# Solid Mechanics

1. Shear force and bending moment
diagrams
Internal Forces in solids

Sign conventions
• Shear forces are given a special symbol on
y
V
1
2
and
z
V
• The couple moment along the axis of the member is
given
x
M T = =Torque
y z
M M = =bending moment.

Solid Mechanics

We need to follow a systematic sign convention for
systematic development of equations and reproducibility of
the equations
The sign convention is like this.
If a face (i.e. formed by the cutting plane) is +ve if its outward
normal unit vector points towards any of the positive coordinate
directions otherwise it is –ve face
• A force component on a +ve face is +ve if it is directed
towards any of the +ve coordinate axis direction. A force
component on a –ve face is +ve if it is directed towards any of
the –ve coordinate axis direction. Otherwise it is –v.
Thus sign conventions depend on the choice of coordinate
axes.
Shear force and bending moment diagrams of beams
Beam is one of the most important structural components.
• Beams are usually long, straight, prismatic members and
always subjected forces perpendicular to the axis of the beam

Two observations:
(1) Forces are coplanar

Solid Mechanics

(2) All forces are applied at the axis of the beam.
Application of method of sections
What are the necessary internal forces to keep the segment of
the beam in equilibrium?
x
y
z
F P
F V
F M
¿ = ¬
¿ = ¬
¿ = ¬
0
0
0

• The shear for a diagram (SFD) and bending moment
diagram(BMD) of a beam shows the variation of shear

Solid Mechanics

force and bending moment along the length of the
beam.
These diagrams are extremely useful while designing the
beams for various applications.
Supports and various types of beams
(a) Roller Support – resists vertical forces only

(b) Hinge support or pin connection – resists horizontal and
vertical forces

Hinge and roller supports are called as simple supports

(c) Fixed support or built-in end

Solid Mechanics

The distance between two supports is known as “span”.
Types of beams
Beams are classified based on the type of supports.
(1) Simply supported beam: A beam with two simple supports

(2) Cantilever beam: Beam fixed at one end and free at other

(3) Overhanging beam

(4) Continuous beam: More than two supports

Solid Mechanics

Differential equations of equilibrium

[ ]
x
F Σ = →+ 0
y
F Σ
(
= ↑ +
¸ ¸
0
V V V P x
V P x
V
P
x
∆ ∆
∆ ∆

+ − + =
= −
= −
0

x
V dV
P
x dx
lim

= = −
0

[ ]
A
P x
M V x M M M

Σ ∆ ∆ = − + + − =
2
0 0
2

P x
V x M
M P x
V
x

∆ ∆
∆ ∆

+ − =
+ − =
2
0
2
0
2

Solid Mechanics

x
M dM
V
x dx
lim

= = −
0

From equation
dV
P
dx
= − we can write
D
C
X
D C
X
V V Pdx − = −
}

From equation
dM
V
dx
= −
D C
M M Vdx − = −
}

Special cases:

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

( ) ( ) x ≤ ≤ − 0 2 1 1
A B
V
V
V ; V
− =
=
= =
5 0
5
5 5
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
B C
x
V . x
V . x
V ; V
. x
x .
≤ ≤ −
− + − − =
= − + −
= − =
− + − =
¬ =
2 6 2 2
5 30 7 5 2 0
5 30 7 5 2
25 5
25 7 5 2 0
5 33
( ) ( )
C D
x
V
V
V ; V
≤ ≤ −
− + − − =
= +
= + = +
6 8 3 3
5 30 30 10 0
15
15 15
( ) ( )
D E
x
V
V
V
V ; V
≤ ≤ −
− + − − + =
+ =
= −
= − = −
8 10 4 4
5 30 30 10 20 0
5 0
5
5 5
x ( ) ( )
x ( ( )
x ( ) ( )
x ( ) ( )
≤ ≤ − −
≤ ≤ − −
≤ ≤ − −
≤ ≤ − −
0 2 1 1
2 6 2 2
6 8 3 3
8 10 4 4

Solid Mechanics

Problems to show that jumps because of concentrated force
and concentrated moment

( ) ( )
A B
x
M x
M x
M ; M
≤ ≤ − −
− + =
= − +
= + =
0 2 1 1
10 5 0
5 10
10 0
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
E
x .
C
x
x
. x
M x x
. x
M x x
M .
M
=
=
≤ ≤ − −

