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Material Types Key that assigns the material to a group of materials such as raw materials, operating supplies or trading goods. The material type defines certain attributes of the material and has important control functions. Use When creating a material master record, the material type determines ▪ whether the material number is assigned internally or externally ▪ from which number range interval the material number comes ▪ which screens are displayed ▪ the order in which screens are displayed ▪ which department-specific data is displayed for the user to enter Example: ROH - Raw Materials NLAG - Non-stock Materials HAWA - Trading goods LGUT - Empties (Retail) Confirmation A part of order monitoring. Documents the processing status of operations or sub-operations. The SAP System distinguishes between partial and final confirmations. A final confirmation is used to determine: ▪ At which work center the operation was carried out ▪ Who performed the operation ▪ Quantities of yield and scrap produced ▪ Size of the standard values required for the operation Confirmations can be done on the following: PI-PDS PI-PCS SAP ODA Mii Server BAPI SAP ECC Types of Confirmation Order-Related Confirmation o Production Order Confirmation Operation-Related Confirmation o Time ticket/confirmation slip confirmation o Collective/quick entry o Progress confirmation o Milestone confirmation o Mass Processing o Time Event confirmation Setup start Setup finish Process start Process finish Confirmation Functions Check operation sequence Monitor activity default values Set status (user status) Process goods movement Backflush posting Withdraw posting for open reservations Check delivery tolerances Transfer PDC data
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Firming Use Firmed planned orders are no longer changed by the planning run. They can only be changed manually. Features You can firm just the planned order data or the planned order data together with the planned order components. Firming Planned Order Data The system proposes the firming indicator automatically when you add or change a planned order manually or when you schedule planned orders in the graphical planning table. If you do not want to firm the planned order, you can cancel this indicator. If the planned order is firmed, the system can no longer adapt the quantities and dates of the planned order material. It can, however, adapt the components of the planned order material if the BOM has changed. In the MPS menu, there is a collective transaction for firming planned orders. Starting from the MPS node, choose Planned order ® Firm. Firming Components Any manual changes that you make to the date or the quantity in the planned order are automatically passed on to the components by the system. If you want to ensure that no further automatic changes can be made to the components of the planned order material, you can set the firming indicator for components when processing the planned order. You can then no longer re-explode the BOM in the planning run. The firming indicator is automatically proposed by the system when you manually change or create material components in the processing function of planned orders. You can only firm particular individual components. The set the indicator for this in the screen for processing components. The indicator for firming all components can only then be set if the planned order data is also firmed. The firming type determines how the procurement proposals (especially planned orders and purchase requisitions) are to be firmed for the planning run and in which order they are to be scheduled within the firming period. You specify the firming procedure to be used for each material using the the MRP type. The firming type is defined in Customizing for the MRP type. You can use firming for materials planned with both master production scheduling and material requirements planning. Corresponding MRP types are available for this in the standard system. Firming Type of the Planning Result Definition For the planning run, the firming type determines how procurement proposals are firmed and scheduled within the planning time fence. There are the following firming types: 0 Procurement proposals are not firmed automatically. No firming takes place with this firming type. 1 Procurement proposals within the planning time fence are firmed automatically as soon as their date is at least one day before the end date of the planning time fence. The date of new procurement proposals created in the planning time fence is moved to the end date of the planning time fence. As a result, these new procurement proposals are not firmed. 2 Procurement proposals within the planning time fence are firmed automatically as soon as their date is at least one day before the end date of the planning time fence. No new procurement proposals are created automatically within the planning time fence; that is, the shortage situation is not adjusted within the planning time fence. 3 Procurement proposals within the planning time fence are not firmed automatically. All procurement proposals required to Reduce capacity requirements Determine actual cost Quantity calculations
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cover the requirements are moved to the end of the planning time fence. 4 No procurement proposals are created automatically within the planning time fence; that is, the shortage situation is not adjusted within the planning time fence. Dependencies If you enter a manual firming date, the planning time fence is extended to this date automatically. You can enter a manual firming date on the initial screen of the planning run and in the stock/requirements list in MRP and in long-term planning. Planning Strategies (50, 70, 20) Planning Strategy 50 - Planning without final assembly enables to manufacture products specifically for a customer. However with this planning strategy, certain assemblies should be produced or procured before the sales order for the finished product is received. Planning Strategy 20 - Pure Make-to-order Production each sales order is planned separately and managed in its own section in the MRP List or the current stock/requirements list. lot for lot order quantity is used as the default setting for the lot-sizing procedure, regardless of the entry you have made in the material master. the produced quantities cannot be exchanged between the individual sales orders and the manufactured quantities are managed directly for the individual sales orders Planning Strategy 70 - Planning at Assembly Level This strategy makes sense when it is easier to specify a requirements forecast for certain assemblies than it is for variant diversity of the finished product. Planning for an assembly is considered separately. The PIR is entered at assembly level and triggers the production of an assembly. If sales orders are received for the finished product, the BOM is exploded for the finished product. Pegging; heuristic process You can use the “Pegged Requirements” evaluation, which you can access directly from the stock/requirements list and MRP list, to trace from any BOM level across other BOM levels which requirements have caused an order proposal and which independent requirements (particularly sales orders) are affected by the change in date or quantity of an order proposal on a lower level. In the stock/requirements or MRP list, you can navigate directly from the requirements element to the pegged requirement on the level above. The system displays the stock/requirements or MRP list of