pioco baIanco by providing a nix of shorl and Iongor
sonloncos` Aro lhoro oxcIanalion narIs lo bo doIolod` Is lho posi-
lion of punclualion in dirocl quolos righl`
Ý´·½¸’- ¿²¼ ¬¿«¬±´±¹§
Aro lhoro cIich’s lo bo vrillon oul` Any ropolilion lo bo oIini-
nalod` Aro lhoro ovorusod and slaIo vords and oxprossions lo bo
ropIacod` Is lhoro a bollor vord or vay of pulling sonolhing`
Ö¿®¹±²
Aro lhoro unfaniIiar or foroign vords lhal nighl nol bo undor-
slood` Aro lhoro any slalononls lhal viII naIo sonso onIy lo
spociaIisl audioncos` Aro lhoro abbrovialions IiIoIy lo bo noaning-
Ioss lo lho avorago audionco`
ß ¶±¾ ¬± ¼±
As you viII havo soon, lho subodilors and lho odiloriaI loan havo a
¡ob on lhoir hands onco lhoy gol your copy. And rononbor lhal
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïíð
novspapors and broadcasling oulIols viII havo hundrods, possibIy
lhousands, of slorios lo go lhrough ovory day. Your slory is ¡usl ono
of lhon, and il nusl bo as novsvorlhy as il is inlorosling, as noan-
ingfuI and as voII-vrillon as il can possibIy bo for il lo havo any
chanco of pubIicalion or lransnission.
ÚÛßÌËÎÛ ßÎÌ×ÝÔÛÍ
}ournaIisls vorIing on foaluro arlicIos aro nol undor lho sano
prossuro as lhoso on lho novs dosIs. NovorlhoIoss, lho foaluros
odiloriaI loan on oilhor a novspapor or nagazino viII bo asIing
lhonsoIvos nuch lho sano quoslions as lhoir novs coIIoaguos, bul
vilh sono significanl difforoncos. Sonloncos and paragraphs can
run Iongor, lhoro viII bo pholographs and iIIuslralions lo bo
acconnodalod and caplionod so lhal pagos viII nol lurn oul lo bo
Iong sIabs of groy lypo. Tho odilors viII naIo suro lhal lho pago is
Iivonod up by hoadings, crosshoads, slandfirsls (shorl vording
abovo arlicIo lilIos), boxod paragraphs and drav-dovn quolos.
Tho foaluro arlicIo viII givo croalivo opporlunilios for aIIilora-
lions and pIay on vords in hoadIinos lo provido bolh hunour and
froshnoss. Thoso odiloriaI lricIs aro nol gonoraIIy usod in novs
pagos aparl porhaps fron lho labIoids onco lornod ´rod lops'. In
ordor lo oncourago lho roador lo go righl lo lho ond of an arlicIo
and nol givo il a quicI fIip, lho sub viII lry lo naIo lho arlicIo
inlorosling by naIing il IivoIy, roIovanl, arrosling and, al lho vory
Ioasl, vorlhvhiIo and usofuI.
ÎßÜ×Ñ ßÒÜ ÌÊ ÞÎÑßÜÝßÍÌÍ
You viII corlainIy bo a forlunalo pubIic roIalions praclilionor if you
can gol your cIionl's producls nonlionod on air, parlicuIarIy by lho
BBC, vhich has a volo on roforoncos lo nanod goods and sorvicos.
Olhor broadcaslors aIso havo roslriclions on producl nonlions and
you nusl bo proparod lo havo lhon doIolod.
Much lho sano appIios lo financiaI sorvicos and producls vhich
nay bo of inlorosl lo businoss progrannos on bolh radio and TV.
Bul you nay bo IucIy if lhoro is conpany novs lhal is of sufficionl
inlorosl for lransnission lo a rango of viovors and Iislonors.
ɸ¿¬ »¼·¬·²¹ ·- ¿´´ ¿¾±«¬
ïíï
Many of lho principIos oulIinod abovo viII bo foIIovod by lho
odiloriaI loans invoIvod vilh radio and TV broadcasls, vilh ono
oxcoplion: lho vords spoIon on bolh radio and TV nusl bo cIoarIy
onuncialod so lhal lhoy can bo undorslood vidoIy. If lho scripl
vhon road oul is uninloIIigibIo lo Iislonor and viovor lhon lhoro is
no poinl in broadcasling il. This noans lhal scripls nusl bo froo of
vords lhal aro difficuIl lo spoaI, for inslanco vhiIsl and anongsl
insload of vhiIo and anong (©¸·´-¬/¿³±²¹-¬ aro IargoIy bannod
novadays). Olhor sibiIanls, vords pronouncod vilh a ´hissing'
noiso, shouId bo usod vilh caulion.
̸» º·®-¬ ¬»-¬ º±® ¿ -½®·°¬
Lol Ial Bovnan, fornor hoad of pubIic roIalions al LIoyds BanI,
onco a froquonl broadcaslor and nov prosonlor of an audio naga-
zino for lho bIind, add his oxporionco. Ho says lhal lho firsl losl for
any broadcasl scripl is lo road il aIoud, no nallor vho viII ovonlu-
aIIy spoaI il. ´Thal viII quicIIy shov up any avIvard vords or
phrasos lhal nood lo bo ad¡uslod. Bollor sliII, lapo lho scripl your-
soIf and pIay il bacI: lhal can bo vory iIIuninaling. Mosl inporlanl
of aII, Ioop lho slrucluro sinpIo, avoiding conpIoxilios IiIo loo
nany dopondonl cIausos and, incidonlaIIy, aIIoving lho spoaIor lo
broalho.'
If you aro vriling a scripl for yoursoIf, you viII nood lo bo avaro
of lho principIos of pronuncialion. Assuno you aro using Rocoivod
Ironuncialion (soo Chaplor 16) and Inov vholhor lho slross goos
on lho firsl syIIabIo (¿duIl) or on lho socond (dis¬®·bulo). Ignoro
aIso lho ´nylhs' of novor onding a sonlonco vilh a proposilion or
slarling a sonlonco vilh and or bul. A ¬± or ·² al lho ond of a
sonlonco is far noro accoplabIo in spooch lhan in vriling: il doosn'l
soon lo nallor al aII.
Ó¿µ» ¬¸» °·»½» -¸±®¬ ¿²¼ ¿½½«®¿¬»
Anolhor connonl conos fron Kon Brazior, a fornor BBC broad-
caslor vilh firsl-hand oxporionco as a foroign corrospondonl in lho
MiddIo Easl and Ialor as odilor of lho Ovorsoas Novs Sorvico. Ho
says lho vay lo gol lho bosl oul of your scripl so lhal il appoaIs lo
lho Iislonor is lo naIo lho pioco shorl, cIoar and of courso accuralo
and noaningfuI, ¡usl as you vouId for lho pross. ´Boforo slarling lo
vrilo, lhinI lho pioco lhrough fron boginning lo ond, sorl lho facls
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïíî
inlo IogicaI ordor so lhal lhoy IinI oasiIy fron ono lo anolhor. As a
rough guido ain al ono na¡or facl or poinl for oach sonlonco.' Evon
if spaco is shorl, ho says, il can bo usofuI lo ropoal an ossonliaI facl
such as a Iocalion or sub¡ocl doscriplion: ´If lho Iislonor nissos a
poinl ho can'l rofor bacI in lho vay ho can vilh lho vrillon vord.'
ÑÒóÍÝÎÛÛÒ ÛÜ×Ì×ÒÙ
Wilh so nany slorios and olhor copy coning in via onaiIs and lho
inlornol, lho subodilor nusl bo sIiIIod in on-scroon odiling. IubIic
roIalions praclilionors loo nusl dovoIop lhoso sIiIIs, for lhoy viII
bo prosonlod vilh on-scroon copy fron pross officors, and fron
poopIo in saIos and narIoling, cuslonor sorvico and financiaI
doparlnonls. Sono of lhis copy nay bo suilabIo and nol roquiro
odiling, vhiIo olhor naloriaI nay havo lo bo subbod, sono of il
hoaviIy, and porhaps rovrillon for a prinlod docunonl or pross
roIoaso. On-scroon odiling nay bo lho onIy vay lo lurn a hopoIoss
cIich’-slrovn, lurgid arlicIo inlo a pubIishabIo pioco.
Tho bosl vay is lo naIo a copy, paslo il inlo a nov docunonl
and vorI on lhal. Thoro aro soflvaro prograns lo naIo on-scroon
odiling oasior: chocI vilh your IT doparlnonl.
ÌÛÝØÒ×ÝßÔ ÛÜ×Ì×ÒÙ
Many of lho allribulos and sIiIIs of lho foaluros sub aro aIso
noodod for odiling lochnicaI pubIicalions, fron lrado nagazinos
and brochuros lo saIos IoafIols and inslruclion nanuaIs. Tho diffor-
onco is lhal sono InovIodgo of lho induslry or lrado is noodod so
lhal accuracy is prosorvod. Mosl ¡ournaIisls picI up lho lricIs of
lho lrado, Inov vho lho porsonaIilios aro and hov lho parlicuIar
businoss vorIs fairIy quicIIy.
Thoro is no roason vhy a IR porson vilh an onquiring nind and
a vay vilh vords cannol do lho sano and bocono an aInosl
ovornighl ´oxporl', abIo lo punp oul a roIoaso or arlicIo for lho
houso novspapor ¡usl as voII as a spociaIisl ¡ournaIisl can. Bul
rononbor lhal, unIiIo vilh novspapors and consunor nagazinos,
lho audionco viII Inov noro aboul lho sub¡ocl lhan you do.
SpociaI caro viII bo noodod vhon doscribing lochnicaI proco-
duros, parlicuIarIy in spoIIing unfaniIiar lorns, il is aIvays vorlh-
ɸ¿¬ »¼·¬·²¹ ·- ¿´´ ¿¾±«¬
ïíí
vhiIo lo spond lino vilh lho oxporl vho can oxpIain funclions and
hov lhoy vorI boforo you gol anyvhoro noar lho Ioyboard. Thon
you can shov lho spociaIisl a drafl and gol lho OK. TaIo groal caro
in lho chocIing procoss: lho noro poopIo vho soo lho copy in
advanco, lho bollor, and lho Ioss chanco of sonolhing going vrong.
Iul pIonly of Ioovay in lho produclion schoduIo lo aIIov for Iasl-
ninulo changos.
If lho ilon is for pubIicalion in, say, lho houso nagazino, narI
up lho copy cIoarIy so lhal lho oporalor has a cIoar run. And vhon
lho proofs cono in, naIo suro a sol goos lo lho spociaIisls and loch-
nicaI slaff for approvaI. Tho sano goos for panphIols, brochuros
and inslruclion nanuaIs.
ÛÜ×Ì×ÒÙ ÑÌØÛÎ ÌÇÐÛÍ ÑÚ ÜÑÝËÓÛÒÌ
No parlicuIar sIiIIs aparl fron lhoso covorod in lhis chaplor aro
noodod for odiling docunonls IiIo ninulos of noolings or conlacl
roporls. Such paporvorI shouId bo lolaIIy facluaI, froo of opinion
unIoss il is conlainod in roporlod spooch. Minulos and roporls
shouId bo confinod lo nallors agrood al a nooling, nol a Iong-
vindod vho-said-vhal accounl of lho discussion. Soo Chaplor 13.
ÛÜ×Ì ÇÑËÎÍÛÔÚ
This chaplor cIosos vilh lho firn nossago lhal il is ossonliaI lhal
you odil your copy as you go aIong. Sinco nosl of us lypo vilh
vord procossor or conpulor, lhis is no probIon: il is oasy lo svilch
round ono vord for anolhor, chango lho posilion of sonloncos and
paragraphs, or rovrilo conpIolo soclions. Il is no uso lhinIing lhal
you'vo finishod lhal roIoaso or arlicIo aflor sIogging avay for an
hour or noro on il. Thal is ¡usl lho boginning: you nusl IooI al
your vorI in lho sano vay a novs subodilor vouId, doIoling
unvanlod vords, culling lho dross and sharponing up lho copy.
And lhon il's ¡usl a nallor of slarling aII ovor again.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïíì
ɸ¿¬ »¼·¬·²¹ ·- ¿´´ ¿¾±«¬
ïíë
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
ß´´ ½±°§ º±® °«¾´·½¿¬·±² ·- -«¾¶»½¬ ¬± »¼·¬·²¹ò
̸» º·®-¬ ¸«®¼´» º±® ®»´»¿-»- ·-æ ·- ·¬ ²»©-©±®¬¸§á
Û²-«®» ½±°§ ·- ¿½½«®¿¬» ¿²¼ ¹®¿³³¿¬·½¿´´§ -±«²¼ò
Ò± ½´·½¸’-ô ¶¿®¹±² ±® ®»°»¬·¬·±²ò
Ю±ª·¼» ·´´«-¬®¿¬·±²- ¿²¼ ·²½´«¼» ¯«±¬»- ·² º»¿¬«®» ¿®¬·½´»-ò
̸» -«¾ ´·ª»²- «° -´¿¾- ±º ¬§°» ©·¬¸ ¸»¿¼·²¹- ¿²¼ ¾±¨»-ò
ÞÞÝ °®±¼«½»®- «-«¿´´§ ¾¿² ¾®¿²¼ ²¿³»- ¿²¼ °®±¼«½¬-ò
Ѳó-½®»»² »¼·¬·²¹ ®»¯«·®»- -°»½·¿´ -µ·´´- ¿²¼ ½±³°«¬»® -±º¬ó
©¿®»ò
Ì»½¸²·½¿´ ©±®µ ·¼»¿´´§ ®»¯«·®»- -±³» -°»½·¿´·-¬ µ²±©´»¼¹»ò
Û¼·¬ §±«®-»´º ¿- §±« ¹± ¿´±²¹ò
Good, consislonl slyIo is ¡usl as inporlanl for corrospondonco,
forns of addross, vording for invilalions and corrocl uso of cour-
losy lilIos, as il is for pubIicalions and olhor prinlod nallor. Good
slyIo is good nannors, and lhal noans ansvoring ÷ or al Ioasl
acInovIodging ÷ Iollors no Ialor lhan lvo or lhroo days foIIoving
rocoipl, and rolurning loIophono caIIs vhoro possibIo lho sano day.
Irosonlalion and Iayoul aro aIso Ioy faclors in golling your
nossago across. Evory Iollor, roporl, papor or prinlod invilalion
lhal goos oul nusl rofIocl lho slyIo and corporalo inago of your
organisalion. If il is nol up lo slandard or spocificalion, lhon your
pubIic roIalions offorl couId voII bo vaslod. If lhoro is no sol houso
slyIo, lhon nov is lho lino lo oslabIish ruIos for ovoryono in lho
offico lo foIIov.
ÍËÙÙÛÍÌÛÜ ÍÌÇÔÛ ÚÑÎ ÝÑÎÎÛÍÐÑÒÜÛÒÝÛ
Mosl firns and organisalions havo slyIo ruIos for Iollors, onvoIopos
ïíê
ïí
and olhor offico slalionory such as invoicos, ordor forns, fax
nossagos and inlornaI nonos. A proporIy addrossod and signod-
off Iollor is lho firsl poinl. Horo aro sono of lho basics.
Ô¿§±«¬
FiIo roforonco and dalo shouId bo rangod Iofl and aIignod vilh an
oIononl of lho Iollorhoad dosign. Do nol pul fuII slops, connas or
olhor punclualion in addrossos lypod al lho lop of lho Iollor. Tho
foIIoving spocinon Iayoul slyIo is connonpIaco:
Mr }ohn Snilh
123 Any Road
Anylovn
Konl AN5 1ZZ
Whon addrossos aro sol in a Iino, say in lho body of a Iollor, lhon
connas aro usod lo soparalo lho conpononls as in Mr }ohn Snilh,
123 Any Road, Anylovn, Konl AN5 1ZZ.
ݱ«®¬»-§ ¬·¬´»-
TilIos al lops of Iollors and saIulalions aro nornaIIy Mr/Mrs/
Miss/Ms. Whon ansvoring lho loIophono do nol ¡usl say ´HoIIo' or
ovon lho nodorn bul ovorusod and insincoro rosponso ´This is
Mandy, hov can I hoIp you`' Givo ¡usl your surnano or add your
firsl nano if you vanl. Do nol givo yoursoIf a courlosy lilIo and say
´This is Ó® Snilh spoaIing.'
Dospilo sono pasl ob¡oclions lo lho uso of Ms, lhoro is IillIo sign
of ils docIino. Il has lho advanlago of a sinpIifiod slyIo, bul lhoro is
a lrond novadays for aII courlosy lilIos lo bo ropIacod by firsl nano
and surnano onIy.
Mon aro noslIy givon lho lilIo Mr in corrospondonco, bul
Esquiro, Esq for shorl, is aInosl doad. BanIs, insuranco conpanios,
accounlanls and olhor profossionaI bodios rolain il for foar of
upsolling cIionls. Onco Esquiro donolod sociaI slanding, bul by lho
niddIo of lho 20lh conlury il coasod lo possoss any sonso of ranI.
Novadays, il is hardIy ovor soon in lho connunicalions businoss.
Tho slyIos of Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms aro cIoan and uncIullorod. Bul
lhoy aro fasl disappoaring in ovoryday corrospondonco.
͵·´´- ¿²¼ -¬§´»- º±® ¬¸» ±ºº·½»
ïíé
ر²±«®- ¿²¼ ¯«¿´·º·½¿¬·±²-
Whoro slyIo caIIs for lho incIusion of dosignalions such as civiI
honours and quaIificalions, lhoso shouId foIIov lho oslabIishod
abbrovialions, io, MBE, BA, BSc. No slops go bolvoon characlors or
aflor soparalo dosignalions.
Ü¿¬»-
Soparalo lho day of lho vooI fron lho nonlh, as roconnondod by
򱩫ȨK-: 1 }anuary 2001, nol lho Anorican slyIo }anuary 1, 2001.
Tho conna noodod lo avoid coIIision vilh lho yoar IooIs nossy.
Tho lh/sl/rd/nd slyIo for dalos has noslIy boon droppod in busi-
noss corrospondonco and prinlvorI, aIong vilh doop paragraph
indonls and punclualion in addrossos and saIulalions.
NovorlhoIoss, lho slyIo porsisls, principaIIy in lho profossions and
vhoro lhoro is no IR porson lo givo lho righl advico. Avoid
²¼ñ-¬ñ®¼ñ¬¸ aflor lho day nunoraI.
Whon roforring lo linos of day, lypo lhoso vilh no spaco
bolvoon lho figuros and ¿³ñ°³ as in 9an, 9.30an. Do nol pul
noughls aflor lho figuro: for inslanco 9.00an vouId IooI cIullorod
and podanlic. Tho signoo's nano shouId bo rangod Iofl vilh lho
porson's lilIo lypod undornoalh vhon noodod. Do nol undorIino
lho nano or lilIo, or pul oilhor in capilaIs. Uso a founlain pon lo
sign Iollors. If you do, il is a sign lhal you havo laIon lho lroubIo lo
naIo your signaluro slyIish and nol ¡usl dashod off. Gol inlo lho
habil of using a propor pon: Ioop your baIIpoinl or foIl-lip for
nonos and nolo-laIing.
ݱ°·»-
Whoro copios of lho Iollor aro sonl oulsido lho organisalion, lho
addrossoo's nano shouId appoar bonoalh lho signaluro, rangod Iofl
as in:
Copy lo: Mr }ohn Snilh, XYZ Conpany
DolaiIs on poopIo rocoiving bIind copios, vhoro lho nano(s) is nol
discIosod lo lho addrossoo, shouId idoaIIy appoar in a difforonl
posilion. Allach a conpIinonl sIip lo lho copy, vilh a nolo for lhal
porsonaI louch.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïíè
Ô»¬¬»®¸»¿¼-
Thoso shouId bo prinlod in lho sano lypofaco, coIour and slyIo as
aII olhor in-houso slalionory. IoslaI addross, loIophono, facsiniIo
and onaiI addross and, if approprialo, lho vobsilo addross shouId
aII bo shovn in a proninonl posilion. IubIic roIalions doparlnonl
hoadings shouId carry, vhoro approprialo, oul-of-hours loIophono
and nobiIo nunbors of sonior oxoculivos, aIlhough nany firns
viII profor lo shov lhis infornalion soparaloIy ralhor lhan havo il
prinlod vilh lho hoading.
ÑÌØÛÎ ÍÌßÌ×ÑÒÛÎÇ
SlyIo for invoicos, slalononls, ordor forns, fax nossagos,
onvoIopos and olhor prinlod slalionory shouId aII foIIov lho houso
slyIo vilh Iogo (if lhoro is ono), and lypofacos and coIour idonlicaI
lo lhoso usod for Iollorhoads. Infinilo varialions in sizo aro possibIo
vilh conpulor-conlroIIod lyposolling syslons. Your prinlor and
dosignor viII adviso on hov lhoso can bo onpIoyod lo lho bosl
advanlago fron bolh a dosign and cosl poinl of viov.
ÍÌÇÔÛ ÚÑÎ ÛÓß×ÔÍ
InfornaIily is lho Ioy lo succossfuI onaiIing. Bul il can bo laIon
loo far, and nossagos vrillon vilh poor punclualion and ghaslIy
grannar can bo forvardod lo a cIionl or your boss ÷ vilh disas-
lrous rosuIls. SlicI lo lho usuaI ruIos bul roIax lho slyIo a IillIo.
Loavo lho CU4Iunch nossago lo frionds and faniIy. Chaplor 18 has
noro on lhis sub¡ocl.
ØßÊÛ ÝÔÛßÎô ÝÔÛßÒ ÔßÇÑËÌ
If lho Iayoul of roporls and docunonls has boon voII dosignod,
lhon lho nossago and infornalion conlainod is noro IiIoIy lo bo
connunicalod and aclod upon. Tho basic roquirononl for an offoc-
livo Iayoul is a IogibIo lypofaco, foIIoving houso slyIo, and profor-
abIy lho sano as lho ono usod for Iollorhoads and olhor prinlod
slalionory. If lho lypofaco, slyIo and croalivo approach aro usod for
͵·´´- ¿²¼ -¬§´»- º±® ¬¸» ±ºº·½»
ïíç
ovorylhing, and uniforn hoadings and subhoadings aro adoplod,
lhon aII paporvorI is innodialoIy idonlifiod vilh lho organisa-
lion. If il can foIIov lho slyIo for prinlvorI as voII, so nuch lho
bollor.
A dislinclivo ´IooI' lo your corrospondonco and roporls viII bo
achiovod if slyIo is slandardisod: vidlh of nargins, nunbor of
vords por pago, pago sizo, uniforn spaco bolvoon lho Iinos
(Ioading), lypo and voighl of papor. Iul a IillIo oxlra spaco
bolvoon paragraphs, bul do nol lry lo squoozo loo nany Iinos inlo
ono pago. Do nol uso ilaIics or boId lypo vilhin lho body copy in
an allonpl lo givo addod onphasis.
ÉÎ×Ì×ÒÙ ß ÐΕÝ×Í
A syslonalic approach is noodod. To produco a pr’cis, firsl road
lho roporl or arlicIo lhrough lo soo vhal il is aII aboul. Sol dovn
lho inporlanl poinls vilh a largol Ionglh, so you viII nol givo loo
nuch or loo IillIo infornalion. (Don'l narI lho acluaI docunonl ÷
you nighl vanl lo naIo a pholocopy and anyvay lho ovnor viII
nol lhanI you for dofacing il.) Do a rough drafl, proforabIy on your
IC, incorporaling lho nain facls. Conparo il vilh lho originaI and
fiII in lho gaps.
ChocI lo naIo suro you havon'l oxcoodod your largol vordago.
Ain for bolvoon a quarlor and a lhird of lho Ionglh of lho originaI.
Road lhrough lho drafl carofuIIy lo soo lhal lho nallor fIovs frooIy
and is grannalicaIIy corrocl. ChocI for any doparluros fron houso
slyIo.
If you incIudo quolalions, lhoy shouId bo shorl. Quolos shouId
bo in roporlod spooch, using lho pasl lonso in lho lhird porson: ´Tho
connilloo/ho ¿¹®»»¼ lo do such and such' or lho fuluro pasl ´lho
connilloo/ho ©±«´¼ do.'. Don'l uso lho prosonl (·-ñ¿®») or sinpIo
fuluro (©·´´ñ-¸¿´´) lonsos. Troal quolos in lho sano vay as ¡ournaI-
isls vrilo roporlod spooch. Givo il a hoading, vilh your iniliaIs and
dalo al lho ond.
ÉÎ×Ì×ÒÙ ÎÛÐÑÎÌÍ ßÒÜ Ó×ÒËÌÛÍ
A roporl can run fron a shorl nono lo any nunbor of cIosoIy
lypod pagos in a bound voIuno, porhaps an annuaI or inlorin
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïìð
roporl lo sharohoIdors. Minulos, loo, vary in Ionglh and slyIo, fron
a conlacl roporl lo nolos of a nooling.
Û--»²¬·¿´- ±º ¿ ®»°±®¬
A roporl nusl conlain lho inporlanl facls and, idoaIIy, ond vilh a
concIusion and roconnondalions. Opon vilh a lilIo pago, noving
on lo a Iisl of conlonls, incIuding iIIuslralions or charls, acInovI-
odgononls and a shorl abslracl. Tho body of lho roporl shouId givo
lho Ioy poinls fron rosoarch or invosligalions, quolalions vhoro
approprialo and again bo vrillon in lho lhird porson. ConcIudo
vilh appondicos, if any.
Koop lo significanl poinls and connonls, olhorviso lho roador
viII sIip lho dolaiI and ¡unp lo lho concIusions and roconnonda-
lions. Thal is vhal ¡ournaIisls do: onIy if lhoro is sonolhing lhal
appoars lo bo parlicuIarIy inlorosling or nighl nood addilionaI
infornalion viII lhoy go bacI lo lho fuII loxl.
Slarl vilh a drafl, lhon fIosh il oul vilh lho dolaiI, bul onIy lhal
vhich is slriclIy ossonliaI lo lho purposo and ob¡oclivo of lho
roporl. MaIo suro lhal lhoro is a lilIo and lhal lho aulhor(s) is/aro
shovn on lho covor and/or lilIo pago. Iul lho body of lho loxl inlo
nunborod soclions. Iroduco lho roporl on a vord procossor or IC
and uso boId lypo for hoadings.
λ-¬®·½¬ ³·²«¬»- ¬± ¼»½·-·±²-
Minulos shouId bo vrillon and circuIalod vilhin a vooI of lho
nooling, oarIior if possibIo. Thoy shouId bo conciso and roslriclod
lo docisions unIoss lhoro is good roason lo go inlo dolaiIs. Thoy
shouId nol bo Iong diaIoguos of vho said vhal. Uso roporlod
spooch in lho lhird porson, and pasl and fuluro pasl lonsos. For
oxanpIo, in roporling a connilloo docision, you vouId vrilo ´Il
©¿- agrood lhal lho conpany ©±«´¼ pay a dividond' and nol ´Il ·-
agrood lhal lho conpany ©·´´ pay a dividond'.
Sol dovn lho ilons in lho ordor of lho agonda. Dislinguish
bolvoon suporior and inforior hoadings by undorIining or using
capilaIs, or by using boId or Iargor lypo sizos. Roslricl ilaIics lo
poinls of onphasis, lhough il is bollor lo do vilhoul lhon if you
can. IncIudo an ´Aclion' coIunn as a ronindor for lhoso vho havo
agrood lo do sonolhing.
Iul lho Iisl of allondoos, dalo of nooling and dalo of issuo al lho
͵·´´- ¿²¼ -¬§´»- º±® ¬¸» ±ºº·½»
ïìï
lop and finish vilh dalo of noxl nooling. And gol lho chairnan
lrainod in rolurning your drafl pronplIy. If you faiI lo achiovo
a quorun, ¡usl produco nolos of lho nooling, naIing il cIoar lhal
il vas nol quoralo. Thoso nolos can subsoquonlIy bo pul lo lho noxl
nooling and laIon as ninulos.
ÚÑÎÓÍ ÑÚ ßÜÜÎÛÍÍ
IubIic roIalions poopIo oflon havo lo docido hov lo bogin and ond
a Iollor lo royaIly, and hov lo addross govornnonl ninislors,
poors, MIs and civic dignilarios. Bad forn ÷ or al Ioasl insonsilivily
lo lradilion ÷ can noan lhal your invilalion lo givo a Ioynolo
spooch or porforn an oponing coronony viII Ioad lo a frosly ropIy.
Caro in addrossing ovoryono vilh vhon you aro in conlacl, nol
¡usl VIIs, is ossonliaI.
Tho Brilish syslon of lilIos, forns of addross and procodonco is
ono of lho nosl conpIicalod in lho voslorn vorId. NovorlhoIoss,
nosl ÷ if nol aII ÷ ansvors aro lo bo found in Ü»¾®»¬¬K- ݱ®®»½¬ Ú±®³,
vhich covors ovory concoivabIo silualion in corrospondonco and in
sonding invilalions lo sociaI and businoss funclions. A fov oxan-
pIos nay bo hoIpfuI lo lho roador, bul for fuII guidanco rofor lo
Ü»¾®»¬¬K-ò
É®·¬·²¹ ¬± º·®³-
Whon vriling lo firns, avoid ´Doar Sir/Madan'. Whon you do nol
havo a nano ÷ il is usuaIIy oasy lo find il in loIophono or lrado
diroclorios ÷ addross your Iollor lo lho posilion, io lo lho chairnan,
nanaging diroclor or socrolary. Whon vriling lo lho pross, vrilo
Doar Edilor if you do nol Inov his or hor nano. Bul il is aIvays
vorlh laIing lho lroubIo lo vrilo porsonaIIy if you can, aIlhough a
nano on lho onvoIopo and Iollor viII soIdon onsuro a ropIy or ovon
an accoplanco!
α§¿´¬§
Whon vriling lo lho Sovoroign, aII connunicalions shouId bo
addrossod lo Tho Irivalo Socrolary lo Tho Quoon, lo lho offico
hoIdor ralhor lhan by nano, unIoss you Inov lho porson. For olhor
nonbors of lho RoyaI FaniIy, vrilo lo lho Equorry, Irivalo
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïìî
Socrolary or Lady in Wailing as approprialo, lho Iollor boginning
Doar Sir or Doar Madan, again lo lho hoIdor of lho offico ralhor
lhan by nano. In dirocl connunicalions, slarl vilh Doar Sir or
Doar Madan, vilh ´Your RoyaI Highnoss' subslilulod for ´you'
and ´Your RoyaI Highnoss's for ´your' in lho body of lho Iollor.
л»®¿¹»
Whon vriling lo lho poorago, pul (for oxanpIo) ´My Lord DuIo' in
lho fornaI forn and ´Doar DuIo' in lho infornaI, or lho ´DuIo of
÷' if lho acquainlancoship is sIighl. VorbaI addross is ´Your
Graco´ (fornaI), ´DuIo' (sociaI). SpociaI slyIos aro accordod lo lho
vivos and chiIdron of poors.
Þ¿®±²»¬-
Wilh baronols, Iollors bogin ´Doar Sir }ohn' (for oxanpIo) vilh Bl
addod on lho onvoIopo. A siniIar slyIo appIios for Inighlhoods
vhoro lho lilIo is hoId for Iifo, bul lho surnano shouId bo addod if
you do nol Inov lho porson voII. ShouId you nool a baronol or
Inighl in lho slrool or al a funclion, ho shouId bo addrossod as Sir
}ohn, novor ´Sir' on ils ovn. Tho vifo of a baronol or Inighl is
Inovn as ´Lady' foIIovod by lho surnano.
Ù±ª»®²³»²¬ ³·²·-¬»®-
Minislors of cabinol ranI and sono olhor ¡unior ninislors aro
nonbors of lho Irivy CounciI and havo lho profix Tho Rl Hon
boforo lhoir nanos, vilh lho Iollors IC aflor aII honours and doco-
ralions avardod by lho Crovn. Irivy CounsoIIors (lho proforrod
spoIIing) aro dravn fron nany olhor aroas of pubIic Iifo, so valch
oul! Addrossing Iollors lo Govornnonl ninislors is slraighlfor-
vard: Doar Sir (or Madan) for lho fornaI slyIo, Mrs or Miss for lho
infornaI vilh lho oplion of Doar Minislor vhon vriling by his/hor
appoinlnonl.
Ó»³¾»®- ±º п®´·¿³»²¬
UnIoss MIs aro Irivy CounsoIIors, lhoy havo ¡usl MI aflor lhoir
nano pIus any civiI or niIilary honours. Thoy aro addrossod
Mr/Mrs/Miss in lho usuaI vay. Monbors of lho Houso of
͵·´´- ¿²¼ -¬§´»- º±® ¬¸» ±ºº·½»
ïìí
Connons do nol havo MI aflor lhoir nano onco lhoy Ioso lhoir
soal. AIvays chocI vilh lho curronl odilion of Ê¿½¸»®K-
п®´·¿³»²¬¿®§ ݱ³°¿²·±², ÐÓÍ Ð¿®´·¿³»²¬¿®§ ݱ³°¿²·±² or olhor
roforonco sourco vhon vriling lo MIs and nonbors of lho Houso
of Lords. Thoso pubIicalions aIso incIudo dolaiIs of ninislors and
sonior civiI sorvanls in Doparlnonls of Slalo, and lho nanos of offi-
ciaIs in olhor Govornnonl doparlnonls and agoncios.
Ý·ª·½ ¼·¹²·¬¿®·»-
Thoro aro vidoIy difforing slyIos for civic dignilarios, doponding
on lho parlicuIar lovn or cily. Tho Lord Mayors of London and
YorI aro uniquo in lhal lhoy aro slyIod ´Tho Righl HonourabIo'
vhiIo lho ronaindor aro gonoraIIy lilIod ´Tho Righl WorshipfuI'.
Thoy aro addrossod al lho boginning of a Iollor ´Mr Lord Mayor'
and lho onvoIopo shouId boar lho vording ´Tho Righl HonourabIo
lho Lord Mayor of ÷'. Mayors of cilios and lovns aro addrossod
´Mr Mayor' and lho onvoIopo shouId carry lho vords ´Tho Righl
WorshipfuI lho Mayor of (Cily of÷/(RoyaI Borough of)' or ´Tho
WorshipfuI lho Mayor of ÷'. Lollors shouId bo signod off ´Yours
failhfuIIy' (or ´Yours sincoroIy' if a sociaI occasion).
Ü»¾®»¬¬K- shouId bo consuIlod for chocIing lilIos of church digni-
larios, officors in lho arnod forcos, anbassadors, and for dociding
procodonco for labIo pIans and guosl Iisls.
×ÒÊ×ÌßÌ×ÑÒÍ ÌÑ ÚËÒÝÌ×ÑÒÍ
Irinlod invilalion cards shouId bo sonl for nosl funclions,
aIlhough in nany casos ÷ say for pross conforoncos and for
infornaI or sociaI ovonls ÷ a voII-prosonlod Iollor, or ovon an onaiI
if lino is shorl, viII suffico. GoId-odgod cards aro bosl and uso of a
scripl lypofaco is parlicuIarIy suilabIo for fornaI occasions. Tho
card nusl slalo lho nano (or offico) of lho porson naIing lho invi-
lalion, lho naluro of lho funclion, vhoro il viII bo hoId, lho dalo
and lino and lho dross. Il shouId aIso slalo if docoralions shouId bo
vorn. Tho card nusl provido onough spaco for lho nano of lho
inviloo, and an RSVI nano and addross, pIus loIophono nunbor if
approprialo. If possibIo, provido a propaid ropIy card. Tho inviloo's
nano shouId bo handvrillon in bIacI inI. Thoso vho do nol
bolhor lo ropIy shouId nol bo invilod again.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïìì
ÎÛÐÔ×ÛÍ ÌÑ ×ÒÊ×ÌßÌ×ÑÒÍ
RopIios shouId bo sonl oul on lho organisalion's usuaI prinlod
Iollorhoads and idoaIIy bo vrillon in lho fornaI slyIo, slaling oilhor
accoplanco of lho invilalion or rogrol al boing unabIo lo accopl.
Slalo lho roason for non-accoplanco, oxanpIos boing ´oving lo a
provious ongagononl/absonco abroad/oul of lovn lhal day'.
Wholhor accopling or docIining, lho nano(s) of lho inviloo(s)
shouId bo givon, logolhor vilh dolaiIs of lho funclion. If ropIying
by loIophono, sond a vrillon foIIov-up.
ßÝÕÒÑÉÔÛÜÙ×ÒÙ ÝÑÎÎÛÍÐÑÒÜÛÒÝÛ
Good slyIo noans good nannors. And good nannors is good IR.
Nolhing is vorso lhan nol ropIying lo a Iollor offoring or giving
you sonolhing. Il is usuaIIy possibIo lo sond a ropIy vilhin a day
or lvo. If you aro loo busy lo posl a lypod Iollor, lhon a hand-
vrillon ono viII do ¡usl as voII, ovon if you havo lo handvrilo lho
onvoIopo yoursoIf.
An acInovIodgononl card is aIso hoIpfuI and shouId bo sonl as
a nallor of roulino for aII corrospondonco vhoro a dolaiIod and
innodialo rosponso is nol possibIo. This nighl sinpIy slalo
´(nano of porson of conpany/organisalion) lhanIs you for your
connunicalion of (dalo) vhich is rocoiving allonlion'. Il laIos onIy
a ninulo or lvo of your lino lo gol off a ropIy of sono sorl: a loIo-
phono caII, onaiI or faxod nolo viII oflon do lho lricI.
RopIying lo onaiIs pronplIy is a courlosy nol lo bo forgollon. Il
is nol so inporlanl in inlor-offico nonos, bul ossonliaI for olhor
nossagos ÷ parlicuIarIy lhoso lo cIionls and cuslonors, if onIy a
sinpIo OK. Ensuro lhal sonoono nonilors your naiIbox roguIarIy
for oulslanding corrospondonco.
ÍÛÌÌ×ÒÙ ÑËÌ ÜÑÝËÓÛÒÌÍ
Tho Iayoul for roporls, docunonls, agondas and ninulos caIIs for a
consislonl and voII-ordorod slyIo. A prinlod hoading shouId givo
lho nano, addross and loIophono/fax nunbors of lho organisalion
on aII docunonls. Dalo and roforonco nunbors lo aid idonlificalion
shouId bo incIudod. Insorl oxlra spaco bolvoon ilons and Ioavo
͵·´´- ¿²¼ -¬§´»- º±® ¬¸» ±ºº·½»
ïìë
gonorous nargins (al Ioasl 25 nn on lho righl-hand nargin, noro
on lho Iofl). CaII in a profossionaI dosignor lo givo you a lonpIalo
for lypisls lo foIIov. Thal vay ovorybody viII produco docunonls
lo a consislonl slyIo, an ossonliaI roquirononl for dovoIoping a
rocognisabIo corporalo inago.
ÉÎ×Ì×ÒÙ ß ÝÊ
SlyIo for prosonlalion of a curricuIun vilao (CV) is inporlanl and
couId affocl an appIicanl's chancos of socuring onpIoynonl. Il
shouId bo cIoar and conciso, consislonl in slyIo, accuralo, vilhoul
spoIIing orrors or vrong punclualion, uso pIain EngIish and
shouId conconlralo on sIiIIs and achiovononls. IdoaIIy a CV
shouId bo lypod on lvo shools of pIain vhilo A4 papor, vilh pIonly
of spaco so lhal lho vords and hoadings aro nol ¡annod up lighl.