− + − − + =

= − + − −
= +
=
2
2
5 33
6
2 6 2 2
7 5 2
10 5 30 2 0
2
7 5 2
10 5 30 2
2
41 66
40
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( )
C
x
D
x
x C D
M x x x x
M
M
=
=
≤ ≤ − − −
− + − − + − + − + =
= +
= −
6
8
6 8 3 3
10 5 30 2 30 4 10 6 20 0
20
10
[ ] ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
E
x
x D E
M x x x x x
M
=
≤ ≤ − −
− + − − + − + − + − − =
=
8
8 10 4 4
10 5 30 2 30 4 10 6 20 20 8 0
0

Solid Mechanics

We can also demonstrate internal forces at a given section
using above examples. This should be carried first before
drawing SFD and BMD.

[ ] x A B ≤ ≤ − 0 2

Solid Mechanics

A
B
V
V
V
V
− =
=
=
=
5 0
5
5
5
A B
M x
M x
M ; M
− + =
= −
= =
10 5 0
10 5
10 0
[ ] x B C ≤ ≤ − 2 6
( )
( )
( )
B C
V . x
V . x
V ; V
. x
x .
− + − − =
= − + −
= − =
− + − =
=
5 30 7 5 2 0
7 5 2 5 30
25 5
25 7 5 2 0
5 33
( )
( )
C
E
B
x
M x x .
x
M
M x . .
x
M

− + − − + =
=
=
= =
=
=
2
2
10 5 30 2 7 5 0
2
6
40
5 33 41 66
2
0
[ ] x C D ≤ ≤ − 6 8
C D
V
V
V , V
− + − − =
=
= =
5 30 10 30 0
15
15 15

Solid Mechanics

[ ] x D E ≤ ≤ − 8 10
D E
V
V
V , V
− + − − + =
= −
= − = −
5 30 10 30 20 0
5
5 5

Solid Mechanics

[ ]
[ ]
x Ax
y Ay
Ay
F R
F R
R kN
M M .
M k m

¿ →+ = ¬ =
(
¿ ↑ + = ¬ + − =
¸ ¸
= ↑
¿ = ¬ + − × =
= −
0 0
0 60 90 0
30
0 60 90 4 5 0
285
( )
( )
V x
V x
+ + − − =
= − −
= × −
= −
=
30 60 30 3 0
30 3 90
30 3 90
90 90
0
( )
B A
B A
M M
M M
− = − −
= + = −
= −
60
60 60 285
225

Solid Mechanics

( )
C B
C B
M M
M M
− = − −
= + = − +
= −
90
90 225 90
135
( )
D C
D C
M M
M M
− = − −
= + = − + =
135
135 135 135 0
y
Ay Cy
Ay Cy
F
R R
R R ( )
(
¿ ↑ + =
¸ ¸
+ − − =
+ =
0
200 240 0
440 1
[ ]
A
Cy
Cy
Ay
M
R
R kN
R kN
¿ =
− × − × + × =
= ↑
= ↑
0
200 3 240 4 8 0
195
245
V x
V x
V
V
+ − − =
= −
= × − = −
=
245 200 30 0
30 45
30 8 45 240 45
195

Solid Mechanics

*

M .
M .
M
− × + ×
= × − ×
=
245 3 90 1 5
245 3 90 1 5
600
[ ]
Ay By
A By
By
By
Ay
R R
M R
R
R kN
R kN
+ =
¿ = − × + + + =
− + + =
=
=
32
0 32 2 18 8 4 0
64 16 4 0
12
20

Solid Mechanics

Problem:

[ ]
( )
x
Ax
y Ay Dy Ay Dy
F
R
F R R R R
¿ →+ =
=
(
¿ = ↑ + + − − = ¬ + =
¸ ¸
0
0
0 60 50 0 110 1
( )
C A
C A
M M
M M
− = − −
= + = − + =
50
50 8 25 17
V x
V x
x
x / .
+ − =
= −
− =
= =
20 8 0
8 20
8 20 0
20 8 2 5
[ ]
A Dy
Dy
Ay
M . R
R kN
R kN
¿ = − × − × + × =
= = ↑
= ↑
0 60 1 5 50 4 5 0
290
58
5
52

