TIG Welding Introduction

by Daniel Min

Outline
► Background

► Advantages
► Safety ► Preparation

and Disadvantages

for TIG Welding ► Techniques for Basic Weld Joints ► TIG Shielding Gases ► Welding Parameters ► Tungsten Electrode Selection ► Conclusion
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Background
► What ► Also ► In

is TIG?

 Tungsten Inert Gas

referred to as GTAW

 Gas Shielded Tungsten Welding

TIG welding, a tungsten electrode heats the metal you are welding and gas (most typically Argon) protects the weld from airborne contaminants
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Background
► TIG

welding uses a non-consumable tungsten ► Filler metal, when required, is added by hand ► Shielding gas protects the weld and tungsten

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Advantages
► Welds

more metals and metal alloys than any other process ► High quality and precision ► Pin point control ► Aesthetic weld beads ► No sparks or spatter ► No flux or slag ► No smoke or fumes
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Disadvantages
► ►

► ► ►

Lower filler metal deposition rates Good hand-eye coordination a required skill Brighter UV rays than other processes Slower travel speeds than other processes Equipment costs tend to be higher than other processes
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Safety
► Electric

shock can kill.

   

Always wear dry insulating gloves Insulate yourself from work and ground Do not touch live electrical parts Keep all panels and covers securely in place

► Fumes

health.

and gases can be hazardous to your

 Keep your head out of the fumes  Ventilate area, or use breathing device
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Safety
► Welding

can cause fire or explosion.

   

Do not weld near flammable material Watch for fire; keep extinguisher nearby Do not locate unit over combustible surfaces Do not weld on closed containers

► Arc

rays can burn eyes and skin; Noise can damage hearing.
 Wear welding helmet with correct shade of filter  Wear correct eye, ear, and body protection
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Safety
► Hot

parts can cause injury.

 Allow cooling period before touching welded metal  Wear protective gloves and clothing
► Magnetic

fields from high currents can affect pacemaker operation. ► Flying metal can injure eyes.
 Welding, chipping, wire brushing, and grinding cause sparks and flying metal; wear approved safety glasses with side shields
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Safety
► Welding

vehicles.

current can damage electronic parts in

 Disconnect both battery cables before welding on a vehicle  Place work clamp as close to the weld as possible

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Preparation for TIG Welding

Basic preparations should be made before establishing an arc, including base metal prep, set up of the machine and its controls Picture on right shows front panel of a typical AC/DC machine designed for TIG welding (L-TEC HELIARC 306) Control functions of the L-TEC HELIARC 306 are named in the following slides, but the manual should be consulted for more detail Not all power sources will have all the features or controls of this machine
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Preparation for TIG Welding
Control Functions

► ► ► ►



A: Power On-Off Switch B: Tig-Stick Mode Switch C: Remote Contactor Receptacle D: Current Selector Switch E: Current Range Selector Switch F: Current Control Potentiometer G: Current Panel-Remote Switch and Remote Current Control Receptacle H: Post Flow Control I: High Frequency Selector Switch J: High Frequency Intensity Control
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Preparation for TIG Welding
Control Functions


► ► ► ► ► ► ►

K: Gas and Water Torch Connections L: Soft Start Switch M: Arc Force Potentiometer N: Slope/Spotweld Control Module O: AC/DC Analog Meter Module P: Panel Mounted Pulse Control R: Balance Control Feature S: Front Panel 3-Amps Fuse T: Rear Panel Auxiliary 115V Receptacle
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Preparation for TIG Welding
Preparing the Weld Joint
► Many

problems are a direct result of using improper methods to prepare the weld joint ► One of the most common is the improper use of grinding wheels ► Soft materials like aluminum may get embedded with abrasive particles resulting in excessive porosity ► Grinding wheels should be cleaned and dedicated only to the material being welded
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Preparation for TIG Welding
Cleaning
Oil, grease, shop dirt, paint, marking crayon, and rust or corrosion deposits must be removed from the joint and metal surfaces to a distance beyond the heat affected zone ► Their presence may lead to arc instability and contaminated welds

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Preparation for TIG Welding
Preparing Aluminum for Welding
► Very

susceptible to contaminants ► Surface oxide must be removed ► Special abrasive wheels are available for aluminum ► Stainless steel wire brushes recommended ► Both sides of the joint should be cleaned if it contains foreign material
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Preparation for TIG Welding
Preparing Stainless Steel for Welding
► Should

be thoroughly cleaned ► Foreign material may cause porosity in welds and carburetion of the surface which decreases the corrosion resistance ► Stainless steel wire brushes recommended

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Preparation for TIG Welding
Preparing Titanium for Welding
► Essential

cleaned ► Mill scale, oil, grease, dirt, grinding dust, and any other contamination must be removed ► If titanium is scale free, only degreasing required ► Joint should be brushed with stainless steel wire brush and degreased with acetone ► Be cautious of fine titanium dust particles as they are flammable
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that weld area and filler metal be