AIvays addross lho CV lo a nanod porson, novor Doar Sir or Doar
Madan. Il onIy laIos a ninulo or lvo lo find lho righl nano. Do
nol uso coIourod papor or inI and pay parlicuIar allonlion lo lho
vay il is Iaid oul. Il couId noan aII lho difforonco lo golling lho ¡ob
or nol.
ACV shouId provido lho foIIoving infornalion: nano, addross,
dalo of birlh, narilaI slalus, nalionaIily, oducalion and quaIifica-
lions, caroor hislory and lho nanos of lvo roforoos.
Thoro aro nunorous booIs on proparing a CV, ̸» Ö±¾-»¿®½¸
Ó¿²«¿´ by Linda Apsoy boing parlicuIarIy suilabIo for youngor
poopIo slarling oul on lhoir caroors. Í«°»® Ö±¾-»¿®½¸ by Iolor K
Sludnor is approprialo for lhoso sooIing nanagononl posilions.
(Bolh aro pubIishod by Managononl BooIs 2000.)
Thoro is a nov nolhod, lho TaIIing-CV!, of pulling your
porsonaI dolaiIs in loxl, voico and picluro on a CD ROM vhich can
lhon bo sonl lo polonliaI onpIoyors and hoadhunlors, and aIso
upIoadod lo lho inlornol. Soo Chaplor 18.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïìê
͵·´´- ¿²¼ -¬§´»- º±® ¬¸» ±ºº·½»
ïìé
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
Û-¬¿¾´·-¸ ¿ ½±®°±®¿¬» -¬§´» º±® »ª»®§¬¸·²¹ò
ѳ·¬ ½±«®¬»-§ ¬·¬´»- øÓ®ñÓ®-ñÓ·--ñÓ-÷ ±² ¬¸» ¬»´»°¸±²»æ ¶«-¬
¹·ª» §±«® ²¿³»ò
LÛ-¯«·®»K ·- ¸¿®¼´§ »ª»® «-»¼ ¬¸»-» ¼¿§-å ³±-¬´§ ¾§ ¾¿²µ- ¿²¼
º·²¿²½·¿´ -»®ª·½»- ½±³°¿²·»-ò
ß¹®»» -¬§´» º±® ¼¿¬»-ô ¬·³»-ô ¿²¼ ½±®®»-°±²¼»²½» º±®³¿¬ ¬± ¾»
º±´´±©»¼ ¾§ ¿´´ -¬¿ººò
Ü»ª»´±° ¿ ½´»¿®ô ½´»¿² ´¿§±«¬ º±® ®»°±®¬- ¿²¼ ¼±½«³»²¬-ò
λ-¬®·½¬ ³·²«¬»- ¬± ¼»½·-·±²-æ ´±²¹ ¼·¿´±¹«»- ¿®» ²±¬ ²»»¼»¼ò
λº»® ¬± Ü»¾®»¬¬K- º±® ¹«·¼¿²½» ±² º±®³- ±º ¿¼¼®»--ò
Ë-» °®·²¬»¼ ½¿®¼- º±® º±®³¿´ ·²ª·¬¿¬·±²-ò
ß½µ²±©´»¼¹» ¿´´ ½±®®»-°±²¼»²½»å ®»-°±²¼ ¬¸» -¿³» ¼¿§ ·º
°±--·¾´»ò
Ë°¼¿¬» §±«® ÝÊ ®»¹«´¿®´§å µ»»° ·¬ ¬± ¬©± °¿¹»- ±º ßìò
Approprialo choico of vords is of paranounl inporlanco for
inparling lho sonso and lono of any nossago. Bul for lhal nossago
lo bo proporIy undorslood, and for il lo bo cIoar and unanbiguous,
nol onIy nusl spoIIings bo corrocl bul lho vrilor nusl avoid sIang
in fornaI loxls, guard againsl ovorusing fashionabIo bul sIoppy
phrasos, and Inov vholhor vords aro hyphonalod or nol, or spoIl
as ono vord. This chaplor oxaninos sono of lhoso lraps, vhich can
Ioad lo nislaIos or ovon hovIors lhal naIo your hair sland on ond
vhon you soo lhon in prinl.
ÍÐÛÔÔ×ÒÙ ÐÑ×ÒÌÍ
DifficuIly oflon arisos vilh advis±® or advis»®: lho proforrod
spoIIing is -»®, -±® is prolonlious, ovon oId-fashionod. A usofuI ruIo
is lhal unIoss procodod by a ´l' or ´ss' vorb (or Ioss froquonlIy noun)
ondings aro usuaIIy -»®. In ordor lo avoid a spoIIing hiccup (nol
¸·½½±«¹¸ novadays) you havo lo bo on guard for nislaIos IiIo °®¿½ó
ïìè
ïì
¬·±²»®- ÷ or IiloraIs and lypos as prinlors IiIo lo caII lhon. Thoro is
no ´d' in aIIogo, il is conlracluaI, nol -uraI, fIolalion nol fIoalalion,
hurrah/hurray nol hoorah/ay unIoss you aro laIIing aboul a
Hooray Honry, idiosyncrasy nol ÷acy, ninuscuIo nol -iscuIo, norvo
racIing, nol -vracIing. Il is a gonlIonon's agroononl, nol -nan's.
Confusion oflon occurs bolvoon °¿--»¼ and °¿-¬. Tho pasl lonso
and pasl parlicipIo of lho vorb lo pass is passod as in il passod fron
you lo no, vhoroas °¿-¬ as an ad¡oclivo doscribos lhings or ovonls
lhal havo occurrod (pasl linos), il can aIso bo a proposilion as in
firsl pasl lho posl and a noun (nonorios of lho pasl).
For vords of noro lhan ono syIIabIo onding in ó»¼ or -·²¹ and
vilh lho slross on lho Iasl syIIabIo, lho finaI consonanl is doubIod
as in pornil/pornillod. Bul vhoro lho Iasl syIIabIo is unslrossod,
as in largol and focus, lho finaI consonanl is nol doubIod: lhus any
argunonl on hov lo spoII focusod/focusing and largolod/lar-
goling is inslanlIy rosoIvod. In lho sano calogory go olhor
favourilo vords in lho IR vocabuIary such as bonofilod/ing,
budgolod/ing. Anolhor vay of loIIing vholhor you aro righl or
vrong is lo pronounco such vords vilh a slrossod doubIo finaI
consonanl and so gol foc«--od and larg»¬¬od. Or say lo yoursoIf
narI»¬¬ing, vilh a doubIo ´l' and lho onphasis on lho socond
syIIabIo, il is obviousIy vrong and you viII inslanlIy rocaII lho
ruIo. (Gol inlo lho habil of IooIing oul for a doubIo ´s' or ´l' in lhoso
vords ÷ you von'l havo lo vail Iong!)
Wilh suffixos of vords onding in a singIo ´I', lho Iasl consonanl is
usuaIIy doubIod vholhor or nol lho finaI syIIabIo is slrossod as in
IaboIIod/lravoIIod, bul nol appoaIod/paraIIoIod.
SpoIIings of siniIar sounding or pairs of vords froquonlIy causo
lroubIo. TaIo lhoso oxanpIos: canvas (for painling picluros) bul
canvass (lo soIicil volos), dopondanl (roIalivo) bul dopondonl
(upon). Hov nany linos havo you soon lhoso vords nisusod and
nisspoIl` Thon lhoro is lho draughlsnan (of a spocificalion) bul
sonoono vho drafls a docunonl, lho officiaI vho naIos a fornaI
inquiry, bul a porson vho quoslions and naIos an onquiry.
Furlhor has quilo a difforonl noaning fron farlhor: lho fornor
suggosls sonolhing addilionaI lo say or do, lho Iallor incroasod
dislanco.
InslaII boconos inslaIIalion bul inslaInonl (sonolinos vilh a
doubIo ´I'), aII lhroo having a lolaIIy difforonl noaning fron insliI.
Aconnon nislaIo is lo nix up Iiconco (noun) vilh Iiconso (vorb):
hov nany linos do you vanl lo loII a shopIoopor lo corrocl
Ì®¿°-ô -²¿®»- ¿²¼ °·¬º¿´´-
ïìç
Iiconcod lo Iiconsod` (In Anorica, il is lho olhor vay round and
´praclico' is bolh noun and vorb.)
Hov oflon havo you asIod sonoono vholhor lho firsl ´o' shouId
bo droppod in ¡udgononl` Tho ruIo horo is lhal vhon a suffix
boginning vilh a consonanl (-º«´, -´·²¹, -´§, -³»²¬, -²»--, --±³») is
addod lo a vord vilh a siIonl ´o', lho -o is rolainod ÷ bul nol aIvays
(oxcoplions incIudo argunonl, fIodgIing). }udgononl usuaIIy Iosos
lho firsl ´o' in IogaI vorIs. In Anorican spoIIing, lho ´o' is droppod
boforo a suffix boginning vilh a consonanl as in abridgnonl,
¡udgnonl. Anolhor ruIo vorlh noling is vhon adding ·²- and
«²- lo lho boginning of a vord, lhoro is onIy ono ´n' unIoss lho
vord ilsoIf bogins vilh an ´n' as in insoparabIo, unonding, innu-
norabIo, unnocossary.
Olhor confusing spoIIings aro principIo (basis of roasoning) and
principaI (nain), slalionary (sliII) and slalionory (papor slocIs) ÷ a
vay lo rononbor lhis is ´o' for onvoIopo. Nolo lhal lho slarl of lho
Iasl syIIabIo in suporsodo and consonsus is oflon nisspoIl vilh a
´c'. Koop a coIandor for slraining and a caIondar for giving lho
dalo, rosorvo progran and disI for conpulor lorninoIogy, and
rosisl lho lonplalion lo pul an ´o´ in vhisIy (vhisIoy is for lho
Anorican and Irish, bul novor Scolch vhisIy ÷ lho Scols vouIdn'l
hoar of il!).
Moro oxanpIos aro in Appondix 2.
ÞÛ ÝßÎÛÚËÔ É×ÌØ ÚÑÎÛ×ÙÒ ÉÑÎÜÍ
TaIo spociaI caro vilh foroign vords. Thoy aro oasiIy absorbod inlo
EngIish, bul can ¡usl as oasiIy bo vrongIy spoIl. Evon in novspa-
pors vo soo fruils ¼« nor insload of ¼», hors d'oouvros (nol pIuraI)
for ¸±®- ¼K±»«ª®», crino passionaI for crino °¿--·±²²»´ and b•lo noir
for b•lo ²±·®»ò Koop foroign diclionarios handy, parlicuIarIy lhoso
covoring EngIish÷Fronch and EngIish÷Gornan and vico vorsa for
chocIing phrasos IiIo ½±«´»«® ´±½¿´», sinco conpulor spoIIchocIs aro
nol nuch hoIp for olhor Ianguagos.
Errors can occur sinpIy bocauso you havo soon lho sano vords
vrongIy spoIl boforo. Il is oasy lo ¬¸·²µ you havo gol il righl, bul il's
oasy lo niss, for oxanpIo, lho firsl u in ¼» ®·¹«»«®. FaniIiarily
broods conlonpl.
WhiIo occasionaI foroign vords can Iivon up duII copy, Ioop
lhon oul of roIoasos. Whon usod in prinl, lho roador viII quicIIy
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïëð
liro of lhon, parlicuIarIy if lho oxprossions aro unfaniIiar. Koop lo
AngIicisod vords, olhorviso you nighl bo soon as shoving
off. ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ º±® É®·¬»®- ¿²¼ Û¼·¬±®- and ̸» Ѩº±®¼
ͬ§´» Ó¿²«¿´ viII confirn spoIIings of connonIy usod foroign
vords and phrasos, and viII shov, by ilaIics, lhoso lhal aro nol yol
accoplod in ovoryday EngIish.
ËÍÛ ÇÑËÎ Ü×ÝÌ×ÑÒßÎÇ
Il is difficuIl lo rononbor difforonl spoIIings for siniIar-sounding
vords, bul boing avaro of lho siniIarilios and possibIo spoIIing
orrors oncouragos lho vrilor lo roach for lho diclionary.
Boforo Ioaving lho sub¡ocl of spoIIings, ono suro lip is aIvays
rononbor lo uso lho conpulor's spoIIchocI for ovorylhing ÷
roIoasos, arlicIos, roporls and Iollors, nol onIy viII il picI up orrors
lhal nighl olhorviso nol bo nolicod, il viII oflon provido a vord
counl by rocording lho nunbor of quoslionabIo vords. This is
oxlronoIy usofuI infornalion for bolh lho vrilor and odilor,
saving lho lirosono lasI of counling up copy vord by vord
lo oslinalo lho Ionglh vhon sol in lypo. Moro oxanpIos aro in
Appondix 2.
ó×ÍÛ ÑÎ ó×ÆÛ ÊÛÎÞ ÛÒÜ×ÒÙÍá
Bolh spoIIings aro connon in lho UK, vhiIo lho 󷦻 onding is
usuaI in Norlh Anorica. Roadors in Anorica nay nolico lhal -iso
has boon usod lhroughoul lhis booI sinco lhis slyIo is nov gonor-
aIIy favourod in lho UK. Thoro aro sono vords vhich nusl aIvays
ond vilh -·-»ò Words vhich nusl aIvays ond vilh ó·-» incIudo
advorliso, appraiso, appriso, ariso, chasliso, conpriso, disguiso,
oxciso, oxorciso, franchiso, inproviso, inciso, norchandiso,
proniso, proniso, praiso, raiso, suporviso, loIoviso. Fov viII ob¡ocl
lo ó·-» spoIIings lhroughoul, aIlhough lho uso of ½¿°-·¦»ñ-¬»®·´·¦»ñ
º¿³·´·¿®·¦» viII soIdon bo crilicisod.
In lho UK unliI a fov yoars ago 󷦻 ondings voro connonIy
soon in ̸» Ì·³»- and oIsovhoro, bul as bolh lho Oxford Univorsily
Iross and lho Canbridgo Univorsily Iross svilchod lo ó·-», so
novspapors londod lo foIIov suil and lhus anolhor slyIo lrond vas
Ì®¿°-ô -²¿®»- ¿²¼ °·¬º¿´´-
ïëï
born. Evon so, 󷦻 appoars lo bo as firnIy onboddod in Anorica as
ovor. Hovovor nuch you nay halo nouns boconing vorbs, you
havo lo roaIiso lhal sorvicos aro °®·ª¿¬·-»¼, bul nosl of us viII ob¡ocl
lo boing ¸±-°·¬¿´·-»¼ or having pIans °®·±®·¬·-»¼.
ÑÒÛ ÉÑÎÜ ÑÎ ÌÉÑá
Many vords onco happiIy hyphonalod, and sono lvo-vord
phrasos, soon found lhonsoIvos Iiving logolhor, ¡oinod vilhoul
ronorso. Thus vo havo soon raiIvaynan/paybod/lurnoul onlor
ovoryday usago as oxanpIos of Iosl hyphonalion. Many sliII porsisl
in using aIrighl (´Gross, coarso, crass and lo bo avoidod', says
KingsIoy Anis in ̸» Õ·²¹K- Û²¹´·-¸) insload of lho proforrod aII
righl.
Tho Anorican londoncy lo vrilo undorvay as ono vord has fov
foIIovors horo. Bul vho is lo say lhal il is no difforonl fron ¿²§©¿§.
Thon lhoro is lho froquonl confusion bolvoon forovor (porpoluaIIy)
and for ovor (for aIvays), as in ´Ho is forovor conpIaining' againsl
´Ho viII bo in lho sano firn for ovor.' Anis again: ´I'n forovor
bIoving bubbIos lo bo oulIavod aIlogolhor.' Fov viII condono lho
nodorn lrond for anynoro or anylino vhich cry oul for lhoir orig-
inaI lvo-vord forns.
Many hyphonalod vords ovonluaIIy ond up as ono for lho
sinpIo roason lhal lho slyIo is nodorn and favourod by lho
popuIar pross. Wo aro usod lo lhon and no Iongor vorry vholhor
lhoy aro hyphonalod or nol. Hovovor, il is advisabIo lo chocI vilh
lho usuaI roforonco sourcos such as lho Ѩº±®¼ Û²¹´·-¸ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§
for roconnondod slyIo for individuaI vord-sols.
ÐËÆÆÔÛÍ ßÒÜ ÐÑÍÛÎÍ
Whon you accodo lo sonolhing you givo assonl lo an opinion or
poIicy, do nol uso il lo noan granl, aIIov, agroo. Ralhor lhan vrilo
accordingIy, pul so or lhoroforo, advorbs IiIo hopofuIIy, adnil-
lodIy, happiIy aro usuaIIy unnocossary. Il is bollor lo vrilo you pIan
or inlond lo do sonolhing lhan hopo lo do il, vhich suggosls
doubl lhal il viII ovor bo dono. Ralhor lhan ad¡usl sonolhing,
½¸¿²¹» il, you appraiso il vhon you ¡udgo ils vaIuo, nol appriso
vhich noans inforn.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïëî
Anong is oflon confusod vilh bolvoon. Whon vriling aboul
noro lhan lvo lhings or poopIo, anong is usuaIIy noodod. Bul
vhon considorod individuaIIy, bolvoon is proforrod. Conlrasl
´food vas sharod anong six poopIo' vilh ´cordiaI roIalions
bolvoon lho UK, Franco and Gornany'.
Avoid hacInoyod vords IiIo faclor vhich can usuaIIy bo
onillod vilhoul Ioss of sonso. You can disponso vilh il oasiIy,
for oxanpIo, ´in an inporlanl º¿½¬±® in lho conpany's succoss'
by rocasling and vriling sinpIy ´inporlanl in lho conpany's
succoss'. Foaluro (as a noun) is anolhor vord lhal adds nolhing
and can oasiIy bo droppod. MoaningfuI has Iosl aII noaning
and is anolhor candidalo for oxcision. AIso cul lhoso oul: ono of
lho nosl, rospoclivo/rospoclivoIy, curronlIy, lho forosooabIo
fuluro, lho facl is. and olhor vords lhal conlribulo IillIo oxcopl
vaffIo.
Don'l bo oId-fashionod and vrilo anongsl and vhiIsl vhon
anong and vhiIo viII do ¡usl as voII. You shouId ¬®§ ¬± do sono-
lhing, nol ¬®§ ¿²¼ do il. Insload of vriling °®¿½¬·½¿´´§ aII lho lino pul
aInosl, noarIy, or aII bul. Tho vorId is popuIalod by poopIo, nol
porsons, bul lhal is nol lo say lhal lhoro is no pIaco for porson. Tho
noun porson is nornaIIy onIy usod in lho singuIar as in ´ho vas a
porson of characlor'. Avoid using porsons vhon poopIo vouId bo
noro approprialo.
Bo carofuI nol lo add a quaIifior lo ungradabIo vords IiIo uniquo
or porfocl. You cannol havo dogroos of uniquonoss or porfoclion:
oilhor sonolhing is uniquo or porfocl or il is nol. Olhor vords IiIo
lhis aro pocuIiar, soIo, singIo, sponlanoous.
ÔÑÑÕßÔ×ÕÛÍ ÒÛÛÜ ÝßÎÛ
Is il big or Iargo` WhiIo lhoy aro synonynous, you can'l aIvays
svap ono for lho olhor. Thoro's a big saIary riso, nol a Iargo ono, bul
you can drivo a big or a Iargo car. Difforoncos aro sublIo: big is lho
coIIoquiaI and noro faniIiar ad¡oclivo. Anounl of/nunbor of goos
bollor vilh Iargo (a Iargo anounl of coIunn inchos, lhoro vas big
pubIicily). Uso vhichovor -±«²¼- righl. Much lho sano appIios lo
snaII/IillIo.
LooIaIiIo vords vilh difforonl noanings incIudo sinpIo/
sinpIislic. Tho Iallor inpIios ovorsinpIifiod, unroaIislicaIIy
slraighlforvard, avoid vhon sinpIo in ´oasy' conloxls viII suffico.
Ì®¿°-ô -²¿®»- ¿²¼ °·¬º¿´´-
ïëí
BionniaI is onco ovory lvo yoars, biannuaI lvico a yoar, conlinuaI
noans froquonlIy happoning, conlinuous is non-slop.
To niligalo is lo croalo condilions for roducing lho sovorily of
sonolhing, lo niIilalo againsl sonolhing is lo havo a significanl
offocl againsl il. Affocl is lo havo an infIuonco on, offocl lo accon-
pIish sonolhing. Discrool noans circunspocl, shoving good
¡udgononl, discrolo noans unallachod, unroIalod. IraclicaI is suil-
abIo for uso, praclicabIo abIo lo bo dono.
ÝØÛÍÌÒËÌ Ì×ÓÛ
Nov lhal choslnul: is il Ioss or fovor` Tho quicI ansvor is lhal if
lho noun is counlabIo, il's fovor, olhorviso chooso Ioss. Fovor
labIos and chairs, Ioss hopo, Ioss angor. Loss/IillIo goos bollor vilh
sizo and quanlily lhan fov/fovor: lhus for lino, dislanco, nonoy,
roading, vriling il's Ioss lhan 10 ninulos boforo vo Ioavo for hono,
lhoro's Ioss lhan 1,000 vords lo vrilo, and Ioss lhan £50 for doing
il. Fovor or Ioss poopIo or niIos` Sinco poopIo laIo lho pIuraI vorb,
il's fovor lhan 20 por conl of lho vorIforco vho Ioavo so oarIy. And
il's fino lo vrilo Ioss lhan 25 niIos avay sinco il's a noasuro of
dislanco, nol individuaI niIos.
Koop ´nols' oul of allonlion-sooIing slandfirsls, lhoso shorl
inlros lo foaluro arlicIos, as lhoy can confuso lho roador. Thoro's no
pIaco for ´nol for nolhing'. Nogalivo conslruclions shouId aIvays
bo avoidod: loo nany ´nols' and ´un' vords ¡oinod vilh ´nol' (for
oxanpIo ´nol unvanlod') can bo brain-lvislors. And as I'vo said
oarIior in lhis chaplor, you can'l bo loo carofuI vhon using a
conpulorisod spoIIchocIor: lhoro's roaIIy no bollor vay lo chocI
spoIIings lhan lo uso a good diclionary.
ÌØÛÇKÎÛ ÒÑÌ Î×ÙØÌô ÌØÛÇKÎÛ ÒÑÌ ÉÎÑÒÙ
Walch oul for gol/gol. WhiIo lhoro is nolhing acluaIIy vrong vilh
lhon, lhoy appoar infornaI and shouId bo avoidod. Uso oblain or
posso-- insload, or considor rovriling. AIso laIo caro vilh lo Iay, lo
Iio: lho vorb lo Iay laIos an ob¡ocl vhiIo ¬± ´·» doos nol (I ´¿§ ny
body on lho fIoor as I ´·» rosling). Bul you novor havo a ´¿§ ¼±©²
vhich naIos a noun of il!
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïëì
LiIo is anolhor pilfaII. Usod paronlholicaIIy, lo quaIify a
foIIoving or procoding slalononl, as in ´´·µ» I vas going lo loII you
sonolhing' is a vuIgarisn of lho firsl ordor, FovIor says. Bul rosis-
lanco lo ils uso as a con¡unclion and as a subslilulo for ¿- ·º or ¿-
¬¸±«¹¸ is crunbIing.
Koop cIoar of ²·½». FovIor says: ´Il shouId bo confinod in prinl lo
diaIoguo. Iadios havo charnod il oul of aII ils individuaIily and
convorlod il inlo a noro diffusor of vaguo and niId agrooabIonoss.'
Il is bollor lo forgol ²·½» and chooso a synonyn for il, unIoss you
aro in Anorica and uso lho calchphraso ´Havo a ²·½» day.'
Argunonls abound on vholhor lo vrilo (or say) conparod lo or
conparod vilh. Tho firsl is lo IiIon ono lhing lo anolhor as in
´crilics conparod hin lo OIivior,' vhiIo lho socond poinls lo diffor-
oncos or rosonbIancos bolvoon lvo lhings as in ´conparing lho
spoaIor's nolos ©·¬¸ vhal has boon vrillon'. Uso ¼·ºº»®»²¬ º®±³ in
vriling, Ioop ¼·ºº»®»²¬ ¬± for spooch.
Anolhor posor is lho pIacing of ´onIy' in a sonlonco. Iul il as
cIoso as possibIo lo lho vord or vords il quaIifios: vhon il slrays
loo far avay, il can bo obscuro or ronovo lho oIononl of oxcIu-
sivily. If, for oxanpIo, you say you had ±²´§ lvo drinIs, lhal is
bollor lhan saying you ±²´§ had lvo drinIs.
Avoid inprocisions such as Iols of, nany or lhings vhon figuros
or dofinilions can bo givon. Koop ¿² for vords boginning vilh a
siIonl ´h' (an hoir, an honour, an honorariun), olhorviso il is a
holoI, a harbour, a horo, a hopo. Inlroduco a Iisl of ilons vilh such
as or for oxanpIo, nol og.
Nolo lhal ¿²§¾±¼§ and ¿²§±²» aro singuIar (anybody is abIo lo
visil lho nusoun), as aro ovory, ovorybody, ovoryono (ovory
donlisl ¸¿- infornalion on caro of loolh, ovorybody is abIo lo
discuss his or hor probIons vilh a Iavyor). Û¿½¸ is singuIar (oach
conlribulor shouId chocI his or hor papor), and so is nobody or no
ono (no ono is corlain).
ÊÑÙËÛ ÉÑÎÜÍ ßÒÜ ÐØÎßÍÛÍ
Nunorous vords aro nol onIy ovorusod or bocono cIich’s bul
suggosl lho vrilor has nol bolhorod lo lhinI of anylhing bollor. Top
of lho Iisl nusl bo ´or vhalovor' vhon il noans in offocl ´incIuding
nany olhor lhings'. Don'l say il and corlainIy novor vrilo il.
Thon lhoro aro lho cIich’s of having said lhal, al lho ond of lho
Ì®¿°-ô -²¿®»- ¿²¼ °·¬º¿´´-
ïëë
day, in-doplh, ongoing and ongoing silualion, goarod lo, in lorns
of, I'II gol bacI lo you, nano of lho gano, no probIon, laIo on
board, lracI rocord, and vords IiIo foodbacI, concopl, consonsus,
IifoslyIo, viabIo, syndrono, vaIidalo, inlorfaco, sconario. Sono, if
nol aII, of lhoso vords aro curronl coinago in lho connunicalions
businoss and il is virluaIIy inpossibIo lo avoid lhon. Try lo find
synonyns.
ÙÛÌÌ×ÒÙ ×Ò ÌØÛ ÓÑÑÜ
If you faiI lo dislinguish bolvoon auxiIiary (nodaI) vorbs, and
bolvoon roIalivo pronouns, vorbaI inoIogancos and ovon nislaIos
ariso. WhiIo sonolinos inlorchangoabIo vilhoul Ioss of sonso, IooI
oul for pilfaIIs. Horo aro a fov oxanpIos.
ModaI vorbs shaII/viII, shouId/couId, can/couId, nay/nighl
possoss difforonl shados of noaning, oxprossod as noods or nodos
of aclion. AIso vilhin lhis calogory aro ³«-¬ and ±«¹¸¬ò UnIiIo
ordinary vorbs, nodaIs do nol havo ó- or -»¼ addod in prosonl and
pasl lonsos, lhoro can bo no shaIIs, nighling or oughlod aparl fron
boing ©·´´»¼ lo do sonolhing.
Tho gonoraI ruIo is lhal -¸¿´´ and -¸±«´¼ go vilh firsl porson
singuIar and pIuraI, ©·´´ and ©±«´¼ lho olhors. Thus, -¸±«´¼ accon-
panios × and ©», and ©±«´¼ ¹±»- vilh ¸», -¸», ·¬ and ¬¸»§. Bolh
oxpross sinpIo fuluro lonso, ©·´´ shoving inlonlion or dolornina-
lion, ospociaIIy a proniso lo do sonolhing. You aro noro IiIoIy lo
bo laIon soriousIy if you say ´I ©·´´ bo in lho offico on Sunday.'
´Í¸¿´´ bo' sonovhal diIulos lho inlonlion.
Caro is noodod in choosing -¸±«´¼ or ©±«´¼ for lhoro is a sublIo
bul inporlanl difforonco bolvoon lhon. ͸±«´¼ has noraI forco
bohind il, vhoroas ©±«´¼ acquiros niId condilionaIily. ͸±«´¼
oxprossos lhroo fuluro possibiIilios: condilionaI, probabIo, and a
Ioss IiIoIy oulcono as in, rospoclivoIy, ´I -¸±«´¼ bo gralofuI if you
©±«´¼ ansvor ny Iollor', ´sho -¸±«´¼ avoid lho angry cIionl', ´-¸±«´¼
you soo hin, ronind hin aboul lho nooling.' ݱ«´¼, IiIo
-¸±«´¼ñ©±«´¼, indicalos a condilionaI or fuluro possibiIily, vhiIo
½±«´¼ñ½¿², usod inlorrogalivoIy, suggosls sooIing pornission.
DifficuIly oflon occurs in using ³¿§ñ³·¹¸¬ò Iornission is
oxprossod lhrough ³¿§ as in ´³¿§ ×', bul bolh inpIy sinpIo possi-
biIily in ´lho cIionl ³¿§ñ³·¹¸¬ cono' and aro indislinguishabIo. In
sono conloxls ³·¹¸¬ hinls al uncorlainly and suggosls Ioss opli-
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïëê
nisn lhan ³¿§ as in ´lhoy nighl uso lho roIoaso' againsl ´lhoy nay
bo abIo lo odil il'. Thus, ³¿§ñ³·¹¸¬ aro oflon inlorchangoabIo vhoro
lho lrulh of an ovonl is unInovn, bul if lhoro is no Iongor uncor-
lainly, uso ³·¹¸¬ò
}anos Ailchison in his Ý¿--»´´K- Ù«·¼» ¬± É®·¬¬»² Û²¹´·-¸ noalIy
oxprossos ±«¹¸¬ and ³«-¬ as ´duly, obIigalion and nocossily', ±«¹¸¬,
ho obsorvos, suggosls IiIoIihood of fuIfiInonl, vhiIo ³«-¬ indicalos
slricl or absoIulo nocossily.
Anolhor lrap can ariso in vriling ©¸·½¸ and ¬¸¿¬ò Thoso pronouns
aro nornaIIy usod vilh non-hunan nouns, olhorviso vrilo ©¸± or
©¸±³ò WhiIo ©¸·½¸ñ¬¸¿¬ can oflon bo inlorchangod or ovon onillod
vilhoul Ioss of sonso, dislinclions oxisl, parlicuIarIy vhon sub-
cIausos boginning ©¸·½¸ aro oncIosod in connas. Il is raro lo punc-
lualo ¬¸¿¬ cIausos in lho sano vay. ̸¿¬ dofinos, ©¸·½¸ inforns.
Il is a sound ruIo (says Sir Ernosl Govors in ̸» ݱ³°´»¬»
д¿·² ɱ®¼-) lhal ¬¸¿¬ shouId bo disponsod vilh vhonovor lhis can
bo dono ´vilhoul Ioss of cIarily or dignily'. ConsuIl ̸» Ѩº±®¼
Ù«·¼» ¬± Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹» or Ú±©´»® for oxanpIos of curronl ©¸·½¸ñ¬¸¿¬
usago.
ÙÛÒÌÛÛÔ×ÍÓÍ
Subslilulion of a nornaI, naluraI vord for anolhor lhal is consid-
orod by sono as Ioss faniIiar, Ioss vuIgar, Ioss inpropor or Ioss apl
is dofinod by FovIor as a gonlooIisn. For inslanco, ¿--·-¬ for hoIp,
¿´» for boor, »²¼»¿ª±«® for lry, ±¼±«® for snoII aro aII gonlooIisns, aIong
vilh Iadios for vonon and gonlIonon for non. A vord lhal is
sinpIo and unprolonlious is lo bo proforrod lo ono lhal has a high-
sounding, ouphonislic ring lo il. Words lhal voro onco Iislod as
gonlooIisns (chiropodisl for corn-cullor for oxanpIo) havo Iong
sinco gainod accoplanco for ovoryday usago, and aro no Iongor
indicalors of sociaI cIass.
Horo is a shorl bul oasiIy oxlondibIo Iisl of olhor gonlooIisns for
you lo bo avaro of and proforabIy avoid: ouphonisns such as
½±²½»¿´ for hido, ½±®°«´»²¬ for fal, »®» for boforo, ¼»³·-» or °¿--»¼
¿©¿§ for diod, ¼»²¬«®»- for faIso loolh, ¼±²¿¬·±² for gifl, ´±«²¹» for
silling-roon, °»®-°·®» for svoal, ®»¬·®» for go lo bod, ®»-·¼» ¿¬ for
Iivo al, -«ºº·½·»²¬ for onough, ¬¿µ» «³¾®¿¹» for laIo offonco, ¬±·´»¬ for
Iavalory. And so on.
Ì®¿°-ô -²¿®»- ¿²¼ °·¬º¿´´-
ïëé
ÕÛÛÐ ÝÔÛßÎ ÑÚ ÍÔßÒÙ
UnIoss parl of a dirocl quolalion, say in a spooch doIivorod al an
ovonl olhor lhan al an AGM, avoid sIang vords in fornaI vriling.
Bul you nood lo approcialo lhal loday's sIang is lonorrov's idion.
SIang vords for ´pubIiciso', dravn fron lho ɱ®¼-©±®¬¸ ̸»-¿«®«-
±º Í´¿²¹, incIudo lho foIIoving: pronolo, hypo, pIug, push, pilch,
spIash, spol, boosl, buiId up, puff, baIIyhoo, boal lho drun for, lub-
lhunp, hard/sofl soII. If you aro a pubIicily sooIor, you aro a hol
doggor, pubIicily hound, shovoff. SIang for ´pubIicily' incIudos
hoopIa, fIacI, fIacIory, big noiso, inI, gol inI.
WhiIo slalo of lho arl and culling odgo bogan as sIang, lhoso
phrasos havo nov found a pIaco in lho ovoryday Ianguago of
connunicalors. DoublIoss, nany olhor spoIon sIang vords viII
ovonluaIIy find a finaI rosling pIaco in fornaI vriling.
ÕÛÛÐ Ó×ÍÍ×ÑÒ ÍÌßÌÛÓÛÒÌÍ ÍØÑÎÌ ßÒÜ
Í×ÓÐÔÛ
Mission slalononls can bo a vaslo of lino, lhoso vordy, soIf-
congraluIalory, prolonlious pIaliludos lond lo bo noaningIoss
vaffIo. No ono vanls lo Inov aboul your firn's passion, your
dosliny, ovon your vision for lho fuluro. Too nany boIiofs, ains,
ob¡oclivos faiI lo convinco. Il is aInosl IiIo saying vhal Iifo is for. A
nission slalononl, if you insisl on having ono, shouId bo a doscrip-
lion of vhal your conpany is and doos in ¡usl a shorl paragraph.
Il can bo usofuI for bacIground nolos in a pross roIoaso,
providod il doosn'l slarl laIIing aboul your connilnonl lo oxcoI-
Ionco, your inlogrily, hov onlhusiaslic your slaff aro. LooI al is as
your ´roason lo bo', a slalononl in pIain Ianguago lhal viII ring
lruo vilh aII your audioncos, fron onpIoyoos lo cuslonors, fron
suppIiors lo opinion fornors.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïëè
Ì®¿°-ô -²¿®»- ¿²¼ °·¬º¿´´-
ïëç
ÌÑÐ ïð Ì×ÐÍ ÚÑÎ ÉÎ×ÌÛÎÍ
1. Þ®»ª·¬§ò Roslricl sonloncos lo 25 lo 30 vords, lhroo por
paragraph naxinun.
2. λ°»¬·¬·±²ò Novor ropoal a vord in a singIo passago. LooI
for synonyns.
3. Ý´·½¸’-ò KiII slaIo, ovorusod vords and phrasos. ConsuIl a
lhosaurus.
4. Ö¿®¹±²ò Cul oul nunbo-¡unbo. WiII lho roador undor-
sland`
5. Ú¿½¬-ô Ú¿½¬-ò Givo facls, nol vaffIo or connonl, unIoss il's
a quolo.
6. Ï«¿´·º·»®-ò Wrilo vilh vorbs and nouns, nol ad¡oclivos
and advorbs.
7. ß½½«®¿½§ò Ensuro lho accuracy of ovorylhing. Walch for
non soquilurs.
8. Ы²½¬«¿¬·±²ò Tho fuII slop is your bosl friond. Uso il Iibor-
aIIy.
9. λ¿¼¿¾·´·¬§ò MaIo suro your copy is oasy lo road, doos il
IooI boring`
10. ݱ²-·-¬»²½§ò Koop slyIo consislonl lhroughoul.
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
É¿¬½¸ ±«¬ º±® L¼·ºº·½«´¬K -°»´´·²¹-ò
Õ»»° ¬©±ó©¿§ ¼·½¬·±²¿®·»- ¸¿²¼§ º±® ½¸»½µ·²¹ º±®»·¹² ©±®¼-ò
Ë-» §±«® ½±³°«¬»®K- -°»´´½¸»½µ º±® »ª»®§¬¸·²¹ §±« ©®·¬»ò
Õ»»° ª»®¾ »²¼·²¹- ½±²-·-¬»²¬æ ó·-» ·- ³±-¬´§ °®»º»®®»¼ ·² ¬¸»
ËÕò
Ó±-¬ ¸§°¸»²¿¬»¼ ©±®¼- -±±² »²¼ «° ¿- ±²»ò
Ô±±µ ±«¬ º±® ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ¿²¼ ¼·-¬·²½¬·±²- ·² ´±±µ¿´·µ» ©±®¼-ò
ͱ³» ©±®¼- ¿²¼ °¸®¿-»- ¿®» ²±¬ ®·¹¸¬ô ¾«¬ ²±¬ ©®±²¹ò
ߪ±·¼ ª±¹«» °¸®¿-»-æ ¬¸»§ -±±² ¾»½±³» ½´·½¸’-ò
Ü·-¬·²¹«·-¸ ¾»¬©»»² ³±¼¿´ ø¿«¨·´·¿®§÷ ª»®¾-ò
ߪ±·¼ »«°¸»³·-¬·½ L¹»²¬»»´·-³-K ©¸»®» °±--·¾´»ò
Ó¿µ» ³·--·±² -¬¿¬»³»²¬- -·³°´»ô -¸±®¬ô ³»¿²·²¹º«´ò
EngIish is lho doninanl Ianguago in noro lhan 30 counlrios: il is
oslinalod lhal aInosl 400 niIIion poopIo across lho vorId spoaI
our nolhor longuo as a firsl Ianguago, lho Iargosl conconlralion
boing in lho Unilod Slalos vhoro lhoro aro sono 226 niIIion
EngIish spoaIors againsl lho UK's 56 niIIion. Around lvo-lhirds
of lho vorId's popuIalion spoaI EngIish as a socond Ianguago.