Solid Mechanics

( )
y
B
F V x
V x x m
(
¿ = ↑ + + − =
¸ ¸
| |
= − ≤ ≤
|
\ .
0 52 20 0
20 52 0 3
[ ]
( )
M
x
M x
x
M x x m
¿ =
+ − =
= − ≤ ≤
2
2
0
20
52 0
2
20
52 0 3
2
y
B C
F
V
V kN x m
(
¿ = ↑ +
¸ ¸
+ − =
| |
= ↑ ≤ ≤
|
\ .
0
52 60 0
8 3 4
[ ] ( )
( )
B C
M M x x .
M x x . x m
¿ = − + − =
| |
= − − ≤ ≤
|
\ .
0 52 60 1 5 0
52 60 1 5 3 4

Solid Mechanics

B E
B
M M .
M . .
− = −
= − +
1 6
1 6 67 6
x / . m
×− =
= =
20 52 0
52 20 2 6
dM
V
dx
dV
P
dx
= −
= −
[ ] ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
M M x x . x
M x x . x x
¿ = − + − + − =
= − − − − ≤ ≤
0 52 60 1 5 50 4 0
52 60 1 5 50 4 4 5
( )
y
F
V
V kN x
(
¿ = ↑ +
¸ ¸
+ − − =
= ≤ ≤
0
52 60 50 0
58 4 5

Solid Mechanics

D C
D C
M M
M M
− = −
= +
= − =
58
58
58 58 0
C B
C B
M M
M M
− = −
= − +
= − + =
8
8
8 66 58
B E
B E
M M .
M . M . .
− = −
= − + = − +
=
1 6
1 6 1 6 67 6
66
x / .
×− =
= =
20 52 0
52 20 2 6
dM
V
dx
dV
P
dx
= −
= −
B A
M M Vdx − = −
}

Solid Mechanics

2. Concept of stress
Traction vector or Stress vector
Now we define a quantity known as “stress vector” or
“traction” as

=
,
,
R
n
A
F
T
A
lim
0
units
a
P N / m −
2

and we assume that the quantity

,
R
A
M
A
lim
0
0
(1)
n
T
,
is a vector quantity having direction of
R
F ∆
,

(2)
n
T
,
represent intensity point distributed force at the point
"P" on a plane whose normal is ˆ n
(3)
n
T
,
acts in the same direction as
R
F ∆
,

Solid Mechanics

(4) There are two reasons are available for justification of the
assumption that

,
R
A
M
A
lim
0
0
(a) experimental
(b) as A ∆ →0,
R
F ∆
,
becomes resultant of a parallel
force distribution. Therefore
R
M ∆ = 0
,
for | force
system.
(5)
n
T
,
varies from point to point on a given plane
(6)
n
T
,
at the same point is different for different planes.
(7)
n n
T T

= −
, ,
will act at the point P
(8) In general

Components of
n
T
,

R n t s
ˆ
ˆ ˆ F F n v t v s ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ = + +
¸¸¸¸,

Solid Mechanics

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
→ → → →
= = + +
,
,
R n t s
n
A A A A
F F v v
ˆ
ˆ ˆ T n t s
A A A A
lim lim lim lim
0 0 0 0

n nn nt ns
ˆ
ˆ ˆ T n t s σ τ τ = + +
,

where

σ

τ

τ

= = =
= = =
= = =
n n
nn
A
t t
nt
A
s s
ns
A
F dF
Normal stresscomponent
A dA
v dv
Shear stresscomponent
A dA
v dv
Another shear componet
A dA
lim
lim
lim
0
0
0

σ
τ

Normal Stress
Shear stress

n nn
dF dA σ =

t nt
dV dA τ =

Notation of stress components
The magnitude and direction of
n
T
,
clearly depends on the
plane m-m. Therefore, stress components magnitude &
direction depends on orientation of cut m-m.
(a) First subscript- plane on which σ is acting
(b) Second subscript- direction

Solid Mechanics

Rectangular components of stress
Cuts ⊥ to the coordinate planes will give more valuable
information than arbitrary cuts.

