Unit I NEUCLIC ACID STRUCTURE AND GENOME ORGANIZATION

GAYATRI DAVE

Contents ….
DNA as a genetic material, DNA structure, DNA topology, supercoiling, topoisomerases I and II, C- value paradox, structure of mRNA, rRNA and tRNA; packaging in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, DNA- protein interactions, interrupted genes, gene families, unique and repetitive DNA, transposons

DNA as genetic material
• DNA was first extracted from nuclei in 1870 named ‘nuclein’ after their source. • Chemical analysis – determined that DNA was a weak acid rich in phosphorous. • Three landmark experiments that proved DNA as the genetic material • Frederick Griffith’s discovery of transformation • 1944 – Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and MacIyn McCarty –determined that DNA is the transformation material • Hershey and Chase experiment

transformation of bacteria

3b

5

DNA STRUCTURE

9

4 players

The pioneer work

The composition

Chemistry

Nucleotide…

X-ray diffraction

The blueprint-physical geometry

34A

3.34 A

DNA double helix
• • • • • • Features A pair with T, G pair with C Antiparellel Right and left handed double helix Three different form of DNA exist Some alternative DNA structures may exist

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