EngIish as a gIobaI Ianguago has inporlanl inpIicalions for lho
pubIic roIalions praclilionor. Tho indigonous difforoncos bolvoon
nalivo spoaIors of Anorican EngIish and Brilish EngIish aro signif-
icanl. GIobaI EngIish, lho vay lho Ianguago is spoIon and vrillon,
is lho voico of a nalionaI connunily: a nixluro of acconls, diaIocls,
calchphrasos and sIogans coupIod vilh grannalicaI and vocabu-
Iary varialions.
Fovor lhan ono in sovon Norlh Anoricans aro abIo lo road aII lho
vay lhrough a novspapor arlicIo in anolhor Ianguago. Tho parl
lhal Ianguago pIays in lho connunicalions procoss is cruciaI, and
lho difforoncos in slyIo and usago bolvoon Anorican EngIish and
Brilish EngIish nusl bo rocognisod by aII pubIic roIalions profos-
sionaIs irrospoclivo of lhoir induslry soclor and lho ¡obs lhoy do.
ïêð
ïë
ÛÍÍÛÒÌ×ßÔ Ü×ÚÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ
Anorican EngIish diffors fron Brilish EngIish in vocabuIary,
spoIIing and infIoclion, grannar and conslruclion, and punclua-
lion. FaniIiar lorns horo aro unInovn in lho Unilod Slalos and
vico vorsa. Sono Anoricans adviso lhal roIoasos, arlicIos and olhor
prinlvorI going lhoro shouId bo in US slyIo. Olhors say lhal il is
bollor lo vrilo lho vay vo do horo and Iol odilors chango lho copy
lo suil. Thal can bo dono for pross roIoasos and olhor vord-
procossod docunonls bul viII nol do for prinlod connunicalions
such as roporls and brochuros addrossod lo Anorican audioncos.
And lhoro aro occasions vhon bolh slyIos aro noodod. Which lo uso
for vobsilos vilh gIobaI audioncos`
λ´»¿-»- ¿²¼ ©»¾-·¬»-
Anorican IR oxoculivo Susan Slovons, vho onco vorIod horo for
NalionaI Grid as lho conpany's diroclor of corporalo affairs, says
lhal bocauso novs roIoaso nossagos aro usuaIIy difforonl in lho lvo
counlrios, soparalo vorsions aro issuod and Ianguago is nol an
issuo. Whoro a singIo vorsion goos oul, il usos lho Ianguago of lho
Iand vhoro lho roIoaso is boing issuod, rogardIoss of vhoro lho
novs originalos. Anorican novs issuod in lho UK vouId lhoroforo
bo in Brilish EngIish.
This is parlicuIarIy lruo for a financiaI novs roIoaso, vhoro Ioy
lorns IiIo ´lurnovor' shouId bo lransIalod inlo lho IocaI Ianguago
boforo issuing, so as lo avoid confusion. (Soo undor ´vocabuIary
and usago', Ialor in lhis chaplor.) For NalionaI Grid's vobsilo, bolh
aro usod ÷ Anorican EngIish for lho US pagos, Brilish EngIish for
lho UK. InlornalionaI vobsilos shouId offor lho usor a choico of
Ianguago, bul lhal can bo coslIy.
So lho advico is vhon naiIing or posling a roIoaso on your
vobsilo for an inlornalionaI audionco, Ioop il in Brilish EngIish
and Iol ¡ournaIisls in olhor counlrios naIo lho changos. If il's an
inlornaI onpIoyoo connunicalion or a pubIicalion, gol sonoono
sloopod in US slyIo lo vrilo il. Novor Iol Ianguago gol in lho vay of
lho nossago. Says Slovons: ´Wo found lhal ovon as our corporalo
vrilors bocano noro proficionl in lho Ianguago of lho olhor
counlry, il vas sliII bosl lo havo sonoono fron lho hono counlry
roviov lho loxl lo calch lho nuancos and sublIolios lhal vouId
olhorviso bo nissod.' }usl as il couId laIo yoars of fIuoncy in a
ß³»®·½¿²·-³- P ¬¸» ¼·ºº»®»²½»-
ïêï
foroign Ianguago lo bo proficionl vilh ils idions and sIang, so il
couId laIo yoars lo Ioarn Anorican or Quoon's EngIish IiIo a
nalivo, sho addod.
ÐÎ ¬»®³·²±´±¹§
Whoro lhoro's a connunicalions diroclor horo, il's a vico-prosidonl
lhoro. In lho Unilod Slalos you go lo a cIipping sorvico, a vidoo
norguo, lho IocaI odilor. TilIos, as horo, aro changing fasl: vico-
prosidonl or nanagor ropIacos connunicalions diroclor/nanagor
horo. Ovor lhoro lho lilIo pubIic roIalions officor is hardIy Inovn.
ʱ½¿¾«´¿®§ ¿²¼ «-¿¹»
Horo Iio lho nain varialions. To onphasiso lho nain onos lo US
onpIoyoos on boing loId aboul a norgor, Susan Slovons says lho
NalionaI Grid sinpIy prinlod a booIIol Ó¿§ × °·²½¸ §±«® -»¿¬á A
fov oxanpIos of US vorsus UK EngIish: ground fIoor horo is º·®-¬
º´±±® lhoro, draving pin/¬¸«³¾¬¿½µ, IonnoI/¼±¹¸±«-», rocoplionisl/
¼»-µ ½´»®µ, sIip/¼«³°-¬»®, }oo BIoggs/Ö±¸² ܱ». Horo's a buiIl-in
rocipo for a nooling disaslor: if you vrilo lo ¬¿¾´» sonolhing, in lho
UK il noans lo discuss il, vhiIo in lho Unilod Slalos il noans lo pul
il asido for Ialor. Il's lurnovor horo, rovonuo lhoro.
Wo vrilo ¿²¼, nol addilionaIIy, ¼·-¬®·½¬, nol noighbourhood,
±¾´·¹», nol obIigalo. In Brilain a parIing Iol is a car parI, a hood is a
bonnol, a lrucI is a Iorry, a froighl lrain is a goods lrain, a slovo is a
cooIor. You go on lho sidovaII in Nov YorI Cily, bul in London
you aro on lho pavononl. Thoro you buy gasoIino, horo polroI (gas
slalions offor bolh gasoIino and diosoI). Tho subvay in a US cily is
lho Undorground in London. You go for a vooI's vacalion if you
vorI lhoro, horo il is a hoIiday. In Anorica, you say firsl nano nol
Chrislian nano (a lorn lhal is aIso nov ronovod fron nosl slyIo
nanuaIs horo), inquiro nol onquiro, biIIboard nol poslor, cIipping
nol pross culling.
Anoricans nornaIIy givo vorbs 󷦻 ondings vhoro vo noslIy
uso lho -·-» slyIo. Thoy profor Iiconso/praclico for bolh noun and
vorb, vhiIo horo lho ´s' is for lho vorb onIy, lho nouns
dofonso/offonso/prolonso laIo a ´c' horo and nol an ´s' as in lho
Unilod Slalos. Connas and fuII slops faII vilhin quolalion narIs
in pross roIoasos in US slyIo, rogardIoss of vholhor lhoy aro parl of
lho quolod naloriaI. For any olhor connunicalion, say a Iollor or
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïêî
brochuro, punclualion narIs go vilhin lho quolalions, bul onIy if
lhoy aro parl of lho originaI quolo. Anoricans uso lho lorns paron-
lhosos for round bracIols, and bracIols for squaro bracIols.
Co-oporalion is soIdon hyphonalod lhoro, oflon horo, vhiIo fuII
slops aro oflon insorlod in abbrovialions lhoro, bul hardIy ovor
soon horo novadays. AslroIo is a sIash ovor lhoro, il's v. for vorsus
horo, vs. lhoro. Horo, your phono is ongagod, for UncIo San il's
busy. To a YanI, ´lurnovor' noans lho ralo al vhich onpIoyoos
Ioavo lho conpany. To lhon ´naluraI vaslago' noans allrilion. ̱
¼»´·ª»® ±² ¿ °®±³·-» noans lo Ioop il. AhiIo is nol onIy a vaII, il can
aIso bo an incroaso.
Vorbs infIocl difforonlIy: ¹±¬¬»² for gol is connonpIaco
(aIlhough nol aIvays considorod lo bo good grannar), and so is
¼±ª» for divod. IIuraI vorbs and pronouns soIdon go vilh vords
IiIo audionco, group. Do nol vrilo ³»»¬ ©·¬¸ novadays, an oId
inporl fron Anorica, or say ±«¬-·¼» ±º.
Í°»´´·²¹
Anorican EngIish puls -or vhoro vo havo -ro, as in conlor, nolor
(noasurononl) bul nol aIvays: lhoalor and lhoalro aro aIIovod
lhoro, and bolh forns pornil acro and nodiocro. Horo, vhoro
vorbs onding in doubIo ´I' (diaIIing/lravoIIing) in Anorican
EngIish lhoro is ono ´I'. Bul lhoro aro oxcoplions: lho vorbs disliI
and onroI havo doubIo ´I' in lho Slalos. A choquo horo is a chocI
lhoro, a lyro is a liro. Thoro a vord is spoIIod, horo il is spoIl, lhoro's
no ´s' in lovards in US slyIo. ConsuIl an up-lo-dalo diclionary and
usago guido if allonpling lo vrilo and spoII lho Anorican vay ÷ or
bollor sliII consuIl an Anorican.
×¼·±³- ¿²¼ »¨°®»--·±²-
Sono Brilish and Anorican idions aro siniIar in lhoir phrasing
vhoroas olhors aro quilo difforonl. Wo say al a Iooso ond, lhoro il's
al Iooso »²¼-, nol by a Iong chaII boconos nol by a Iong -¸±¬. Wo
vrilo ´as suro as oggs is oggs', lhoro lhoy say ´you can pul il in lho
banI' or ´il's a sIan dunI' (a basobaII oxprossion).
Moro roconlIy vo havo hoard in Susio Donl's Ô¿²¹«¿¹» λ°±®¬ of
a snoIo-oasy vhoro snoIors go in ordor lo oscapo lho anli-
snoIing Iavs, a slainod gIass coiIing, an adaplalion of lho faniIiar
phraso doscribing lho barrior lo pronolion of profossionaI vonon,
ß³»®·½¿²·-³- P ¬¸» ¼·ºº»®»²½»-
ïêí
a ¡ob spiII, a silualion in vhich ¡ob-roIalod vorI oncroachos on
ono's Ioisuro lino, a faIo baIo, lho procoss of golling a sunIoss lan
(aIso as a vorb). If ovor you vondor vhal IOTUS noans you viII
nov Inov il slands for lho Irosidonl of lho Unilod Slalos.
Many so-caIIod Anoricanisns such as faII for aulunn, candy for
svools, oIovalor for Iifl, viII doublIoss soon find lhoir vay inlo
Brilish EngIish in lho sano vay as lrucI, connulor and loonagor
havo crossod lho AlIanlic vilh aIacrily. Tho procoss is boing rocip-
rocalod as noro UK firns acquiro US conpanios, and as UK ox-
pals inlroduco Anoricans lo lho Brilish vay of spoaIing.
Tho habil of using Brilish vords and phrasos is apparonlIy
groving apaco ovor lhoro. Tho Ialo Mr H W FovIor vouId no
doubl bo pIoasod and surprisod, bul porhaps disnayod if onIy ho
Inov.
Hovovor, lho lvo Ianguagos aro sliII dislinclIy difforonl, sono-
lhing IR poopIo vorIing vilh lhoir Anorican counlorparls or
vilh lho nodia nusl nol forgol. Says Suo Slovons: ´If you aro in a
nooling or on a phono caII and don'l undorsland vhal lho porson
is saying, bo suro lo asI vhal lhoy noan. Olhorviso, al bosl lhoro
can bo confusion, al vorsl lho sproading of nisinfornalion.' And
for lho pubIic roIalions praclilionor lrying lo gol a foolhoId in lho
Slalos lhis couId spoII disaslor and a quicI fIighl hono.
ËÒÜÛÎÍÌßÒÜ×ÒÙ ÌØÛ ÓÛÜ×ß Ü×ÚÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ
LiIo lhoir Brilish counlorparls, US ¡ournaIisls aro busy, conslanlIy
IooIing for oxcIusivos, and havo IillIo lino for IROs vho don'l
undorsland lhoir individuaI noods and doadIinos. Anorican ¡our-
naIisls oflon considor lho pubIic roIalions oxoculivo as an accopl-
abIo sourco, and viII allribulo quolos lo hin or hor by nano, ralhor
lhan uso lho ´spoIosporson' lag vhon lhoy can'l quolo lho chiof
oxoculivo.
Tho nodia narIols aro quilo difforonl. Horo, vo aro doninalod
by a nunbor of na¡or nalionaI novspapors. Tho US narIol, by
virluo of ils shoor sizo, has fov novspapors vilh lruIy nalionaI
roach, aIlhough nosl viro sorvicos covor nalionvido novs and lho
nunbor of nalionaI cabIo loIovision slalions and inlornol oulIols
has grovn.
Anyono vorIing ovor lhoro viII soon Ioarn lhal lho nain largols
of US pubIicisls aro lho na¡or rogionaI novs narIols of prinl, loIo-
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïêì
vision and radio and ovon lho IocaI nodia oulIols, as voII as lho
lrado pross.
WhiIo Sunday odilions of na¡or novspapors havo difforonl
odilors fron lho daiIy papor of lho sano nano, lhoy faII undor lho
sano corporalo unbroIIa and oflon sharo roporlors, so il is Ioss
IiIoIy lhal lho sano slory can bo pIacod in bolh lho vooIday and
Sunday odilions. UnIiIo horo, you can usuaIIy gol a pholo odilor
on lho phono.
Tho US nodia aro gonoraIIy noro oplinislic lhan horo: lhoy Iol
go of a nogalivo slory vhon lhoro is nolhing nov lo roporl, and lho
vriling slyIo is noro slraighlforvard, vilh Ioss dopondonco on
inlros and slandfirsls. Thoir alliludo lovards oxcIusivos is quilo
difforonl, and can spoII lroubIo for a na‹vo IRO in Brilain. Horo,
virluaIIy ovory na¡or novs slory is IoaIod lo lho nodia, and
conpoling nodia lhon run il lho noxl day.
CorlainIy, oxcIusivos and ´IoaIs' aro usod in lho Unilod Slalos,
parlicuIarIy in poIilics, bul lhoy run lho risI of aIionaling olhor
¡ournaIisls vho havo Iong nonorios and viII vilhhoId covorago in
rolurn. In facl, if you givo an oxcIusivo lo ono nodia oulIol, olhor
nodia in lho sano narIol nay rofuso lo run lho slory a day Ialor.
ExcIusivos nusl bo ¡uslifiod lo lho olhor ¡ournaIisls vhoso inlorosl
you nood.
Tho abovo soclion is basod on advico givon lo a UK pross officor
by Susan Slovons vhon sho rolurnod lo lho Slalos aflor a spoII in
lho UK vilh lho NalionaI Grid.
Ë-»º«´ ®»º»®»²½»-
ExanpIos of lho nain difforoncos bolvoon Brilish EngIish and
Anorican EngIish viII bo found in lho Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± ͬ§´»ô
Ù¿®²»®K- Ó±¼»®² ß³»®·½¿² Ë-¿¹» (OUI) and in oarIy odilions of
Ú±©´»®K- Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹». Many of lho oxanpIos in lhis
chaplor voro dravn fron ̸» η¹¸¬ ɱ®¼ ¿¬ ¬¸» η¹¸¬ Ì·³»,
pubIishod by lho Roador's Digosl Associalion bul nov oul of prinl.
If you soo a copy in a socond-hand booIshop, grab il. Thoro's aIso
a handy lvo-vay pocIol gIossary ß³»®·½¿² Û²¹´·-¸ñÛ²¹´·-¸
ß³»®·½¿² (Abson BooIs).
ß³»®·½¿²·-³- P ¬¸» ¼·ºº»®»²½»-
ïêë
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïêê
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
ß°°®»½·¿¬» ¿²¼ ®»½±¹²·-» ¬¸» ¼·ºº»®»²½»- ¾»¬©»»² ß³»®·½¿²
¿²¼ Þ®·¬·-¸ Û²¹´·-¸ò
Ë-» Þ®·¬·-¸ Û²¹´·-¸ º±® ±²»óª»®-·±² ©»¾-·¬»-ò
Ú±® ¼«¿´ ª»®-·±² -·¬»-ô ½±²-·¼»® ß³»®·½¿² Û²¹´·-¸ º±® ËÍ °¿¹»-ô
Þ®·¬·-¸ º±® ËÕò
Õ»»° ®»´»¿-»- ·² Þ®·¬·-¸ Û²¹´·-¸å ´»¬ -«¾- ¬¸»®» ³¿µ» ¬¸»
½¸¿²¹»-ò
Ы¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²- ¬»®³- ¿²¼ ¬·¬´»- ¼·ºº»®ò
ݸ»½µ ¼·½¬·±²¿®·»- º±® ª¿®·¿¬·±²- ·² ¼»º·²·¬·±²-ô -°»´´·²¹-ô
¹®¿³³¿®ò
ß³»®·½¿² «-«¿´´§ °®»º»® 󷦻 ª»®¾ »²¼·²¹- ¬± ó·-»ò
̸»®» ¿®» ©·¼» ª¿®·¿¬·±²- ·² ·¼·±³ ¿²¼ »¨°®»--·±²-ò
Þ» ¿©¿®» ±º ¬¸» ¼·ºº»®»²¬ ©¿§- ß³»®·½¿² ¶±«®²¿´·-¬- ¬®»¿¬
»¨½´«-·ª»-ò
Tho vay vords aro spoIon is ¡usl as inporlanl as lho vay lhoy aro
vrillon. WoII-onuncialod spooch, pronouncod according lo oslab-
Iishod guidoIinos, can hoIp pIalforn porfornanco, aid connunica-
lion bolvoon an organisalion and ils audionco and naIo a
significanl conlribulion lo lho pubIic roIalions offorl.
Corporalo inago is nol ¡usl lho Iogo and visuaI inpacl of Iilora-
luro ÷ lho lypofaco, coIours and houso slyIo. Much aIso doponds on
vord of noulh and lho nonlaI picluro of lho spoaIor lhal is buiIl
up by lono of voico. And lhal picluro is lho ono vhich can naIo aII
lho difforonco bolvoon succoss and faiIuro al a cIionl prosonlalion,
a sharohoIdors' nooling, a conforonco spooch, or ovon a ¡ob inlor-
viov.
No ono vanls lo hoar sIipshod, caroIoss spooch IiIo ´Soo yor
Iayor´, droppod or vrongIy slrossod vovoIs and syIIabIos, nissod
consonanls, a high-spood nunbo-¡unbo of vords shorlonod lo
lho oxlonl lhal lhoy bocono aInosl uninloIIigibIo. Horo aro sono
ïêé
ïê
basic poinls of pronuncialion and a soIoclion of vorbaI nishaps
lhal aro so oasiIy nado, bul soIdon corroclod.
ÎÛÝÛ×ÊÛÜ ÐÎÑÒËÒÝ×ßÌ×ÑÒ
Anong lho nany variolios of EngIish, Rocoivod Ironuncialion
(RI) is lho slandard nosl diclionarios foIIov. This is said lo bo ´lho
Ioasl rogionaI boing originaIIy lhal usod by oducalod spoaIors in
Soulhorn EngIand' (ÑÛÜ), and ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹»
laIos il as ´lho noulraI nalionaI slandard, ¡usl as il is in ils uso in
broadcasling or in lho loaching of EngIish as a foroign Ianguago'.
Tho nov odilion of Ú±©´»®K- Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹» naIos spocific
roconnondalions basod on RI and lho pronuncialions givon aro
IargoIy lhoso of ̸» ݱ²½·-» Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ (ÝÑÜ). Il is fron
lhoso, and olhor sourcos such as lho BBC guido ̸» Í°±µ»² ɱ®¼,
lhal oxanpIos havo boon laIon for pronuncialion vhoro uncor-
lainly oxisls.
Il is usofuI lo difforonlialo bolvoon pronuncialion and acconl. As
KingsIoy Anis poinls oul in ̸» Õ·²¹K- Û²¹´·-¸, ´ovoryono's ¿½½»²¬
|his ilaIics] is a gonoraI lhing lhal doponds roughIy on a spoaIor's
pIaco of birlh, upbringing, oducalion and subsoquonl onvironnonl
vhoroas °®±²«²½·¿¬·±² is a quoslion of hov individuaI vords aro
spoIon'. Il can lhus bo doducod lhal pronuncialion of a givon vord
can bo considorod ´corrocl' vhiIo anolhor nay bo ´incorrocl'. RI
providos a usofuI bul Iinilod yardslicI by vhich pronuncialion
nay bo ¡udgod corrocl or nol.
Ono of lho nosl arguod poinls is lho pIacing of slross. If you
Inov vhoro il faIIs, lho pronuncialion of vovoIs can bo dolor-
ninod. LooI for lho slross acconl ´ (IiIo lho Fronch aculo) aflor lho
slrossod syIIabIo or vovoI sound vhich is shovn in aInosl ovory
vord in lho ÝÑÜ and in nosl popuIar diclionarios, ovon lho
voII-lhunbod pocIol odilions lo bo found in nosl offico dravors.
Tho slrossod syIIabIo (or vovoI) is ilaIicisod in lho foIIoving
oxanpIos.
RI spoaIors viII pul lho slross firsl in ¿¼uIl, ¿°°IicabIo, ½±²lro-
vorsy, ½±³³unaI, ¾®±churo, ·²¬ograI, º±®³idabIo, µ·´onolro, ³·-chio-
vous, °¿lonl (°¿§-lonl), °®»ºorabIo, °®·³ariIy, ®»°ulabIo, ¬»³porariIy,
bul socond in ba²¿´, con¬®·¾ulo, do³±²slrabIo, dis°«¬», dis¬®·¾ulo,
ro-»¿®½¸, lransº»®abIo. ײ¬orosling Iosos lho socond syIIabIo lo
bocono ·²¬®'sling, ½±³parabIo lo ½±³°®K¾´». Slross on lho lhird
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïêè
syIIabIo occurs vilh appar¿lus (as in ¸¿¬»), conpos·¬» (as in ±°°±ó
-·¬»), inlor²»cino (as in µ²»»).
MaIo suro lhoro is nol an inlrusivo ´r' in ¼®¿©·²¹ ®±±³(nol drav-
ring), ¿² ·¼»¿ of (nol idoa-r-±º). Avoid lho Anorican habil of
slrossing -ar in ²»½ossariIy (nol nocoss¿®iIy) and ¬»³porariIy (nol
lonpor¿®iIy). Rononbor lhal ½±¹ in rocogniso and don'l Iol il
bocono ®»½½»®²·-», lho shorl ´i' in privacy and don'l il bocono »§»,
and lhal lho finaI ´l' is siIonl is roslauranl. Sound lho ´u' in popuIar,
don'l say °±°K´¿®.
WhiIo ´h' is siIonl in ¸±«®, il is aspiralod in ¸±¬»´ and so lhoroforo
laIos lho ´a' indofinilo arlicIo (oxcopl in ̸» Ì·³»-, for oxanpIo,
vhich sliII insisls on ¿² holoI). WhiIo il is vrong lo uso ´n' for ´ng'
in ´»²¹¬¸ñ-¬®»²¹¬¸ and so gol ´»²¬¸ñ-¬®»²¬¸, lho sound ´»²µ¬¸ñ-¬®»²µ¬¸
is accoplabIo.
A Iong ´o' goos boforo ´II' in °±´´ (volo) and boforo ´Il' in ®»ª±´¬,
bul lhoro is a shorl ´o' in ®»-±´ª»ñ¼·--±´ª»ñ-±´ª»ñ¹±´º as in ¼±´´ò
Û·¬¸»® as in »§» or in -»·¦» ÷ bolh aro accoplabIo (lho Quoon is said lo
profor »§»). Û²ª»´±°» slarls -on as in ond (-on is disIiIod by RI
spoaIors). Ü¿¬¿ has a Iong firsl ´a'.
In fornaI spooch, say boforo an audionco, avoid dropping lho ´r'
if il is cIosoIy foIIovod by anolhor ´r' as in ¼»¬»®·±®¿¬» lo gol dolo-
rialo: siniIarIy, Ú»¾®«¿®§ can sIip lo Fobuary, ¬»³°±®¿®§ lo lonpary
(bul lonp'rary OK), ¸±²±®¿®§ lo honary (hon'rary is proforrod),
·¬·²»®¿®§ lo ilinory, ´·¾®¿®§ lo Iibr'y, °®±¾¿¾´§ lo prob'Iy. Avoid drop-
ping lho fourlh syIIabIo in °¿®¬·½«´¿®´§ lo gol parlicuIy bul lho
oIision of lho niddIo syIIabIos of ad¡oclivos of four syIIabIos onding
in 󿮧 naIos lho vords oasior lo pronounco as in niIil'ry,
nocoss'ry.
Walch oul for syIIabIo oIisions in ½¸±½±´¿¬», °±´·½», ³¿¬¸»³¿¬·½- lo
gol lho sIoppy choc'Ilo, p'Iico, nalh'nalics. Don'l Iol º·º¬¸ bocono
filh, ³±²¬¸- drop lo ´nunco', ½¿³»®¿ lo ´canra', naIo ´«®» rhyno
vilh °«®» nol ´poor'. ArlicuIalo ®¿·´©¿§: don'l Iol il bocono ´ro-
vay'. Don'l Iol ½±²º´·½¬- sound IiIo ´confIix'. And don'l Ioso lho ´o'
in ½®»¿¬» and Iol il sound IiIo cralo. TaIo caro vilh lho ´u' sound in
sono vords: il shouId bo «¸ in «²½´», ³«´¬·, ¿¼«´¬ nol ovcIo,
novIli, adovIl.
ÙÛÌ ÌØÛ ÉÑÎÜÍ Î×ÙØÌ ÌÑÑ
In spooch, lho ruIos lhal appIy in vrillon vorI can bo oasod a IillIo,
̸» -°±µ»² ©±®¼æ °®±²«²½·¿¬·±² ³¿¬¬»®-
ïêç
olhorviso you couId sound sliIlod and unnaluraI. Whoro lhoro aro
uncorlainlios, IiIo onding sonloncos vilh proposilions and spIil
infinilivos, forgol aboul offonding anyono. Don'l vorry loo nuch
aboul vholhor il is difforonl º®±³ or ¬±, bul vhoro ±²´§ goos in a
sonlonco can naIo a big difforonco lo lho noaning.
Novor naIo grannalicaI orrors IiIo ¬¸»®»'s lvo cars in lho
garago, ovory ono of lho doIogalos ©»®» prosonl, lho ob¡ocl of hor
arlicIos ¿®» lo inforn, bolvoon you and × and so on, or coIIoqui-
aIisns IiIo ho vas -¿¬ lhoro. FoIIov lho advico in oarIior pagos on
slyIo and conslruclion. If you do lhal, you von'l bo far vrong
vhon you aro on your fool.
For noro aboul spoochvriling and doIivory, soo Chaplor 17.
Whon spoaIing quicIIy, pronouns and auxiIiary vorbs oasiIy
disappoar. Avoid ¹±²²¿ñ©¿²²¿, µ·²¼¿, ¼±²½¸»® (don'l you), ·²²·¬,
©¿²²·¬ (isn'l il/vasn'l il), ´-°»½ñ-°±-»' (I oxpocl/supposo). CarofuI
spoaIors viII rolain lho ´l' in º¿½¬-, ¿½¬-, ¼«½¬-, °¿½¬-, olhorviso lho
Iislonor hoars fax/axo/ducIs/pacIs. Bul il is siIonl in ±º¬»² as in
-±º¬»²ò And don'l forgol lho finaI ´l' in ¬¸¿¬: il is oflon Iosl lo bocono
¬¸¿ ·- for oxanpIo.
Anorican pronuncialion diffors narIodIy fron lho Brilish.
Sono oxanpIos fron ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹»: lho ´r' is
soundod by Anorican spoaIors vhorovor il is vrillon, aflor vovoIs
finaIIy and boforo consonanls, as voII as boforo vovoIs, IiIo ¾«®²,
½¿®, º±®³. Tho sound of §±« (as in «, »© spoIIings) aflor s, l, d, n, is
ropIacod by lho sound of ±± as in rosuno (®»-±±³), Tuosday
(̱±-¼¿§), duo (¼±±), nov (²±±).
Anoricans pronounco aslhna (¿---na in RI) as ¿¦-na, dolour
(¼»»-lour nol ¼¿§ólour in RI) as ¼»ólour, ¹¿Ia (¿ as in ½¿´³ in RI) as
¹¿´». Thoy viII say ¬®±©na as in ½±© vhoroas RI spoaIors viII say
¬®¿«na (¿« as in ½¿«-»).
Sono forns of pronuncialion aro lo bo ospociaIIy avoidod.
Anong lhoso aro ß®½¬·½ (do nol drop lho firsl ´c'), »¬ ½»¬»®¿ (nol
»µ-»¬»®¿), don'l Iol ¹¿®¿¹» (vilh slross on lho firsl syIIabIo) sound
IiIo ¹¿®®·¼¹», do nol drop lho firsl ´n' in ¹±ª»®²³»²¬ or lho vhoIo
socond syIIabIo, do nol say °»» for ponco in fornaI spooch, avoid
naIing °»±°´» sound IiIo °»»°´», onsuro °´¿-¬·½ rhynos vilh
º¿²¬¿-¬·½, -±ª»®»·¹²¬§ is pronouncod -±ª'ronly, nol sounding IiIo
sov-®¿·²-ly, a -«·¬ is nov pronouncod vilh an ó±± sound aIlhough
lho §±« sound is sliII froquonlIy hoard. Í»½®»¬¿®§ is pronouncod
-»µóro-lry nol -»µ-o-lorry or ovon vorso -«µµ-a-lorry). Ö¿²«¿®§
shouId sound IiIo Ö¿²-yoor-y, nol }an-yoo-ory (oxcopl in Anorica).
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïéð
You laIo your pol lo lho ª»¬-or-in-ary praclico, nol vol'nary. You
buy ¡ovoI'roy nol ¶±±´ó´»®ó§ò You IooI al a °·½óluro nol a °·¬½¸»® and
you naIo a º±®¬óuno, nol a º±®½¸±±²ò And il is aII a nallor of
pron«²cialion, nol pronouncialion!
Thoro aro probabIy noro rogionaI forns of spooch in lho Unilod
Kingdon lhan anyvhoro oIso in lho vorId, and il is in no sonso
suggoslod horo lhal ovoryono shouId foIIov RI, ad¡uslnonls havo
lo bo nado as circunslancos donand in various parls of lho
counlry. }usl as nuch doponds on ¸±© you say sonolhing as ©¸¿¬
you say. RI providos a usofuI guido.
̸» -°±µ»² ©±®¼æ °®±²«²½·¿¬·±² ³¿¬¬»®-
ïéï
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
̸» µ»§ ¬± »ºº»½¬·ª» ª»®¾¿´ ½±³³«²·½¿¬·±² ´·»- ·² ¹±±¼ ¼·½¬·±²ò
Ò± ±²» ©¿²¬- ¬± ¸»¿® -´·°-¸±¼ô ½¿®»´»-- -°»»½¸ò
λ½»·ª»¼ Ю±²«²½·¿¬·±² øÎÐ÷ ·- ¿ «-»º«´ §¿®¼-¬·½µ º±® L½±®®»½¬K
´¿²¹«¿¹»ò
д¿½»³»²¬ ±º -¬®»-- ·¼»²¬·º·»- ÎÐ -°»¿µ»®-ò
ײ º¿-¬ ¬¿´µ·²¹ô °®±²±«²- ¿²¼ ³±¼¿´ ª»®¾- ¿®» »¿-·´§ ´±-¬ò
Û²«²½·¿¬» ©±®¼- °®»½·-»´§å ¼±²ù¬ ¼®±° ½±²-±²¿²¬-ò
ܱ²K¬ ¿´´±© ©±®¼- ¬± ¾»½±³» -´«®®»¼ò
ߪ±·¼·²¹ ¹®¿³³¿¬·½¿´ »®®±®- ·- »¯«¿´´§ ·³°±®¬¿²¬ ·² -°»»½¸ò
Soonor or Ialor ovoryono has lo spoaI in pubIic. IR praclilionors
aro no oxcoplion: as organisors, lhoy soon find lhonsoIvos on
slago, ovon lho youngosl rocruils viII bo prosonling lo cIionls and
cuslonors boforo lhoy Inov il. And lhoro is aIvays lho slaff
nooling vilh a roon-fuII of bIanI facos vailing for lhal inporlanl
announcononl, porhaps lho soninar, lho conforonco or aflor-
dinnor spooch.
Tho abiIily lo oxpross yoursoIf cIoarIy vilh confidonco and slyIo
is a Ioy businoss sIiII. And lho bollor you aro, lho noro IiIoIy you
aro lo Iand a bollor ¡ob or ovon roach lho conforonco circuil, vilh
allondanl financiaI rovards.
IubIic spoaIors aro nado, nol born. Evon fasl laIIors vilh lho
´gifl of lho gab' aro nol nocossariIy going lo bo good on lhoir fool. If
you can dovoIop lho sIiIIs of prosonlalion, uso body Ianguago
offoclivoIy and doIivor vilh forco and apIonb, you aro on lho vay
lo boconing a slar on slago.
Wo havo aII sufforod fron aflor-dinnor spoaIors loo norvous
lo say anylhing bul pIaliludos, Ioclurors fidgoling and vaving
lhoir hands around IiIo a vindniII, lochnicaI boffins roading
ïéî
ïé
vord-for-vord fron a proparod scripl, grin-facod produclion
oxoculivos IooIing and sounding polrifiod, gIaring al lho audionco,
and lho chairnan vho hissos inlo lho niIo ´Can you hoar no al lho
bacI`'. Avoid anylhing IiIo lhis and al Ioasl you viII havo nado a
slarl.
Evon if lho spoaIor porforns voII, succoss or faiIuro viII dopond
on lho organisor. If lho niIos don'l vorI, if lho sIidos aro upsido
dovn or if lho sossion ovorruns, lhal is vhal is rononborod, if lho
pross handouls aro inadoqualo, if anylhing na¡or goos vrong,
lhoro's lho possibiIily of Iosl businoss and, horror of horrors, a ´Soo
no in lho norning' nossago on your dosI.
So, vhal naIos a good spoaIor and organisor`
Ú×ÎÍÌ ÍÌÛÐÍ ÚÑÎ ÍÐÛßÕÛÎÍ
Whon you aro invilod lo givo a spooch, lhoro aro sovoraI lhings you
nusl Inov: lho audionco, lilIo, Ionglh, lining, visuaI aids faciIilios,
hov lho discussion viII bo handIod, and lho pubIicily pIans. If you
aro advising oxoculivos on pubIic spoaIing, or an ovonl organisor,
lhoso aro aII cruciaI faclors. Lol's IooI al lhon.
Õ²±© §±«® ¿«¼·»²½» P ¿²¼ ¬¸» º¿½·´·¬·»-
Firsl, find oul aII you can aboul lho audionco: vho lhoy aro, vhal
lhoy do, vhoro lhoy cono fron, lhoir avorago ago. EslabIish IiIoIy
allondanco, vholhor lhoro viII bo nodia covorago. If you aro lho
organisor, naIo suro lhal lho ovonl is vidoIy roporlod unIoss lhoro
aro spociaI roasons for il lo bo off lho rocord. Find oul if lho doIo-
galos viII bo synpalholic or crilicaI, lho prino quoslions lhoy viII
asI, lho ono you viII ¸¿ª» lo ansvor.
Bo proparod lo invoIvo lho audionco: arrango for sonoono lo pul
up anolhor fIip charl and vorI bolvoon lho lvo. Ascorlain lho
nano of lho chairporson and vho lho olhor spoaIors viII bo, ospo-
ciaIIy lhoso ¡usl boforo you. And vhiIo you aro al il, chocI lho loch-
nicaI faciIilios, Iighling, slago sol and pIalforn pIan. Gol lo Inov
lho produclion crov. Ensuro ovory soal aIIovs an uninlorruplod
viov of lho slago. ChocI lho Iighling ÷ and find oul vhoro lho
svilchos aro. And naIo suro lho doors don'l squoaI, laIo an oiI
can vilh you!
Ю·²½·°´»- ±º °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²
ïéí
Ì·¬´»
Is lho lilIo you havo boon givon righl or do you vanl lo suggosl
sonolhing oIso` UnIoss lho laII has lo foIIov a corlain lhono, you
can probabIy agroo a chango vilh lho organisor. If so, onsuro lhal il
is provocalivo, nol a ´IaboI' dovoid of punch and vorvo. Koop il as
shorl as possibIo. Many yoars ago a Ioading advorlising agoncy
croalivo diroclor caIIod his pIoas lo produclion oxoculivos ´Why
can'l I gol vhal I vanl`' Thal lilIo vorIod oxlronoIy voII and vas
quolod for yoars aflorvards. MaIo suro you havo a say in lho
´bIurb' aboul lho sub¡ocl of your spooch, provido a coIour pholo-
graph of yoursoIf.
Ô»²¹¬¸ ¿²¼ ¬·³·²¹
Agroo lo spoaI for no Iongor lhan haIf an hour, vilh a furlhor 10 lo
15 ninulos for quoslions. Forly ninulos vouId bo lho absoIulo
naxinun, olhorviso lho audionco slarls lo gol fidgoly. For
spociaIisl soninars 20 lo 30 ninulos pIus a shorl discussion poriod
vouId suil nosl poopIo. Tho shorlor il is, lho bollor lho chanco of
your hoIding lho audionco's allonlion.
Tho vorsl lino for any spoaIor is lho sossion innodialoIy
foIIoving Iunch. Avoid il vhalovor you do. SinpIy rofuso lhal sIol:
il is vhon lho audionco is lho Ioasl rocoplivo lo any sorious, in-
doplh prosonlalion. Tho organisor viII approcialo your diIonna.
Tho bosl lino is a norning sossion, bul nol al lho vory boginning
bocauso lhoro viII aIvays bo Ialoconors. If you aro slucI vilh il
and lhoro is nolhing oIso you can do, uso lho ´vaIo-´on up' lricIs
of a noisy lapo, a snappy vidoo or an an oyo-calching sIido or slago
prop.
Tho sano lining principIos appIy lo snaIIor noolings and soni-
nars. In-houso sossions don'l prosonl such a probIon: slaff don'l
daro lo nod off! No nallor vhal Iind of ovonl, you cannol oxpocl
nuch rosponso al quoslion lino if you aro lho Iasl aflornoon
spoaIor. Koynolo spoaIors usuaIIy laIo ono of lho firsl norning
sIols.
Ê·-«¿´ ¿·¼-
SIidos gonoralod by a conpulor progran such as IovorIoinl,
ovorhoad lransparoncios (OHIs), vidoos, DVDs and audio lapos
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïéì
aII hoIp lo pop up a prosonlalion. Don'l shov horizonlaI and
vorlicaI sIidos ono aflor lho olhor, Ioop lo ono fornal and incIudo
pIonly of pholographs or dravings. Ensuro lhal inagos fiII lho
sIidos and ovorhoads as nuch as possibIo. Koop loxl lo buIIol-
poinls and don'l oxcood 25 vords ÷ uso fovor if possibIo.