the superordinate level and automatically positions the cursor on the line of the pegged requirement. This makes it much easier to find pegged requirements on different MRP levels. You can call this function from the details display of the requirements element. The function is available for the following requirements elements: Dependent requirements, order reservations, stock transfer requirements, stock transfer reservations. An evaluation that displays the source requirements or the source procurement proposal of a chosen MRP element. This evaluation is used to check which planned independent requirements will not be met if certain procurement proposals are cancelled or if dates or quantities in the procurement proposal are changed. ERP It is the marketing-driven rebranding of SAP R/3 as "SAP ERP", based on the original interpreted kernel developed in 1967. SAP ERP, a closely integrated suite of components included in SAP Business Suite software, delivers the following solutions. Financials Human Capital Management Operations Routing Error (No routing, faulty production version) Planning table - no entries - no production version
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Master Data Comprises of key information that is not changed often KANBAN A procedure for controlling production and material flow based on a chaining of operations in production and procurement. The replenishment or production of a material is not triggered until a certain production level actually needs the material. The signal for replenishment is issued by a card (Japanese "kanban") that is sent by a demand source (consumer) to the supply source (supplier). A system used for organizing production that aims to reduce stock levels in the warehouse, thus reducing production costs. KANBAN materials are stored in crates or in another type of standard container. Special Kanban Master Data Control Cycle If you want to procure a product from a supplier for a specific supply area in the customer location with kanban, a control cycle must be available in SAP ICH for this combination of customer, supplier, customer location, supplier location, product, and supply area. You can manually create control cycles in SAP ICH under Inventory Collaboration Hub ® Supplier Collaboration ® Kanban ® Kanban Master Data ® Maintain Kanban Control Cycles. The kanban control cycle contains the following data: Control cycle category The following control cycle categories are available: - Classic kanban - Event-driven kanban The control cycle category is displayed in the kanban overview. The control cycle category does not have a control function in SAP ICH. Container quantity This is the quantity that each container of a kanban control cycle can contain. Reference Document For a control cycle, you must specify the number of the scheduling agreement or the contract in the back-end system to which the kanban requests for the control cycle refer. SAP ICH can use the reference document to determine the control cycle ID for a kanban request (Replenishment Order Notification) at receipt. Alternatively, the Replenishment Order Notification can also contain a control cycle ID directly. Supply area You must enter a name in the control cycle for the supply area. Response time The response time is an SAP ICH-specific parameter that you use in SAP ICH to generate alerts for late supplier responses to empty kanbans. You cannot transfer this parameter from the SAP back-end system. Rather, you must enter the parameter in SAP ICH in the control cycle. In SAP ICH, the /SCA/DM_KNBN_SETDEF_RESTIME report allows you to define a control-cycle-independent default response time for all control cycles of a customer. For online processing, you call the report under Inventory Collaboration Hub ® Supplier Collaboration ® Kanban ® Set Default Response Time. Packaging material Here you specify the product number of the kanban container material. (You must have created a location product master for the packaging material.) The product number of the packaging material is displayed in the kanban processing Web UI. In the packaging function of ASN processing, there is no validation check which forces the supplier to use this packaging material for packing. Total number of kanbans in a kanban control cycle Number of active kanbans Descriptions of supply areas You can also transfer descriptions of supply areas from the SAP back-end system. If there are no descriptions in the SAP back-end system, you create the descriptions in the SAP SCM system. To do so, on the SAP Easy Access mySAP Supply Chain Management screen, choose Inventory Collaboration Hub ® Supplier Collaboration ® Kanban ® Kanban Master Data ® Maintain Kanban Control Cycles.
REM A component in the SAP System for planning and controlling repetitive and flow manufacturing. It enables the period- and quantity-dependent planning of production lines, reduces the work involved in production control and simplifies the entry of actual data (confirmation, goods receipt posting).
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The following master data is available: - The repetitive manufacturing profile is set in Customizing for repetitive manufacturing and is entered in the material master record. You must also authorize the material for repetitive manufacturing in the material master record. - You create the production version in the material master record. - If you want to plan using a planning ID, you must define one and enter it in the material master record. - If you want to use a production line for planning purposes, you must create one and enter it in the material master record. - If you use repetitive manufacturing in conjunction with the component PP line Design, you can represent the production line as a line hierarchy. This makes sense if you have complex production lines, which you want to schedule using takts. - If you want to plan capacity, you must create a routing and enter it in the production version. - You create a product cost collector for creating production costs. Reorder Point Planning A procedure in materials planning. If the reorder point is greater than warehouse stock, a procurement proposal is created by MRP. Reorder point planning can be: - Automatic - Manual Midpoint Scheduling Not included in the scheduling types in the creation of the production order (forwards, backwards only cap reqmts) Midpoint scheduling is used for orders without relationships (such as production orders or maintenance orders) that are rescheduled during dispatching. Midpoint scheduling is a special type of lead time scheduling. Midpoint scheduling is always executed when at least one operation is dispatched. With midpoint scheduling, the order is not scheduled starting from the basic order start or order finish date. Instead, it is scheduled starting from the dispatched operation. If only one operation is dispatched, all the operations that precede it are scheduled backwards and all the operations that follow it are scheduled forwards. If more than one operation was dispatched, then the scheduling direction between the two dispatched operations depends on the scheduling direction that was selected during lead time scheduling. Work Center Where standard values like the setup time, machine time, and labor time for the operation is defined Where the capacity availability of the machine or resource, and the formulas required for the scheduling of operation and costing of the activities are maintained. Where cost center to which the machine or resource belongs is maintained Used in routing to define the operation. Examples: Machines/machine groups Production Lines Assembly Work Centers Employees/Employee groups Routing Operations are arranged in a sequence in which activities need to be performed to manufacture a product Describes where the work is to be performed and the required work center resources for a particular operation Can be created without a material number. Routings without material number can be used by all the materials that have the same production process, production line, or manufacturing steps. Other important assignments in the routing include the material components from a BOM and any PRTs that are required for production. OPERATION CONTROL KEY Determines which business transactions should be executed for the object that belongs to the task list or order (for example scheduling or costing). Use Which application component uses the control key for which objects is shown in the table below. QM PM PP PP-PI PS