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
→ → → →
= = + +
,
,
y
R x z
x
A A A A
v
F F v
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k
A A A A
lim lim lim lim
0 0 0 0

x xx xy xz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k σ τ τ = + +
,

where
x
xx
A
y
z
xy xz
A A
F
Normal stress
A
v
v
Shear stress; Shear stress
A A
lim
lim lim

∆ ∆

σ

τ τ
∆ ∆

→ →
= =
= = = =
0
0 0

Solid Mechanics

σ =
x xx
dF dA

y xy
dv dA τ =

z xz
dv dA τ =

Similarly,
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
→ → → →
= = + +
,
y
R x z
y
A A A A
F
F v v
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k
A A A A
lim lim lim lim
0 0 0 0

τ σ τ = + +
,
y yx yy yz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k
τ τ σ = + +
,
z zx zy zz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k

xx
σ and
xy
τ will act only on x-plane. We can see
x
σ and
xy
τ
only when we take section ⊥ to x-axis.
The stress tensor

σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
xx xy xz
jj yx yy yz
zx zy zz
Rectangular stresscomponents
• This array of 9 components is called as stress tensor.
• It is a second rank of tensor because of two indices
Components a point “P” on the x-plane in x,y,z
directions

Solid Mechanics

• These 9 rectangular stress components are obtained by
taking 3 mutually ⊥planes passing through the point
“P”
• ∴ Stress tensor is an array consisting of stress
components acting on three mutually perpendicular
planes.

τ τ τ = + +
,
n nx ny nz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k

R
A
F
q lim
A ∆

∆ →
=
0

yy
q σ = can also be called.
No difference!
Except for their origin!

Solid Mechanics

Sign convention of stress components.
A positive components acts on a +ve face in a +ve coordinate
direction
or
A positive component acts on a negative face in a negative
coordinate direction.

Say
x xy a
; Pa P σ τ = − = − 20 10 and
xz
Pa τ = 30 at a point P
means.

Solid Mechanics

State of stress at a point
The totality of all the stress vectors acting on every possible plane
passing through the point is defined to be state of stress at a point.

• State of stress at a point is important for the designer in
determining the critical planes and the respective critical
stresses.
• If the stress vectors [and hence the component] acting
on any three mutually perpendicular planes passing
through the point are known, we can determine the
stress vector
n
T
,
acting on any plane “n” through that
point.
The stress tensor will specify the state stress at point.

x x x y x z
ij y x y y y z
z x z y z z
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸

can also represent state of
stress at a point.

Solid Mechanics

The stress element
Is there any convenient way to visualize or represent the
state of stress at a point or stresses acting three mutually
perpendicular planes say x- plane , y-plane and z-plane.

xx xy xz
ij yx yy yz
P
zx zy zz
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
+ + +
(
(
= + + +
(
¸ ¸
(
+ + +
(
¸ ¸

( )
( )
xx xx
yy yy
x, y, z
Continuous functions of x, y, z
x, y, z
σ σ
σ σ
= ¹
¦
`
=
¦
)

Let us consider a stress tensor or state of stress at a point in a
component as

Solid Mechanics

ij
σ
− −
(
(
(
= −
¸ ¸
(
− − − (
¸ ¸
10 5 30
5 50 60
30 60 100

Equilibrium of stress element

[ ]
x
F ¿ = →+ 0
x yx zx x yx zx
dydz dxdz dydx dydz dxdz dxdy σ τ τ σ τ τ + + − − − = 0
Similarly, we can show that
y
F ¿ = 0 and
z
F ¿ = 0 is satisfied.
y
dz
dy
z
dx
x
xy
τ
xz
τ
x
σ

Solid Mechanics

P
z
M
C.C.W ve
¿ =
(
(
+
¸ ¸
0

( ) ( )
xy yx
dydz dx dxdz dy τ τ − = 0
xy yx
τ τ − = 0
xy yx
τ τ =
Shearing stresses on any two mutually perpendicular planes
are equal.