MaIo suro you havo a broadband connoclion so lhal you can
quicIIy Iog on lo lho conpany vobsilo lo shov sono parlicuIar
foaluro of ils vorI, porsonnoI or pronisos. ConsuIl vilh your IT
doparlnonl lo soo if lho vob pagos couId bo pro¡oclod on lo a Iargo
scroon ralhor lhan roIying on a dosI-lop conpulor.
If lhoro aro a nunbor of slalislics, Ioop lho sIidos sinpIo vilh a
nininun of figuros. For AGMs in parlicuIar, don'l havo noro lhan
fivo or six figuro-sIidos, any noro viII havo niI rocaII. Uso boId
lypo so lhal loxl and figuros can bo oasiIy road, pul bar charls in
slrong, conlrasling coIours. Koop lo houso slyIo lhroughoul and
ropoal lho conpany Iogo on ovorylhing. IovorIoinl conpulor-
gonoralod sIidos fron Microsofl aIIov naxinun croalivo possibiI-
ilios. Irovido doIogalos vilh aII lho slalislicaI dala as a handoul ÷
bul onIy aflorvards.
Ï«»-¬·±²-
Bo roady for lho avIvard quoslion lhal conos fron lho bacI. If
you can'l ansvor il slraighl off, lhoro's aIvays lho ´Soo no
aflorvards' pIoy. Bul don'l uso il noro lhan onco if you can hoIp il.
You can aIvays asI ´Whal do you noan by lhal`', vhich can
siIonco lho quoslionor for good. Or you can chango lho quoslion lo
ono you can doaI vilh. Or, as a Iasl rosorl, you can rofor lo a booI
or pubIicalion, ovon lho handoul naloriaI. Run lhrough lho quos-
lions you aro IiIoIy lo gol boforohand and havo your ansvors
roady.
Ы¾´·½·¬§
Find oul lho pIans for pubIicising your spooch. Inporlanl poinls
viII Ioad lo hoadIinos, bul bo on your guard againsl IoaIs. (AdoIib-
oralo IoaI can oflon hoIp lo sparI inlorosl.) Tho organisor viII givo
you a doadIino for a sunnary and for lho conpIolod papor vilh
visuaI aids roquirononls.
Tho sunnary, vhich shouId conlain lho saIionl poinls in nol
noro lhan around 150 vords, viII bo usod for lho conforonco or
Ю·²½·°´»- ±º °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²
ïéë
soninar progranno and aIso for advanco pross roIoasos. Irovido
pholocopios of lho sIidos vilh lho loxl of lho spooch, vhich can bo
nado avaiIabIo lo lho pross during and aflor lho ovonl. Considor
VNRs (vidoo novs roIoasos) lo givo broadcaslors foolago of inpor-
lanl sognonls. Ensuro aII infornalion in lho pubIicily naloriaI is
accuralo and doos you and your sub¡ocl ¡uslico. Considor pulling
your spooch on your vobsilo aflorvards vilh accoss lo charls and
slalislics.
ÙÛÌÌ×ÒÙ ÎÛßÜÇ ÚÑÎ ÌØÛ ÍÐÛÛÝØ
You havo docidod on vhal you, your cIionl and/or your boss vanl
lo say and havo suppIiod a sunnary lo lho organisor. You´vo
docidod on lho lilIo, you Inov hov Iong lho spooch viII bo and
you havo a prolly good idoa of vhal visuaI aids you aro going lo
nood. Nov conos lho crunch. Il's vriling lino.
Ю»°¿®¿¬·±²
Tho Iongor you can spond on proparalion lho bollor. UnforlunaloIy,
lhoro is nol aIvays nuch chanco for dolaiIod rosoarch: slarl lo
galhor nolos, pul basic idoas logolhor. Don'l forgol lho inlornol: il
couId provido nuch addilionaI infornalion ÷ bul chocI sourcos. If
you aro vriling aboul a faniIiar sub¡ocl, say a conpany dovoIop-
nonl, sorvico or producl, lho infornalion viII bo lo hand. Bul if
you aro doaIing vilh a frosh lopic, porhaps an aflor-dinnor spooch,
lhon il's nol so oasy. You'II havo lo dovolo lino lo digging oul
inlorosling, yol roIovanl, lhings lo say.
LooI for facls and figuros lhal viII in lhonsoIvos loII a slory. Bul
lry lo roslricl yoursoIf lo slalislics lhal havo dirocl roIovanco lo lho
sub¡ocl. UnIoss lhoy aro ossonliaI bacIground or aro noodod lo
subslanlialo a financiaI or lochnicaI sub¡ocl, don'l Iol slalislics
prodoninalo. Don'l lry lo bo funny and slarl off vilh a ¡oIo. Il
couId faII fIal. Or sonoono viII havo hoard il aIroady! Bul laIo
hoarl fron lho audionco lhal °®»¬»²¼- lo Iaugh.
ͬ®«½¬«®»
LiIo a roporl or foaluro arlicIo, your spooch shouId havo a bogin-
ning (an inlroduclion), a niddIo (lho body of lho laII) and an ond
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïéê
(a concIusion). Tho inlroduclion shouId incIudo sonolhing aboul
yoursoIf, vho you aro, vhal you do, foIIovod by a quolo or
allonlion-grabbing facl, vhal lho laII viII bo aboul and your nain
nossago.
BuiId on lhis for lho nain parl of lho laII, vilh lho significanl
poinls and idoas you vanl lo pul ovor. For lho concIusion, sun-
nariso lho nain poinls and finish on a high nolo vilh a rocon-
nondalion for aclion of sono sorl. If lhoro is no aclion as a rosuIl of
vhal you havo said, lhoro vas nol nuch poinl in saying il.
É®·¬·²¹ ¬¸» -½®·°¬
For your spooch lo inparl lho dosirod nossago, for il lo bo voII
rocoivod and rononborod, poIishod vriling sIiIIs aro ossonliaI. Go
bacI lo lho oarIior chaplors 5 and 8÷10 in parlicuIar, for hoIp in
golling lho vords and slyIo righl. Nov for lho rosl.
Þ®»ª·¬§
Ensuro lhal no unnocossary vords croop in. This donands oxlrono
soIf-discipIino, bul lho lighlor lho copy lho bollor. Tho scripl shouId
bo noro IiIo a pross roIoaso lhan, say, a Iong, fuIIy roasonod arlicIo
in a Ioarnod ¡ournaI. Koop lo pIain EngIish (soo Chaplor 9) and
avoid cIich’s and ¡argon (Chaplor 5), aIso avoid pIoonasns (lvo
concopls or vords conlaining an oIononl of rodundancy, og frozon
ico, pasl hislory).
Þ» º¿½¬«¿´
Uso lho ´you' faclor. Koop lo facls or oIso you aro IiIoIy lo boro lho
audionco sliff. Conconlralo on nov dovoIopnonls, sorvicos, lho
advanlagos and bonofils of vhal you aro going lo laII aboul. If you
havo a connonl or porsonaI viov lo oxpross, lhon uso lho porsonaI
pronoun ´I' and nol lho royaI ´vo'. Bul don'l ovordo lho ´I', olhor-
viso you viII bo soon as ogolislicaI. SprinIIo your laII IiboraIIy
vilh ´you', if lho ralio of ´you' lo ´I' is nol 10 lo 1 in favour of ´you',
rovrilo your spooch.
λ°»¿¬ ·³°±®¬¿²¬ °±·²¬-
Avoid ropoaling a vord or vords in cIoso proxinily lo ono
anolhor. Il is, hovovor, sonolinos hoIpfuI lo rocaII a poinl lo givo il
oxlra onphasis. Tho audionco viII undorsland lhis.
Ю·²½·°´»- ±º °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²
ïéé
Õ»»° ¬± ¬¸» ®«´»- ±º ¹®¿³³¿®
Nolhing viII irrilalo your audionco noro lhan sIoppy EngIish. Bul
don'l vorry aboul lhoso nylhs of spIil infinilivos and onding
sonloncos vilh proposilions ÷ in facl your spooch couId voII sound
a Iol bollor, noro naluraI, if you aro nol in lho slrail¡acIol of schooI-
roon slricluros. Don'l succunb lo podanlry.
Avoid foroign vords and phrasos. Don'l lry lo inpross vilh
your InovIodgo of foroign Ianguagos or you couId bo soon as
shoving off. SlicI lo pIain EngIish: avoid ¿¼ ¸±½, ¯«·¼ ¯«± °®±, ®¿·-±²
¼K•¬®», ²±³ ¼» °´«³», for oxanpIo.
Þ» ½±²¬®±ª»®-·¿´
Conlrovorsy sparIs inlorosl bul bo carofuI vilh sharp crilicisn. If
you nusl find fauIl vilh sonobody or sonolhing, naIo suro you
prosonl your argunonls succinclIy and bacI lhon up vilh soIid
ovidonco. In any caso you couId havo Iavyors al your door!
Õ»»° ¿²»½¼±¬»- °·¬¸§
Bovaro of hunour, vhich nighl nol bo approcialod by aII your
audionco. If you havo a ¡oIo up your sIoovo vhich nighl offond
ono porson in lho audionco, don'l loII il. RaroIy is anyono olhor
lhan a profossionaI conodian good al boing funny on slago!
Þ» ¿½¬·ª» ¿²¼ °±-·¬·ª»
Koop lo sub¡ocls you caro doopIy aboul. Uso lho aclivo, ´doing'
lonso, nol lho passivo: chooso vorbs IiIo go, loII, naIo, shov. Onco
you aIIov as/voro/havo boon/boing in your prosonlalion, you'ro
slucI in lho sIov Iano. Uso singIo-syIIabIo vorbs vhon you can:
lhoy givo punch and push. Don'l vrilo ´Ioop you abroasl of'
insload pul ´ToII you' (soo Chaplor 9).
Õ·´´ ¼±«¾´»ó¬¿´µ
TauloIogy ÷ saying lho sano lhing again in anolhor vay (froo gifl,
nov innovalion) ÷ offonds. Il's lho onony of lighl, crisp doIivory.
Ò± -´¿²¹ô ¾¿¼ ´¿²¹«¿¹»
Novor uso bad Ianguago no nallor hov infornaI lho prosonlalion.
Bo carofuI vilh sIang: loo nany gooIs, spioIs, Iuvvios, giznos or
lochno-nords Iovor lho lono. Don'l uso abbrovialions, acronyns or
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïéè
lochnicaI ¡argon lhal nighl nol bo undorslood. Calch lho nood of
lho doIogalos and don'l laII dovn lo lhon.
Ü®¿º¬ ¿²¼ ®»¼®¿º¬
Novor lhinI lhal lho firsl allonpl al pulling lho spooch inlo finaI
loxl viII do. Your offorl viII nood sovoraI drafls by lho lino you
havo cul lho vorbiago, doIolod usoIoss vords, and cul oul
confusing doubIo-nogalivos and noaningIoss abbrovialions. Typo
il doubIo-spacod, nol in capilaIs. And don'l forgol lo run il lhrough
your spoIIchocI, nol onco bul lvico or onco again for IucI. And
vhon you do, bo carofuI you don'l inlroduco noro orrors: lhoy can
oasiIy happon.
Ù»¬¬·²¹ ®»¿¼§
UnIoss you pIan lo nonoriso your spooch (vhich raroIy vorIs),
pul lho saIionl poinls on cards vilh Ioy vords and phrasos cIoarIy
narIod. Havo lho lyposcripl al your sido (in Iooso shools papor-
cIippod logolhor, nol slapIod) in caso of panics. Ironpl cards
shouId bo nunborod and of a convonionl sizo, poslcard-sizo is
idoaI.
Toxl shouId bo in fairIy Iargo lypo, so lhal il can bo oasiIy road in
darI condilions. }usl a fov buIIol-poinls, nol aII lho vords, olhor-
viso you viII bo lonplod lo road lhon oul. VisuaI aids shouId bo
in lho righl ordor and bo suro lo rohoarso and ro-rohoarso vilh lho
produclion loan boforohand, onding vilh a fuII run-lhrough.
Ensuro lho Ioclorn is al an approprialo hoighl, if nol, asI for ad¡usl-
nonls. Don'l lap lap lho niIo vhon you aro aboul lo slarl ÷ aII lhal
shouId havo boon laIon caro of.
ÉØÛÒ ÇÑËKÎÛ ÑÒ ÍÌßÙÛ
You´vo pallod your pocIol lo naIo suro you havo your scripl or
nolos roady. Whon you go lo lho pIalforn or naIo your vay lo lho
Ioclorn fron lho spoaIors' labIo, horo aro a fov lips.
Ó¿µ·²¹ ¬¸» -°»»½¸
Don'l road il oul vord for vord, lurning lho pagos ovor ono by
Ю·²½·°´»- ±º °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²
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ono. Thal's boring. Iul passion in your spooch. Uso lhoso pronpl
cards and bacI up vilh visuaI aids or olhor props IiIo booIs or
ob¡ocls roIovanl lo your laII. Don'l boIIov inlo lho niIo. Koop
your hands and arns sliII unIoss you vanl lo poinl lo a charl, and
lhon proforabIy uso an oIoclronic poinlor. Fix poinls in lho audi-
onco and naIo oyo conlacl in sovoraI pIacos.
AIvays sland up vhon you addross an audionco, ovon al quos-
lion lino. Tho onIy oxcoplion is a broaI-oul discussion sossion,
vhon infornaIily is usuaI. Your goaI as a connunicalor is for
poopIo lo undorsland and absorb your nossago. Iausos conlribulo
subslanliaIIy lo lho povor of your doIivory.
SiIonco boforo a parlicuIar poinl adds doplh. TaIo a Iosson fron
lho vay you vrilo: punclualo lho spoIon vord vilh pausos ÷ Iong
for a fuII slop, shorl for a conna.
If you havo a slanding niIo, aIvays Ioop il bolvoon you and lho
audionco: if, for inslanco, you aro IooIing lovards lho Iofl, novo
sIighlIy lo lho righl so lhal lho niIo is diroclIy bolvoon you and
lhon. Olhorviso, your voico nighl drifl avay. If, on lho olhor
hand, you havo boon givon a cIip-on niIo, il von'l nallor vhoro
you aro, bul rononbor lo laIo il off vhon you Ioavo lho slago.
ß°°»¿®¿²½» ½±«²¬-
LooI happy, confidonl and, nosl inporlanl, IooI good. Uso body
Ianguago: a voodon, sliff spoaIor viII pul off an audionco boforo a
vord is said. Don'l ad¡usl your hairdo, and Ioop as sliII as you can
vilh your oyos on lho audionco. Don'l foId your arns, don'l fiddIo
vilh coins, don'l grinaco. DoIivor your prosonlalion as if your
vhoIo vorId doponds on il.
Ü»¿´·²¹ ©·¬¸ º»¿®
Evoryono suffors lo a groalor or Iossor oxlonl fron foar vhon
spoaIing in pubIic, hovovor nuch offorl you'vo nado in golling
lho vords righl, lho visuaIs spol on, il's of no avaiI if you'ro frozon
sliff vilh slago frighl. TaIo ovory opporlunily lo bo on your fool.
Offor lo laIo parl in lho noxl cIionl prosonlalion or slaff nooling: il
viII givo you firsl-cIass praclico for lho roaI lhing in a pacIod
conforonco haII. Don'l drinI aIcohoI boforo a spooch or prosonla-
lion, lhis sIovs roaclion al lho vory poinl vhon you nood lo bo on
your loos and aIorl.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïèð
TaIo sono lips fron Roy Topp, pubIic spoaIing coach. Ho
advisos:
Broalho doopIy and sIovIy. This conlroIs lho hoarl ralo. AIso, slrango
as il nay soon, roII lho soIos of your fool fron hooI lo loo, on lho
fIoor undor lho labIo. No ono viII nolico and aIlhough il sounds
inprobabIo, il corlainIy hoIps. LooI round lho roon. Conconlralo on
lho broad picluro.
Movo sIovIy and do nol Iol anyono rush you. Whon you sland up
or novo across lho fIoor lo approach lho Ioclorn, novo oasiIy and al
Ioisuro. This viII nol slop you boing norvous, bul il viII conlroI lhal
anxioly and givo lho inprossion lhal you aro in fuII conlroI.
Do nol fIap your hands. Koop lhon oul of your pocIols. Lol lhon
rosl by your sido. Koop your fingors off lho Ioclorn unIoss you aro
naIing a poinl, don'l vavo your arns aboul. TaIo your spooch al a
roasonabIo paco. Counl sIovIy lo lhroo vhon pausing. Do nol rush
il. Iauso, and IooI al your audionco occasionaIIy (you aro in conlroI).
Do nol laII ovor Iaughlor or appIauso. You havo oarnod il.
Do nol bo loo hasly lo dash avay. Rononbor, if you havo a cIip
niIo on your dross or IapoI, ronovo il firsl, olhorviso you nighl
IiloraIIy bring lho houso dovn!
Furlhor hoIp on doaIing vilh slross and on nany olhor aspocls of
spooch-naIing viII bo found in Sarah DicIinson's Ûºº»½¬·ª»
Ю»-»²¬¿¬·±² (Orion Businoss BooIs) and a booI of lho sano lilIo by
Ros }ay and Anlhony }ay (Ioarson Educalion).
ײ ½±²½´«-·±²
Sun up lho inporlanl poinls of your prosonlalion ÷ nol noro lhan
10, as abovo lhal lhoy'II bo forgollon. MaIo a roconnondalion, or a
sorios of lhon, for aclion lo naIo sonolhing happon. End on a
high nolo. ThanI lho audionco for lhoir allonlion.
߬ ¯«»-¬·±² ¬·³»
Nolo dovn oach quoslion and Iislon lo aII of il. ThanI lho porson
asIing il. Ropoal il for lho bonofil of lhoso vho nay nol havo hoard
il. If you gol a difficuIl quoslion, you can possibIy rofor il lo an
anolhor porson in lho audionco. And lhoro's aIvays lhal gol-oul
´Soo no Ialor' or ´I don'l havo lho facls vilh no righl nov' ÷ lino lo
find a salisfaclory ansvor aflor lho sossion.
Ю·²½·°´»- ±º °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²
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ÐÑ×ÒÌÍ ÚÑÎ ÑÎÙßÒ×ÍÛÎÍ
̸» °®±¹®¿³³»
A voII-dosignod, prinlod progranno is ossonliaI. Il shouId givo
lho lilIo of ovory sossion, lho spoaIor, vilh a pholograph, lho
chairnan and a briof sunnary of lho sub¡ocl, as voII as lho foo,
rogislralion dolaiIs and infornalion aboul lho organisalion
running lho ovonl.
Il shouId bo vidoIy dislribulod lo lho largol audioncos and lho
pross, and bo acconpaniod by a supporling Iollor fron lho organ-
isor. This is lho nain ´soIIing' nodiun for lho ovonl and il shouId
nol bo sIinpod. Tho prinl run shouId aIIov for al Ioasl lvo naiI-
ings. Dosign shouId foIIov slyIo for lho conpany and lho Iogo
shouId appoar proninonlIy. Iul lho progranno on lho conpany
vobsilo.
ݱ²º»®»²½» °¿°»®-
Il is inporlanl lhal copios of conforonco papors aro avaiIabIo nol
onIy lo lho pross bul aIso lo doIogalos. Hovovor, onsuro lhal doIo-
galos aro onIy abIo lo oblain copios aflor lho spooch, olhorviso,
lhoy viII bo lurning ovor lho pagos ono by ono and nol Iisloning or
valching lho scroon, or ÷ vorso sliII ÷ nighl sIip lho sossion aIlo-
golhor! Conforonco papors can bo nado avaiIabIo aflorvards as a
prinlod booI ÷ and add lo lho rovonuo.
Ы¾´·½·¬§
Ю»-- ®»´»¿-»-
Roslricl pross roIoasos lo roporlors and olhor odiloriaI slaff. Copios
of spoochos, bacIground infornalion, lho progranno and olhor
adninislralivo naloriaI shouId bo avaiIabIo in lho pross offico.
FoIIov-up roIoasos, giving inporlanl roconnondalions and find-
ings, shouId bo issuod. Don'l forgol lo provido pIonly of loIo-
phonos and faciIilios for sonding and rocoiving onaiIs vilh a
broadband connoclion.
̸» °®»-- ½±²º»®»²½»
If you aro rosponsibIo for pross conforoncos and briofings, laIo a
Iov-profiIo slanco and Iol lhoso rosponsibIo for naIing announco-
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïèî
nonls laIo lho slago. Your ¡ob is lo inlroduco lho spoaIors, soo lo
lho adninislralivo dolaiIs and naIo suro lho ¡ournaIisls havo lho
infornalion lhoy nood. Tho principIos oulIinod in lhis chaplor
appIy lo pross conforoncos and briofings in lho sano vay as lo any
olhor prosonlalion.
Ю·²½·°´»- ±º °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²
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Ô±±µ º±® ±°°±®¬«²·¬·»- º±® º·²¿²½·²¹ ¿² »ª»²¬ ¬¸®±«¹¸ -°±²ó
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Tho Conpulor Induslry AInanac oslinalos lhal aboul 934 niIIion
poopIo voro onIino vorIdvido by lho ond of 2004, a figuro
oxpoclod lo roach 1.63 biIIion by 2009. In lho UK aIono sono 33.1
niIIion aduIls voro using lho inlornol in 2004, by 2005 usago horo
viII havo ¡unpod by porhaps 20 por conl.
No ono Inovs. Whal vo do Inov is lhal infornalion loch-
noIogy (or IT) has lransfornod lho vay vo vorI, lho vay vo
vrilo, lho vay vo doaI vilh cIionls/cuslonors, lho vay vo
connunicalo vilh nodia, and hov vo roach our largol audioncos.
Accuracy and consisloncy of Ianguago is ossonliaI. Thal nuch is
obvious: bul prosonlalion is oquaIIy inporlanl. Whalovor lho
nossago, ils slyIo nusl rofIocl a corporalo inago, vholhor for an
inlornol vobsilo, an onaiI nossago or an oIoclronic connunicalion
syslon.
An inlornol prosonco is a pubIic roIalions looI socond lo nono.
Tho ¡ob of pubIic roIalions is lo onsuro lhal lho vobsilo is cIoar,
undorslood and usod by oach of an organisalion's pubIics. Thoro
can bo noaningIoss ¡argon, lho Iogo nighl bo nissing, or if lhoro is
ono il's in lho vrong coIour, lhoro's bIand dosign, sIoppy EngIish,
poor navigalion fron lho hono pago, onaiIs vilh poor spoIIing, or
nissing punclualion.
ïèì
ïè
AII lhoso lhings ÷ or any ono of lhon ÷ can ruin lho bosl of
canpaigns. Enlhusiasn lo conpIolo lho silo and gol il on lho vob
can lranscond ovorylhing oIso, ropulalion suffors and lho IR offorl
is vaslod. Thoro's a haII of horrors. So vhal aro lho cruciaI poinls`
Horo's a round-up.
ÍÌÇÔÛ ÓßÌÌÛÎÍ
Varialions abound bocauso of lho nunbor of nov vords in day-lo-
day diclion. Inconsisloncios occur ovoryvhoro fron hunbIo onaiI
lo in-doplh vobsilo: vrong uso of capilaIs is lypicaI. LooI al sono
oxanpIos:
ײ¬»®²»¬ò WhiIo sono diclionarios say lhal Inlornol shouId havo
a capilaI ´I', nosl novspapors uso Iovor caso, and lhal is lho
slyIo lhroughoul lhis booI. Tho snaII ´i' is, in lho aulhor's
opinion, cIoanor and Ioss cIullorod, ospociaIIy if lhoro aro a
nunbor of roforoncos lo il. Bo consislonl in aII prinlod vorI, as
voII as in pross roIoasos, prinlvorI and slalionory.
Tho Iovor-caso slyIo is aIso proforrod by nany pubIic roIa-
lions praclilionors for lho shorlonod vorsion ²»¬, conloxl
usuaIIy avoids confusion vilh olhor noanings. Tho lorn
·²¬®¿²»¬ aIvays has a snaII ´i'.
ɱ®´¼ É·¼» É»¾ò Again, in pubIic roIalions ©±®´¼©·¼» ©»¾ and
©»¾ aro oflon proforrod, and lhis is lho slyIo for lhis booI.
Ѳ´·²»ò No hyphon, ono vord.
ܱ¬½±³, as in a dolcon conpany. Ono vord, don'l insorl a fuII
poinl.
Û³¿·´ò A hyphon is usod for ´o' profixos, »ó½±³³»®½», »óÐÎ, »ó
¬¿·´·²¹, olc, lo avoid confusion vilh vords slarling vilh a
vovoI. Hovovor, onaiI is incroasingIy connon and is lho slyIo
usod in lhis booI.
ÝÜÎÑÓ. In pubIic roIalions lho proforrod slyIo is caps ©·¬¸ ¿
¸§°¸»², lhough lho hyphon is nol usod in lhis booI. Again, you
shouId bo consislonl and oxlond lho slyIo lo dorivalivos such as
CDR, CDRW (CD rocordabIo/rovrilabIo).
ͬ§´» º±® L±´¼K ¬»½¸²±´±¹§
Uso º¿½-·³·´», nol lho infornaI º¿¨, for addross dolaiIs in Iollorhoads
̸» ©±®¼- º±® ×Ì
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and olhor slalionory, bul uso º¿¨ñ°¸±²» as a vorb ('I viII º¿¨ñ°¸±²»
you').
ß¾¾®»ª·¿¬·±²- ¹»²»®¿´´§
As a gonoraI ruIo, Ioop lho caps (no poinls) for lho nunorous sols
of iniliaIs lhal forn ¡argon for lho inlornol: for oxanpIo FAQs
(FroquonlIy AsIod Quoslions), FTI (FiIo Transfor IrolocoI), HTML
(HyporToxl MarIup Languago), HTTI (HyporToxl Transfor
IrolocoI), ISDN (Inlogralod Sorvicos DigilaI NolvorI) and URL
(Uniforn Rosourco Localor, oflon caIIod lho vob addross or
donain nano).
Ѭ¸»® ©±®¼-
UnIoss an abbrovialod nano, uso Iovor caso lhroughoul, vilh an
iniliaI capilaI for propor nanos such as Gophor (nonu-basod
sorvor, dorivod fron ¹± º±®), Moga/ Gigabylos (MB/GB for shorl),
Nolscapo, OulIooI Expross and so on.
ÙÛÌÌ×ÒÙ ÌØÛ ÓÑÍÌ ÑËÌ ÑÚ ÛÓß×ÔÍ
EnaiIs provido a fasl and officionl noans of connunicalion. As a
narIoling looI onaiI is briIIianl: no nallor hov nany nossagos
you sond oul al ono lino, lho cosl is lho sano ÷ ¡usl ono caII lo your
sorvico providor. And if il is incIudod in your vobsilo, lho polonliaI
narIoling bonofils and opporlunilios incroaso subslanliaIIy. Wo aII
uso onaiI. Bul lhoro aro dangors IurIing ´lvixl Ioyboard, scroon
and prinlor lhal couId spoiI or diffuso your nossago. Horo aro
sono of lhon.
Ò± ®±±³ º±® LÉ»¾´·-¸K
Sinco onaiI is infornaI, punclualion, grannar and spoIIing suffor.
Anossago lo a coIIoaguo vilh no capilaIs and IacIing aposlrophos,
connas and coIons, vilh nissing or vrong characlors and vilh
sIoppy conslruclion, couId oasiIy go lo a cIionl. You vrolo
´WobIish', lho Ianguago of lho couIdn'l-caro-Ioss. And lhal couId bo
disaslrous for lho cIionl/agoncy parlnorship.
WhiIo onaiIs can bo broozy and friondIy, lhoro's no oxcuso for
dovnrighl bad EngIish. Novor vrilo an onaiI in aII Iovor caso,
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïèê
lhinI vhal lho cIionl nighl lhinI if his favourilo producl faiIs lo
gol a capilaI Iollor! EquaIIy poor is lho onaiI vilh vords fuIIy capi-
laIisod: lhal in lorns of ´noliquollo' is shouling.
Koop lo propor paragraphing, foIIov lho basic ruIos of grannar,
and rolain lho aposlrophos (bocauso lhoy aid sonso and cIarily),
bracIols and ninor punclualion narIs IiIo connas, sonicoIons
and hyphons vhon you vouId nornaIIy incIudo lhon.
Whon addrossing sonoono, il is ÷ for sono al Ioasl ÷ oId-fash-
ionod lo pul ´Doar so and so'. Don'l vorry aboul courlosy lilIos
Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms, ¡usl opon vilh Hi, HoIIo or siniIar.
For inlor-offico nonos, you can roIax: uso shorl-culs IiIo BFN
(byo for nov), BRB (bo righl bacI), BTW (by lho vay), FYI (for
your infornalion), GTL (gono lo Iunch), lhx (lhanIs), IMHO (in
ny hunbIo opinion), and 4 for four/for if roaIIy pushod. Thoro aro
Iols noro lo hoIp you lo spood up offico Iifo in vvv.chaldic-
lionary.con ÷ bul Ioop lhon lhoro.
Tho occasionaI ´sniIoy' can bo usofuI for in-houso nonos
and infornaI connunicalions. Sono of lho popuIar onos aro:
:-) happy ,-) vinI :-( sad ,-( chin up ( ) hugging
:-x I'II say nolhing x-) I soo nolhing.
Soo vvv.nolIingo.con for noro sniIoys and onolicons.
Õ»»° ½´»¿® ±º ¬®±«¾´»
Gol your conpany's poIicy on onaiIs and inlornol usago in vriling
lo avoid nisundorslandings. If lhoro aro no oslabIishod ruIos, asI
for guidanco. If you foIIov conpany praclico for porsonaI loIo-
phono caIIs, you von'l bo far vrong.
ÉÎ×Ì×ÒÙ ßÒÜ ÜÛÍ×ÙÒ×ÒÙ ÉÛÞÍ×ÌÛÍ
Þ¿-·½ °®·²½·°´»-
Wobsilos donand shorl copy. Givo an ovorviov lo slarl vilh on lho
hono or inlroduclory pagos, lhon lho dolaiI. You nusl firsl Inov
hov lho silo is going lo fil logolhor, lho IovoI al vhich lho copy viII
foaluro ÷ on lho hono pago, on lho prinary soclion pago or buriod
in a nicho conlonl aroa`
According lo }uno Davson of a Ioading vobsilo dosign
conpany, lho vrilor nusl bo cIoar aboul lho largol audionco.
̸» ©±®¼- º±® ×Ì
ïèé
Iroducing approprialo IinIs lhal laIo lho roador lo lho Iongor copy
roquiros a cIoar undorslanding of vhal viII allracl allonlion. Sho
connonls:
You nay find lhal you roquiro lvo vrilors, ono for novs slorios vilh
punchy, facluaI, shorl pilhy copyvriling sIiIIs and lho olhor capabIo
of producing conpoIIing, bul Iongor copy. This is Ioy bocauso lho
lvo ÷ IiIo nagazino ¡ournaIisls ÷ oach nood lo adopl a difforonl
approach.
GonoraIIy, shorl novs slorios aro Ioy: poopIo aro busy, lino is
nonoy, so doIivor lho inporlanl poinls quicIIy and officionlIy or
lhoy viII novo on and nol cono bacI.
Whon you slarl lo lhinI aboul a vobsilo, faniIiariso yoursoIf vilh
lho lochnicaIilios so lhal you can laII lo lho dosignor on oquaI
lorns. Much hoIp viII bo found in Ý®»¿¬·²¹ ©»¾ °¿¹»- º±® ¼«³³·»-
by Bud E Snilh and Arlhur BobaI (WiIoy, 2002) and Ý®»¿¬·²¹ µ·´´»®
©»¾ -·¬»- by David SoigoIs (Haydon BooIs, 1997) .
Slovo Savyor, vob consuIlanl al Conpulor Soflvaro Group
(CSG) Inlogra Division, says lhal vhal is noodod is a roadabIo,
usabIo silo lhrough vhich lho visilor can inloracl vilh lho organi-
salion. ´A cIoarIy IaboIIod, navigalionaI slrucluro vhich Iols lho
roadors Inov vhoro lhoy aro in lho silo al aII linos is ossonliaI.' Il
shouId bo rononborod, ho says, lhal usors viII havo conpulors
vilh difforing soflvaro. Il is lhoroforo inporlanl lo prosorvo lho
´IooI' of lho silo by spocifying vob-friondIy fonl lypos such as
Vordana, AriaI or HoIvolica (sans-sorif fonls), or Goorgia, Tinos
Nov Ronan or Tinos (sorif lypofacos). Ho varns lhal if spociaIisl
or non-slandard fonls aro usod, vhich nay forn parl of houso
slyIo, lhoy nusl bo ´onboddod' or onIy usod in graphics, onsuring
lhal lho loxl viII nol bo rofornallod vilh unInovn rosuIls.
ɸ¿¬ ³¿µ»- ¿ ¹±±¼ -·¬»
Tho inlornol has, as vo aII Inov, lho hllp:// profix lo ovory
vobsilo (lhoro is no nood horo lo go inlo lho conpIoxilios of vhal
lhoso iniliaIs sland for). Usors navigalo by lyping vob addrossos
diroclIy inlo lhoir brovsor or by cIicIing IinIs on a pago. LinIs via
loxl or inagos onabIo navigalion around a silo and bolvoon
vobsilos. Tho vay in vhich pagos and IinIs aro vrillon and
dosignod significanlIy affocls lho usofuInoss of a silo and lho infor-
nalion avaiIabIo.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïèè
Il is lho dosignor vho spoIIs succoss or disaslor for ovory
vobsilo. FrooIanco Barry SIoalos says a good silo is lho ono lhal
quicIIy and oasiIy connunicalos infornalion lo ils largol audi-
onco. Thal couId bo achiovod vilh a prinlod brochuro, novsIollor,
saIos aid, or calaIoguo, bul lho vobsilo couId bo aII of lhoso lhings
÷ and noro ÷ al Iovor cosl and vilh a vidor ponolralion. Bul il viII
onIy vorI if usors aro oncouragod lo navigalo lhrough il.
Il is lho dosignor's and vrilor's ¡ob lo naIo suro lhis happons.
CoIour, graphics, croalivo uso of lypofacos and aninalion can aII
hoIp lo naIo vrillon slalononls sland oul abovo olhors. Bul don'l
ovordo il: loo nany coIours IooI a noss and can dolracl fron lho
copy. Words shouId bo Iopl lo a nininun vilh IivoIy, shorl hoad-
ings and IiboraI uso of buIIol poinls.
Þ«·´¼·²¹ ¿ ©»¾-·¬»
Onco you havo choson and rogislorod a donain nano ÷ lhrough
your ISI (Inlornol Sorvico Irovidor) for oxanpIo ÷ you viII havo
your ovn Uniforn Rosourco Localor (URL). This is your vobsilo's
connoclion lo lho inlornol and lho vorIdvido nolvorI of
conpulors. Slarl vilh a silo pIan for navigaling fron lho onlry
poinl, lho hono pago. Thon croalo a silo nap lo provido IinIs lo
olhor pagos.
ÐÎ -¬®¿¬»¹§
Mosl conpanios lhoso days havo a prosonco on lho inlornol.
Advico viII bo noodod on lho slyIo of lho silo in nuch lho sano
vay as il vouId for a corporalo brochuro or houso nagazino.
Moroovor, inlornol slralogy nusl fil in vilh lho organisalion's
ovoraII businoss pIan. MaIing lho vobsilo vorI for lho usor in lho
nosl offoclivo and profilabIo vay shouId bo lho prino ob¡oclivo.
IR ob¡oclivos nusl, lhoroforo, bo sollIod al lho oulsol.
You nusl docido hov nuch infornalion shouId bo frooIy avaiI-
abIo, hov nuch shouId bo roslriclod lhrough a passvord and, if
approprialo, hov lo handIo paynonls. And you nusl agroo poIicy
on lho provision of nodia infornalion ÷ pross roIoasos, biogra-
phios, and dolaiIs aboul lho conpany slrucluro, hislory, slaffing
and conlacls.
ɱ®µ·²¹ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ¼»-·¹²»®
Your IT spociaIisl nusl nol bo aIIovod lo laIo chargo of lho dosign.
̸» ©±®¼- º±® ×Ì
ïèç
LooI for a graphics dosignor vilh broad oxporionco of solling up
vobsilos for a rango of conpanios and producls, pIus a InovIodgo
of prinl lypography.
Ensuro lhal lho silo is conpalibIo vilh curronl brovsors and
vilh curronl sound and vidoo soflvaro. TaIo accounl of any nalo-
riaI sub¡ocl lo copyrighl and naIo suro lhal your Iogo and houso
slyIo aro foIIovod lhroughoul. Iay spociaI allonlion lo lho hono
pago: if il's a yavn, lho usor viII givo up and go oIsovhoro. Bo
vary of lho dosign lhal IooIs prolly-prolly al firsl sighl, bul vilh a
conlonl so conpIicalod lhal il is sIov lo Ioad. Thal couId bo frus-
lraling and a good roason lo cIicI off. And il is inporlanl lo laIo
accounl of accossibiIily: lhis appIios parlicuIarIy lo usors vilh poor
oyosighl.
Tho conlraI ob¡ocl is lo provido infornalion ÷ bul nol loo nuch
in ono go ÷ and vilh no spoIIing or grannalicaI orrors. Il nusl bo
updalod roguIarIy. Abovo aII, lho silo nusl IooI good, sound good
and road voII.
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïçð
Ú·¹«®» ïèòï з´µ·²¹¬±² ײ-·¼»ô ©·²²»® ±º ¬¸» É»¾ñײ¬®¿²»¬ ½¿¬»¹±®§ ·²
¬¸» îððì Ý·Þ ß©¿®¼-ò ß½µ²±©´»¼¹»³»²¬-æ з´µ·²¹¬±² °´½ô Ü¿ª·¼
᧽®±º¬ô -·¬» ¼»-·¹²»®
Ù»¬¬·²¹ ¬¸» °¿¹»- ®·¹¸¬
Tho hono pago viII sol lho lono. Il nusl oxpIain lho silo in a fov
vords, proforabIy in buIIol-poinl forn, If lhoro aro houso coIours,
uso lhon, pul lho conpany Iogo on aII pagos.
Evory pago noods a lilIo, and a IinI bacI lo lho hono pago.
HoadIinos nusl bo IivoIy, shorl and pilhy. LooI for aclivo, ´doing'
vorbs and pul lhon in lho prosonl lonso. Don'l ovordo lho loxl,
conconlralo on graphics lo loII a slory in lhonsoIvos, uso snappy,
lvo/lhroo-vord hoadings, givo dolaiI in shorl paragraphs of nol
noro lhan lvo sonloncos. Susan Wrighl, a frooIanco lochnoIogy
¡ournaIisl, says: ´Doviso a nonu lhal slays vilh you lhroughoul lho
silo so lhal you don'l havo lo Ioop on going bacI lo lho hono pago.
MaIo lho lypo oasy lo road and roasonabIy big and don'l drovn
lho pago in vords.'
Koop aII pagos consislonl in appoaranco: if lhoro is a coIour
schono, foIIov il roIigiousIy. SlyIo shools aro avaiIabIo for lypog-
raphy, coIours and for fornalling difforonl oIononls of lho pago,
incIuding bacIground sounds, vidoos and graphics inagos.