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STANDARD TEXT KEY Key which identifies a text that is frequently used to describe certain processes (for example, turning or milling). Use You can assign a standard text to an operation by entering the standard text key in the operation. By changing this text within the operation long text, you can then create an individual operation description. Standard texts can also be assigned to network activities. PRODUCTION SCHEDULING PROFILE Profile that you can use to specify that certain business transactions are carried out in parallel in a production order / process order (you can, for example, create and release an order at the same time, or release an order and print the shop papers) trigger an automatic goods receipt specify an overall profile for capacity leveling Use The production scheduling profile is copied into the order during order creation. Dependencies You can assign a production scheduling profile to a - material - production scheduler The assignment to a material has a higher priority. Unit Conversion Master data
Lot sizing A procedure in material requirements planning used to calculate order and production quantities (lot sizes). Lot-sizing procedures are divided into the following groups: Static Period Optimum Production Planning and Detailed Scheduling (APO-PPS) Procedure in production planning that is used to calculate the purchase order quantities of receipts. In the SAP APO (Advanced Planner and Optimizer), the following standard lot-sizing procedures are available, which can be configured in the location product master. Exact lot size Fixed lot size Period lot size Reorder point procedure For further lot-sizing procedures there are special heuristics available, e.g. Groff lot-sizing procedure Reorder point planning BOM
ATP, ATP Check
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The availability check can be used in a number of ways. It can be used in sales orders (but also in production orders or during goods movements). Therefore, when you create a sales order, for example, the system uses the ATP check to determine whether there is enough stock available in the warehouse for the required material. The system can also check if receipts (for example, production orders and planned orders) have already been planned by the requested date. If the answer is yes, the sales order can be confirmed. The current stock/requirements list is a dynamic list: It shows the present stock, requirements and receipts situation. You are able to view any changes as soon as the stock/requirements list is called. You can also see them in the stock/requirements list display screen when the elements are read in real time from the database using the Refresh function. The MRP lists shows the result of the most recent planning run and is therefore static: Changes made after the planning run are not shown. You can set whether you want an MRP list to be created during the planning run. STOCK/REQUIREMENTS LIST The stock/requirements list offers several display options: You can display different dates (the availability date or the goods receipt date, with/without safety time). You can work with display filters and selection rules, you can work in the period totals display, and so on. You can define the display accordingly in your own personal settings. “Period Totals” is a display function in the MRP list and stock/requirements list evaluations that groups the planning results into periodic buckets (for example, weekly or monthly buckets). In the Define Period Display for Period Totals activity in Customizing, you define which periods are to be shown in the Period Totals display. The periods you select here are shown on various tab pages in the Period Totals display. You can process individual MRP elements from the list. Alongside the standard functions (such as search functions), you also have functions defined on a user-specific basis that can be accessed through the “Navigation Profile” and personal favorites. You can also process the list with a range of user-specific functions at material level. You can analyze the capacity situation from the current stock/requirements list. For each work center and capacity category, the system displays the available capacity, the total capacity requirements, and the capacity requirements of this material per period. Overload situations are highlighted in color. Note that planned orders that have not been scheduled using detailed scheduling (created by a planning run with the scheduling indicator 1) do not create capacity requirements. MRP LIST The functions in the MRP list are largely identical to the functions in the stock/requirements list, as far as processing MRP elements or display options is concerned, for example. Selection rules, however, are only used in the stock/requirements list. In contrast to the stock/requirements list, you can set a processing indicator for the MRP list. This indicator serves to highlight lists that have already been processed by the MRP controller. You define the display of the header details for the MRP evaluations in the Customizing IMG activity Define Screen Sequence for Header Details. The header details of the MRP list contain additional data for the planning run. In particular, they contain the number of exception messages that have occurred during the planning of a material. The header details show an overview of master data and transaction data for each material. This data is grouped together according to topic in individual screens. The MRP type controls which screens display in the requirements planning evaluations. For this, the screen sequences have a key that is then assigned to the MRP type. It is therefore possible to display master data for the evaluation of consumption-based materials that is different to that displayed for MRP planned materials. Formulas
Confirmed Allocation (where done)
Production Versions Key which determines the various production techniques according to which a material can be manufactured. The production version determines the following: - the BOM alternative for a BOM explosion