P
x
M
(
¿ = ¬
¸ ¸
0
yz zy
τ τ = and
P
y
M
(
¿ = ¬
¸ ¸
0
zx xz
τ τ =
Cross-shears are equal- a very important result
Since
xy yx
τ τ = , if
xy
ve τ = −
yx
τ is also –ve

Solid Mechanics

∴The stress tensor
xx xy xz
ij yx xy xy yz
zx xz zy yz yz
issec ondranksymmetrictensor
σ τ τ
σ τ τ σ τ
τ τ τ τ σ
(
(
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
(
= =
(
¸ ¸

Differential equations of equilibrium

[ ]
x
F ¿ →+ = 0
yx
x zx
x yx zx
x xy zx x
x y z y x z z y x
x y z
y z x z y x B x y z
τ
σ τ
σ τ τ
σ τ τ

| |
∂ ∂
| | | |
+ ∆ ∆ ∆ + + ∆ ∆ ∆ + + ∆ ∆ ∆
| |
|
∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ .
\ .
− ∆ ∆ − ∆ ∆ − ∆ ∆ + ∆ ∆ ∆ = 0
yx
x zx
x
x y z y x z x y z B x y z
x y z
τ
σ τ

∆ ∆ ∆ + ∆ ∆ ∆ + ¿ ∆ ∆ + ∆ ∆ ∆ =
∂ ∂ ∂
2
0
Canceling x y ∆ ∆ and z ∆ terms and taking limit
yx
x zx
x
x
y
z
lim B
x y z
τ
σ τ
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →

∂ ∂
+ + + =
∂ ∂ ∂ 0
0
0
0
Similarly we can easily show that

Solid Mechanics

[ ]
yx
x zx
x x
B F
x y z
τ
σ τ

∂ ∂
+ + + = ¿ =
∂ ∂ ∂
0 0
xy yy zy
y y
B F
x y z
τ σ τ ∂ ∂ ∂
(
+ + + = ¿ =
¸ ¸
∂ ∂ ∂
0 0
[ ]
yz
xz zz
z z
B F
x y z
τ
τ σ

∂ ∂
+ + + = ¿ =
∂ ∂ ∂
0 0
• If a body is under equilibrium, then the stress
components must satisfy the above equations and must
vary as above.
For equilibrium, the moments of forces about x, y and z axis
at any point must vanish.

p
z
M
(
¿ =
¸ ¸
0
xy yx
xy xy yx
yx
y x x
x y z y z y x z
x y
y
x z
τ τ
τ τ τ
τ
∂ ∂
| | | | ∆ ∆
+ ∆ ∆ ∆ + ∆ ∆ − + ∆ ∆ ∆
| |
∂ ∂
\ . \ .

− ∆ ∆ =
2 2 2
0
2
.

Solid Mechanics

xy xy yx yx
xy yx
xy yx
y x z x y z
x y z x y z
x y
y x
x y
τ τ τ τ
τ τ
τ τ
∆ ∆ ∆ ∂ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∂
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆
+ − − =
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
∆ ∆
+ − − =
∂ ∂
2 2
2 2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2

Taking limit
xy yx
xy yx
x
y
z
y x
lim
x y
τ τ
τ τ
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
∂ ∂
∆ ∆
+ − − =
∂ ∂ 0
0
0
0
2 2

xy yx
τ τ ¬ − = ¬ 0
xy yx
τ τ =
Relations between stress components and internal force
resultants

Solid Mechanics

x xx
A
F dA σ =
}
;
y xy
A
V dA τ =
}
;
z xz
A
V dA τ =
}

xz xy x
y dA dAz dM τ τ − =
( )
x xz xy
A
M y z dA τ τ = −
}

y xz
A
M dA σ =
}
;
z xy
A
M dA σ = −
}

Solid Mechanics

3. Plane stress and Plane strain
Plane stress- 2D State of stress

If
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
x xy
ij
xy yy
x, y x, y
plane stress-is a --- state of stress
x, y x, y
σ τ
σ
τ σ
(
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸

All stress components are in the plane x y − i.e all stress
components can be viewed in x y − plane.
xy
x xy
x xy
ij xy y
yx y
D State of stress
Stresscomponentsinplane xy
τ
σ τ
σ τ
σ τ σ
τ σ
=

(
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
2
0
0
0 0 0
x xy xz
ij yx yy yz
zx zy zz
D State of stress
components
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ

(
(
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
3
6

Solid Mechanics

This type of stress-state (i.e plane stress) exists in bodies
whose z- direction dimension is very small w.r.t other
dimensions.