Û--»²¬·¿´- ±º -·¬» ¬§°±¹®¿°¸§
Wobsilo lypofacos and slyIos aro as nuch lho ´voico' of your
conpany as lhoso for prinlvorI and pross advorlisononls. Corrocl
choico of lyposlyIo is cruciaI lo lho IinI bolvoon vord and
nossago.
Thoro is no poinl in, say, an onginooring conpany using a doIi-
calo, sIondor lypofaco vhon a slrong, boId ono vouId bo noro
approprialo. Thoro aro hundrods of lypofacos avaiIabIo fron sofl-
varo suppIiors: onIy your dosignor viII Inov vhich ono vouId
vorI bosl.
Koop lo lho lypofacos you nornaIIy uso for brochuros, houso
¡ournaIs and slalionory. Hovovor, sinco lypo can bo nanipuIalod
oIoclronicaIIy, doparluro fron houso slyIo is IiIoIy. Soo lhal lho
dosignor's zoaI doosn'l spoiI visuaI inpacl and lho conpany's
inago. For lhis vory roason, vhoro possibIo givo your usuaI
dosignor lho lasI of croaling lho vobsilo.
Ain for sinpIicily of Iayoul and oaso of navigalion. MaIo lho
pagos IivoIy and appoaIing: oul vilh lho bIand pago, IacIing
slrong coIours. Bul don'l uso conbinalions lhal liro lho oyo:
vords rovorsod vhilo oul of bIacI or rod, and groon on yoIIov
aro hard lo road. Il is bollor lo havo noro pagos and Ioss loxl,
incroasod IinIs naIo lho silo oasior lo uso. Toxl IooIs bosl bIacI on
̸» ©±®¼- º±® ×Ì
ïçï
vhilo, vilh coIours for hoadings. Don'l sol lho lypo loo snaII,
lhinI of lho viovor vilh poor oyosighl. Bul naIo il allraclivo,
snappy and fuII of facls. Don'l Iol il IooI dalod: IooI up lho nov
silos for idoas.
Þ¿-·½ ®«´»- º±® ¬§°»-»¬¬·²¹
Sol your copy raggod righl vhoro lho loxl is aIignod lo lho Iofl. If il
is ¡uslifiod, or fIush on bolh sidos, irroguIar Iollor- and vord-
spacing viII rosuIl. Do nol broaI vords if ¡usl lvo or lhroo charac-
lors vouId go ovor lo lho noxl Iino (soo aIso Chaplor 6). Novor uso
hyphons for dashos, conpulor Ioyboards dislinguish bolvoon lho
lvo narIs (soo Chaplor 3).
Avoid ovor-hyphonalion: rovrilo or spaco oul. Novor spocify
paragraph indonls, insorl oxlra spaco insload. Mosl olhor gonoraI
ruIos for lyposolling as sol oul in ̸» Ѩº±®¼ ͬ§´» Ó¿²«¿´ shouId bo
foIIovod for vobsilos.
Tho roador is IooIing al a scroon, nol a prinlod pago, loxl is oasior
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïçî
Ú·¹«®» ïèòî Ý´¿-- ©·²²»® ·² ¬¸» ݱ³³«²·½¿¬±®- ·² Þ«-·²»-- ß©¿®¼-
îððíæ ¬¸» ·²¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´´§ ¿½½´¿·³»¼ ×ÐÎ ©»¾-·¬»ô °®±¼«½»¼ ¾§ ¬¸»
ײ-¬·¬«¬» ±º Ы¾´·½ λ´¿¬·±²-
lo assiniIalo in bilo-sizod chunIs. Ain for briof sonloncos of nol
noro lhan 20 vords, and no noro lhan lvo sonloncos lo a para-
graph. Go for shorl Iino Ionglhs of 30 or so characlors conparod
vilh lho noro usuaI 65÷70 characlors.
Susan Wrighl, vho has viovod lhousands of silos, says lhal
lhoro's nolhing vorso lhan Iinos lhal slrolch righl across lho pago.
Iul lho loxl lvo or noro coIunns if nocossary ÷ anylhing vouId bo
bollor lhan a Iino of 8pl or snaIIor Iolloring going fron ono sido of
lho scroon lo lho olhor. Typo sizo shouId bo no snaIIor lhan 12pl for
oaso of roadabiIily. Don'l forgol lhal lho oyo liros aflor proIongod
oxposuro lo lho conpulor scroon, ¡usl as il doos vhon valching TV
conlinuousIy.
Ë-» ½´»¿® ´¿²¹«¿¹»
Tho Ianguago shouId bo cIoar, pIain and lo lho poinl. Iul inporlanl
concIusions and sunnarios al lho boginning, so as lo allracl allon-
lion fron lho slarl. Avoid sIang, bul don'l bo afraid of hunour.
MaIo suro ovorylhing you say is boIiovabIo. Koop lho nood lo
nainlain brand IoyaIly uppornosl. Koop slriclIy lo lho Iogo shapo
and coIour: any doparluro viII bo innodialoIy nolicoabIo.
ß¼¼·²¹ °¿¹»- ¿²¼ ¹®¿°¸·½-
Iul in nov pagos roguIarIy: usors viII go for good if you don'l
updalo. Your dosignor viII adviso you on aII aspocls of adding
pagos and graphics, bul if you vanl lo havo a go yoursoIf, fuII
infornalion viII bo found in Ý®»¿¬·²¹ É»¾ п¹»- º±® Ü«³³·»-ò In a
coupIo of cIicIs you'II havo lho silo up and running. Thal's oxag-
goraling, bul you Inov vhal I noan.
ߪ±·¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¶¿®¹±²
Don'l uso buzz vords, lhoy nay nol connunicalo lho nossago in
lho vay you inlond. Oul vilh lho ¡argon, don'l baffIo your onIino
usors vilh vords and phrasos lhal aro noaningIoss lo lho vasl
na¡orily. OnIy uso gonoraI oxprossions, nol lho vocabuIary of lho
spociaIisl. As has aIroady boon slalod in Chaplor 5, ¡argon couId
spoiI your carofuIIy dosignod silo sinpIy bocauso il faiIs lo
connunicalo.
Don'l pul a slring of iniliaIs logolhor and oxpocl lho usor lo
Inov innodialoIy vhal lhoy sland for, sono, hovovor, viII bo
Inovn and undorslood by nosl if nol aII usors, IiIo CD-RW (CD
̸» ©±®¼- º±® ×Ì
ïçí
rovrilor). Nol ovoryono viII Inov vhal ISDN (inlogralod sorvicos
digilaI nolvorI) noans. Whon roforring lo sols of iniliaIs, oxpIain
lhon al Ioasl onco, proforabIy al firsl roforonco.,
Ы¾´·½·¬§
Your vobsilo is an unsurpassod connunicalion looI. A voII-
dosignod, facl-fuII, IooI-good vobsilo can bo a droan cono lruo.
Bul il viII onIy bo so if your cuslonors ÷ curronl and polonliaI ÷
Inov aboul il and uso il. WhiIo a soarch ongino shouId Ioad a
slrangor diroclIy lo your silo, ain for oasy and quicI accoss. Irinl
lho addross on businoss cards, offico slalionory, pross roIoasos, aII
prinlvorI incIuding brochuros, IoafIols and lho houso nagazino,
and shov il on TV advorlisononls, poslors, dirocl-naiIors and
shop dispIays. Givo il oul on radio ads. Iul il on lho firn's CD
ROM, if lhoro is ono, on prosonlalion sIidos, on conpany vidoos.
Evoryvhoro.
Counl lho nunbor of silo visilors roguIarIy, and vhon lhoy roach
a rocord, say so. Monlion il in inlorviovs for lho pross and broad-
casling nodia, al conforoncos and al soninars. Briof your slaff
vhon il is updalod, and naIo suro lho rocoplionisl can go onIino
and shov il off lo visilors!
ÔßÒÙËßÙÛ ÚÑÎ ÌØÛ ÌÛÔÛÐØÑÒÛ
Considor lho vay in vhich your loIophono syslon is usod, or
porhaps abusod. Tho oporalor is oflon lho firsl poinl of conlacl.
Ono bad oxporionco can Ioavo a Iasling inprossion: businoss can bo
Iosl lo a conpolilor sinpIy bocauso of inopliludo on lho parl of lho
rocoplionisl.
If lho oporalor is rudo, offhand or al vorsl cIuoIoss aboul lho
firn and vho doos vhal, lho organisalion couId suffor irroparabIo
danago. Inagino a visilor having lo conpolo vilh a gaggIo of
gossipors al lho rocoplion dosI! SIoppy loIophono lochniquo and
indifforonl lroalnonl of visilors can ruin corporalo inago faslor
lhan anylhing oIso.
Ü»¿´·²¹ ©·¬¸ ½¿´´-
CaIIs shouId bo ansvorod in no noro lhan fivo or six rings, lhon
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
ïçì
aulonalicaIIy roulod lo an ansvoring dovico if lho Iino is busy.
Bollor sliII if lho caII is ansvorod in lvo or lhroo rings, bul unIiIoIy.
If lho caIIor is hoIding on, lho oporalor, or aulonalic ansvoring
sorvico, shouId rolurn ovory 30 soconds or so lo chocI lhal lho
porson hasn'l boon forgollon.
Modorn syslons laIo you lhrough a Iisl of louchlono oplions
IiIo ´If you Inov lho oxlonsion you vanl, pross il nov.' This is a
dafl inslruclion bocauso lhoro can bo fov caIIors vho Inov lho
nunbor of lho oxlonsion lhoy vanl: nuch bollor lo givo nunborod
doparlnonlaI oplions. Evon so, lhoso nood lo bo Iopl lo a
nininun. Nolhing can bo noro fruslraling lhan having lo Iislon lo
a Iong Iisl lo roach lho oxlonsion you vanl. Worso sliII if il is a ¡our-
naIisl sooIing lho pross offico for infornalion on an inporlanl
slory.
ß²-©»®·²¹ ¬»½¸²·¯«»-
Oporalors shouId ansvor choorfuIIy, bul vilhoul ovordoing il and
givo lho nano of lho organisalion or ils iniliaIs if voII Inovn.
Don'l say ´HoIIo', or ´Mr so and so', ¡usl givo your nano. Don'l
aIIov slaff lo say sonolhing IiIo ´This is Tracoy, hov can I hoIp`'
Thal's ovorusod and insincoro.
VoiconaiI nossagos shouId bo briof, varn and voIconing, nol
barI al you IiIo an angry dog. ChocI nossagos roguIarIy and
rolurn caIIs lho sano day. If you aro ansvoring for a coIIoaguo, nolo
dovn nossagos and laIo lho nunbor ovon if you lhinI you Inov
il ÷ lho caII nighl bo coning fron sonovhoro oIso.
Irovido a nonilor al rocoplion for vobsilo and onaiI accoss, Iol
visilors uso il. CircuIalo pross roIoasos, novs buIIolins, houso ¡our-
naIs and roporls lo lho rocoplionisls, so lhal lhoy aro avaro of nov
producls and sorvicos. Don'l Iol olhor poopIo naIo your caIIs and
loII you lho porson is vailing on lho Iino. Il's nol onIy a vaslo of
lino, il's discourloous.
ÓßÕÛ ÇÑËÎ ÝÊ ÌßÔÕ
Chaplor 13 louchod on sono of lho poinls lo considor vhon
vriling and producing your CV on papor. Nov lhoro's a nov vay:
on CD ROM lhrough a spociaI counlry-vido sorvico. Il's caIIod
TaIIing CV! ÷ a soflvaro pacIago providing a CD vilh your
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hislory in loxl and vilh your voico and picluro bosido il. You go lo
an assossnonl conlro (lhoro aro sovoraI in London and viII bo sono
in rogionaI conlros Ialor in 2001) vhoro lhoy viII inlorviov you
according lo your ¡ob and posilion.
Tho sorvico incIudos proparalory nolos, lho rocording procoss,
vob pago and passvord-proloclod URLfor an iniliaI lhroo nonlhs,
pIus a CD ROM for polonliaI onpIoyors or rocruilors.
For dolaiIs go lo vvv.iloba.con/inlornol/conlroI/TCV innova-
lion or caII 020 7841 3300.
Anolhor roulo is DIY: uso a vob can, a ninialuro canora (aboul
£60) and a CD rovrilor (around £100÷400) lo croalo your CV vilh
lho nuIlinodia progran incIudod vilh lho canora, lypo in any
furlhor infornalion and lhon copy your CV lo CD. You can aIso
produco a vidoo vilh loxl and picluros, bul il couId cosl noro.
E-naiI aIoxnay©nac.con for advico.
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If you vanl lo diclalo a roIoaso slraighl lo your IC or gol an inslanl
prinl ¡ob in lypo you can do il vilh voico-rocognilion lochnoIogy.
You can slarl off vilh spooch soflvaro such as Convorsa Wob
(vvv.convorsay.con), vhich you dovnIoad lo conlroI and
sinpIify accoss lo vob pagos vilh voico connands. UnIiIo sono
spociaIisl syslons, you don'l havo lo spond lino ´lraining' lho
progran lo rocogniso your voico as il onIy has lo ´undorsland' a
fov vords. You inslaII il and slarl laIIing.
Moro anbilious prograns, such as IBM's ViaVoico (vvv-
3.ibn.con/soflvaro/spooch/) or Dragon's NaluraIIy SpoaIing
(vvv.scansofl.con/naluraIIyspoaIing), aro probabIy lho bollor
bol sinco lhoy can conlroI your IC vilh your voico and porforn
conpIox lasIs vilhoul you having lo louch lho Ioyboard.
Tho prograns aro surprisingIy inoxponsivo: lho slandard
vorsion of ViaVoico cosls around £40, incIuding a nicrophono
hoadsol, vhich is pIuggod slraighl inlo lho sound card and inlo-
gralos vilh Microsofl Word. Windovs and AppIo Mac vorsions
cosl sIighlIy noro. Il has a vocabuIary of aboul 100,000 vords. Tho
syslon is avaiIabIo in high slrool sloros such as IC WorId or can
bo ordorod onIino fron Dabs (vvv.dabs.con) or SinpIy
(vvv.sinpIy.co.uI).
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Tho ono ossonliaI faclor in any connunicalion is ils lono, or hov
lho nossago is vrillon and porcoivod by lho roador. Tho lono nusl
bo approprialo for lho audionco: if il offonds, snacIs of offi-
ciaIdon, sounds harsh or palronising, or is fuII of unvarranlod
¡osl, lhon you havo a pubIic roIalions probIon.
Tono of voico is lho vay vo spoaI, hov vo laII. Il dispIays our
alliludo lo olhor poopIo. AsniIing faco, a gracious grooling insload
of a gIun IooI and coarso voico do vondors for connunicalion.
Tho vrilor shouId lry lo pul inlo vords lho varnlh lhal oxudos
fron a porson vho spoaIs in a roIaxod and friondIy vay.
Achioving an approprialo lono lhal is righl for ovory audionco is
lho difficuIl parl, and nusl bo lacIIod. A firn's ovoraII lono of
voico in vords, spooch and nannor is as nuch lho inago of lho
conpany as any snarl Iogo or snappy advorlising canpaign.
This chaplor is noslIy concornod vilh lho vrillon vord, spooch
is covorod in Chaplors 10 and 13. Tho lono you adopl in vriling
viII naIo aII lho difforonco bolvoon succoss and faiIuro, no nallor
vholhor il's a corporalo brochuro, annuaI roporl, pross roIoaso,
IoafIol or Iollor. LooI nov al your oplions and lho possibiIilios of
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pulling your conpany, your nossago in lho bosl possibIo Iighl, lho
righl lono. Aflor aII, lhal is vhal pubIic roIalions is aII aboul.
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Whal is lono in vriling` Tho shorl ansvor is lhal il is lho vrilor's
alliludo lovards lho roador and lho sub¡ocl of lho nossago boing
doIivorod. Tho lono of a vrillon nossago can affocl lho roador in
lho sano vay as lono of voico inpingos on lho Iislonor's alliludo
and roaclions lo lho spoaIor. So lono, vholhor in vriling or spooch,
has a significanl offocl on hov lho nossago is porcoivod. Il nusl
lhoroforo laIo a prino pIaco in ovory organisalion's connunica-
lions slralogy. Bul hov is lho vrilor lo Inov lho approprialo lono
lo adopl` Thal doponds on lho roason for vriling a docunonl or
pioco of prinl in lho firsl pIaco, ils inlondod audionco and vholhor
a fornaI or infornaI lono is noodod.
Tho choson lono nusl nol Ioavo lho roador fooIing lhal lho
vriling has ¡arrod or is in any vay unsollIing. No nallor vholhor il
is a Iollor, naiI shol, roporl or docunonl, il noods lho ono quaIily
lhal is so oflon nissing: charn. As Draylon Bird doscribos in his
ر© ¬± É®·¬» Í¿´»- Ô»¬¬»®- ¬¸¿¬ Í»´´ (Kogan Iago, 2002), lho abiIily of
lho vrilor lo adapl lho lono viII naIo Iollors ½¸¿®³·²¹ (his ilaIics).
Tho adoqualo vrilors, ho says, vrilo in oxaclIy lho sano vay, bul
lho oulslanding onos disarn lho roador ¡usl as a charning indi-
viduaI can disarn sonobody ho or sho is lrying lo infIuonco.
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Tho ovoraII lono for lho vrillon vord nusl naIo lho roador
conforlabIo and al oaso vilh vhal is said. This noans, in prolly
voII ovory caso, using I/vo ralhor lhan lho lhird porson, as in XYZ
conpany doos lhis or lhal. Il aIso noans using ´you' insload of
slanding bacI and ignoring lho roador as an individuaI. Il noans
using lho aclivo voico, avoiding passivo vorb-phrasos incIuding
an, is, vas, voro or boon. For oxanpIo, il is nuch bollor lo vrilo ´I
naIo' lhan ´I an naIing'. And onco you aro in lho habil of using
conslruclions vilh parlicipIo -·²¹ or -»¼ vorb ondings you naIo lho
copy slodgy and unpaIalabIo, so off-pulling lo lho roador.
Il is cruciaI in adopling a suilabIo lono of voico lo sloor cIoar of
discrininalory Ianguago lhal can offond. Thal noans, for a slarl,
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avoiding soxisl lorns and such faclors as raco, roIigion, ago, soxuaI
orionlalion and any Iind of disabiIily.
In businoss connunicalions il is hard lo adopl an aII-onbracing
lono vhon lhoro aro sovoraI audioncos, for oxanpIo in hoaIlhcaro
and financiaI sorvicos. In bolh, lho lono noods lo bo varn, friondIy
and caring, yol aulhorilalivo and firn vhon lho occasion
donands, vholhor in corrospondonco or prinlvorI.
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Wrilo in a vay lhal suggosls you aro hoIping lho roador. You viII
nood lo slross lho bonofils of vhalovor producl or sorvico you aro
vriling aboul, bul you nusl avoid ¡argon and lochnicaI Ianguago
lhal nay nol bo vidoIy undorslood. This is parlicuIarIy inporlanl
vhon lho nossago is going lo a varioly of audioncos, lo sharo-
hoIdors, doaIors and cuslonors for inslanco. In such casos, il viII
probabIy bo nocossary lo produco sovoraI vorsions of lho sano
nossago. InlornaI budgols viII usuaIIy docido vholhor or nol lhis
is vorlhvhiIo.
Adopl a friondIy, varn slyIo, ovon a chally ono providod il isn'l
ovordono, bul don'l Iol il appoar palronising. Whon lho lino
conos for a nogalivo nossago, uso a lono lhal is gracious and
undorslanding. For oxanpIo, if il is nocossary lo loII sonoono lhoir
appIicalion for a Ioan nusl bo ro¡oclod, don'l sound officious and
unhoIpfuI. Iul il so lhal lho roador undorslands lhal your firn has
ils ruIos, and viII do ovorylhing possibIo lo hoIp in lho fuluro.
Again, if you havo lo vrilo a Iollor lo confirn sonoono's disnissaI,
vrilo il in a considoralo and caring vay. You novor Inov vhoro
lhal porson viII bo onpIoyod noxl.
Don'l lry lo buIIy lho roador inlo boIioving sonolhing, as so
nany saIos Iollors soon lo lhoso days. Don'l bo afraid lo apoIogiso
if sonolhing goos vrong, say a doIivory lhal vonl aslray or faiIuro
on lho parl of your slaff. TaIo lho bIano yoursoIf and don'l lry lo
shifl il lo undorIings.
Il is nocossary lo slriIo a baIanco bolvoon a lono lhal is friondIy
bul firn. Thoro is lho dangor of ovor-infornaIily: il IiIIs crodonco,
ovon aulhonlicily. Wrilo vo viII/vouId, nol vo'II/vo'd, you
aro/havo and nol you'ro/you'vo. Tho shorlonod slyIo is fino for
ads, saIos Iollors and naiIshols, porhaps sono Iollors, inlornaI
nonos and onaiIs, bul is loo sIoppy for fornaI prinlvorI.
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Tho lono you laIo says sonolhing aboul you and vhal you and
your conpany aro IiIo. Sinco il affocls hov your nossago is
porcoivod, il is ossonliaI lo gol il righl, no nallor hov nuch offorl
and lino lhal nighl noan.
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Mosl firns doaIing vilh lho pubIic and vilh nany difforonl audi-
oncos laIo lono soriousIy. A Ioading firn in lho insuranco soclor
has, for inslanco, issuod ils slaff vilh a sol of guidoIinos lo givo lho
conpany a dislinclivo lono. In corrospondonco and naiIshols, for
oxanpIo, il's §±«K®» nol you aro, and using pIain EngIish vilh
aclivo vorbs and suporIalivos vhoro approprialo, bul slaying cIoar
of sIang vords IiIo ´fab' and ´cooI'.
Ralhor lhan vriling ´I'n in rocoipl of your Iollor' il's ´lhanIs for
your Iollor' ovon lhough lo sono oyos lhis vouId appoar ovor-
infornaI, ovon sIapdash. Bul lho conpany's IR doparlnonl says
lhoro is aIvays roon for porsonaI oxprossion vhon circunslancos
donand. Il's aII a quoslion of conbining figuros and slalislicaI
infornalion vilh hunan undorslanding. Evoryday Ianguago is lho
conpany's valchvord.
A caring lono can lurn round a hosliIo and billor audionco. For
oxanpIo, lho hoad of a cily counciI's lax coIIoclions doparlnonl al
ono lino loId boroavod faniIios lhal lhoy nusl pay lho docoasod
porson's ronaining lax biII quoling ´chaplor and vorso' on hov lho
lax nusl bo paid vilhoul any oxprossion of rogrol or synpalhy. No
apoIogy vas offorod for naIing lho donand in caso of Iiligalion.
Tho counciI vas soon as coId and uncaring, onIy inloroslod in
golling nonoy oul of laxpayors no nallor vhal lho circunslancos.
Bul lho counciI's IRO says lhal onco an apoIogolic acInovIodgo-
nonl of boroavononl vas givon, a highor ralo of lax coIIoclion
rosuIlod. ´By apoIogising and oxpIaining, poopIo paid up ralhor
lhan ignoring lho provious insonsilivo Iollor.' So horo vas a posi-
livo oulcono fron an inprovod and undorslanding lono.
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Tho hoaIlhcaro soclor providos oxanpIos of hov a friondIy, yol
aulhorilalivo, lono doIivors a noaningfuI nossago lo palionls, as
voII as lo hoaIlh profossionaIs and lho vidor pubIic. For inslanco, a
IoafIol for lho charily HoaIlhy Hoarl UK, lo raiso avaronoss and
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incroaso undorslanding of lho risI faclors for coronary hoarl
disoaso, is vrillon in a cIoar, oasy-lo-foIIov slyIo, bul covoring
conpIox nodicaI sub¡ocls. Tho IoafIol, draflod by Ash
Connunicalions of London, oxpIains a nodicaI procoduro in
oasy-lo-foIIov slops, loIIing palionls vhal lhoy can oxpocl fron a
nov lroalnonl procoduro. Il is prinlod in Iargish (18pl sans sorif)
lypo vilh a brighl, choorfuI covor.
LoafIols dispIayod in ovory doclor's surgory naIo oxlonsivo uso
of lho porsonaI pronoun ´you', ´vo', and shorloning ¬¸¿¬ ·- lo
´lhal's, ¸±© ·- lo hov's. Wido uso of Iovor caso for hoadings givos a
soflor, Ioss harsh IooI lhan capilaIs. Such vrillon and visuaI slyIos
aro lho prino ingrodionls of a caring and posilivo lono, ossonliaI
for offoclivo connunicalion lo a rango of audioncos.
A sludy in 2004 by lho NalionaI Consunor CounciI found lhal
ono in fivo poopIo had lroubIo in undorslanding basic hoaIlh infor-
nalion. ´HoaIlh Iiloracy is ossonliaI for inproving hoaIlh and
hoaIlh sorvicos', says lho NCC. LoafIols for palionls shouId bo
vrillon in pIain, oasy-lo-undorsland Ianguago. Thoso prosonlod in
a quoslion-and-ansvor fornal vorI voII: for oxanpIo, an NHS
infornalion panphIol on innunisalion againsl pnounoccoccaI
infoclion for lho ovor-75s oxpIains hov infoclion is sproad and
vhal lho synplons aro in an oasy-road forn. Il is inporlanl nol lo
dovnpIay sorious iIInossos, bul lo givo lho facls vilhoul using
nodicaI lorns and procoduros lhal nighl nol bo undorslood.
A sofl, varn lono of voico is ossonliaI for hoaIlh nossagos.
Ihrasos IiIo ´you viII undorsland/find lhal' is far proforabIo lo
´you nusl do lhis or lhal', or ´you nay fooI a IillIo unconforlabIo'
nol ´you nighl/viII fooI pain'. AIvays vrilo in a vay lhal viII
Ioavo palionls fooIing confidonl yol roIaxod aboul any procoduros
lhoy nighl havo lo undorgo, and confidonl lhal lho hoaIlhcaro slaff
aro lhoro lo hoIp lhon al aII linos.
Suo Ash, nanaging diroclor, Ash Connunicalions, oxpIains:
´Tho Ioy is lo pilch lho nossago according lo lho audionco. Il is
inporlanl nol lo bo palronising, bul lo uso slraighlforvard
Ianguago, avoiding ¡argon and finding a baIanco lhal viII vorI for
aII IovoIs of undorslanding.'
̱²» ·² ³¿®µ»¬·²¹ ½±³³«²·½¿¬·±²-
David Lovo, narIoling consuIlanl and Iocluror, says lhal a consis-
lonl lono nusl bo nainlainod in pIanning narIoling connunica-
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lions, vhich loday onbraco an incroasingIy broad rango of nodia.
As voII as lho Iong-oslabIishod nass nodia of TV and nalionaI
pross, poslors, radio and cinona, lhoro aro lho spociaIisl pross,
dirocl naiI and ovon lho inlornol, vhich onabIo connorciaI
nossagos lo bo largolod far noro accuraloIy al spocific audioncos.
Ho says lhal sinco narIoling oxporls aro nov oxpoclod lo ¡uslify
lhoir docisions by quanlifying rosuIls in lorns of onquirios and
saIos, lhoro is a groving londoncy lo add noro noasurabIo
connunicalions nodia lo lho nix. Tho largol audioncos viII lhoro-
foro rocoivo nossagos in a nunbor of difforonl vays. ´Sonolinos
lho lono of lhoso nossagos nay vary vilh a consoquonl Ioss of
ovoraII inpacl', says David Lovo. ´Ono of lho roasons for lhis is
lhal ralhor lhan ono agoncy boing rosponsibIo for ovorylhing,
spociaIisl suppIiors nay bo usod lo croalo naloriaI for lhoir parlic-
uIar nodia and a consislonl croalivo slralogy is nol foIIovod. For
inslanco, lho vobsilo dosignor nay havo no InovIodgo of hov lho
sano nossago viII bo convoyod in a dirocl naiI canpaign. Thoy in
lhoir lurn aro unavaro of lho vorI lho agoncy is producing for lho
lrado pross.'
Anolhor faclor is lhal audioncos don'l nocossariIy fil inlo noal,
soIf-conlainod ´boxos'. Cuslonors nay aIso bo sharohoIdors,
onpIoyoos or Iivo cIoso lo lho faclory. In oach of lhoso roIos, lhoy
nay nood lo rocoivo difforonl lypos of infornalion. Bul lho lono
nusl bo consislonl. ´To bo offoclivo, ovory pioco of narIoling
connunicalions shouId havo lho sano lono, irrospoclivo of lho
nodiun choson. Tho organisalion concornod has lo oslabIish
cIoarIy vhal lono is approprialo for ils oslabIishod corporalo
cuIluro and brand idonlily, and lhon onsuro lhal lhis is carriod
lhrough in aII ils connunicalions', says Lovo.
Ü»ª»´±°·²¹ ¿² ·²º±®³¿´ ¬±²»
Bocauso you aro vriling a businoss Iollor or nono, or ovon a
soclion for your conpany brochuro or annuaI roporl, lhoro is no
nood lo bo sliff and slodgy. Sonlonco slrucluros vilh ondIoss sub-
cIausos, porhaps running lo 45 or ovon 60 vords, faiI lo donon-
slralo anylhing olhor lhan lho vrilor's abiIily lo lhinI up lvico as
nany vords as nocossary.
Tho firsl lhing lo do is lo uso pIonly of ´you' and ´your' and ´I'
and ´vo' pronouns. Thoro is, hovovor, dangor in using loo nany
´I's, parlicuIarIy for sonlonco slarls. If you aro laIIing aboul sono-
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lhing your firn has dono, or proposos lo do, uso ´vo' and nol XYZ
conpany. Bul il vouId bo ogolislicaI lo uso ´I' in lhoso circun-
slancos, unIoss il is sonolhing lhal you havo porsonaIIy dono or
said.
Tho ob¡oclivo nusl bo lo naIo lho connunicalion sound
naluraI and roIaxod, bul profossionaI and aulhorilalivo al lho sano
lino. Bo carofuI vilh lho uso of ´yoursoIf' and ´nysoIf', and naIo
suro lhoy don'l sound soIf-offacing. Uso ovoryday vords and
phrasos, and don'l lry lo bo loo cIovor by haIf and slarl laIIing
aboul por annun, ad hoc and olhor faniIiar Lalin lorns. Thoy
don'l sound friondIy and can oasiIy pul off lho roador vho nay nol
bo as voII oducalod as you aro.
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UsofuI lips on croaling a fornaI lono viII bo found in }o
BiIIinghan's handy booI Û¼·¬·²¹ ¿²¼ λª·-·²¹ Ì»¨¬ in lho Oxford
´Ono slop ahoad' sorios. Tho advico sho givos can bo sunnod up
lhus: uso Iongor sonloncos lhan lho roconnondod onos of 25÷30
vords, chooso noro conpIox vords, nunbor lho poinls you vanl
lo naIo, onil sofloning phrasos (´as you aro avaro' boconos ´as
you Inov'), ´you shouId' boconos ´you nusl'.
Croalo a dislanco bolvoon vrilor and roador (´as you Inov'
changos lo ´roadors viII bo avaro'), Iong docunonls innodialoIy
appoar noro fornaI lhan shorl onos. And il's oul vilh fashionabIo
vords IiIo ´synorgy' and ¡argon undorslandabIo lo onIy a spociaIisl
audionco. Troal lho conpany as a singIo onlily: XYZ conpany ·-
nol aro doing sonolhing.
̸» ¾»-¬ ¬±²»
Tho bosl lono is pIain, unaffoclod, unbIonishod by suporIalivos. Il
noilhor laIIs dovn nor ¡azzos (nor soxos) up, il rogards aII roadors
as oquaI, il doosn'l oxcuso or apoIogiso unnocossariIy, nor doos il
lry lo boIillIo lho roador by shoving hov cIovor or sophislicalod
lho vrilor is, il's nol ´ono-up' on lho roador. Il is varn and friondIy
if circunslancos aIIov, il is onlhusiaslic aboul vhal you havo lo
say. Il is confidonl, yol courloous and sincoro. And il dononslralos
a hoIpfuI alliludo coupIod vilh an offor lo ovorcono probIons.
Tho bosl lono can oxpross disappoinlnonl bul novor angor.
Tho crux of lho nallor is lo adapl and vary your lono according
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îðì
lo lho audionco and vholhor lho nossago is sonolhing you vanl
lho roador lo do, or is sinpIy for infornalion. In a Iollor, for
oxanpIo, you vouId adopl a difforonl lono lo a suppIior vho had
Iol you dovn lo lho ono vho is going lo provido a spociaI sorvico
lhal you dosporaloIy nood.
Wrilo vilh vords lhal aro siniIar lo lhoso you vouId uso if you
voro spoaIing. You vouId vrilo in a difforonl vay lo ¡unior
nonbors of slaff inslrucling lhon lo do sonolhing lhan you
vouId lo lho nanaging diroclor of a cIionl conpany aboul a nov
conlracl. Il's aII a quoslion of baIanco. Golling lhal baIanco righl is
lho difficuIl bil.
̱²» P ¬¸» ´·²½¸°·² ±º ®»°«¬¿¬·±²
îðë
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
ر© §±« -¿§ -±³»¬¸·²¹ ·- ¶«-¬ ¿- ·³°±®¬¿²¬ ¿- ©¸¿¬ §±« -¿§æ
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®»¿¼»®ò
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»¿-» ©·¬¸ ©¸¿¬ ·- -¿·¼ò
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ª±·½»ò
ͬ»»® ½´»¿® ±º ¼·-½®·³·²¿¬±®§ ´¿²¹«¿¹»ò
ߪ±·¼ -»¨·-¬ ¬»®³-ô ¿²¼ ¬»®³- ¬¸¿¬ ¼·-¬·²¹«·-¸ ®¿½»ô ®»´·¹·±²ô
¿¹» ±® ¿²§ ¼·-¿¾·´·¬·»-ò
ͬ®»-- ¬¸» ¾»²»º·¬- ±º °®±¼«½¬- ¿²¼ -»®ª·½»-ò
ß¼±°¬ ¿ º®·»²¼´§ô ©¿®³ -¬§´» ¾«¬ ¼±²K¬ ¾» °¿¬®±²·-·²¹ò
Ѫ»®ó·²º±®³¿´·¬§ µ·´´- ½®»¼»²½» ¿²¼ ¿«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ò
Ë-» °´¿·² Û²¹´·-¸å ±³·¬ ¶¿®¹±²ò
Û²-«®» ¬±²» ·- ½±²-·-¬»²¬ ¿½®±-- ¿´´ ½±³³«²·½¿¬·±²- ¿²¼ ¿«¼·ó
»²½»-ò
Õ»»° -»²¬»²½»- -¸±®¬ º±® ¿² ·²º±®³¿´ ¬±²»ô ´±²¹»® º±® º±®³¿´
³»--¿¹»-ò
ܱ²K¬ ¾»´·¬¬´» ¬¸» ®»¿¼»® ¾§ -¸±©·²¹ ¸±© ½´»ª»® §±« ¿®»ò
Thoro can bo fov pubIic roIalions poopIo vho aro nol al sono lino
in lhoir caroors invoIvod vilh lhoir organisalion's annuaI roporl.
Evon if il's nol lhoir dirocl rosponsibiIily, IR praclilionors viII
aInosl corlainIy bo lasIod vilh producing copy for il: porhaps a
soclion on connunicalions slralogy, dolaiIs of ovonls and olhor
funclions, naybo ovon a drafl of lho chairnan's slalononl. In lho
caso of lrado associalions, lhoy nighl possibIy conlribulo an
oulIino of a nossago fron lho prosidonl, or if a charily lhon il
nighl bo an appoaI by lho palron for funds fron supporlors.
Bul vhalovor lho ¡ob, il is an inporlanl ono, onbracing anylhing
fron conlonl and copy lo dosign and doIivory. In nany casos, lho
annuaI roporl sorvos lho duaI purposo of providing an accounl of
lho yoar's aclivilios and financiaI porfornanco and a roguIarIy
updalod corporalo brochuro Iasling lho yoar, lhus avoiding lho
oxponso of a soparalo, oxponsivo pubIicalion.
Tho annuaI roporl is a prino connunicalions looI. Il is lho voico
and lono of lho organisalion: il onabIos lho chairnan, chiof oxocu-
livo and diroclors lo naIo poIicy slalononls, and dononslralos
corporalo govornanco crodonliaIs and rosponsibiIily for corporalo
îðê
îð
sociaI rosponsibiIily issuos. In facl, il is a crilicaI and cruciaI arn of
corporalo slralogy providod il connunicalos offoclivoIy.
Bul lhal is vhoro nany roporls faII dovn and vaslo sharo-
hoIdors' or nonbors' nonoy, vhiIo shoIloring undor lho oxcuso
lhal lho annuaI roviov is sonolhing lhal nusl bo dono, no nallor
vhal lho oxponso, irrospoclivo of ils vaIuo as a connunicalion
nodiun. To sono il can bo a choro, bul for aII a chaIIongo lo gol il
righl.
ÛÍÍÛÒÌ×ßÔ ßÍÐÛÝÌÍ
Far loo nany annuaI roporls aro poorIy dosignod, badIy vrillon
and faiI lo achiovo anylhing bul an upIifl lo lho chairnan's ogo
vilh a big picluro and a soIf-salisfiod group of diroclors. LooI nov
al vhal lho annuaI roporl nusl, by Iav, provido for a conpany's
sharohoIdors or an organisalion's nonbors or supporlors. Evon if
lho IogaI ruIos and roguIalions aro soIdon lho dirocl concorn of IR
profossionaIs, you shouId al Ioasl bo avaro of lho nain IogisIalion
affocling your organisalion and ils annuaI roporl.
ͬ¿¬«¬±®§ ®»¯«·®»³»²¬-
Il is a roquirononl of lho Conpanios Acl lhal ovory conpany
(vholhor Iinilod by sharos or guaranloo) is roquirod lo produco a
sol of accounls and pul lo an annuaI gonoraI nooling for approvaI
by sharohoIdors or nonbors, vilh a copy lo lho Rogislrar of
Conpanios. Tho diroclors nusl proparo a diroclors' roporl and, for
quolod conpanios, a diroclors' ronunoralion roporl. Thoro aro
sovoro ponaIlios for faiIuro lo conpIy vilh lho Acl (lho onIy
oxonplion lo doIivoring accounls appIios lo unIinilod conpanios).
Thoro aro slricl ruIos covoring lho conlonl and fornal of lho
annuaI roporl and accounls lo givo a ´lruo and fair viov' of lho
conpany and ils financiaI affairs. Evory nonbor or sharohoIdor is
onlilIod lo rocoivo a copy of lho annuaI roporl and accounls, lho
ArlicIos of lho conpany nay bo anondod (undor lho EIoclronic
Connunicalions Ordor) lo aIIov lho annuaI roporl lo bo sonl lo
sharohoIdors using oIoclronic connunicalions. Lislod conpanios
aro aIIovod lo issuo sunnary financiaI slalononls lo sharo-
hoIdors, insload of lho fuII accounls, bul lho fuII accounls nusl bo
avaiIabIo as an oplion.