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- the task list type, the task list group and the task list group counter for allocation to task lists - lot-size restrictions for repetitive manufacturing Where-used List You can create where-used lists for: • Work centers • Capacities • Production resources/tools • Reference operation sets • Materials • Documents The where-used list provides an answer to the questions, where a material is used and in what quantity. It can be used to find the products that are affected by a change to an individual part. A where-used list can show you which task lists will be affected by a change in work center. REM Profile Controls, via order type, whether you are working with make-to-order repetitive manufacturing, based on sales orders, or with make-to-stock repetitive manufacturing, based on no specific orders. Use The repetitive manufacturing profile also determines; - how the system deals with activities when backflushing - which movement type is used to post goods receipts and goods issues - how planned order and run schedule quantities are reduced in the backflush transaction - how BOM corrections are made - if errors should occur when posting quantities to be backflushed Dependencies Repetitive manufacturing profiles are defined in Customizing for Repetitive Manufacturing. REM A component in the SAP System for planning and controlling repetitive manufacturing and flow manufacturing. It enables the period-dependent and quantity-dependent planning of production lines and reduces the work involved in production control and simplifies backflushing (confirmation, goods receipt posting). Across Plant Stock Transfer (one-step two-step) A change in the plant stock is taken into account by MRP. Two procedures are available for the physical transfer of materials from one plant to another: • One-step procedure • Two-step procedure The procurement of a material using a stock transfer process is defined in the material master using a special procurement type of the type "Stock transfer", which categorizes the relevant procurement type in more detail. You must define a special procurement type for each supplying plant in Customizing for requirements planning. Figure 173: One Step Stock Transfer (Transfer Posting) When companies want a very simple process of transferring stock from one plant to another, they can make use of the one step procedure. This procedure is normally used if the plants are close together and the transit time and transit costs are not very high, and therefore do not play a role in planning (for example, a plant and distribution center with two plant codes and the same physical location). In the case of the one-step procedure, the goods issue and goods receipt are posted in a single material document. You must therefore enter all relevant data, such as the material, issuing plant, issuing storage location, receiving plant, and receiving storage location in this one step. The movement type in the standard system is 301. Figure 174: Two Step Stock Transfer (Transfer Posting) In the case of the two-step procedure, when removing the material from storage (movement type 303), you must specify the receiving plant in addition to the material and the issuing organizational levels. This is necessary because valuation of the stock
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transfer takes place when the material is removed from storage and posted to stock in transfer at the receiving plant. You can either enter the put away (movement type 305) with reference to the material document of the stock removal or enter all data manually. As a result of the put away, the quantity is booked out of stock in transfer and into unrestricted-use stock at the receiving plant. Valuation of the put away is not necessary, since the stock in transfer and the unrestricted-use stock at the receiving storage location belong to the same plant. MRP Simulation Mode, Display Results before they are saved (see stock list) MRP in main memory This indicator defines that all components contained in the BOM are to be planned and that the system is to place the planning results in the main memory without initially saving them to the database. The planning results are displayed automatically in the material list where you have the option of accessing the planning results by material. You can recognize problems at a lower BOM level by exception messages. You can change the planning results to solve any problems. The system does not save the planning results for all materials to the database until you choose Save. Production Order, Order Reservation With in-house production, the system creates planned orders for planning the production quantities. In multilevel production, that is, when a finished product is made up of assemblies or components, the corresponding assembly group requirements are mapped by way of dependent requirements. Dependent requirements enter the MRP for the assembly as requirements. This ensures timely staging of the assemblies. When planning is complete, planned orders can be converted into production orders. When this is done, the system transforms the dependent requirements of the planned order into production order reservations. MPS Master production scheduling (MPS) enables you to plan materials that have great influence on value creation for a company, or that use critical resources and therefore need to be planned more carefully. It is normally the case for these materials that the master production schedule is first defined at the level of this critical or important material before the dependent assemblies and purchased parts are planned and procured. This means that changes made to these critical parts must not be passed on to the dependent parts immediately, in order to avoid any disruption during production and procurement of purchased parts. You plan the master schedule items (MPS items) and the non-master schedule items in separate planning runs. You can specify finished products or assemblies for master schedule items provided that you have entered a corresponding MRP type for each plant or each MRP area in the “MRP 1” view of the material master. You must define the MRP procedure “M” (master schedule item procedure) in this MRP type in Customizing for MRP types (Customizing activity “Check MRP Types”). The master production scheduling run only plans the master schedule items. Master production scheduling is executed with the same logic as material requirements planning. Dependent requirements are created for the next low-level code. The results of master production scheduling are not passed on to dependent parts until the master plan for the critical parts has been processed and finely-tuned. Master schedule items are not planned along with the MRP run to ensure that you can plan these materials independently. Demand Management Demand Management is the management of independent requirements. The behavior of independent requirements in material requirements planning (for example, whether they are effective, or whether they consume other requirements) is determined by their requirements type or by the planning strategy. Planned independent requirements are stock requirements that can be derived from a forecast of future demand. In make-tostock production, you want to start procurement of the affected materials without waiting for specific sales orders. On the one hand, this kind of procedure allows you to reduce delivery times, while on the other hand, you can use forecast planning to spread the burden as evenly as possible across your production resources. Sales orders (customer independent requirements) are created in Sales and Distribution. Customer requirements can enter Material Requirements Planning directly, depending on their requirement type. This is always desirable if you want to plan for specific customers. Sales orders can be used either as exclusive requirement sources, for which procurement is then specifically triggered (make-to-order production), or they can be grouped with planned independent requirements to create the total requirements. Consumption is also possible with planned independent requirements.