Preparation for TIG Welding
Preparing Mild Steel for Welding
► Should

be mechanically cleaned ► Scale, rust, paint, oil, grease, or any surface contaminants should be removed

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Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Arc Length
► Arc

length normally one electrode diameter, when AC welding with a balled end electrode ► When DC welding with a pointed electrode, arc length may be much less than electrode diameter

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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Gas Cup Size
► Inside

diameter of gas cup should be at least three times the tungsten diameter to provide adequate shielding gas coverage ► Picture on right shows example of gas cup size and torch position
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

1-Workpiece, 2-Work clamp, 3-Torch, 4-Filler rod, 5-Gas cup, 6-Tungsten electrode

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Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Electrode Extension
► Refers

to distance the tungsten extends out beyond the gas cup ► May vary from flush with the gas cup to no more than the inside diameter of the gas cup ► Longer the extension, the more likely it may contact something by accident ► General rule would be to start with an extension of one electrode diameter
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Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Arc Starting with High Frequency

Torch position on left shows recommended method of starting the arc with high frequency when the torch is held manually By resting gas cup on base metal there is little danger of touching the electrode to the work After arc is initiated, torch can be raised to proper welding angle
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Manual Torch Movement

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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Manual Torch Movement
► Torch

and filler rod must be moved progressively and smoothly so the weld pool, the hot filler rod end, and the solidifying weld are not exposed to air that will contaminate the weld metal area or heat affected zone ► When arc is turned off, postflow of shielding gas should shield the weld pool, electrode, and hot end of the filler rod
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Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Butt Weld and Stringer Bead
► Be

sure to center weld pool on adjoining edges ► When finishing a butt weld, torch angle may be decreased to aid in filling the crater
Torch and rod position for welding the butt weld and stringer bead ENBE 499 26
*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Lap Joint

Pool is formed so that the edge of the overlapping piece and the flat surface of the second piece flow together ► Torch angle is important because the edge will become molten before the flat surface ► Enough filler metal must be added to fill the joint as illustrated on the right
Torch and rod position for welding the lap joint
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
T-Joint
► ►

Edge will heat up and melt sooner Torch angle illustrated will direct more heat onto the flat surface Electrode may need to be extended further beyond the cup in order to hold a short arc
Torch and rod position for welding the T-joint
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
Corner Joint
► Both

edges of the adjoining pieces should be melted and the pool kept on the joint centerline ► Sufficient filler metal is necessary to create a convex bead as shown
Torch and rod position for welding the corner joint
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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TIG Shielding Gases
► Argon

► Helium
► Argon/Helium

Mixtures

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TIG Shielding Gases
Argon

► ► ► ► ►

Good arc starting Good cleaning action Good arc stability Focused arc cone Lower arc voltages 10-30 CFH flow rates

Helium
Faster travel speeds ► Increased penetration ► Difficult arc starting ► Less cleaning action ► Less low amp stability ► Flared arc cone ► Higher arc voltages ► Higher flow rates (2x) ► Higher cost than argon

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TIG Shielding Gases
Argon/Helium Mixtures
► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Improved travel speeds over pure argon Improved penetration over pure argon Cleaning properties closer to pure argon Improved arc starting over pure helium Improved arc stability over pure helium Arc cone shape more focused than pure helium Arc voltages between pure argon and pure helium Higher flow rates than pure argon Costs higher than pure argon

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Welding Parameters

Aluminum weld parameters
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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Welding Parameters

Aluminum with advanced squarewave weld parameters

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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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Welding Parameters

Stainless steel weld parameters
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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Welding Parameters

Titanium weld parameters
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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Welding Parameters

Mild steel weld parameters
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*Figure copied from “TIG Handbook”

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Tungsten Electrode Selection

Guide to selecting a tungsten electrode based on amperage range

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*Figure copied from “Guidelines to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)”

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Conclusion
► ►

TIG welding is an exciting skill that proves itself useful in countless applications Because it welds more metal and metal alloys than any other process, TIG welding should be regarded as an important tool where experience is the teacher Welding parameters and tungsten electrode selection tables are recommended values and should be used as a guideline Information presented here is only the tip of the iceberg, and further research and hands-on involvement should be pursued to be comprehensive

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References

► ► ► ►

“Gas tungsten arc welding.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_tungsten_arc_welding. 19 February 2008. “Guidelines to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW).” Miller Electric Mfg Co. July 2003. “Installation and Operating Instructions for HELIARC 306 Welding Power Supply.” L-TEC Welding and Cutting Systems. January 1988. “TIG Handbook.” Miller Electric Mfg Co. July 2003. “TIG Welding.” American Metallurgical Consultants. http://www.weldingengineer.com/1tig.htm. 18 October 2007. “TIG Welding Tips.” Miller Electric Mfg Co. http://www.millerwelds.com/education/tech_tips/TIG_tips. 29 January 2008.
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