λ°±®¬·²¹ ¿²²«¿´´§æ ½¸±®» ±® ½¸¿´´»²¹»á
îðé
If lho conpany is aIso a rogislorod charily or if lho organisalion
is a rogislorod charily, an annuaI roporl and rolurn shouId aIso bo
issuod lo lho Charily Connission. Charilios nood lo conpIy vilh
SORI, lho Slalononl of Roconnondod Iraclico. A nunbor of
induslrios aro govornod by soparalo IogisIalion: for oxanpIo banIs,
buiIding sociolios, insuranco conpanios and sono businossos such
as soIicilors and accounlanls nood lo conpIy vilh lho ruIos of lhoir
govorning bodios. Trado associalions aro oflon in lho forn of
Iinilod conpanios and aro govornod by lho Conpanios Acl.
Ñ°»®¿¬·²¹ ¿²¼ Ú·²¿²½·¿´ λª·»©-
An Oporaling and FinanciaI Roviov (OFR) viII bo a roquirononl
for aII UK quolod conpanios for financiaI yoars boginning in 2005.
Guidanco for diroclors has boon pubIishod by lho OFR WorIing
Group.
Tho inlroduclion of a nandalory OFR vas a Ioy roconnonda-
lion of lho Conpany Lav Roviov, and ondorsod in lho govorn-
nonl's Whilo Iapor Ó±¼»®²·-·²¹ ݱ³°¿²§ Ô¿© in lho sunnor of
2003. FuII dolaiIs aro avaiIabIo on lho Doparlnonl of Trado and
Induslry vobsilo, vvv.dli.gov.uI, or by onaiI lo ofrvorIing-
group©dli.gsi.gov.uI.
Ú«®¬¸»® ·²º±®³¿¬·±²
For conpanios: conlacl lho Rogislrar, Conpanios Houso,
vvv.conpanioshouso.gov.uI. For charilios: conlacl lho Connis-
sionor, Charily Connission, vvv.charily-connissionor.gov.uI.
Soo aIso ´Furlhor roading' al lho ond of lhis booI.
ÉØßÌ ÓßÕÛÍ ß ÙÑÑÜ ßÒÒËßÔ ÎÛÐÑÎÌá
Tho prino issuo horo is lhal vhal is good for ono organisalion nay
nol bo so for anolhor. Doponding on lho nunbor prinlod, sizo and
dosign, an annuaI roporl couId cosl anylhing fron a pound or lvo
por copy lo 20 or noro linos lhal. Many roporls I havo soon aro
cIoarIy nuch Iongor lhan lhoy nood lo bo, aro ovor-dosignod and
aro franIIy a vaslo of sharohoIdors' nonoy. (SharohoIdors don'l
pay for lhon diroclIy, bul lhoy oal up profils lhal vouId olhorviso
bo allribulabIo lo lhon in dividonds.)
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îðè
Wriling in ̸» ͽ±¬-³¿² in March 2004, Exoculivo Edilor BiII
}anioson says lhal sono chairnon Iavish lons of lhousands of
pounds and ´ondIoss hours' of nanagononl lino on lho annuaI
roporl, onIy lo gol no covorago vhalovor in lho businoss pross and
al bosl a dosuIlory rosponso fron sharohoIdors. Ho says lhal
´aInosl aII' of lho dozons of roporls ho rocoivos ´faiI lo oxpIain
cIoarIy vhal lho conpany doos or naIos, hov il has dono bollor or
vorso lhan Iasl yoar and vhal lho roaIislic oulIooI is for lho yoar
ahoad'. His loIIing nossago for CEO and lho IR doparlnonl: ´I
vouId say lho biggor and noro oxponsivo lho annuaI roporl, lho
noro ovidonl lho faiIuro.'
Tho chairnan's slalononl, ho says, is boconing ´fornuIaic': by
lho lino il has passod lhrough ´Iavyors, spin doclors, and conpIi-
anco officors ho nighl as voII havo asIod a nachino lo do lho ¡ob'.
Il is lino, ho arguos, lhal conpanios gol a grip on annuaI roporls
and rolurnod lhon lo firsl principIos: a fuII, cIoar, no-friIIs slalo-
nonl of lho businoss and a franI assossnonl of curronl condilions.
As a firsl slop, annuaI roporls shouId bo haIvod in sizo, and
poIilicaIIy corrocl vaffIo ronovod, lho onvironnonl vouId bo
bollor sorvod by aIIoving lho papor lo ´ronain on lho lroos'. Bul
hovovor voII inlonlionod aII lhal nay bo, il is oasior said lhan
dono. Lol's IooI nov al lho possibiIilios for naIing lho annuaI
roporl noro roadabIo, noro croalivo and abovo aII a noro cosl-
offoclivo connunicalions vohicIo.
ß² ·²¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ ª·»©
Loading IR profossionaI Toni FaIconi, founding chairnan of lho
GIobaI AIIianco for IubIic RoIalions and Connunicalion
Managononl, has Iong oxporionco in producing annuaI roporls for
na¡or conpanios. Signor FaIconi, Innodialo Iasl Irosidonl of lho
IlaIian IubIic RoIalions Associalion (FERII), says lhal lho issuo of
roporling annuaIIy is al lho vory coro of soIf-oxprossion, ils abiIily
lo loII a slory of a conpany's achiovononls lo infIuonliaI pubIics.
Ho fooIs il is a nislaIo for IR oxoculivos lo bo onIy invoIvod in
lhoir lradilionaI roIos of rosponsibiIily for dosign, fornal, dislribu-
lion and pronolion. Thoir sIiIIs vouId bo nuch bollor onpIoyod if
lhoy voro conconlralod on conlonl, vilh viovs on financiaI, sociaI
and onvironnonlaI issuos.
Signor FaIconi givos subslanliaI supporl lo BiII }anioson's
viovs. ´In gonoraI, loday's roporls aro nol vory usofuI as lhoy aro
λ°±®¬·²¹ ¿²²«¿´´§æ ½¸±®» ±® ½¸¿´´»²¹»á
îðç
noslIy vrillon by oxporls vho Inov noro aboul lho conpany
lhan appoars in prinl. Thoy aro nol vrillon for lho infIuonliaI
pubIics.' Tho quoslion of Ianguago, vhal lho roporl says and hov
il is oxprossod, is cruciaI: lho IR profossionaIs shouId bo capabIo of
inlorproling lochnicaI and spociaIisod ¡argon, incIuding financiaI
lorns and slalononls, and naIing il roadabIo and undorslandabIo.
Olhorviso, ho asIs, vhal olhor purposo is lhoro for lho IR porson`
Sinco nosl IR poopIo faiI lo undorsland proporIy an annuaI
roporl's spociaIisod conlonl, lhoy aro Ioss abIo lo inlorprol il, and
subsoquonlIy lransnil lho infornalion in a vay lhal salisfios
noilhor lho roador nor lho conpany.
Rolurning lo }anioson's lhono, ho roiloralos lhal roporls shouId
bo nuch lhinnor and noro roadabIo. In-doplh anaIysis, charls and
spociaIisod dala shouId bo Iofl lo lho vobsilo for lho oxporls lo
oxlracl lho infornalion lhoy nood.
ÌØÛ ×ÓÐÑÎÌßÒÝÛ ÑÚ ÛÚÚÛÝÌ×ÊÛ
ÝÑÓÓËÒ×ÝßÌ×ÑÒ
An anaIysis of lho annuaI roporls of Europo's lop 100 conpanios
by Irovso & Co, ̸» ݱ³°¿²§ λ°±®¬ λ°±®¬ îððì, concIudos lhal
lho na¡orily faiIod lo connunicalo offoclivoIy lo lho largol audi-
oncos of sharohoIdors, onpIoyoos, suppIiors, cuslonors and
anaIysls. ´LacIing innovalion, poorIy slruclurod, voofuIIy
dosignod, lho na¡orily of lhis yoar's roporls givo lho inprossion of
boing sinuIlanoousIy undor-rosourcod and undorvaIuod.' This
danning concIusion is givon furlhor voighl by lho inpacl of lho
Enron scandaI, vhich rosuIlod in conpanios cranning as nuch
infornalion inlo lhoir roporls as possibIo, lo lho dolrinonl of lho
ovoraII docunonl.
According lo lho roporl's pubIishor, Iolor Irovso, incroasing
roguIalion is oncouraging a ´licI lho box' approach lo pIanning lho
conlonl of annuaI roporls. ´Many Iargo conpanios aro nov
incIuding infornalion aboul corporalo and sociaI rosponsibiIily,
onpIoynonl poIicios and diroclors' ronunoralion bocauso lhoy aro
obIigod lo. Tho nanagor or diroclor rosponsibIo for lho conlonl of
lho annuaI roporl goos lhrough a chocIIisl of lhings lhal havo lo bo
dono. Tho roaIIy inporlanl nossagos lhal lho conpany shouId bo
doIivoring lo slaIohoIdors slarl lo laIo a bacI soal. Tho rosuIl is a
lhicI docunonl lhal conpIios vilh aII lho roguIalions, bul nobody
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îïð
λ°±®¬·²¹ ¿²²«¿´´§æ ½¸±®» ±® ½¸¿´´»²¹»á
îïï
Ú·¹«®» îðòï ̸·- ¿²²«¿´ Ю±©-» ¿²¿´§-·- ·- ¿² ·²ª¿´«¿¾´» ¹«·¼» ¬± ¬¸»
½±³³«²·½¿¬·±²- »ºº»½¬·ª»²»-- ±º ¿²²«¿´ ®»°±®¬- º®±³ Û«®±°»K- ¬±° ïðð
½±³°¿²·»-
vanls lo road il. Il IooIs IiIo ovory olhor big conpany's annuaI
roporl and connunicalos vory IillIo aboul lho organisalion's
porsonaIily ÷ vhal naIos il difforonl and vhoro il's hoading.'
̸» ½¸¿·®³¿²K- -¬¿¬»³»²¬
IrobabIy lho nosl inporlanl parl of any annuaI roporl is lho
chairnan's slalononl. Il sols lho lono and, says lho Irovso survoy,
is lho ono parl roadors viII road and rononbor. Il is lho onIy
soclion lo bo cIosoIy oxaninod, for il is lhoro lo givo an ovorviov of
lho conpany's porfornanco ovor lho yoar and a forocasl of fuluro
prospocls.
For a lrado associalion, lho chiof oxoculivo's or prosidonl's
nossago sorvos a siniIar purposo lo lho chairnan's slalononl for a
conpany, and usuaIIy occupios a prino posilion oarIy in lho docu-
nonl.
BI pIc is nunbor lvo in lho Iisl of lop roporls idonlifiod by
Irovso. ´Slanding aparl fron lho pacI, lhis roporl has a slrong,
sinpIo nossago on lho fronl covor lhal is sinpIy dononslralod in
lho conlonl of lho ronaindor of lho docunonl. Il conlains pIonly of
infornalion vhich is bolh voII prosonlod and vrillon.' Tho chair's
slalononl rofIocls lho changing roIo of lho board of diroclors and
lho conpany's anlicipalion of lhoso changos.
Anong lho quoslions affocling lho scoro aIIocalod in ̸»
ݱ³°¿²§ λ°±®¬ λ°±®¬ lo lho chairnan's slalononl in oach annuaI
roporl aro: Hov inloIIigonl is lho vriling` Is il loo shorl or loo
Iong` Aro slalononls bacIod up vilh ovidonco fron lho con-
pany's porfornanco` Doos il conparo in quaIily vilh an arlicIo in
̸» Û½±²±³·-¬ or doos il havo lho fooI of boing vrillon by a
connilloo` Aro lhoro aIIusions lo lho conpany slralogy and hov
cohoronl aro lhoso`
É®·¬¬»² ¾§ ¹¸±-¬©®·¬»®-á
Too nany of lho chairnon's slalononls appoar lo havo boon
vrillon by ghoslvrilors, says lho roporl. ´LacIing in porsonaIily
and oflon undoroslinaling lho inloIIigonco of lho roador', lho
na¡orily londod lovards bIand, uninspiring copy, fuII of banaI
slalononls. Sono voro ovorIy Iong, vilh ono of ovor 3,000 vords.
Olhors londod lo criliciso poIicios or IogisIalion onaclod by lhoir
nalionaI govornnonls. Bul, asIs lho roporl, is lhis lho righl pIaco
for airing lhoso slalononls` Sinco lhis appoars lo bo a raro occur-
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îïî
λ°±®¬·²¹ ¿²²«¿´´§æ ½¸±®» ±® ½¸¿´´»²¹»á
îïí
Ú·¹«®» îðòî ß ²±ª»´ ¿°°®±¿½¸ º±® ¬¸» »·¹¸¬ó°¿¹» îððí ¿²²«¿´ ®»ª·»©
±º ¬¸» ײ-¬·¬«¬» ±º Ю¿½¬·¬·±²»®- ·² ß¼ª»®¬·-·²¹æ ·¬- ¸«¹» ßï øëçì èìï
³³ º´¿¬ -¸»»¬ -·¦»÷ º±´¼- ¬©·½» ¬± ßíò Ü»-·¹²»¼ ¿²¼ °®±¼«½»¼ ¾§ ο¼´»§
Ç»´¼¿®ô Ô±²¼±²ò Ü·ºº·½«´¬ ¬± ¸¿²¼´»ô ¾«¬ ¿² »¿-§ ®»¿¼
ronco, il is foIl lhal il vouId bo bollor lo Ioavo lhon oul aIlogolhor
lhan risI aIionaling lho roador.
Ono concIusion lo bo dravn fron lhis survoy is lhal lho
chairnan's slalononl and copyvriling for lho ronaindor of lho
annuaI roporl shouId bo Iofl lo lho IR profossionaI. This confirns
and ondorsos lho viovs of Toni FaIconi, sunnarisod abovo.
Ü»-·¹² ¿²¼ °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²
Mosl sharohoIdors, and indood lho na¡orily of aII lhoso vho aro
sonl annuaI roporls, viII IooI oilhor for financiaI rosuIls and lho
dividond, or for pholographs of poopIo lhoy Inov. Thon lhoy givo
up: in lho bin goos lho roporl lhal diroclors, accounlanls and IR
poopIo havo sIavod ovor for nonlhs. Tho slodgy roporl lighlIy
pacIod vilh groy lypo unroIiovod by hoadings and lypographicaI
lricIs is lho biggosl lurn-off of aII lino.
Tho offoclivonoss of a conpany's annuaI roporl as a noans of
connunicalion lo ils pubIics doponds IargoIy on dosign and hov
lho infornalion is prosonlod. Tho vorsl possibIo courso is lo dig
oul Iasl yoar's copy, ¡usl chango lho dalo on lho covor and prinl il
in a difforonl coIour. Good dosign noans high-IovoI croalivo inpul
lhal onIy conos al a prico.
Sonolhing IiIo £180 niIIion is sponl oach yoar on prinling lho
counlry's annuaI roporls, says Tin TayIor, narIoling diroclor of
annuaI roporl spociaIisl BulIor & Tannor. Wilh an oxpondiluro IiIo
lhis, nuch caro and allonlion is noodod on dosign and conlonl.
Ø·¹¸ «²·¬ ½±-¬
Aconpany can spond as nuch as a quarlor of a niIIion pounds on
ils annuaI roporl. A fuII-coIour, squaro-bacIod prinl ¡ob on high-
quaIily papor running lo 100 or noro pagos for 50,000 copios couId
cosl ovon noro. If an oplionaI sunnary roporl (or a corporalo and
sociaI rosponsibiIily roporl) is producod as voII, lhal couId
incroaso lho prico, sinco lho fuII vorsion viII go lo Cily anaIysls and
inslilulions, lo ¡ournaIisls and ovorsoas invoslors. A cosl of noro
lhan £10÷15 a copy vouId nol bo unusuaI. Tho annuaI roporl
nighl lurn oul lo bo a vaslo of nonoy al 75p bul bo good vaIuo al
a fivor or noro, says ono fornor ILC financo diroclor. Il aII
doponds on ils noril as a connunicalions nodiun.
For lrado associalions and snaIIor conpanios, Iovor prinl runs
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îïì
can noan a far highor unil cosl, parlicuIarIy if oxponsivo, quaIily
naloriaIs aro usod. Tho roIalivoIy high cosl por copy of a Iavish
produclion is oflon ¡uslifiod by using lho roporl as a corporalo
brochuro for lho yoar, so saving lho oxponso of roguIar updaling
and prinling.
Indood, lho Irovso survoy is crilicaI of croalivily and produc-
lion vaIuos. Vory IillIo ovidonco oxisls, says lho roporl, of dosign
rofIocling conpanios' cIains for boing innovalivo onlorprisos.
´QuaIily of dosign is poor and al linos conpIoloIy IacIing.' For
inslanco, lho avorago nunbor of pholographs in roporls has faIIon
fron 57 lo 44 ovor lho Iasl lvo yoars.
´In pubIishing lho ݱ³°¿²§ λ°±®¬ λ°±®¬', says Iolor Irovso,
´vo aro lrying lo shov vhal vorIs voII and vhal doosn'l. Wo
hopo lhal conpany chairnon viII bogin lo rocogniso bosl praclico.
Il doosn'l havo lo cosl noro lo produco an oxcoIIonl roporl lhan il
doos lo produco a nodiocro ono. EnIighlonod conpanios roaIiso
lhal lhoy aro saddIod vilh having lo produco a dolaiIod docunonl,
so lhoy nighl as voII produco sonolhing lhal doos lho bosl
possibIo ¡ob for lhon. Conpanios lhal aro cIoso lo lhoir narIols
lond lo Ioad lho vay.'
ÉÐÐ -»¬- ¿² »¨¿³°´»
Many conpanios spond subslanliaI suns on naIing lhoir roporls
allraclivo and roadabIo docunonls. Ono of lhon is lho WII Group
of advorlising, narIoling and pubIic roIalions conpanios, vhich
prosonls in ils roporl and accounls for 2003 a nass of infornalion
in a succincl, oasy-lo-digosl slyIo using Iino iIIuslralions and
graphics, vilh a conlraI lhono carriod lhrough lho onliro docu-
nonl. Lino dravings of oxoculivo officors ralhor lhan pholographs
aro usod lo givo an individuaIislic fooI lo lho produclion.
SharohoIdors aro ´sharo ovnors' and aro addrossod lhus.
Tho 150-pago roporl opons vilh a six-ninulo ´fasl road' soclion,
an oulIino of lho group slrucluro, foIIovod by roador-friondIy
soclions hoadod, for oxanpIo, by vho vo aro, hov vo'ro doing,
vhal vo lhinI. Thon foIIov lho diroclors' roporl and soclions on
corporalo sociaI rosponsibiIily and financiaI infornalion, logolhor
vilh a Iisl of conlacls al lho bacI. Tho croalivo lhono is onbodiod
in lho docunonlalion for lho AGM, dovn lo lho pIaslic naiIing
vrappor, and ropoalod in lho pIalforn dosign and visuaI aids al
lho nooling.
λ°±®¬·²¹ ¿²²«¿´´§æ ½¸±®» ±® ½¸¿´´»²¹»á
îïë
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îïê
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ß--±½·¿¬·±²K- ¿²²«¿´ ®»°±®¬ò ×´´«-¬®¿¬·±²- ¼»°·½¬ ¿-°»½¬- ±º ¬¸» ßßK-
©±®µò Ü»-·¹² ¾§ Ô¿©®»²½» ݸ»«²¹
λ°±®¬·²¹ ¿²²«¿´´§æ ½¸±®» ±® ½¸¿´´»²¹»á
îïé
Ú·¹«®» îðòì Þ®·¹¸¬ô ½¸»»®º«´ ¼»-·¹² ·¼»¿ º±® Ì»-½±K- ¿²²«¿´ ®»°±®¬ ¿²¼
¿½½±«²¬-ò ̸·- -¬§´» ©¿- º±´´±©»¼ º±® ¬¸» ¿²²«¿´ ®»ª·»© ¿²¼ -«³³¿®§
º·²¿²½·¿´ -¬¿¬»³»²¬
Tho WII roporl von a IIalinun avard fron lho Loaguo of
Anorican Connunicalions IrofossionaIs (LACI), rocoiving 10
poinls oul of 10 for firsl inprossions, covor, Iollor lo sharohoIdors,
narralivo, roporl financiaIs, croalivily, nossago cIarily and infor-
nalion accossibiIily. Il vas aIso ranIod sixlh ovoraII oul of 1,223
roporls subnillod across aII calogorios.
ÐÎ ¾»²»º·¬- º®±³ ¹±±¼ ¼»-·¹²
A voII-producod annuaI roporl can provido innonso IR bonofils.
For lho connunicalions doparlnonl il dononslralos vhal lhoy
and lhoir dosign loan can do, and il can vin lhon an avard vilh
allondanl foIIov-up pubIicily. Il gols lho conpany laIIod aboul in
lho lrado pross. Abovo aII lhal, il is lho voico of lho conpany and
ils onpIoyoos lo aII ils audioncos. This noans lhal il nusl bo road-
abIo, allraclivo lo IooI al and a Ioy sourco of infornalion for ¡our-
naIisls, opinion-fornors and anaIysls. Tho conpany's ropulalion
doponds on il.
AII lho oIononls lhal, pul logolhor, naIo an annuaI roporl road-
abIo ÷ such nallors as lypo sizo, hoadings, uso of picluros and
caplions ÷ aro covorod in oarIior chaplors. Tho principIos of good
dosign and Iayoul shouId bo foIIovod rigorousIy, and vilh a IovoI
of croalivily lo naIo il sland oul fron lho rosl. Tho annuaI roporl is
lho nosl inporlanl docunonl any organisalion producos, il is ils
fIagship. As such il shouId gol aII lho allonlion il dosorvos.
ß²²«¿´ ®»°±®¬- ·² ¿² »´»½¬®±²·½ ¿¹»
Many conpanios, lrado associalions, charilios and olhor organisa-
lions naIo lhoir annuaI roporls avaiIabIo onIino. Caro nusl bo
laIon lo onsuro lhal any infornalion pubIishod in a prinlod roporl
is givon in lho onIino vorsion vilhoul any chango vhalsoovor.
WhiIo sono roadors profor lo road annuaI roporls onIino, lhoro aro
olhors vho profor lhon in a prinlod forn. Dospilo lho incroasing
popuIarily of onIino vorsions, connunicalion slralogios nusl bo
dovoIopod lo aIIov aII roadors oquaI opporlunily lo accoss infor-
nalion, vholhor lhoy road on scroon or in prinl.
Mosl annuaI roporls can bo viovod on vobsilos, and sono
conpanios asI sharohoIdors for lhoir onaiI addrossos so lhal lhoy
nay roquosl roguIar novs and financiaI infornalion. Ono such is
lho Managononl ConsuIling Group, vhich issuos sunnary
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îïè
lrading updalos ahoad of ils inlorin and finaI rosuIls for lho yoar,
vilh lho fuII updalos on lho 'Invoslor RoIalions Lalosl Conpany
Novs' pago of ils vobsilo. Il aIso confirns lho rosuIls rosoIulions
proposod al lho AGM oach yoar.
ConvorsoIy, lhoso firns lhal roIy on oIoclronic lochnoIogy lo
connunicalo vilh sharohoIdors nay faiI lo roach lhoir roadors as
voII as lhoy couId lhrough lho prinlod pago. As lho Irovso roporl
puls il: ´Whal lhoy vanl is sonolhing physicaI lo hoId and road.'
Hovovor, lho vaIuo of lho prinlod annuaI roporl nov appoars lo bo
in docIino, ovon lhough lhoro is a cIoar nood for il anong a signifi-
canl nunbor of sharohoIdors and olhor rocipionls.
Thoroin Iios a diIonna for chiof oxoculivos and lhoir pubIic roIa-
lions advisors: sinco lho popuIarily of lho onIino vorsion conlinuos
lo grov, a connunicalions slralogy aIIoving bolh lho oIoclronic
and prinlod vorsions lo bonofil aII roadors is noodod. And lhal, lo a
Iargo oxlonl, is in lho hands of lho lochnoIogisl.
λ°±®¬·²¹ ¿²²«¿´´§æ ½¸±®» ±® ½¸¿´´»²¹»á
îïç
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îîð
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±«-´§ò
ͬ®·½¬ ®«´»- ½±ª»® ¬¸» ½±²¬»²¬ ¿²¼ º±®³¿¬ ±º ¿½½±«²¬-ò
̸» ®»°±®¬ ¿²¼ ¿½½±«²¬- ³«-¬ ¹·ª» ¿ L¬®«» ¿²¼ º¿·®K ª·»© ±º ¬¸»
½±³°¿²§ ¿²¼ ·¬- ¿ºº¿·®-ò
λ¹«´¿¬·±²- º±® Ñ°»®¿¬·±²¿´ ¿²¼ Ú·²¿²½·¿´ λª·»©- øÑÚÎ÷ ¿°°´§
·² îððëò
̱± ³¿²§ ®»°±®¬- ¿®» ´±²¹»® ¬¸¿² ²»½»--¿®§ô ©¸·´» ±¬¸»®- ¿®»
±ª»®ó¼»-·¹²»¼ò
̸» º·®-¬ °®·²½·°´» ·- ¬± ¹·ª» ¿ º«´´ô ½´»¿®ô L²±óº®·´´-K -¬¿¬»³»²¬ ±º
¬¸» ¾«-·²»--ò
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-¬¿®¬ò
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L¶¿®¹±²Kò
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®»¿¼ ¿²¼ ®»³»³¾»®»¼ò
ͱ³» ®»°±®¬-ô ©®·¬¬»² ¾§ ¹¸±-¬©®·¬»®-ô ´¿½µ °»®-±²¿´·¬§ ¿²¼
«²¼»®»-¬·³¿¬» ®»¿¼»® ·²¬»´´·¹»²½»ò
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¿®» «²·²-°·®·²¹ô ¾´¿²¼ ¿²¼ ¾¿²¿´ò
λ°±®¬- ½¿² ¾» »¨°»²-·ª»ô ¾«¬ ½¿² ¾» «-»¼ ¿- ¬¸» ½±®°±®¿¬»
¾®±½¸«®» º±® §»¿®ò
̸» ³±-¬ »ºº»½¬·ª» ®»°±®¬- ¿®» ½®»¿¬·ª»´§ ¾®·´´·¿²¬ò
Ó¿²§ ÐÎ ¾»²»º·¬- ®»-«´¬ º®±³ ¹±±¼ ¼»-·¹²ò
Ѳ´·²» ª»®-·±²- ³«-¬ ²±¬ ¼·ºº»® º®±³ °®·²¬»¼ ®»°±®¬-ò
Inagino lhis. You aro oponing lho norning's posl and lhoro's an
onvoIopo vilh ´soIicilors' aflor a sol of nanos. Sonoono vanls lo
soII us a sorvico of sono Iind` If you couId bo so IucIy. Whal you
road viII nol bo a good slarl lo lho day: il says lhal a pross roIoaso
you havo ¡usl sonl oul has soriousIy naIignod lho ropulalion of a
cIionl's suppIior, vhich is considoring IogaI aclion and viII bo
cIaining danagos.
Ianic. Il doos nol nallor if a roIoaso is nol pubIishod: il can sliII
bo lho sub¡ocl of a courl aclion. If lho danaging vords aro circu-
Ialod lo lhird parlios, lhoy couId bo dofanalory ovon if lhoy aro nol
prinlod or broadcasl in lho nodia. And poopIo laII in pubs and
cIubs. A roIoaso is oul onco you hil lho ´sond' Ioy or onco il is
poslod on your vobsilo. Ihono caIIs lo cancoI il aro a vaslo of lino.
Onco il's oul, il's oul for good.
An aclion for dofanalion is ¡usl ono of lho poriIs any vrilor
facos. IubIic roIalions praclilionors nusl aIso bo avaro of IogisIa-
lion covoring copyrighl, dala proloclion, lrado narIs, conpoli-
lions and prico pronolions. Bosidos lhoso, lhoro aro sovoraI
soIf-roguIalory codos, nainIy concornod vilh advorlising, saIos
pronolion and dirocl narIoling, vhich nusl bo foIIovod.
LogisIalion covoring pubIic roIalions and pronolions is a conpIox
îîï
îï
sub¡ocl, and il is nol possibIo vilhin lho confinos of lhis shorl
chaplor lo givo anylhing bul a snapshol of lho nyriad Iavs and
roguIalions inpinging on our vorI. So horo is a briof run-dovn of
lho nain Iavs and ruIos lhal nusl bo foIIovod by IR and advor-
lising praclilionors aIiIo.
ÉØßÌ ×Í Ô×ÞÛÔá
LiboI is lho pubIicalion, in ´hard copy', of a faIso slalononl vhich
in¡uros lho ropulalion of a porson by ils londoncy lo ´Iovor
hin/hor in lho oslinalion of righl-lhinIing nonbors of socioly' or
causo righl-lhinIing nonbors of socioly lo shun or avoid lhal
porson. Il can aIso appIy lo conpanios and organisalions, in vhich
caso il is sonolinos caIIod lrado IiboI. Il is lhoroforo ossonliaI lo
IooI oul for any passago lhal couId bo IiboIIous and doIolo il, or al
Ioasl rovrilo so lhal il is no Iongor opon lo chaIIongo.
A IiboIIous slalononl is dofinod as ono nado in a pornanonl
forn, such as in vrillon docunonls, picluros or dravings.
MaIicious slalononls nado in radio and loIovision broadcasls, as
voII as dislribulod onaiIs and nossagos on lho inlornol, nay aIso
conslilulo a dofanalion. If lho dofanalory vords aro sinpIy
spoIon, lho dofanalion is caIIod sIandor.
Anong possibIo dofoncos againsl a cIain for danagos aro lhal
lho slalononl is nol pubIishod, il is nol dofanalory, il's lruo, il vas
nado on a priviIogod occasion, il is fair connonl on a nallor of
pubIic inlorosl, and il vas aulhorisod by lho conpIainanl (lhal is,
consonl has boon givon). Il is aIso possibIo lo naIo a caso for unin-
lonlionaI dofanalion, vhoro a porson vho pubIishos a IiboI offors
lo naIo a suilabIo corroclion and apoIogy, if lhis is nol accoplod, il
is a dofonco lo provo lhal lho vords voro pubIishod ´innoconlIy'.
If you aro boing suod, you can allonpl lo niligalo lho anounl of
danagos lhal nay bo avardod by noans of an apoIogy, a rolrac-
lion, or by shoving provocalion.
ɸ± ·- ´·¿¾´»á
Il is nol onIy lho aulhor or vrilor of lho slalononl vho nighl bo
IiabIo: if lho slalononl appoarod in a novspapor or poriodicaI, lho
propriolor, odilor, vondor or anyono pIacing lho slory can bo suod.
If a IiboIIous slalononl is broadcasl, lho lransnilling organisalion
or conpany, and lho porsons naIing lho broadcasl, couId bo hoId
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îîî
IiabIo. SiniIarIy prinlors aro rosponsibIo, ¡oinlIy vilh lho
pubIishors and aulhors, for aII IiboIs pubIishod in papors prinlod
by lhon.
ÝÑÐÇÎ×ÙØÌ ßÒÜ ÓÑÎßÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ
As IhiIip Circus naIos cIoar in his Í¿´»- Ю±³±¬·±² ¿²¼ Ü·®»½¬
Ó¿®µ»¬·²¹ Ô¿©æ ß °®¿½¬·½¿´ ¹«·¼» (Bullorvorlhs LoxisNoxis, 2002),
copyrighl is lho righl of lho croalor lo conlroI lho roproduclion of
originaI naloriaI for as Iong as lho naloriaI slays vilhin copyrighl.
Il oxisls basicaIIy in ovory pioco of Iilorary, arlislic, dranalic or
nusicaI vorI, and in sound rocordings, fiIns, loIovision broad-
casls, cabIo progrannos and pubIishod naloriaI. An idoa in ilsoIf
is nol copyrighl, and nanos, lilIos and sIogans gonoraIIy aro nol
sub¡ocl lo copyrighl proloclion (aIlhough lhoy can bo proloclod by
lrado narI rogislralion).
Tho copyrighl boIongs lo lho croalor of lho vorI, vilh lho oxcop-
lion lhal in lho caso of vorI croalod by onpIoyoos in lho courso of
lhoir onpIoynonl, lho copyrighl boIongs lo lho onpIoyor unIoss
olhorviso agrood. Copyrighl in Iilorary, arlislic, dranalic or
nusicaI vorIs curronlIy Iasls for lho Iifo of lho aulhor pIus 70
yoars fron lho ond of lho caIondar yoar in vhich lho aulhor dios.
For conpulor-gonoralod vorIs (vorI such as a labIo lhal has boon
croalod by conpulor soflvaro) il Iasls 50 yoars fron lho ond of lho
caIondar yoar in vhich lho vorI vas nado.
For IIR nonbors, lho basic posilions on lho duralion and lypos
of vorIs allracling copyrighl proloclion aro oulIinod in a copy-
righl guido for IR praclilionors, lo bo found in lho IogaI conlro
pagos of lho Inslilulo's vobsilo (vvv.ipr.org.uI). Tho guido has
boon producod for lho IIR by Laylons SoIicilors, loI: 020 7842 8000.
Ѿ¬¿·²·²¹ ½±°§®·¹¸¬ °®±¬»½¬·±²
AIlhough copyrighl is aulonalicaIIy acquirod innodialoIy a vorI
is vrillon (or rocordod in sono olhor forn such as on lapo or
conpulor disI) and lhoro is no fornaI rogislralion as such, il is
advisabIo lo oslabIish ovidonco of lho conpIolion of lho vorI, says
lho Socioly of Aulhors. Ono vay of doing lhis is lo doposil a copy
of lho scripl vilh a banI and gol a dalod rocoipl for il.
×- ·¬ ´»¹¿´á
îîí
Ó±®¿´ ®·¹¸¬- ±º ½®»¿¬±®-
Tho Copyrighl Dosigns and Ialonls Acl 1988 croalos lvo ´noraI'
righls, giving an aulhor or croalor of a vorI lho righl lo bo idonli-
fiod vhonovor lhal vorI is pubIishod, porfornod or broadcasl,
and lo ob¡ocl lo dorogalory lroalnonl of lho vorI. Tho righl lo bo
idonlifiod doos nol appIy unIoss il has boon assorlod in vriling.
MoraI righls can, hovovor, bo vaivod by agroononl.
ײº®·²¹»³»²¬-
CiviI ronodios aro avaiIabIo in lho forn of in¡unclions lo provonl
furlhor abuso, and possibIo danagos for pasl infringononl by vay
of conponsalion or an accounl of profils. Copyrighl viII nol bo
infringod if il faIIs vilhin oxcoplions providod for in lho Copyrighl
Acl. Tho ´fair doaIing oxcoplions' incIudo rosoarch and privalo
sludy, crilicisn, roviov and novs roporling, olhors incIudo uso in
oducalion, Iibrarios and archivos, and lho uso of a lypofaco in lho
ordinary courso of prinling.
ßÐÐÔÇ×ÒÙ ÚÑÎ ßÒ ×ÒÖËÒÝÌ×ÑÒ
If you or your organisalion aro lho onos vhoso copyrighl is boing
infringod, ono oplion is lo appIy for an in¡unclion lo provonl
furlhor infringononl. NicoIa SoIonon, Hoad of IubIishing al
Finors Slophons Innoconl, vriling in lho ̸» ß«¬¸±® (lho Socioly of
Aulhors houso nagazino), oxpIains lhal an in¡unclion is an inno-
dialo courl ordor provonling sonoono fron laIing corlain slops,
and a dofondanl vho faiIs lo oboy il can bo inprisonod for
conlonpl of courl. An in¡unclion can bo oblainod in a ´nallor of
days or in urgonl casos, a nallor of hours', sho says. Bul sinco il is
urgonl, il can bo an oxponsivo procoss. ´Your soIicilor viII havo lo
drop ovorylhing lo Ioarn lho facls, proparo vilnoss slalononls and
olhor docunonls, inslrucl a barrislor and allond lho appIicalion,
vhich nay noan a Iong day in courl.' Sho varns lhal oblaining an
in¡unclion viII lhoroforo raroIy invoIvo IogaI cosls of Ioss lhan
£10,000÷20,000.
Tho Socioly of Aulhors says lhal a courl vouId onIy avard an
in¡unclion if lho infringononl vas ´vory danaging', and anolhor
dolorronl is lhal lho pIainliff vouId havo lo givo a ´cross undor-
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îîì
laIing' noaning lhal if il Iosos, il guaranloos lo pay any Iossos lho
olhor parly has incurrod during lho lino of lho inlorin in¡unclion.
So boforo laIing such draslic aclion, lhinI carofuIIy boforo connil-
ling yoursoIf lo oxpondiluro lhal nay nol, in lho ond, bo rocovor-
abIo.
ÙÛÌÌ×ÒÙ ÐÛÎÓ×ÍÍ×ÑÒ
Whon quoling fron copyrighl naloriaI, you nood lo oblain
pornission unIoss lho copyrighl has oxpirod (soo abovo). This is
nornaIIy oblainod fron lho copyrighl hoIdor or his/hor agonl:
lhal is, fron lho croalor and/or pubIishor. If you vanl lo roproduco
a quolalion and il can bo rogardod as ´fair doaIing' for purposos of
crilicisn or roviov as dofinod in lho Acl, pornission is nol noodod.
Bul, says lho Socioly of Aulhors in ils Ï«·½µ Ù«·¼» ¬± л®³·--·±²-
(avaiIabIo as a prinlod IoafIol and aIso on lho Socioly's vobsilo), lho
vrilor nusl onsuro lhal oilhor in lho loxl ilsoIf or in an acInovI-
odgononl pago, lho lilIo and lho aulhor of lho vorI aro givon.
ɸ¿¬ ·- º¿·® ¼»¿´·²¹á
Il is nol oasy lo say vhal conslilulos ´fair doaIing', bul lho IIR IogaI
sorvico viII adviso on spocific casos. Tho л®³·--·±²- guido givos an
oxanpIo of lho Ionglh of quolalion lhal vouId faII vilhin lho
conloxl of ´crilicisn or roviov'. Sono yoars ago lho Socioly of
Aulhors and lho IubIishors Associalion slalod lhal lhoy vouId
usuaIIy rogard as fair doaIing lho uso of: (a) a singIo oxlracl of up lo
400 vords or a sorios of oxlracls (of vhich nono oxcoods 300 vords)
lo a lolaI of 800 vords fron a proso vorI, (b) oxlracls lo a lolaI of
40 Iinos fron a poon, providod lhal lhis did nol oxcood a quarlor of
lho poon. Tho vords nusl bo quolod in lho conloxl of crilicisn or
roviov.
´WhiIo lhis slalononl doos nol havo lho forco of Iav, il carriod
considorabIo voighl vilh a ¡udgo oxporioncod in copyrighl in a
Ioading infringononl caso. Il doos nol noan, hovovor, lhal a
quolalion for purposos of crilicisn or roviov in oxcoss of lhoso
Iinils cannol ranI as fair doaIing in sono circunslancos.' Tho
ossonliaI poinl lo rononbor is lhal if you aro quoling sonoono,
rogardIoss of Ionglh, you nusl aIvays acInovIodgo lho aulhor
and lho sourco.
×- ·¬ ´»¹¿´á
îîë
ÜßÌß ÐÎÑÌÛÝÌ×ÑÒ
In a shorl guido lo lho Dala Iroloclion Acl 1998 (avaiIabIo lo IIR
nonbors on ils vobsilo), il is nolod lhal a nunbor of nov
noasuros voro inlroducod in lhis Acl lo prolocl lho righls of indi-
viduaIs (bul nol conpanios) aboul vhon infornalion is hoId and
rocordod and slorod nanuaIIy. Tho originaI dala proloclion IogisIa-
lion vas Iinilod lo oIoclronic or aulonalod procossing, bul lhal is
no Iongor lho caso.