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LTP Objectives of Long-Term Planning • Simulation of a demand program at all BOM levels • Reconciliation of capacities • Reconciliation of cost center planning • Purchasing forecast • Inventory controlling forecast In long-term planning, future demand programs are simulated within a planning run. Capacity requirements, the activity type requirement of the cost centers, and the purchased parts requirement can be calculated in this way. The demand program that can be simulated may include planned independent requirements and/or sales orders. The material requirements planning, capacity planning, order volumes, purchasing budget, cost center planning and inventory controlling can be evaluated and optimized from the simulation. After the simulative planning results are evaluated, the previous demand program can be replaced with the preferred long-term planning version. The external procurement data can be transferred to the purchasing information system using a special report and evaluated there. Future stock is derived from existing requirements and future receipts. The data determined in long-term planning for the requirements/stock situation can be transferred to inventory controlling and evaluated there using the standard analysis. The data determined in long-term planning for the activity requirement is transferred to Cost Center Accounting as planning data. This allows you to calculate the production costs for each cost center and to cost the products. The activity requirements that are determined in long-term planning can be transferred to Cost Center Accounting using a separate report after long-term planning has been completed. The planning data for the cost centers is updated by determining the activity requirements from the routing data. Cost Center Accounting displays how many activities production has planned. The data determined in long-term planning for the activity requirement is transferred to Cost Center Accounting as planning data. This allows you to calculate the production costs for each cost center and to cost the products. The activity requirements that are determined in long-term planning can be transferred to Cost Center Accounting using a separate report after long-term planning has been completed. The planning data for the cost centers is updated by determining the activity requirements from the routing data. Cost Center Accounting displays how many activities production has planned. Capacity Planning
Special Procurement Key Special procurement type Allows you to define the procurement type more exactly. The system determines the procurement type from the material type. Use You use special procurement when you want to be able to override the procurement type in the material master or define the procurement type more precisely. If the procurement type is in-house, you can nevertheless force the system to ignore the BOM and routing, and process the material as if it were externally procured, by specifying the special procurement as external. Procedure Enter the special procurement type to which you want to restrict the selection. Example If you procure a material externally, you may want to choose the special procurement type Consignment. If you produce the material in-house, it may be appropriate to choose Production in other plant. Dependencies If a material has a routing but no BOM, it is treated as an externally procured material even if the procurement type is in-house. Both the BOM and the routing are ignored. However, if you specify the special procurement type as in-house, the routing is included even if the material has no BOM. X-Steps; Process Messages; PP-PDS Execution Steps (XSteps) are used for the variable description of process instructions and messages in the production order. They are the basis on which data can be exchanged with the process control level (downloading control instructions and
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uploading process messages) and interactive work instructions generated for the machine operator. Execution steps allow any process instructions (maintained in the XStep repository, in the routing or in the production order) to be assigned to the production order. Process instructions for work instructions can be outputs, inputs and control functions, such as function calls and process messages. Application Examples: Process instructions - Molding pressure, pressing temperature, feed rate, … Process message - Creation date, actual time, actual material consumption, actual processing quantity, processing status of operations, machine condition, … You use XSteps to define structures with which you can describe exactly how a process order/production order is produced. You can use XSteps to control data exchange with external systems or create interactive PI sheets/work instructions for process operators/machine operators in the production. You define XSteps for process orders/production orders in XStep trees in the underlying master recipes/routings. An XStep tree can comprise XSteps, process instructions, and standard XStep references. An XStep in an XStep tree can, in turn, comprise further XSteps, SXS references, and XStep process instructions. You can create multiple XStep trees in a master recipe/routing and use them in a process order/production order. PROCESS MESSAGE Process messages are data structures used to report actual process data from process control to one or more destinations. You can define your own process messages in Customizing according to your own specific requirements. The standard SAP System contains a number of predefined message categories enabling you to transfer current data from process control to the ECC System. The process instructions of the control recipe/control instructions for an order define which process messages are requested by PI sheets/work instructions or a process control system. The process messages are first sent to process management/process integration. They are then checked and passed on to predefined destinations. Planning Time Fence - used with MRP Type with Firming The planning time fence specifies a period within which no automatic changes are to be made to the master plan. The planning time fence is maintained in workdays. Note It is only used for materials that are planned using an MRP type which includes a firming type. The firming type determines how order proposlas are to be created or scheduled within the planning time fence. Service Desk Feature The service desk offers a complete infrastructure for running a solution-wide support organization at your site. Features of the service desk include: a Message handling process a Customer solution database SAP Notes Management Solution Manager Diagnostics Message handling process Allows customer to build a history database for future troubleshooting Customer solution database Integrated notes search from the SAP Service Marketplace, as well as the ability to implement the notes via the SAP Note Assistant Managing SAP Notes Provides all functionality to centrally analyze and monitor a complete SAP solution Solution Manager diagnostics ECM A component that allows objects to be changed with history (with date validity) or dependent on specific conditions (with
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parameter effectivity). The different processing statuses of the object are saved. All changes are made with reference to a change master record. In the SAP system, object types can be changed with reference to a change number, such as: -Bills of material -Task lists -Documents -Materials Suboperation Suboperations are subordinate to an operation and used for more detailed planning of the process step that is described in the operation. They are typically used to carry out more detailed planning for capacity or costing for an operation. For example, you can use suboperations to assign several people or machines that are required at the same time, to an operation. A suboperation can be costed, but can only be scheduled relative to the superior operation. You can cumulate standard values from suboperations on the corresponding operation. You can determine whether suboperations belonging to an operation are copied into the production order. Suboperations are hierarchically structured under an operation and are used to carry out more detailed capacity planning or costing. For example, suboperations are used in a company at manufacturing centers. In the figure, operation 20 is responsible for compliance with the production schedule. suboperations 20/10 to 20/40 are used for exact capacity planning and costing. The control key has an important influence on this process. When using suboperations, it is important that you ensure costs and capacity requirements are not calculated twice. The dates of the suboperations are determined using the start or finish reference for an operation when you specify an offset value. The reference dates for the start