Anong lho dala proloclion principIos vhich nusl bo obsorvod
aro lhal porsonaI dala nusl bo: fairIy oblainod, adoqualo, roIovanl
and nol oxcossivo in roIalion lo lho purposo for vhich il is hoId,
accuralo and up lo dalo, nol Iopl Iongor lhan nocossary, procossod
in Iino vilh lho dala sub¡ocl's righls, socuro, and nol lransforrod
oulsido lho EU vilhoul adoqualo proloclion. Undor lho 1998 Acl,
lhoro is a syslon of ´nolificalion' lo ropIaco a rogislralion proco-
duro. If you conlroI lho procossing of porsonaI dala, you nusl
nolify lho Infornalion Connissionor, saying vhoro you oblainod
lho dala and vhal you inlond lo do vilh il.
̸» ×ÐÎ ©·´´ ¿¼ª·-»
Tho IIR IogaI conlro viII adviso nonbors on dala proloclion
issuos, a guido for lho IIR has boon producod by Loo &
Ionborlons SoIicilors (loI: 020 7824 9111). Much usofuI advico viII
bo found in quoslion and ansvor forn in IhiIip Circus's Í¿´»-
Ю±³±¬·±² ¿²¼ Ü·®»½¬ Ó¿®µ»¬·²¹ Ô¿©. Tho Dala Connissionor's
vobsilo (vvv.dalaproloclion.gov.uI) givos nuch infornalion,
and lhoro is a hoIpIino on 01625 545745. This is a conpIox IogaI
aroa, and aclion shouId onIy bo laIon aflor spocific advico has boon
soughl.
ÜÛßÔ×ÒÙ É×ÌØ ÌÎßÜÛ ÓßÎÕÍ
This is an aroa vhoro groal caro nusl bo obsorvod, parlicuIarIy in
arlicIos and novs roIoasos. Aparl fron lho nood lo bo carofuI lo uso
an iniliaI capilaI Iollor for propriolary nanos in ovoryday uso such
as SoIIolapo, Hoovor and Xorox, and obsorvo lho ruIos undor
vhich lrado narI rogislralion is granlod undor lho Trado MarIs
Acl 1994, praclilionors shouId bo avaro lhal lho 1994 Acl providod
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îîê
incroasod possibiIilios for rogislralion. Sounds, shapos, sIogans
and snoIIs can bo rogislorod. Tho Rogislor of Trado MarIs is Iopl al
lho Ialonl Offico and can bo soarchod onIino.
IhiIip Circus poinls oul in his booI lhal sIogans can onIy bo
rogislorod vhoro lhoy can bo shovn lo bo ´dislinclivo'. ´Mosl
sIogans aro nol dislinclivo bocauso lhoy aro, lo coin a phraso, horo
loday and gono lonorrov.' Ho considors lhal il vouId bo a vaslo
of lino and nonoy lo appIy for lrado narI rogislralion if il is IiIoIy
lhal a nov sIogan viII nol bo in uso by lho lino lho procoduraI
fornaIilios havo boon conpIolod.
Again, IIR nonbors can gol advico on lrado narI uso and rogis-
lralion by visiling lho Inslilulo's vobsilo (vvv.ipr.org.uI), vhich
aIso has infornalion on lho ruIos covoring conparalivo advor-
lising and pubIic roIalions naloriaI.
ÝÑÓÐÛÌ×Ì×ÑÒÍ ßÒÜ ÐÎÑÓÑÌ×ÑÒÍ
If you aro pIanning a conpolilion as parl of a narIoling
progranno for a cIionl, bo carofuI lo foIIov lho provisions of lho
Lollorios and Anusononls Acl 1976. Arango of lypos of conpoli-
lion aro unIavfuI undor soclion 14 of lho Acl, and lhoro aro slricl
ruIos vhich nusl bo foIIovod undor lho roquirononls of lho
Brilish Codo of Advorlising, SaIos Ironolion and Dirocl
MarIoling (lho CAI codo).
ÍÛÔÚóÎÛÙËÔßÌÑÎÇ ÝÑÜÛÍ ÑÚ ÐÎßÝÌ×ÝÛ
As voII as IogaI roquirononls, lhoro is a rango of soIf-roguIalory
roquirononls vhich nusl bo obsorvod by IR praclilionors. Irino
anong lhoso is lho IIR Codo of Conducl, dolaiIs of vhich aro sol
oul in lho IogaI conlro on lho Inslilulo's vobsilo. Il is porhaps vorlh
onphasising horo lhal CIauso 2.2. slalos lhal a nonbor shaII ´havo
a posilivo duly al aII linos lo rospocl lho lrulh and shaII nol
dissoninalo faIso or nisIoading infornalion InovingIy or rocI-
IossIy, and laIo propor caro lo chocI aII infornalion prior lo ils
dissoninalion'.
CIauso 4.1 slalos lhal a nonbor shaII ´adhoro lo lho highosl slan-
dards of accuracy and lrulh, avoiding oxlravaganl cIains or unfair
conparisons and giving crodil for idoas and vords borrovod fron
×- ·¬ ´»¹¿´á
îîé
olhors'. And CIauso 4.3 slalos lhal a nonbor shaII nol ´in¡uro lho
profossionaI ropulalion or praclico of anolhor nonbor'.
Thoro aro aIso roIovanl provisions in lho Brilish Codo of
Advorlising, SaIos Ironolion and Dirocl MarIoling. (Al lho lino
of vriling, lho Advorlising Slandards Aulhorily vas duo lo laIo
ovor lho roguIalion of broadcasl advorlising fron 1 Novonbor
2004.) Il is inporlanl for aII pubIic roIalions praclilionors lo
acquainl lhonsoIvos vilh aII slalulory and soIf-roguIalory codos of
praclico and lo foIIov lhon lo lho Iollor. Thal viII go a Iong vay
lovards Iooping oul of lho sighls of Iavyors and roguIalors.
ÜÑÒKÌ ÚÑÎÙÛÌ ÌØÛ ×ÓÐÎ×ÒÌ
My coIIoclion of annuaI and inlorin roporls fron na¡or conpanios
incIudos 20 or so lhal do nol givo lho prinlor's nano and Iocalion ÷
in olhor vords lhoir inprinl. FaiIuro lo incIudo il couId noan a
hofly fino: undor lho Irinlor's Inprinl Acl of 1961, lho ponaIly is
nov up lo £200 for ovory copy prinlod. }usl lry nuIlipIying lhal
vilh lho prinl run and soo vhal you gol!
AIlhough prosoculions aro raro as procoodings can onIy bo laIon
vilh lho approvaI, and in lho nano of, lho Allornoy GonoraI or
SoIicilor GonoraI, or in ScolIand lho Lav Advocalo, vilhin lhroo
caIondar nonlhs aflor prinling, ils nain purposo is lo onsuro lhal
lho porson rosponsibIo for pubIicalion can bo lracod oasiIy. Thoro
aro oxonplions for spocific ilons such as businoss cards, prico Iisls,
calaIoguos and advorlisononls for goods and proporly for saIo.
EIoclion poslors and IoafIols nusl boar lho addross of lho prinlor
and pubIishor. Anyono conlravoning lhoso provisions is IiabIo on
conviclion lo a naxinun fino of £2,000.
Furlhor infornalion is avaiIabIo fron lho Brilish Irinling
Induslrios Fodoralion (020 7915 8300).
ÚËÎÌØÛÎ ×ÒÚÑÎÓßÌ×ÑÒ
AddilionaI sourcos of infornalion avaiIabIo incIudo: Advorlising
Slandards Aulhorily (vvv.asa.org.uI), Dirocl MarIoling
Associalion (vvv.dna.org.uI), Inslilulo of SaIos Ironolion
(vvv.isp.org.uI), Ofcon (vvv.ofcon.org.uI), Offico of Fair
Ûºº»½¬·ª» ©®·¬·²¹ -µ·´´- º±® °«¾´·½ ®»´¿¬·±²-
îîè
Trading (vvv.ofl.org.uI), IhiIip Circus (vvv.IavnarI.co.uI/
phiIipcircus/). Rogislor of Trado MarIs (vvv.palonl.gov.uI),
Socioly of Aulhors (vvv.info©sociolyofaulhors.org).
Tho IIR providos a IogaI and businoss hoIpIino for nonbors.
Tho IogaI sorvico is offorod by Cronor ConsuIling.
×- ·¬ ´»¹¿´á
îîç
ßÌ ß ÙÔßÒÝÛ
Ô±±µ ±«¬ º±® °±--·¾´» ¼»º¿³¿¬·±² ±º ¿ °»®-±² ±® ±®¹¿²·-¿¬·±²ò
׺ -«»¼ô ¬®§ ¬± ³·¬·¹¿¬» ¼¿³¿¹»- ©·¬¸ ¿°±´±¹§ò
ݱ°§®·¹¸¬ ¾»´±²¹- ¹»²»®¿´´§ ¬± ¬¸» ½®»¿¬±® ±º ¿ ©±®µò
Ú±® »³°´±§»»-ô ·¬ ¾»´±²¹- ¬± ¬¸» »³°´±§»® ·º ²±¬ ±¬¸»®©·-»
¿¹®»»¼ò
ß ½±°§®·¹¸¬ ¹«·¼» ·- ¿ª¿·´¿¾´» ¬± ×ÐÎ ³»³¾»®- ±² ·¬- ©»¾-·¬»ò
ݸ»½µ ±«¬ ¬¸» °»®³·--·±²- ¹«·¼» º®±³ ¬¸» ͱ½·»¬§ ±º ß«¬¸±®-ò
Û²-«®» §±« ¿®» L²±¬·º·»¼K ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ײº±®³¿¬·±² ݱ³³·--·±²»®ò
Ó¿µ» -«®» §±« ½±³°´§ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ¼¿¬¿ °®±¬»½¬·±² °®·²½·°´»- ·²
¬¸» Ü¿¬¿ Ю±¬»½¬·±² ß½¬-ò
ɸ»² ©®·¬·²¹ ¿¾±«¬ °®±°®·»¬¿®§ °®±¼«½¬-ô ½¸»½µ ©¸»¬¸»® §±«
¿®» «-·²¹ ¿ ®»¹·-¬»®»¼ ¬®¿¼» ³¿®µô ¿²¼ ¿½µ²±©´»¼¹» ·¬ ·º -±ò
Ѳ´§ L¼·-¬·²½¬·ª»K -´±¹¿²- ½¿² ¾» ®»¹·-¬»®»¼ ¿- ¬®¿¼» ³¿®µ-ò
ͬ®·½¬ ®«´»- ¿°°´§ º±® ½±³°»¬·¬·±²- ¿²¼ °®±³±¬·±²-ò
ß º¿·´«®» ¬± ·²½´«¼» ¿² ·³°®·²¬ ²±¬·½» ±² §±«® °«¾´·½¿¬·±²
½±«´¼ ³»¿² ¿ -«¾-¬¿²¬·¿´ º·²»ò
ÉØßÌ ×Í ×Ìá ÉØßÌ ÜÑÛÍ ×Ì ÜÑá
Briof dofinilions of lho lorninoIogy usod in EngIish grannar aro
givon horo as a hoIp in using lhis booI. ExanpIos aro shovn in
bracIols vhoro approprialo.
ß¾¾®»ª·¿¬·±²: A shorlonod forn of a vord or phraso, conpany
nano, producl or sorvico (ÞÞÝ, ×ÐÎ, ¿¼ for advorlisononl). No fuII
slops bolvoon lho characlors novadays.
ß½®±²§³: A vord fornod fron a sol of iniliaIs (ÒßÌÑ). NO fuII
slops.
ß½¬·ª» ª±·½»: Allribulos aclion of a vorb lo a porson or lhing fron
vhich il IogicaIIy foIIovs (lho ship ·- sinIing, lho nan ¸·¬- lho baII).
Inlransilivo vorbs can onIy occur in lho aclivo voico (lho cIionl
´¿«¹¸-). Soo onlry for vorbs.
îíð
ß¼¶»½¬·ª¿´ ²±«²: An ad¡oclivo usod as a noun (lho §±«²¹).
ß¼¶»½¬·ª»: Doscribos or quaIifios a noun (a ¾·¹ firn).
ß¼ª»®¾: Avord lhal quaIifios or nodifios a vorb (drovo ¯«·½µ´§), an
ad¡oclivo (¬»®®·¾´§ bad) or anolhor advorb (ª»®§ sadIy). Caro noodod
in uso and posilioning. Soo Ialor onlry for spIil infinilivo.
ß°±-¬®±°¸»: A narI lo indicalo lho possossivo caso (lho º·®³K- slaff,
³»²K- shirls) and lho onission of a Iollor or Iollors (-¸¿²K¬, ½¿²K¬), or
conlraclions of vords (K°¸±²»).
ß®¬·½´»: Dofinilo arlicIo is lho nano for ¬¸», indofinilo for ¿ and ¿².
Þ®¿½µ»¬: Iairod lypographicaI narIs lo donolo vord(s), phraso or
sonlonco in paronlhosis, usuaIIy round ( ). Squaro bracIols | ]
donolo vords insorlod by sonoono olhor lhan lho aulhor.
Ý¿-»: Tho roIo of a noun or noun phraso in roIalion lo olhor vords
in a cIauso or sonlonco (in lho ¾±§K- Inoos, boy is in lho gonilivo
caso, siniIarIy ¾±§ is in singuIar caso, ¾±§- pIuraI).
Ý´¿«-»: Iarl of a conpIox sonlonco usuaIIy vilh ils ovn sub¡ocl and
vorb, lhroo nain lypos ÷ noninaI cIauso vhon funclioning IiIo a
noun phraso (¬¸» ²¿³» ±º ¬¸» ¹¿³»), roIalivo cIauso IiIo an ad¡oclivo
(lho nan §±« ´±ª»), or advorbiaI (don'l do il «²´»-- §±«K®» -«®»).
Inforior lo a sonlonco, suporior lo a phraso.
ݱ´´»½¬·ª» ²±«²: A noun roforring lo a group of poopIo or aninaIs
(¿«¼·»²½», ½±³³·¬¬»», º¿³·´§, ¸»®¼, -¬¿ºº, ¬»¿³, ³¿¶±®·¬§, °¿®´·¿³»²¬,
¬¸» ½´»®¹§, ¬¸» °«¾´·½). Wholhor il laIos a pIuraI or singuIar vorb
doponds on vholhor lho group is considorod as a singIo unil or as
a coIIoclion of individuaIs (lho audionco ©¿- in ils pIaco bul ©»®»
cIapping nadIy, lho faniIy ·- Iargo, lho board ·- nooling, bul ¿®»
going oul lo Iunch).
ݱ²¶«²½¬·±²: Aconnocling vord lo ¡oin lvo cIausos, or vords in lho
sano cIauso (¿²¼, ¾«¬, ±®), aIso for inlroducing a subordinalo cIauso
(¿´¬¸±«¹¸, ¾»½¿«-», -·²½»).
ݱ²-±²¿²¬-: Lollors of lho aIphabol olhor lhan lho vovoIs ¿, », ·, ±, «.
ݱ«²¬ ²±«²-: Nouns lhal can bo usod vilh nunoricaI vaIuos
(¾±±µñ¾±±µ-), lhal can forn a pIuraI or bo usod vilh an indofinilo
arlicIo and usuaIIy rofor lo ob¡ocls (¬¿¾´», -¸·°, °»²) as dislincl fron
non-counl nouns (¿¼±´»-½»²½», ®·½¸²»--, -½¿ºº±´¼·²¹).
ß°°»²¼·¨ ï
îíï
Ü¿²¹´·²¹ °¿®¬·½·°´»: AIso caIIod hanging parlicipIo, or dangIor, a
parlicipIo cIauso usuaIIy conlains no sub¡ocl and is unallachod lo
lho sub¡ocl of lho nain cIauso. Considorod ungrannalicaI ralhor
lhan a slyIo fauIl. (Ò±© ¾®±µ»², Ú®»¼ Ö±²»- ½¿² ®»³»³¾»® ©¸¿¬ ¬¸»
¬»¿½«° ´±±µ»¼ ´·µ»ò CIoarIy, Mr }onos vas nol broIon ovon lhough his
nonory vas porfocl.)
Ü»¬»®³·²»®-: Words lhal procodo nouns lo Iinil lhoir noaning in
sono vay (¿´´, ¾±¬¸, ¬¸·-, »ª»®§).
ܱ«¾´» ²»¹¿¬·ª»: Tvo nogalivo vords in a sonlonco can confuso lho
roador. (I ¸¿ª»²K¬ gol ²±¬¸·²¹, I ©±«´¼²K¬ bo surprisod if lhoy ¼·¼²K¬
cono.)
Û´·-·±²: Onission of spooch sound or syIIabIo as in ©rong, Iis¬on,
hyn². In oach oxanpIo lho oIidod characlor is ilaIicisod.
Û´´·°-·-: Onission of vord or vords fron spooch or vriling usuaIIy
rocovorabIo fron lho conloxl, usofuI in fornaI conloxls for
avoiding ropolilion. (Wo aro as Ioon ¬± ¸»´° as you aro.) EIIipsis of ¬±
¸»´° avoids dupIicalion, aids fIov and sharpons slyIo.
Ú·®-¬ °»®-±²: Ironouns and dolorninors donoling lho spoaIor or
vrilor in conlrasl lo lho addrossoo or olhors. (×, ³», ³§-»´º, ³§, ³·²»
in lho singuIar, ©», «-, ±«®-»´ª»-, ±«®, ±«®- in lho pIuraI.)
Ù»²¼»®: Nouns and pronouns roprosonling naluraI dislinclions of
sox. Tho nascuIino gondor donolos porsons and aninaIs lhal aro
³¿´», foninino, lhoso lhal aro º»³¿´»ò
Ù»²·¬·ª»: Tho caso of nouns and pronouns indicaling possossion of
sonolhing or cIoso associalion of sonolhing (possossivo caso, lho
½¿¬K- pavs).
Ù»®«²¼: Tho ó·²¹ parl of a vorb vhon usod in a parlIy noun-IiIo
vay as in Ò± °¿®µ·²¹ as opposod lo lho -·²¹ as usod in a parlicipIo
onding, »ª»®§±²» ©¿- °¿®µ·²¹. Sonolinos caIIod a vorbaI noun.
Ø»¿¼´·²»-»: Tho grannar of novspapor hoadIinos vhoro arlicIos
and olhor vords aro onillod for roasons of spaco and vhoro
prosonl lonso vorbs aro usod for pasl ovonls (-±´¼·»® -¸±±¬-
¬»®®±®·-¬-).
ا°¸»²: MarI lo ¡oin vords or lo indicalo vord division, lo
soparalo figuros or groups of figuros. Many usos: in conpound
nouns as in ¿·®ó½±²¼·¬·±²·²¹, bul ¿·® º±®½», in conpound ad¡oclivos
ß°°»²¼·¨ ï
îíî
as in a ¬©±ó°¿¹» roporl, vilh a profix as in lho volos havo boon ®»ó
½±«²¬»¼ò
×¼·±³: An oxprossion vilh a noaning lhal cannol bo guossod fron
lho noaning of lho individuaI vords as in ´his nolhor °¿--»¼ ¿©¿§
(diod) lhis norning'. ApocuIiarily of oxprossion or phrasooIogy in
Ianguago (±ª»® ¬¸» ³±±², «²¼»® ¬¸» ©»¿¬¸»®) vhich sounds naluraI lo
lhoso born and brod in EngIand, bul inconprohonsibIo lo
foroignors.
ײ¼·®»½¬ ¯«»-¬·±²: A quoslion as roporlod in indirocl spooch. (× ¿-µ»¼
©¸»² ¸» ½±«´¼ ¿¬¬»²¼ ¬¸» ³»»¬·²¹.)
ײº·²·¬·ª»: Tho forn of a vorb vhon usod vilhoul dirocl roIalionship
lo lino, porson or nunbor, oflon procodod by ¬±. (× ©¿²¬»¼ ¬± ´¿«¹¸.)
Soo onlry for spIil infinilivo.
ײ¬»®®±¹¿¬·ª»: A vord or sonlonco usod lo asI a quoslion. (ɸ¿¬ ¼±
§±« ¼±á)
Ó¿-- ²±«²: Novor laIos lho indofinilo arlicIo ¿ and soIdon has a
pIuraI (¾®»¿¼, ½¿°·¬¿´·-³, ½´±¬¸·²¹, ¼«-¬, »¯«·°³»²¬, ´»·-«®», ¬®¿ºº·½).
Ó±¼¿´ ª»®¾-: AuxiIiary vorbs lo oxpross nood (½¿²ñ½±«´¼, ³¿§ñ³·¹¸¬,
-¸¿´´ñ-¸±«´¼, ©·´´ñ©±«´¼, ³«-¬).
Ó±¼·º·»®: Words vhich nodify olhor vords: ª»®§ + badIy (advorb),
®»¿´´§ + usofuI (ad¡oclivo).
Ò±«²: Tho nano of a porson, pIaco or lhing vholhor naloriaI
or innaloriaI, abslracl or concrolo. InfIocls for pIuraI and funclions
as sub¡ocl or ob¡ocl of a sonlonco. Connon nouns (½¿¬ñ½¿®) aro
dislincl fron propor nouns or nanos (nanos of poopIo, cilios,
nonlhs, days of lho vooI and vhich carry a capilaI iniliaI
Iollor).
Ò«³¾»®: Conlrasls bolvoon singuIar and pIuraI, in nouns
(¹·®´ñ¹·®´-), pronouns (-¸»ñ¬¸»§), vorbs (-¿§-ñ-¿§, ©¿-ñ©»®»).
Ѿ¶»½¬: Tho ob¡ocl of a sonlonco foIIovs a vorb and is nornaIIy a
noun or noun phraso (lho car hil lho ©¿´´, lho car hil lho ©¿´´, ¾®·½µ-
¿²¼ ¿´´).
п®¿¹®¿°¸: A shorl passago in loxl, al lho slarl of a frosh Iino of
lhoughl, sonolinos (bul nol aIvays) indonlod. A unil of lhoughl,
nol of Ionglh.
ß°°»²¼·¨ ï
îíí
п®»²¬¸»-·-: Avord, cIauso or sonlonco insorlod as an aflorlhoughl
and narIod off vilh bracIols, connas or dashos as in ´This is a
usofuI booI (·¬ -¸±«´¼ ¾» µ»°¬ º±® ®»º»®»²½»).' IIuraI paronlhosos.
ﮬ·½·°´»: Aforn of lho vorb nornaIIy onding in ó·²¹ or -»¼. Irosonl
parlicipIo (¾»·²¹, ¼±·²¹ñ·- ¹±·²¹ñ´±±µ·²¹), pasl parlicipIo (¾»»²ñ¼±²»ñ
¸¿- ¹±²»ñ´±±µ»¼).
п--·ª» ª±·½»: Whoro lho ob¡ocl of lho sonlonco ´rocoivos' lho aclion
of lho vorb (fasl drivors ©·´´ ¾» °®±-»½«¬»¼). OnIy lransilivo vorbs can
havo passivo forns. Soo onlry for vorbs.
л®-±²: CIassifios vholhor pronouns and vorbs indicalo lho
spoaIor, lho addrossoo or a lhird parly as firsl, socond or lhird
porson, singuIar or pIuraI. (Firsl porson: × ¿³ñ©» ¿®» ¹±·²¹ ¬± ¬¸»
¬¸»¿¬®», socond: §±« ¿®» ¹±·²¹ ¬± ¬¸» ¬¸»¿¬®», lhird: ¸»ñ¬¸»§ ¿®» ¹±·²¹ ¬±
¬¸» ¬¸»¿¬®».)
и®¿-»: Ashorl oxprossion, a group of vords of Iossor voighl lhan
a cIauso forning a unil in ilsoIf, parl of a sonlonco lhal is nol lho
sub¡ocl (I rofuso ¬± ¼± ·¬).
д«®¿´: Moro lhan ono (½¿¬- ¿²¼ ¼±¹-, bul -¸»»° ¿²¼ ¼»»®).
б--»--·ª»: Avord or caso indicaling possossion or ovnorship, lho
possossivo caso of nouns is aIso caIIod lho gonilivo caso (Ö±¸²K-
¸¿²¼-, ¹·®´-K º·²¹»®-).
Ю»¼·½¿¬»: Thal parl of a sonlonco lhal is nol sub¡ocl (I ¼»½·¼»¼ ©¸¿¬ ¬±
¼±).
Ю»°±-·¬·±²: Words lhal roIalo vord sols lo oach olhor and lhal
gonoraIIy procodo lho vords lhoy govorn. UsuaIIy shorl vords (¾§,
·², º±®, ¬±, ±«¬, «°). TradilionaI pro¡udico againsl onding a sonlonco
vilh a proposilion is nov fading, ospociaIIy for infornaI conloxls.
Ю±²±«²: A vord lhal ropIacos or slands for a noun vilhoul
naning a porson or lhing aIroady Inovn fron lho conloxl
(×ñ§±«ñ¬¸»§ asIod a quoslion), and sonolinos ropIacos a cIauso as in
Why did you asI ¬¸¿¬`
Ю±°»® ²±«²: Anoun roforring lo a parlicuIar porson, pIaco, nonlh,
day of vooI, olc, and carrying a capilaI iniliaI Iollor (ͳ·¬¸, Ô±²¼±²,
Ó¿®½¸, Ó±²¼¿§).
Í»½±²¼ °»®-±²: Donolos lho porson addrossod as dislincl fron lho
spoaIor or vrilor or olhor porson (§±«, §±«®-»´º, §±«®-»´ª»-, olc).
ß°°»²¼·¨ ï
îíì
Í»²¬»²½»: Tho Iargosl unil in lradilionaI grannar, a sol of vords
conpIolo in ilsoIf conlaining sub¡ocl and prodicalo (aII lhal parl
lhal is nol lho sub¡ocl). UsuaIIy conlains a vorb, slarls vilh a capilaI
Iollor and onds vilh a fuII slop, and aIso vilh quoslion or oxcIana-
lion narI, as in ´Ì¸» ½´·»²¬ ¸»¿®¼ ¿ °®»-»²¬¿¬·±².' Horo ¬¸» ½´·»²¬ is lho
sub¡ocl, ¸»¿®¼ lho vorb and °®»-»²¬¿¬·±² lho ob¡ocl.
Í·²¹«´¿®: Avord or forn roforring lo a singIo porson or lhing.
Í°´·¬ ·²º·²·¬·ª»: Whoro an advorb is pIacod bolvoon ¬± and lho
infinilivo forn of a vorb (¬± ¾±´¼´§ ¹±). Novadays il's considorod a
nylh lhal ± nusl novor bo dolachod fron lho vorb. GonoraIIy, il is
bollor nol lo spIil bul avoidanco can sonolinos causo avIvard
conslruclions. (´Do you vanl ¬± roaIIy hoIp lhon`' is proforabIo lo
pulling ®»¿´´§ boforo ¬±, inpossibIo aflor ¸»´°.)
Í«¾¶»½¬: Thal parl of lho sonlonco vhich usuaIIy conos firsl and
govorns lho vorb, oflon dofinod as lho ´door' of lho vorbaI aclion.
Soo onlry abovo for sonlonco.
ͧ´´¿¾´»: Unil of pronuncialion, a vord or parl of a vord ullorod
vilh a singIo puIso of lho voico and usuaIIy conlaining ono vovoI
sound vilh or vilhoul consonanl(s) procoding or foIIoving il.
Ю±ñ²«²ñ½·ñ¿ñ¬·±² has fivo syIIabIos.
ͧ²±²§³: Avord or phraso having lho sano noaning (or virluaIIy
lho sano) as anolhor. Sono synonyns for ½¿®» aro (nouns) ¿²¨·»¬§,
½¿«¬·±², ½¸¿®¹», ¾«®¼»², (vorbs) ¾» ¿²¨·±«-, ¾» ¼·-°±-»¼, ¸¿ª» ®»¹¿®¼ò
Ì»²-»: Aforn laIon by lho vorb in a sonlonco lo indicalo lho lino al
vhich lho aclion is viovod as occurring. Iasl (sonolhing lhal ¸¿-
¸¿°°»²»¼), prosonl (·- ¸¿°°»²·²¹) and fuluro (©·´´ ¸¿°°»²) lonsos. In
nodia usago, prosonl lonsos can rofor lo lho pasl (IRO ®»-·¹²-).
̸·®¼ °»®-±²: Donolos lho porson or porsons spoIon or vrillon
aboul as dislincl fron lho addrossoo, spoaIor or vrilor (¸», ¸·³,
¬¸»§, ¬¸»·®-, olc).
Ê»®¾: Tho coro of a sonlonco or cIauso, lho ´doing' or ´aclion' vord.
Ma¡or lypos aro lransilivo, inlransilivo, auxiIiary. Using a lransilivo
vorb, lho noaning passos fron sub¡ocl lo lho ob¡ocl of lho sonlonco
(ho ¾«·´¬ lho houso), using an inlransilivo vorb lho noaning is
conpIolo vilhoul lho addilion of an ob¡ocl (sho ´¿«¹¸-). AuxiIiary
vorbs forn lonsos, noods and voicos of olhor vorbs (¾», ¼±, ¸¿ª»)
and nodaIs (³¿§, ³·¹¸¬, olc). VorbIoss, or inconpIolo, sonloncos aro
ß°°»²¼·¨ ï
îíë
connon in sporls connonlarios and in broadcasling (ß²¼ ²±© ¬¸»
²»©-).
ʱ·½»: Modo of infIocling vorbs as boing aclivo or passivo (lho cal
¿¬» lho food, lho food ©¿- »¿¬»² by lho cal).
汩ȫ-: Lollors of lho aIphabol producing sinpIo vocaI sound by
conlinuous passago of broalh (¿, », ·, ±, «). AII EngIish vords
conlain al Ioasl ono vovoI.
Ò±¬»: Sourco naloriaI for Appondicos 1 and 2 has boon dravn IargoIy
fron lho 1994 odilion of lho Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Û²¹´·-¸ Ù®¿³³¿® and
fron lho 1974 odilion of lho ݱ²½·-» Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ by pornission of lho
Oxford Univorsily Iross.
ß°°»²¼·¨ ï
îíê
ÔÑÑÕßÔ×ÕÛÍæ Ü×ÚÚÛÎÛÒÝÛÍ ßÒÜ
Ü×ÍÌ×ÒÝÌ×ÑÒÍ
Many pairs of vords IooI and sound aIiIo, bul sono aro oxacl
opposilos, vhiIo olhors havo difforonl shados of noaning. Gol
lhon vrong and you couId havo a vorbaI disaslor on your hands:
al bosl an onbarrassing loIophono caII lo roclify vhal is roaIIy
noanl, al vorsl a pross roIoaso or prinl ¡ob lhal has lo bo corroclod
and roissuod. Horo aro sono of lhon.
ß¼¿°¬·±²ñ¿¼¿°¬¿¬·±²: WhiIo bolh noan lho sano lhing, adaplalion is
proforrod. Adaplion is ovonluaIIy oxpoclod lo suppIanl adaplalion
vhich is sIovIy on lho vay oul.
ß¼ª»®-»ñ¿ª»®-»: CIoso in noaning. Advorso suggosls boing hosliIo
or conlrary lo sonobody or sonolhing, vhiIo avorso noans boing
opposod or disincIinod lo do sonolhing.
îíé
ß¼ª·-»®ñ¿¼ª·-±®: Bolh spoIIings accoplabIo, bul nosl slyIo guidos
roconnond -or. Tho -or varianl has a prolonlious, soIf-inporlanl
ring lo il.
ß´¬»®²¿¬»ñ¿´¬»®²¿¬·ª»: AIlornalo as a vorb noans inlorchanging ono
lhing vilh anolhor, as a noun il noans lhings of lvo Iinds coning
ono aflor lho olhor. AIlornalivo as an ad¡oclivo noans offoring
choico bolvoon lvo lhings, as a noun donolos an oplion lo chooso
bolvoon lvo or noro lhings.
Þ·»²²·¿´ñ¾·¿²²«¿´: BionniaI noans onco ovory lvo yoars, biannuaI
lvico a yoar or, if proforrod, lvico yoarIy. SiniIarIy, binonlhIy
noans ovory lvo nonlhs, nol lvico a nonlh. Wilh lhis pair, il is
oflon bollor lo vrilo il oul in fuII ralhor lhan risI anbiguily.
Þ®±½¸«®»ñ°¿³°¸´»¬: A brochuro is nornaIIy laIon lo noan a viro-
slilchod or squaro-bacIod, iIIuslralod coIour-prinlod produclion
usod for pronoling an organisalion's producls, sorvicos or aclivi-
lios. Thoro is IillIo difforonco bolvoon a panphIol, usuaIIy ¡usl a
foIdod shool producod in Iargor nunbors al Iov cosl, and a IoafIol.
ݱ³°´»³»²¬ø¿®§÷ñ½±³°´·³»²¬ø¿®§÷: Tho fornor noans conpIoling,
suppIying a doficioncy, lvo or noro lhings conpIononling oach
olhor, lho Iallor an oxprossion of rogard or praiso as in ´vilh
conpIinonls'.
ݱ³°±-»ñ½±³°®·-»: Conposo noans lo conslilulo, lo forn or naIo
up a Iisl by pulling lvo or noro lhings or parls logolhor, conpriso
noans lo incIudo or conlain lho ilons on lho Iisl.
ݱ²¬·²«¿´ñ½±²¬·²«±«-: A cIoso pair. ConlinuaI noans froquonlIy
happoning and vilhoul cossalion, again and again, conlinuous
noans ¡oinod logolhor, or going on non-slop vilhoul inlorruplion.
ݱ«²-»´ñ½±«²½·´: CounsoI is usuaIIy laIon lo noan giving advico lo
sonoono, counciI is a body of poopIo or an aulhorily.
Ü»´«-·±²ñ·´´«-·±²: A doIusion donolos a faIso idoa, inprossion or
boIiof as a synplon of insanily, sonoono vho is gonuinoIy
convincod of vhal is nol lho caso (¿ ¼»´«-·±² ±º ¹®¿²¼»«®), an iIIusion
donolos a faIso inprossion as lo lho lruo naluro of an ob¡ocl, a
nisapprohonsion of a lruo slalo of affairs (¿² ±°¬·½¿´ ·´´«-·±²).
Ü»®·-·ª»ñ¼»®·-±®§: Dorisivo noans nocIing, scoffing, dorisory
oquaIs ridicuIous, IaughingIy inofficionl.
ß°°»²¼·¨ î
îíè
Û-°»½·¿´ø´§÷ñ-°»½·¿´ø´§÷: LillIo difforonco. EspociaI lho ad¡oclivo nov
ropIacod by spociaI vilhoul nuch lroubIo, ospociaIIy/spociaIIy lho
advorbs oxpoclod lo survivo in conloxls vhoro ·² °¿®¬·½«´¿®, or »ª»²
³±®» is noanl.
Ü·-·²¬»®»-¬»¼ñ«²·²¬»®»-¬»¼: Tho fornor suggosls inparliaI or unbi-
asod vhiIo lho Iallor noans indifforonco. Mosl vrilors profor lo
vrilo ´IacI of inlorosl' ralhor lhan disinloroslod.
Ûºº»½¬ñ¿ºº»½¬: Effocl noans lo acconpIish sonolhing, affocl noans lo
havo an infIuonco upon sonolhing. Tho difficuIly is conpoundod
by lho facl lhal bolh can bo usod as nouns and vorb, aIlhough ¿ºº»½¬
is noro connonIy usod as a vorb and »ºº»½¬ as a noun.
Ú´±«¬ñº´¿«²¬: To fIoul noans lo vioIalo a ruIo, shov a conlonpluous
disrogard, lo fIaunl noans lo shov off, lo naIo an oslonlalious or
dofianl dispIay.
Ú±® »ª»®ñº±®»ª»®: For ovor (lvo vords) is for aIvays, forovor noans
conlinuaIIy.
Ú±®¹±ñº±®»¹±: To forgo is lo abslain fron or do vilhoul, lo forogo is
lo procodo in pIaco or lino.
Ú±®¬«·¬·±«-ñº±®¬«²¿¬»: Forluilous noans by accidonl or chanco,
forlunalo oquaIs IucIy.
׳°´§ñ·²º»®: To inpIy is lo hinl or slalo sonolhing, lo infor is lo
drav a concIusion fron vhal has boon inpIiod. A usofuI ruIo lo
rononbor is lhal lho vrilor or spoaIor ·³°´·»-, vhiIo lho roador or
Iislonor ·²º»®-.
ײ¿°¬ñ·²»°¬: Tho fornor noans nol apl or unsuilabIo, lho Iallor
unsIiIfuI.
Ô»--ñº»©»®: Tho dislinclion bolvoon lhoso vords is oflon Iosl: ´»--
goos vilh singuIar ´nass' nouns (popuIalion/difficuIly) vhiIo
º»©»® vilh nunbors or quanlilios capabIo of boing counlod or Iislod
(poopIo/lhings).
Ó¿¹¿¦·²»ñ¶±«®²¿´: Bolh aro poriodicaIs, bul a ¡ournaI is usuaIIy lho
noro sorious, profossionaI pubIicalion, IiIo lho IIR's nagazino,
Ю±º·´».
Ó¿-¬»®º«´ñ³¿-¬»®´§: MaslorfuI noans doninooring, viIfuI, naslorIy
noans oxoculod vilh suporior sIiII.
ß°°»²¼·¨ î
îíç
Ó·´·¬¿¬»ñ³·¬·¹¿¬»: To niIilalo againsl sonolhing is lo havo a signifi-
canl offocl againsl il, lo niligalo is lo croalo condilions for roducing
lho sovorily of sonolhing.
Ò«³¾»®ñ¿³±«²¬: Thoso lvo vords aro vory cIoso in dofinilion, bul
bo carofuI lo dislinguish bolvoon lhon: lho dislinclion is vholhor
lhoy go vilh ´counl' or ´nass' nouns, as in lho ²«³¾»® of roIoasos
sonl oul conparod vilh lho ¿³±«²¬ of vorI in vriling. As in lhis
oxanpIo, ²«³¾»® is usuaIIy conslruclod vilh a pIuraI.
Ю¿½¬·½¿´ñ°®¿½¬·½¿¾´»: IraclicaI (suilabIo for uso) and praclicabIo
(abIo lo bo dono). Whal, for oxanpIo, is praclicaI is lo naiI 100
novs roIoasos boforo lho offico cIosos, bul nol nocossariIy pracli-
cabIo in lhal lhoro nay nol bo lho slaff lo do il.
λº«¬»ñ¼»²§: Bolh vorbs dispulo lho lrulhfuInoss of a slalononl,
dony says il is faIso, rofulo provos lhal il is.
λ¹®»¬º«´´§ñ®»¹®»¬¬¿¾´§: Tho fornor noans an oxprossion of rogrol,
lho Iallor sonolhing lo bo rogrollod, unvoIcono, vorlhy of
roproof.
ͽ±¬½¸ñͽ±¬¬·-¸: Scolch is for vhisIy nado in ScolIand (-oy for vari-
olios nado in IroIand and lho Unilod Slalos), Scollish for lhoso
fron norlh of lho Bordor.
̸¿¬ñ©¸·½¸: Again cIoso and oflon inlorchangoabIo pronouns. Tho
inporlanl dislinclion bolvoon lhon is lhal ©¸·½¸ can novor rofor lo
poopIo. Thal dofinos as in ´lho IR firn lhal vas fornod', vhiIo
©¸·½¸ doscribos as in ´lho IR firn, vhich vas fornod in 1990, is
sliII oporaling profilabIy'. Tho carofuI obsorvor viII nolo lhal ©¸·½¸
usuaIIy foIIovs a conna, vhiIo ¬¸¿¬ doosn'l nood ono boforo il.
˲¼»®ñ«²¼»®²»¿¬¸: WhiIo lhoro is a sIin dislinclion bolvoon lhon,
lho sinpIosl vay lo shov il is lo vrilo «²¼»®²»¿¬¸ noaning ´diroclIy
covorod by' vhiIo «²¼»® noans boIov or bonoalh. A sonlonco can
ond vilh «²¼»®²»¿¬¸ far noro oasiIy lhan il can vilh «²¼»®ò
Ò±¬»: Furlhor oxanpIos of confusing pairs viII bo found in lho Ѩº±®¼
Ù«·¼» ¬± Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹»ò
ß°°»²¼·¨ î
îìð
×ÒÚÑÎÓßÌ×ÑÒ ÌÛÝØÒÑÔÑÙÇ
ßÜÍÔæ Asynnolric DigilaI Subscribor Lino, a nov nodon loch-
noIogy, convorls oxisling lvislod-pair loIophono Iinos inlo accoss
palhs for nuIlinodia and high-spood dala connunicalions.
Þ´«»¬±±¬¸: Shorl-rango (10÷100 nolros) digilaI connunicalion
vilhoul connoclion by cabIos or viros.
Þ®±¿¼¾¿²¼: Connunicalion nolvorI carrying a Iargo anounl of
dala, incIuding voico and visuaI infornalion.
Þ§¬»: Unil of noasurononl of digilaI dala.
ÝÜ ÎÑÓ: Slands for Conpacl Disc Road OnIy Monory.
ÝÜ ÎÉ: CD rovrilabIo. CDs lhal can bo rocordod ovor and ovor
again.
ݱ²ª»®¹»²½»: Conbining porsonaI conpulors, loIoconnunicalions
and loIovision.
ܱ³¿·² ²¿³»: Nano of an inlornol vobsilo, or vob addross, lho
URL (uniforn rosourco Iocalor).
îìï
ܱ©²´±¿¼: Transfor of dala fron conpulor lo conpulor, io fron
inlornol lo IC.
ÜÊÜ: Onco slood for DigilaI VorsaliIo Disc bul nov doos nol sland
for anylhing. IopuIar vay lo viov novios, giving highor quaIily
picluro and sound lhan vidoo.
»ó¬¿·´·²¹: EIoclronic shopping or loIoshopping using progrannos
vilhin loIovision schoduIos.
Û¬¸»®²»¬: Nano of IocaI aroa nolvorI and acconpanying lochnicaI
spocificalions and producls.
Ú®»»©¿®»: Soflvaro lhal can bo dovnIoadod or dislribulod froo of
chargo aIlhough undor copyrighl.
ÚßÏø-÷: FroquonlIy asIod quoslion(s).
ÚÌÐ: FiIo Transfor IrolocoI. Moans of lransnilling via lho inlornol
or IocaI aroa nolvorI fron conpulor lo conpulor.
Ù×Ú: Graphics Inlorchango Fornal.
ØÌÓÔ: HyporToxl MarIup Languago. For croaling a docunonl on
lho inlornol.
ØÌÌÐ: HyporToxl Transfor IrolocoI. Moans of sonding vob pagos
across lho inlornol.
×ÍÜÒ: Inlogralod Sorvicos DigilaI NolvorI. For spoody lransfor of
digilisod infornalion by digilaI Iinos. IdoaI for lransforring
graphics and loxl and fasl dovnIoading of inlornol fiIos.
×ÍÐ: Inlornol Sorvico Irovidor. ExanpIos: Froosorvo, AOL.
Ö¿ª¿: Conpulor Ianguago.
Ô·²µ: TaIos lho usor fron ono poinl on a vobsilo lo anolhor.
Ô±¹ó±²: Synonyn for going onIino, or connocling lo lho inlornol or
lo a nolvorI oporaling syslon.
Ó»¹¿¾§¬»: MB (abbr). Unil of dala slorago (a niIIion bylos).
Ó«´¬·³»¼·¿: Conbinalion of conpulorisod dala fron, og audio,
vidoo, loxl, CD ROM.
Ò»¬·¯«»¬¬»: Fron inlornol and oliquollo ÷ a slandard codo: og, no
nossagos in capilaIs, usors shouId chocI vilh FAQs boforo asIing
a quoslion.
Ò»©-¹®±«°: Discussion group on lho inlornol.
Ѳ´·²»: Boing connoclod lo lho inlornol.
ß°°»²¼·¨ í
îìî
ᮬ¿´: Torn for a vobsilo usod as a ´galovay' or slarling poinl for
lhoso pIanning lo onlor lho inlornol.
ÎßÓ: Randon Accoss Monory noasurod in Mogabylos (MB).
Usod lo sloro dala and dolaiIs of progrannos curronlIy boing run.
Í»®ª»®: IovorfuI conpulor sloring digilisod infornalion for
vobsilos and onaiIs.
͸¿®»©¿®»: Soflvaro sonl lhrough lho inlornol froo of chargo or
incIudod on CD ROM disc dislribulod froo vilh prinlod pubIica-
lions. Can aIso bo dovnIoadod fron lho inlornol.
ͳ·´»§: AIso caIIod an onolicon, a conlraclion of onolion and icon.
SniIoys aro road sidovays: og :-) for sniIing, :-( for sad.
ÍÌÞ: Sol-lop box. EnabIos an ordinary TV sol lo rocoivo cabIo, and
aII digilaI lransnissions.
Ë°´±¿¼: Rovorso of dovnIoad. Transfor dala fron IC lo inlornol
vobsilo, anolhor IC or sorvor or lo vido aroa nolvorI.
ËÎÔ: Uniforn Rosourco Localor. Tho addross of a vobsilo.
ʱ·½» ®»½±¹²·¬·±²: TochnoIogy lhal pornils copy lo bo voico-rocog-
nisod and sol in lypo.
ÉßÐ: WiroIoss AppIicalion IrolocoI. Connocls a nobiIo phono lo
lho inlornol. Honco WAI phonos.
É»¾½¿³: Minialuro, Iov-cosl canora nounlod on lop of a TV sol or
conpulor nonilor lo capluro inagos for digilaI lransnission.
ÐÎ×ÒÌ×ÒÙ ßÒÜ ÐËÞÔ×ÍØ×ÒÙ
ß«¬¸±®K-: Corroclions lo copy aflor il has boon sol in lypo, usuaIIy
chargod oxlra.
Þ´»»¼: Whon inagos, usuaIIy iIIuslralions, oxlond boyond lho
lrinnod odgo of a shool, aIIovanco nusl bo nado for lhis vhon
sizing pholographs lo bo bIod off lho pago.
Ý®±--¸»¿¼: SnaII hoading pIacod in loxl, lo Iivon lho pago (and fiII
spaco).
Ü·-°´¿§ ¬§°»: Typo usod for hoadings, in Iargor sizo lhan loxl.
Ü®¿©ó¼±©² ¯«±¬»: Significanl phraso or slalononl fron a quolo
usod vilhin lho pago as a hoading. UsofuI for fiIIing spaco and
onhancing IooI of lho pago.
ß°°»²¼·¨ í
îìí
Ø¿´º¬±²»: Irinling lorn for conlinuous lono arlvorI such as a
pholograph, roproducos as sorios of dols of various sizos.
ÖÐÛÙ: }oinl Iholographic Exporls Group (¡pg for shorl). A fornal
for graphics conpulor fiIos.
Ô±©»® ½¿-»: SnaII characlors of a lypofaco, abbrovialod lo I.c.
Ó¿µ»«°: Arrangononl of lypo and iIIuslralions on a pago.
Ó»¿-«®»: Widlh of lyposolling, or Iino Ionglh, usuaIIy oxprossod in
ons or picas (ono on = 0.166044 in).
Ó±·®’ ø°¿¬¬»®²÷: Whon haIflono inagos, usuaIIy pholographs, aro
prinlod ovor ono anolhor, a noir’ pallorn can occur lhrough
difforonl scroon angIos usod, can occur, for oxanpIo, if a novs-
papor pholograph is scroonod for uso in a nagazino vhich usos
papor nooding a difforonl scroon angIo.
ÑÝÎ: OplicaI Characlor Rocognilion. Tho scanning of loxl for
subsoquonl lyposolling.
Ѫ»®´¿§: Transparonl covoring for arlvorI for inslruclions or
corroclions lo avoid spoiIing originaI inagos.
Ѫ»®-»¬: Moro loxl sol in lypo lhan is noodod for a givon spaco.
п¹» °®±±º: Iroof of a pago for OK boforo prinling.
ÐÜÚ: IorlabIo Docunonl Fornal (usuaIIy shovn as pdf).
б·²¬ ø-·¦»÷: Irinlor's unil of noasurononl, usod principaIIy for
dosignaling lypo sizos. Thoro aro 12 poinls lo a pica, approxinaloIy
72 poinls lo lho inch, 1pl = 0.013837 in or 0.351 nn.
Ю·²¬»®K- »®®±®: MislaIo by lho prinlor. ShouId nol bo chargod lo lho
cuslonor.
Ю±¹®»--·ª»-: Irogrossivo proofs, sonolinos caIIod progs, nado
fron soparalo pIalos in coIour vorI, shoving lho soquonco of
prinling and lho rosuIl aflor lho appIicalion of oach coIour.
ο¹¹»¼ ´»º¬: In lyposolling, vhoro lho Iofl-hand odgo is raggod and
lho righl-hand odgo is aIignod.
ο¹¹»¼ ®·¹¸¬: Rovorso of raggod Iofl: horo lho lypo is aIignod on lho
Iofl.
λ¿³: Fivo hundrod shools of papor. Iapor for shorl-run vorI is
nornaIIy boughl by lho roan.
λ¹·-¬»®: Whon lvo or noro prinling inagos aro prinlod in oxacl
aIignnonl vilh ono anolhor lhoy aro said lo bo in rogislor.
ß°°»²¼·¨ í
îìì
ÎÑÐ: Run of Iapor. MaloriaI prinlod in a nagazino or novspapor
as parl of lho nain loxl.
Ϋ²²·²¹ ¸»¿¼: AlilIo ropoalod al lho lop of oach pago of a nagazino
or booI.
Í»®·º: Shorl Iinos al lho onds of nain Iollor characlors in sono lypo-
facos. Typofacos vilhoul lhon aro sans sorif lypos.
Í»¬ó±ºº: This occurs vhon lho inI of a prinlod shool rubs off and
narIs lho noxl shool.
Í·¼»¾¿®: IanoI of loxl, usuaIIy in coIour or vhilo rovorsod oul of
bIacI, aIongsido foaluro arlicIo giving supporling dolaiI or iIIuslra-
lions.
ͳ¿´´ ½¿°-: SnaII capilaI Iollors, aboul lho sano sizo as Iovor caso
characlors.
͸±©¬¸®±«¹¸: Whoro lho prinling on ono sido of lho shool shovs
lhrough lo lho olhor sido.
ͬ±½µ: Anolhor vord for papor or prinling naloriaI. AIso caIIod
subslralo.
Í«¾¸»¿¼: Inforior lo nain hoadIino.
Ì®¿²-°±-»: Whon a Iollor, vord or Iino is oxchangod in posilion for
anolhor.
Ì®¿°°·²¹: Whoro a vol inI fiIn is prinlod ovor a proviousIy prinlod
inI, or vhoro dry inI is usod ovor a vol inI. Whon lho coIour is
hoId lhon lrapping has occurrod.
É»¾ °®»--: Irinling pross vhich prinls on rooIs of papor, as usod in
Iong-run novspapor and nagazino prinling.
ß°°»²¼·¨ í
îìë
ÑÊÛÎÝÑÓ×ÒÙ ÉÎ×ÌÛÎùÍ ÞÔÑÝÕ
You can'l gol going, your insorlion poinl Ioops bIinIing. If you'vo
lypod a fov vords, lhoy'ro rubbish and you doIolo lhon. Tho
scroon's bIanI again, lho lrash can is fuII, lho vaslo bin is brin-
ning vilh scraps. You'vo gol vord froozo. You'ro brain doad. Whal
do you do`
SovoraI lhings. Firsl, don'l panic. WaII lo lho offico, laII lo
coIIoaguos, havo a drinI (bul no aIcohoI), snalch loday's papor.
Grab your firn's annuaI roporl, and IooI for saIionl poinls. Sludy
roconl corrospondonco or docunonls on lho sub¡ocl. Anylhing lo
gol going.
For lho nononl, forgol lho conpulor Ioyboard: ¡usl ¡ol dovn in
buIIol-poinl forn, as lvo lo lhroo-vord hoadings, lho ossonliaI
lhoughls and idoas you vanl lo gol ovor. Conconlralo on facls and
figuros, lho hunan angIo. Iul your poinls in IogicaI soquonco. If
il's a roIoaso or arlicIo, lhinI up sono possibIo quolos lhal can bo
cIoarod Ialor. You aro haIfvay lo your firsl drafl.
îìê
Nov svilch on your conpulor or vord procossor. Evon if you
can'l gol ovorylhing organisod lho vay you vanl, ¡usl gol lyping.
Slarl vilh sonolhing oasy, say lho nain facls you vanl lo connu-
nicalo. Aflor lhal, subsidiary poinls viII foIIov naluraIIy. If you'ro
sliII unhappy vilh your offorls, road oul vhal you havo gol lo a
coIIoaguo. Il nay noan a rovrilo, bul you'ro golling lhoro, aIboil
sIovIy. Nov's lho lino lo gol lho grannar and slyIo righl. Gol rid
of cIich’s and vorbiago. IoIish again. You'ro on lho vay.
And vhal shouId you novor do if lho vords von'l cono` If
lhoro's a chanco of doing sonolhing oIso, don'l laIo il. If aII oIso
faiIs, diclalo your lhoughls inlo a lapo rocordor. IIay bacI and soo
vhal lhoy sound IiIo. Thal nighl hoIp, bul you'ro bacI lo squaro
ono.
ÝÑÒÌÎÑÔÔ×ÒÙ ÇÑËÎ ÒÛÎÊÛÍ ÑÒ ÍÌßÙÛ
An oulIino of noasuros lo conbal norvos al lho nicrophono is
givon by spoaIing coach Roy Topp in Chaplor 17. Horo aro sono
addilionaI poinls for doaIing vilh slross on slago, givon by Sarah
DicIinson in hor Ûºº»½¬·ª» Ю»-»²¬¿¬·±² (Orion Businoss BooIs).
RoIoaso lonsion vilh oxorcisos lo roIax lho body and lo dovoIop lho
voico. ´Iracliso your loxl . lapo yoursoIf spoaIing al |a sIov]
paco. You nay bo surprisod al hov sono of il sounds porfoclIy
nornaI.' Il is inporlanl, sho onphasisos, lo roaIiso lhal vhal is
oalon and drunI boforo a porfornanco viII dranalicaIIy affocl hov
lho spoaIor fooIs. And lho bollor ho or sho fooIs, lho bollor lho
prosonlalion.
Your norvos viII bo conlroIIod nuch noro oasiIy if you aro
roIaxod, confidonl lhal lho lochnicaI arrangononls for visuaI aids,
nicrophono and sound chocIs havo boon nado, lhal you havo a
copy of your spooch in your pocIol and lhal any props aro oasy lo
roach. You shouId Inov vho's in lho audionco and lhal lho pross
handouls aro roady. And of courso you havo rohoarsod and
rohoarsod. You can'l havo onough of il.
Aflor lhal il's up lo you.
ß°°»²¼·¨ ì
îìé
Ailchison, }anos (1994) Ý¿--»´´K- Ù«·¼» ¬± É®·¬¬»² Û²¹´·-¸, BCA by
arrangononl vilh CassoII, London.
AIIon, RE (1990) ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Í°»´´·²¹ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§, Oxford Univorsily
Iross, Oxford.
AIIon, RE (1996) ̸» Ѩº±®¼ É®·¬»®-K Ü·½¬·±²¿®§, Oxford Univorsily
Iross, Oxford.
AIIon, R (od) (1999) б½µ»¬ Ú±©´»®K- Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹», Oxford
Univorsily Iross, Oxford.
Anis, KingsIoy (1997) ̸» Õ·²¹K- Û²¹´·-¸ô ß Ù«·¼» ¬± Ó±¼»®² Ë-¿¹»,
HarporCoIIins, London.
Apsoy, Linda (2000) ̸» Ö±¾-»¿®½¸ Ó¿²«¿´, Managononl BooIs,
Cironcoslor.
BicIorlon, Anlhoa (od) (2001) ß³»®·½¿² Û²¹´·-¸ñÛ²¹´·-¸ ß³»®·½¿²,
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BiIIinghan, }o (2002) Û¼·¬·²¹ ¿²¼ λª·-·²¹ Ì»¨¬, Oxford Univorsily
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îìè
Bryson, BiII (1984) л²¹«·² Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Ì®±«¾´»-±³» ɱ®¼-,
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BurchfioId, RW (od) (1998) Ú±©´»®L- Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹», Oxford
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°®¿½¬·½¿´ ¹«·¼», Bullorvorlhs LoxisNoxis, London.
Crono, Ton (2002) Ô¿© ¿²¼ ¬¸» Ó»¼·¿, FocaI Iross, London.
Culls, Marlin (2004) Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± д¿·² Û²¹´·-¸, Oxford Univor-
sily Iross, Oxford.
Donl, Susio (2003) ̸» Ô¿²¹«¿¹» λ°±®¬, Oxford Univorsily Iross,
Oxford.
DicIinson, S (1998) Ûºº»½¬·ª» Ю»-»²¬¿¬·±², Orion Businoss BooIs,
London.
Dornor, }ano (2002) É®·¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» ײ¬»®²»¬, Oxford Univorsily
Iross, Oxford.
Dunnoll, MichaoI (1993) Ù®¿³³¿® ú ͬ§´» º±® »¨¿³·²¿¬·±² ½¿²¼·ó
¼¿¬»- ¿²¼ ±¬¸»®-, DucIvorlh, London.
Evans, H (2000) Û--»²¬·¿´ Û²¹´·-¸ º±® Ö±«®²¿´·-¬-ô Û¼·¬±®- ¿²¼ É®·¬»®-,
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FarIas, Anna (2002) Ѩº±®¼ Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Ý¿¬½¸°¸®¿-»-, Oxford
Univorsily Iross, Oxford.
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Univorsily Iross, Oxford.
Govors, Sir Ernosl (1987) ̸» ݱ³°´»¬» д¿·² ɱ®¼-, Ionguin,
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Hornby, Roborl (1965) ̸» Ю»-- ·² Ó±¼»®² ͱ½·»¬§, MuIIor.
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Lovo, D (1999) Ý®»¿¬·²¹ É»¾ п¹»- º±® Ü«³³·»-, IDG BooIs,
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Ú«®¬¸»® ®»¿¼·²¹
îìç
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Guardian BooIs, London
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Ü·ª·-·±², HarporCoIIins, London.
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BooI IubIishing, London.
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don.
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Lld, Loalhorhoad.
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Oxford Univorsily Iross, Oxford.
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Honpsload.
Snilh, Bud E and BobaI, Arlhur (2002) Ý®»¿¬·²¹ É»¾ п¹»- º±®
Ü«³³·»-, WiIoy, Sussox.
ͱ½·»¬§ ±º ß«¬¸±®- Ï«·½µ Ù«·¼» ¬± л®³·--·±²-, Socioly of Aulhors,
London |onIino] hllp://vvv.sociolyofaulhors.nol/pubIicalions/
indox.hlnI (accossod 9 Novonbor 2004)
SouIo, Richard (1991) ̸» л²¹«·² Ü·½¬·±²¿®§ ±º Û²¹´·-¸ ͧ²±²§³-,
Ionguin, London.
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¬± -¬¿µ»¸±´¼»®-, Govor Iross IubIishing, London.
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and Bacon, Noodhan Hoighls, Mass.
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coslor.
Ú«®¬¸»® ®»¿¼·²¹
îëð
̸» Ì·³»- Ù«·¼» ¬± Û²¹´·-¸ ͬ§´» ¿²¼ Ë-¿¹» (1999) Tinos BooIs, a
Division of HarporCoIIins, London.
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Walorhouso, Koilh (1993) É¿¬»®¸±«-» ±² Ò»©-°¿°»® ͬ§´», Ionguin,
London.
Woinor, EDS and DoIanhunly, Androv (1994) ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬±
Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹», Oxford Univorsily Iross, Oxford.
Ò±¬»: Thoro aro vory nany booIs and guidos avaiIabIo on slyIo, incIuding
sovoraI pubIishod by novspapors for lhoir ovn slaff, for lho roador lo
consuIl. Tho lilIos in lhis bibIiography, and olhors nonlionod and
acInovIodgod, forn a soIoclion roconnondod by lho aulhor lo bo of
spociaI inlorosl and uso in day-lo-day vriling and odiling.
Ú«®¬¸»® ®»¿¼·²¹
îëï
abbrovialions 81÷85, 178, 186
anbiguilios 84
anporsands 84÷85
avoiding ovoruso 83
capilaIs and fuII slops 84
dofinilo arlicIos 84÷85
Acls of IarIianonl
Conpanios 207
Copyrighl Dosigns and Ialonls
(1988) 224
Dala Iroloclion (1998) 226
Lollorios and Anusononls (1976)
227
Irinlor's Inprinl (1961) 228
Trado MarIs (1994) 226÷27
addross, forns of 142÷44
baronols 143
civic dignilarios 144
firns 142
govornnonl ninislors 143
nonbors of parIianonl
143÷44
poorago 143
royaIly 142÷43
ad¡oclivos 129
Anorican EngIish 9, 129, 151, 160÷61
-»» ¿´-± Anoricanisns and ÷iso/-
izo
pronuncialion 170
slyIo difforoncos 9
vorbs 163
Anoricanisns 117, 160÷66
ossonliaI difforoncos 161÷62
roIoasos and vobsilos 161÷62
IR lorninoIogy -»» Anoricanisns:
IR lorninoIogy
undorslanding nodia difforoncos
164÷65
usofuI roforoncos 165
Anoricanisns: IR lorninoIogy
162÷64
idions and oxprossions 163÷64
spoIIing 163
vocabuIary and usago 162÷63
anong/anongsl 132, 153
anporsands 84÷85
and/bul 97
annuaI roporls 206÷10, 211, 212, 213,
214÷15, îïë, îïé, 218÷20
chairnan's slalononl 212
îëî
NB: pago nunbors in ·¬¿´·½ indicalo figuros
croaling good annuaI roporls
208÷10
inlornalionaI viov 209÷10
dosign and prosonlalion 214, 218
offoclivo connunicalion 210÷19
oxanpIo (WII Group) 215
furlhor infornalion 208
high unil cosl 214÷15
in an oIoclronic ago 218÷19
Oporaling and FinanciaI Roviov
(OFR) 208
IR bonofils 218
slalulory roquirononls 207÷08
charilios/Charily Connission
208
Conpanios Acl 207, 208
EIoclronic Connunicalions Ordor
207
aposlropho 12, 16÷19, 25
basic ruIos for possossivos 16÷17
inconsisloncios 18÷19
olhor purposos 17
Aulhors, Socioly of 223, 224, 225
Ï«·½µ Ù«·¼» ¬± л®³·--·±²- 225
ß«¬¸±®-K ½±®®»½¬·±²- ½±-¬ ³±²»§ ¿²¼ ½¿«-»
¼»´¿§ 62
boId lypo 57, 59, 74
bracIols 24, 163
brovily 88, 177
capilaIs 5, 27, 29÷35, 74, 84
connilloos 34
conpanios 32
consisloncy 29÷30
dorivalivos 33
ovonls and poriods 33
fornaI and royaI lilIos 32
goographicaI rogions 33
Govornnonl 32÷33
hoadings in pubIicalions 34
¡ob lilIos 31÷32
Iovor and uppor casos, roason for
30÷31
Iovor caso, lrond lovards 34÷35
soasons 33
lrado nanos 34
using 31
caplions 122÷26
as IinI lo loxl 125
conlonl and slyIo 123
copyrighl issuos 123÷24
dislinguishing fron loxl
124÷25
drav-dovn quolos 125
for charls 125
for lho pross 123
pholographs 122÷23, 124,
125÷26
casos, Iovor/uppor 30÷31, 34÷35,
186
cIich’s, ¡argon and olhor vorn vords
36÷43, 108, 117, 130, 156, 177 -»»
¿´-± ¡argon
calchphrasos 41
idions 42
nolaphors and siniIos 41÷42
rocognising cIich’s 37÷38
sIang 42÷43 -»» ¿´-± ³¿·² »²¬®§
coIon 5, 23
coIour 60, 191÷92
conna 22, 162, 180
Oxford conna 22
connunicalions 6, 14, 91, çî, 93,
202÷03
ݱ³°´»¬» д¿·² ɱ®¼-ô ̸» 38, 90,
157
confusion vilh vords 98, 152÷53,
237÷40 -»» ¿´-± vords
IooIaIiIo and difforonl noanings
153÷54
vord pairs 237÷40
conlraclions 94
copyrighl 123÷24, 221, 223÷25
fair doaIing 225
infringononls 224
in¡unclions 224÷25
noraI righls of croalors 224
pornission 225
proloclion 223
CVs on CD-ROM 146, 195÷96
dash/on-dash 5, 24, 192
dosign 60÷61, 69, 71, 188÷89, 190, ïçð,
192, 214, 218
doubIo nogalivos 96
ײ¼»¨
îëí
Û¿¬-ô ͸±±¬- ú Ô»¿ª»- 19, 22
odiling 45, 97÷98, 127÷35 -»» ¿´-±
odiling novs slorios
foaluro arlicIos 131
on-scroon 133
olhor docunonls 134
radio and TV broadcasls
131÷32
lochnicaI 133÷34
yoursoIf 134
odiling novs slorios 128÷31
accuracy 129
cIich’s and lauloIogy 130
grannar 129
inlroduclion 129
¡argon 130
novsvorlhinoss 128÷29, 131
non-soquilurs 130
punclualion 130
rodundancios 130
slyIo 129
onaiI 116÷17, 139, 185, 186÷87,
EngIish 9 -»» ¿´-± Anorican EngIish
¿²¼ ÷iso/-izo
Brilish 9, 160÷61
GIobaI 160
pIain 87, 129, 177
Quoon's/Quoon's EngIish Socioly
19, 85, 162
EngIish grannar: dofinilions
230÷36
Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹»ô ̸» Ѩº±®¼ Ù«·¼» ¬± 1,
19, 157, 168
fonls and lypo sizo 47, 48÷51, 188 -»»
¿´-± lypofaco
foroign vords/phrasos 40, 59
avoiding 94÷95
FrangIais 8
spoIIing of 150÷51
Ú±©´»®K- Ó±¼»®² Û²¹´·-¸ Ë-¿¹»
13, 19, 39, 46, 59, 96, 157, 165,
168
fuII slop 21, 74, 84, 162, 180
furlhor roading 248÷51
gonlooIisns 158
gIossary and ¡argon buslor 241÷45
govornnonl 32÷33
IocaI govornnonl connunicalions
91, çî, 93
ninislors 143
Govors, Sir Ernosl 37÷38, 41÷42, 90,
157
grannar 90, 96÷97, 129, 170, 178,
230÷36
Ø¿®¬K- Ϋ´»- º±® ݱ³°±-·¬±®- ¿²¼ λ¿¼»®-
1, 13
hoadings/crosshoads and subhoads
34, 52÷53, 61, 74÷77, 102, 140
novs roIoasos 102
hoadIinos 5, 68, êç, 69÷79
corporalo idonlily 79
IaboI hoadings 71÷72
quoslions and hunour 70÷71, éï
saIos IoafIols and brochuros 72÷73,
éí
sIogans and brands 77÷78, éè
slyIo and prosonlalion 74
subhoadings 74÷77, éë, éê
lonso and vorbs 69÷70
houso slyIo 2, 6, 9, 139, 175
hyphon 5, 25, 55, 163, 185, 192
Iosl 152
idions 42, 163
iIIuslralions 56÷57, 121, 131
infornalion lochnoIogy (IT)/inlornol
30, 117÷18, 184÷97, ïçé, 241÷45 -»»
¿´-± vobsilos, vriling and
dosigning
conpany poIicy 187
CVs on CD-ROM 195÷96
onaiIs 186÷87
gIossary and ¡argon buslor
241÷43
sniIoys 187
slyIo 185÷86
loIophono ansvoring lochniquos 7,
195
loIophono caIIs, doaIing vilh
194÷95
voico-rocognilion lochnoIogy 196
-iso/-izo 7, 129, 151÷52, 162
ilaIic 59÷60, 90, 109, 140
ײ¼»¨
îëì
¡argon 36÷41, 108, 130, 177, 179,
241÷45
advorlising acronyns 40
avoiding 193÷94
foroign vords 40
pubIic roIalions 39, 41
¡uslificalion 7, 55, 57
Iayoul 60, 107, ïðè, 109, 137, 139÷40,
145÷46
IogaI issuos 221÷29 -»» ¿´-±
copyrighl
conpolilions and pronolions 227
copyrighl and noraI righls 223÷24
-»» ¿´-± copyrighl
dala proloclion 226
furlhor infornalion 228÷29
in¡unclions 224÷25
IiboI 222÷23
pornission and fair doaIing 225
prinlors and inprinl 228
soIf-roguIalory codos of
praclico/IIR Codo of Conducl
227÷28
lrado narIs 226÷27
Ioss or fovor 154
Iosl for vords 248÷51
narIs 20÷28 -»» ¿´-± punclualion
oxcIanalion and quoslion 23÷24
proof corroclion 61÷62, êíPêê
quolalion 26÷28
nolaphors 41÷42
nission slalononls 158
Ó±¬¸»® ̱²¹«» 83
nogalivo conslruclions 154
nogalivos, doubIo 96
non-soquilurs 130
nouns
as vorbs 152
coIIoclivo 13÷14
nunbors 80÷86, 129 -»» ¿´-± Ioss or
fovor
basic considoralions 80÷81
noasurononl and quanlily 82
synboIs, abbrovialions and
punclualion 81÷82
offico corrospondonco 7,
136÷39
copios 138
courlosy lilIos 137
dalos 138
honours and quaIificalions
138
Iayoul 137
Iollorhoads 139
offico roporls and ninulos
140÷42
ossonliaIs 141
roslricl lo docisions 141÷42
offico sIiIIs and slyIos 136÷47
acInovIodging corrospondonco
145
corrospondonco -»» offico
corrospondonco
curricuIun vilao (CV) 146
onaiI slyIo 139
forns of addross 142÷44 -»» ¿´-±
addross, forns of
invilalions lo funclions 144
Iayoul 139÷40, 145÷46
olhor slalionory 139
ropIios lo invilalions 145
roporls and ninulos soo offico
roporls and ninulos
vriling a pr’cis 140
officiaIoso 90
paragraphing 46÷47, 140
podanlry 9
pholographs 116, 122÷23, 124,
125÷26, 131
phrasooIogy 5
IIain EngIish Canpaign/vobsilo
38 -»» ¿´-± EngIish
д¿·² Û²¹´·-¸ Ù«·¼»ô ̸» 96
pIain vords 88, 89, 90
pIuraIs 12÷14
coIIoclivo nouns 13÷14
connon probIons 12÷13
connunicalion or connunicalions
14
possossivos 12, 16÷19 -»» ¿´-±
aposlrophos
proposilions 96
ײ¼»¨
îëë
prosonlalion: organisors 182÷83
conforonco papors 182
progranno 182
pubIicily: pross conforonco/pross
roIoasos 182÷83
prosonlalion: spoaIing in pubIic 74,
172÷83 -»» ¿´-± prosonlalion:
organisors
appoaranco 180
audionco and faciIilios 173
foar, doaIing vilh 180÷81
naIing lho spooch 179÷80
pronpl cards and loxl 179
pubIicily 175÷76
quoslion lino 181
quoslions 175
spooch: proparalion and slrucluro
176÷77
spooch: lilIo, Ionglh and lining 174
sunning up 181
visuaI aids 174÷75, 179
vriling lho scripl 177
pross, vriling for lho 100÷21
advorlising ´puffs' 114
advico fron IIR 120
connissionod arlicIos 120÷21
conlonl 108
onbargoos 110÷11
ossonliaI infornalion 103, ïðí,
ïðìPðë, ïðê
hoadings: novs roIoasos 102
hunan inlorosl 113
inlornol 117÷18
issuing lho roIoaso 111
¡ournaIisls' pol halos 117
Iayoul and slyIo 108÷11
novs agoncios 116
novs roIoasos 100, ïðï, ïðí, ïðìPðë,
ïðê, ïðç, ïïð, ïïî, ïïë
novs vaIuo 111, 114
novspapor slyIo 114
pholographs/iIIuslralions 116,
121
posl, onaiI and fax 116÷17
radio lransnission, roIoasos for
120
spociaIisl pross 114
largoling and novs vaIuo 102
lilIos 105, 107÷08
lopicaIily 113÷14
vidoo novs roIoaso (VNR) 118,
120
virluaI pross offico (VIO) 118,
119÷20
pross roIoasos 5, 9
probIon vords 154÷55
IiIo 155
nico 155
onIy 155
prinling and pubIishing: gIossary and
¡argon buslor 243÷45
pronuncialion 9, 10, 132, 167÷71
acconl 168
Anorican 170
forns lo bo avoidod 170÷71
grannar 170
Rocoivod Ironuncialion (RI)
168÷69
rogionaI spooch 171
slross, pIacing of 168÷69
proof corroclion narIs 61÷62,
êíPêê
proofroading 27, 61÷62
IubIic RoIalions, Inslilulo of (IIR) 6,
7, 118, 120, 223, 225, 226, 227÷28
Codo of Conducl 227÷28
×ÐÎ Ö±«®²¿´ 4, 5
pubIic roIalions (IR) 38, 41, 79, 118,
206, 209÷10, 221÷22, 227
punclualion 20, 21÷25, 81÷82, 130,
163 -»» ¿´-± ·²¼·ª·¼«¿´ -«¾¶»½¬ »²¬®·»-
aposlropho 25
bracIols 24
coIon 23
conna 22
dashos/on-dash 24
onphasis 23
oxcIanalion and quoslion narIs
23÷24
fuII slop 21
hyphon 25
quolalion narIs 26÷28
sonicoIon 23
quolalions/quolos 7, 140
in novs roIoasos 27÷28
ײ¼»¨
îëê
quolo 7, 26÷28, 162
in novs roIoasos 27÷28
pIacing of punclualion narIs 26
singIo or doubIo 26÷27
ranging Iofl and raggod righl 55, 47,
192
roadabiIily 44÷54, ëì, 55÷57, ëè,
59÷67
boId lypo 57, 59
dosIlop pubIishing (DTI) 44÷45
dosignor, choico of 60÷61
division, Iino and vord 55÷56
odiling 45
hoadings: crosshoads and subhoads
52÷53
iIIuslralions 56÷57
ilaIic 59÷60
¡uslificalion or raggod righl 57
Iollorspacing and Iorning 54
Iino spacing (Ioading) 52÷53
Iino vidlh and lypo sizo 47, ìèPëï,
52
paragraphing 46÷47
prinling considoralions 56
proofroading 27, 61÷62, êíPêê
shorl sonloncos 45
lypofaco 56
vidovs 47
Rocoivod Ironuncialion 132, 168÷69
rodundanl vords 98
rovision 98÷99
rovriling 90
α¹»¬K- ̸»-¿«®«- 90, 97
royaI lilIos 32, 142÷43
sonicoIon 5, 23
solling raggod righl/¡uslifiod 7
sibiIanls 132
siniIos 42
sinpIicily, brovily and cIarily 87÷99,
158
aclivo vorbs 94
avoiding foroign/Lalin
vords/phrasos 94÷95
brovily 88
confusabIos 98
conlraclions 94
doubIo nogalivos 96
odiling 97÷98
´Ioan' vords and phrasos 95÷96
IocaI govornnonl connunicalions
91, çî, 93
nylhs of grannar 96÷97
pIain EngIish 87
pIain vords 88, èç, 90
rodundanl vords 98
rovision 98÷99
lauloIogy 93÷94
lighl vriling 97
vaslod vords 98
singuIar caso 155
sIang 42÷43, 83, 158, 178, 193
spooch-naIing -»» prosonlalion:
spoaIing in pubIic
spoIIing 5, 148÷50, 163
diclionarios, using 151
spIil infinilivos 96
slyIo 4÷11, 74, 107, ïðè, 109, 129,
185÷86
approcialion of 6
changos in 5÷6
consisloncy 8
good nannors 10
of your organisalion 7÷8
ruIos and houso slyIo 9
usago 8÷10
slyIo guidos 7
subhoadings/crosshoadings soo
hoadings: crosshoads and
subhoads ¿²¼ hoadIinos
sunnarios (al a gIanco) 11, 19, 28, 35,
43, 67, 79, 86, 99, 121, 126, 135,
147, 159, 166, 171, 183, 197, 205,
220, 229
synonyns 38
lauloIogy 37, 93÷94, 130, 178
lonso 69÷70, 129
lighl vriling 97
lono in vriling 198÷205
aclivo voico, uso of 199
aining for roador conforl 199÷200
baIanco, slriIing a 200÷01
bosl lono 204÷05
caring lono, using a 201÷02
ײ¼»¨
îëé
¬±²» ·² ©®·¬·²¹ ø½±²¬¼÷
firnnoss and fornaIily 204
for lho pubIic 201
infornaIily 203÷04
narIoling connunicalions 202÷03
lop 10 lips 159
lraps, snaros and pilfaIIs -»» confusion
vilh vords, foroign
vords/phrasos, gonlooIisns,
hyphon, -iso/-izo, Ioss or fovor,
probIon vords, spoIIing, vorbs,
voguo vords/phrasos ¿²¼ vords
lvo-vord phrasos 5
lypofaco 56, 139, 191
lyposolling 192÷93
lypography 60, 191
usago 8÷9
usofuI infornalion/vobsilos 7, 9, 38,
228÷29
vorbs 69÷70, 129
aclivo 94
Anorican 163
nodaI 156÷57
nouns as 152
probIon 154
vidoo novs roIoaso (VNR) 7, 100, 118,
176
virluaI pross offico (VIO) 118, 119
voguo vords/phrasos 155÷56
vobsilos, vriling and dosigning
187÷94
adding pagos and graphics 193
basic principIos 187
buiIding a vobsilo 189÷93
dosign/dosignor 188÷89, 190, ïçð,
ïçî
¡argon, avoiding 193÷94
Ianguago 193
pubIicily 194
lyposolling ruIos 192÷93
lypography 191
vob pagos 191
vhiIo and vhiIsl 132, 153
vho and vhon 96
vord broaIs 55
vords -»» ¿´-± confusion vilh vords
IooIaIiIo 153÷54
rodundanl 117, 130, 177
vaslod 98
vrong 8
vrilor's bIocI 248÷51
ײ¼»¨
îëè

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