and finish of a suboperation are: • Start date for setup • Start date for processing • Start date for teardown • Finish date for execution • Start date for wait time • Finish date for wait time If an operation is divided into suboperations, the standard values for the suboperations can be cumulated under the main operation. If the suboperations run in parallel, this kind of cumulation is not possible because the cumulated values would be too high. Example: If you set a start reference for a suboperation to start processing with a time offset of 5- (5 minus) hours, processing in the suboperation will start 5 hours before it does in the main operation. An operation that is not to be carried out in the plant in the operation or routing can be assigned to another plant. The plants only have to belong to the same controlling area. A suboperation can be assigned to another plant as its superior operation. The unit of measure in the suboperation can differ from the one in the operation. You cannot assign material components, production resources/tools nor inspection characteristics to suboperations, only to operations. Handling Units Physical unit consisting of packaging materials and the products they contain. A handling unit (HU) has a single, scannable identification number that can be used to call up the data.. Planning Sequence SOP > Demand Management > LTP > MPS > MRP > SFC Roll forward period The roll forward period defines a period (in workdays) for updating the production plan. All firmed planned orders that fall before the end of the roll forward period (which can lie in the future or the past) are deleted (if the roll forward indicator “Delete firm planned orders” is set in the MRP type for the respective material). Definition: As an MRP group parameter (Customizing: Carry Out Overall Maintenance of MRP Groups). As well as the planning time fence, you can also maintain the roll forward period in the MRP group. You can use the roll forward
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period to delete firmed but out-of-date planned orders in order to automatically update the production master schedule. The Roll Forward indicator in Customizing for the MRP type controls whether or not the roll forward mechanism is applied for a material. All firmed planned orders with an end date within the roll forward period are deleted in the planning run and either new planned orders are created with suitable dates or, if the corresponding firming type applies, they are moved to the end of the planning time fence. ***** Roll forward period for the master plan The roll forward period defines a period for updating the master plan. In this period, the system deletes all firmed planned orders that lie before the roll forward period on the time axis. At the same time the system adjusts the master plan to a new situation, if necessary, that is, if new requirements have been created, new planned orders are created. The roll forward period is maintained in workdays. Procedure You can maintain this period either in the past or in the future. If you want to maintain this period in the past, you must set a minus sign after the number. Examples If you want the system to delete all planned orders from the database that, starting from today's date, are older than two days, enter 2-. Dependencies In order to carry out this function, a material must be provided with an MRP type which contains the indicator "Delete firmed planned orders". For more information on this, please refer to the implementation guide. Availability Check The availability check can be used in a number of ways. It can be used in sales orders (but also in production orders or during goods movements). Therefore, when you create a sales order, for example, the system uses the ATP check to determine whether there is enough stock available in the warehouse for the required material. The system can also check if receipts (for example, production orders and planned orders) have already been planned by the requested date. If the answer is yes, the sales order can be confirmed. As well as the availability check according to ATP, forecast planning offers another alternative (choose in the customer requirements class). When performing an availability check using ATP logic (Available-to-Promise), the system checks whether all issues are covered by existing receipts and whether open quantities from the receipts are still available to cover newly received issues. These open quantities that have not yet been assigned are added together to give the ATP quantity. In the availability check using ATP logic, the system checks whether the requirement quantities are covered by specially defined receipt and issue elements or by a specific stock. If you can confirm a quantity for the requirement date, this quantity is flagged as confirmed in the requirement and the ATP quantity of the stock or receipt for the components is reduced correspondingly. In the next availability check, you can only confirm requirements for the amount of the remaining ATP quantity. The ATP quantities are not calculated across planning segments and do not take any periods into account. In addition to the classical SD application (sales orders, deliveries), there are also availability checks in other areas: • Planned orders from production planning (check for component availability, for example, from the planned order detailed display) • Production/process orders from production (check of the component availability, for example, when opening or releasing) In the check against planned independent requirements, the system only checks against the open planned independent requirements quantities. This means that no ATP quantities, receipts or stocks are included in the availability check. The check against planned independent requirement assignments determines whether sufficient planned independent
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requirements have been planned to cover a customer requirement. In this check, the system uses the consumption mode (backward consumption in the example above) and the corresponding consumption periods. You can usually define the type of availability check to be performed in the customer requirements class for the strategy. When using strategy 50, you can only carry out the availability check against planned independent requirements. In strategy 60, when you process the sales order, you can check against the planned independent requirements for the planning material. ***** Availability checks for material components ensure that only those orders are released for which the required material quantity is available on the calculated requirements date. The availability check can be triggered automatically or manually. In Customizing, you specify for each order type and plant whether an automatic availability check is to be carried out. Furthermore, you define whether the availability is to be checked during order creation and/or order release. A manual check can be carried out any time. You can either check the availability in a collective check for all components (automatically or manually), or in a separate check for each component (only manually). All receipt and issue elements to be considered are checked dynamically according to the ATP method (Available-to-Promise). Material quantities (including partial quantities) that are available at the requirements date are confirmed in the order. If the total required quantity of a material component is not available at the required date, the system sets the order status “Material shortage”. In Customizing, you can specify that orders with a material shortage are locked and cannot be released. You can display missing parts for the order in the missing parts overview. The results of the availability check are recorded in the availability log. Availability checks are carried out according to checking rules that are defined in Customizing with reference to a material or application. The scope of the availability check is specified for each material and order type. Fixed Lot Size, Rounding Profile If you use the the fixed/firmed lot size procedure, the system creates an order proposal for the amount of the fixed lot size should material shortages occur. If this order proposal does not cover the requirements sufficiently, the system creates as many additional order proposals for the same date, in this lot size, as are needed to cover the requirements. Fixed lot size Quantity that will be ordered or produced in the event of a shortage. Procedure If the amount of the shortage is less than the fixed lot size, it is the fixed lot size that is ordered or produced (and not the lesser quantity that is actually required). If the amount of the shortage is greater than the fixed lot size, a multiple of the fixed lot size is procured. The system creates several purchase order proposals for this purpose. *** Rounding Profile Key that the system uses to adjust the order proposal quantity to deliverable units.
Procedure In Customizing, enter a threshold value from which the system should round up to the next value per deliverable unit: If the requirements value exceeds the first threshold value, the system always rounds up to the next multiple of the level found If the requirements value falls below the first threshold value, the system copies the original requirements value. Two other types of rounding exist: Dynamic rounding profile: These profiles are used to round up quantities to logistical units of measure (for example, layers). The contents of a logistical unit of measure does not have to be know when creating the rounding profile. It is determined by the master data from the material master.
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Rounding profile with quantity to be added/subtracted With these profiles, the given quantity is changed either by adding a percentage or subtracting a percentage. Only static rounding profiles are taken into account in requirements planning. Neither dynamic rounding profiles not quantity addition/ subtraction are taken into account. Examples A material's base unit of measure is 1 unit; the purchase order is to be delivered in layers (1 layer corresponds to 5 units) or in pallets (1 pallet corresponds to 8 layers which contains 40 units). You maintain the profile as follows: From a requirements of 2 units, the system is to round up to 5; from a requirement of 32 units, the system is to round up to 40. This results in the following order proposal quantities: Requirement from 1 -> 1 requirement from 31 -> 30 Requirement from 2 -> 5 requirement from 32 -> 40 Requirement from 6 -> 10 requirement from 74 -> 80 Requirement from 7 -> 10 Dependencies If no rounding profile has been entered, the system uses the rounding value entered in the material master record for the planning run. Release Production Order The order release is the basis for further processing of the production order. Production orders are managed using statuses. When an order is released, a status is set accordingly. An availability check can be executed automatically. You can release an individual operation, a whole order or several orders together. There is a corresponding function available for the mass release of operations or orders. Production orders are managed using statuses. A status can allow a business transaction, allow it with a warning or disallow it. A distinction can be made between two status types: System and user status. A system status is set or deleted by an operation with reference to an object. User statuses are used to enhance status management when required in practice. System statuses cannot be set or deleted by a user status. You can log status changes (see the status change document indicator for the order type). You can use the following special functions to set important statuses: Lock (an order) → Status LOCK Complete technically → Status TECO Complete → Status CLSD User statuses complement status management in the system very effectively. User statuses can be prepared in the form of a user status profile (Customizing). The status profiles must be assigned to the order type. You can assign a maximum of two status profiles to an order type (order header and operation level), as illustrated in the above example. The individual user statuses can be activated at any time and independently of the system status reached. Qouta Arrangement An algorithm with which the system determines the sources of supply for a purchase requisition. The quota arrangement defines percentages according to which the system assigns purchase contracts as the source of supply. By setting quotas, you can automatically distribute the purchase requisitions for the duration of a validity time period to different sources. Purchasing (MM-PUR) A mechanism enabling the system to compute which source of supply to assign to a requirement for a material.
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The quota arrangement facilitates the determination of the applicable sources of supply for a purchase requisition at a certain time. Setting quotas permits the automatic apportionment of a total material requirement over a period to different sources. A quota arrangement consists of quota arrangement records identifying the source (such as a vendor or an internal plant), the validity period, and the quota.
Master Data (APO-MD) Percentage specifying the proportion of the demand quantity for a product that is to be procured from a source of supply (incoming quota arrangement) or delivered to a location (outgoing quota arrangement). Quota arrangements can be defined as either version-dependent or model-dependent, and either product-dependent or product-independent. Quota arrangements are specified for a specific validity period. Incoming quota arrangements can be defined for the following source types: Location External procurement relationships Production process models (in-house production) Outgoing quota arrangements can only be created for locations. Pick, Pull List Repetitive Manufacturing (PP-REM) A pull list determines which components a production line needs and when and where these components must be available. The quantities in the list are the result of a comparison between requirements and stock available at a production storage location. The pull list can be used to pull the required quantities from the distribution center. BOM and Routing Selection The BOM selection in the MRP run therefore consists of three steps: 1. The BOM usage is defined by the BOM selection ID, which you assign on a plant-by-plant basis in the Customizing activity Define BOM Selection. 2. The alternative BOM is determined according to the setting for the BOM selection indicator in the material master. If the selection is to be made according to explosion date, you should enter the date to be used in the Customizing activity Define BOM Explosion Control. 3. The change status of the BOM is then determined using the explosion date. The same Customizing setting as in step 2 is the basis for the choice of date. Routing Selection If you start the planning run with the scheduling indicator 2 (lead time scheduling and capacity planning), the system selects the routing for each planned order. The system calculates the dates, the staging of materials and the capacity requirements using the routing. The selection method indicator in the material master (MRP 4) is also crucial for selecting the routing: • If it has been set to value 2 or 3 (selection by production version), the routing is also selected according to the selected production version. • Otherwise, the selection ID of the routing selection, which is defined in Customizing for MRP at detailed scheduling level in the activity Define Scheduling Parameters for Planned Orders, decides which routing is selected. You define the selection ID of the routing selection in Customizing for Production under basic data. The explosion dates of the BOM and the routing are identical. If the planned order is managed using Engineering Change Management, the system uses the routing with the change status at the time of the BOM explosion date. The task list group and the group counter for the routing as well as the corresponding scheduling and capacity requirements can be seen on the Detailed Scheduling screen for the order. Parallel Sequence
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You use a single sequence to represent a simple linear series of production steps in production. If you want to represent a more complex series of production steps, you link several sequences with relationships to predecessors and successors. In the simplest case a routing only has one sequence, the standard sequence. Every other sequence is either an alternative or a parallel sequence, depending on whether its operations are performed as an alternative to the standard sequence or in parallel (at the same time) with the standard sequence. Only routings can have alternative sequences, parallel sequences can be created in both routings and rate routings. Parallel sequences are special types of overlapping operations that can be used in various industries. A parallel sequence enables you to process several operations at the same time. It is carried out at the same time as the corresponding section in the standard sequence. It is a special form of overlapping operations. For example, in mechanical engineering for assembly lines with individual component manufacturing, a parallel sequence allows for several individual components from the BOM to be prepared as smaller units for final assembly. In the chemical industry, parallel sequences can be used to model analytical processes that occur parallel to the production process. Sequence Scheduling An alignment key defines the start of the individual parallel sequences and, consequently, the position of the sequence buffers. Only the first operation of a referenced operation set (or reference rate routing) that has not been unlocked can be used as a branch or as a return operation for alternative or parallel sequences. To use other operations within a reference operation set (or reference rate routing) for your parallel sequence, you must first unlock the reference. You can create parallel sequences in routings and rate routings. You cannot create them in reference operation sets or reference rate routings Read PP Master Data Use If data is changed in the routing, in the work centers affected or in the BOM after order creation then these changes are not automatically taken into account in the production order. Thus you can read in the master data (BOMs and routing) again into a created or released production order. Features If you decide to read in the master data again then it has the following consequences: Before it is read in again certain criteria are checked that must be fulfilled (see Criteria for a Single Order, Criteria in a Collective Order). When reading the BOM: -all existing material components are deleted -all purchase requisition items for non-stock components are deleted When reading the routing: -all existing sequences, operations, PRTs and trigger points are deleted -all assignments of material components to operations are deleted -all purchase requisition items for non-stock components are deleted The status of a released order is set to created again. The deleted data is then replaced by new data from the selection BOM/routing. The selection procedure is identical to the procedure for creating a production order (see Selecting Bills of Material or Routing Selection Which Data is Read? Only the master data that you select in the dialog box for reading master data is read in again. -You have specified that master data is to be selected using a new production version. The production version contains a valid routing and a valid BOM alternative. In the Read PP master data dialog box, however, you have only selected the field New routing. In this case the system does not select a new BOM. -The explosion date for the master data to be read in can be changed. Read with Production Version You can read in master data for a specific production version. In this case the system selects the routing or BOM alternative that is determined by the production version. The following conditions must be fulfilled: -A production version must be maintained for the material to be produced. -The production version is valid for the specified explosion date and for the given lot size. Read with Revision Status You can read in master data for a specific revision status. In this case the system selects the routing or BOM alternative with the date from the revision status. The following conditions must be fulfilled:
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-A revision status must be maintained for the material to be produced. Processes in Requirements Planning NRC > Lot size calculation > Procurement Type > Scheduling > BOM Explosion How to reduce capacity requirements Capacity requirements are reduced by -Completion Confirmations -Changing the order status to "technically complete" -Locking an order (changing the order status to "locked") -Deletion flag Capacity requirements are completely reduced by means of the functions: Technically complete and deletion indicator. When will capacity requirements be reduced? Completion Confirmations During the completion confirmations, for example of production orders, the actual values are entered for the standard values, the quantities and dates in the operation. You can enter forecast values and dates for the standard values. With the completion confirmation the capacity requirements are also updated. When the operation is finally confirmed the remaining capacity requirements are set to zero. There are two types of partial confirmation: Production order and process order With a partial confirmation the system recalculates the remaining capacity requirements using the remaining quantity. If there are no forecast values then the system carries out calculations using the standard values and the remaining quantity in the formulas for the relevant capacity requirements. If there are forecast values for the standard values then the system calculates the formulas with these values. With a partial confirmation in the production order you can specify that the setup operation has been completed. Thus the system does not take the setup time into consideration. Network and Plant Maintenance Order For partially confirmed operations in networks and maintenance orders, remaining capacity requirements can be calculated by subtracting the actual requirements value for the network/maintenance order from the total capacity requirements. Alternatively, you can specify a forecast value for work with which the capacity requirements are to be calculated using the formulas. You can find information on distributing the remaining capacity requirements in Distributing Remaining Capacity Requirements. Status Change As well as a partial confirmation and a final confirmation, the order status "technically completed" affects the capacity requirements. This status results in all the capacity requirements for an order being reduced. Phantom Assembly A logical grouping of materials. A phantom assembly is created in engineering to describe a number of components and manage them as a whole. The components in a phantom assembly are immediately placed in the superior assembly. Components in an assembly are first assembled to produce the header material. Then header material is placed in the superior assembly. Example The phantom assembly "set of wheels" contains the components "front wheel" and "rear wheel." The front and rear wheels are immediately placed in the "bicycle" assembly. The "light" assembly contains the materials "bulb" and "reflector." The light components are first assembled and then the light is attached to the bicycle
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