Stress transformation laws for plane stress
The state of stress at a point P in 2D-plane stress problems
are represented by

x xy
nn nt
ij
xy y nt tt
σ τ
σ τ
σ
τ σ τ σ
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸

Solid Mechanics

* We can determine the stress components on any plane “n”
by knowing the stress components on any two mutually
⊥planes.

Stress transformation laws for plane stress

In order to get useful information we take different cutting
planes passing through a point. In contrast to 3D problem,
all cutting planes in plane stress problems are parallel to x-

Solid Mechanics

axis. i.e we take different cutting plane by rotating about z-
axis.

As in case of 3D, the state of stress at a point in a plane stress
domain is the totality of all the stress. If we know the stress
components on any two mutually⊥planes then stress
components on any arbitrary plane m-m can be determined.
Thus the stress tensor
x xy
ij
xy y
σ τ
σ
τ σ
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
is sufficient to tell about the state of stress
at a point in the plane stress problems.
dA Area of AB
dACs Areaof BC
dASin Area of AC
θ
θ
=
=
=

n
F ¿ + = (
¸ ¸
0 ×
nn x xy xy
yy
dA dACos Cos dACos Sin dASin Cos
dASin Sin
σ σ θ θ τ θ θ τ θ θ
σ θ θ
− − − −
= 0

nn x xy yy
Cos Sin Cos Sin σ σ θ τ θ θ σ θ − − − =
2 2
2 0

Solid Mechanics

nn x y xy
x y x y
nn xy
Cos Sin Sin Cos
Cos Sin
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
= + +
+ −
= + +
2 2
2
2 2
2 2

n
F ¿ + = (
¸ ¸
0 `
nt x xy xy
y
dA dACos Sin dACos Cos dASin Sin
dASin Cos
σ σ θ θ τ θ θ τ θ θ
σ θ θ
− − + −
= 0

( )
nt x y xy
Cos Sin Sin Cos Cos Sin τ σ θ θ σ θ θ τ θ θ = − + + −
2 2

( ) ( )
( )
nt x y xy
x y
nt xy
Cos Sin Cos Sin
Sin Cos
τ θ θ σ σ τ θ θ
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
= − − + −

= − +
2 2
2 2
2

We shall now show that if you know the stress components
on two mutually ⊥ planes then we can compute stresses on
any inclined plane. Let us assume that we know that state of
stress at a point P is given
x xy
ij
xy y
σ τ
σ
τ σ
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸

This also means that

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

If θ θ = we can compute on AB
If
π
θ θ = +
2
we can compute on BC
If θ θ π = + we can compute on CD
If
π
θ θ = +
3
2
we can compute on DA

nn
σ and
nt
τ equations are known as transformation
laws for plane stress.
• They are not only useful in determination of stresses on
any plane but also useful in transforming stresses from
one coordinate system to another
• Transformation laws do not require an equilibrium state
and thus are also valid at all points of the body under
accelerations.
• These laws are true for any point P of a body.

Invariants of stress tensor
• Any quantity for which its 2D scalar components
transform from one coordinate system to another
according to
nn
σ and
nt
τ is called a two dimensional

Solid Mechanics

symmetric tensor of rank 2. Here in particular the tensor
is a stress tensor.
• Moment of inertia if
x xx y yy xy xy
I , I ; I σ σ τ = = = −
• By definition a tensor is a mathematical quantity that
transforms according to certain laws, such that certain
invariant properties are maintained for all coordinate
systems.
• Tensors, as governed by their transformation laws,
possess several properties. We now develop those
properties for 2D second vent symmetric tensor.

x y x y
nn xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + + 2 2
2 2

x y x y
t xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + − 2 2
2 2

x y
nt xy
Sin Cos
σ σ
τ θ τ θ

= − + 2 2
2

Solid Mechanics

n t x y x y
I σ σ σ σ σ σ
′ ′
+ = + = + =
1

I =
1
First invariant of stress in 2D
n t nt x y xy x y x y
I σ σ τ σ σ τ σ σ τ
′ ′ ′ ′
− = − = − =
2 2
2

I =
2
Second invariant of stress in 2D
• I , I
1 2
are invariants of 2D symmetric stress tensor at a
point.
• Invariants are extremely useful in checking the
correctness of transformation
• Of I
1
and I
2
, I
1
is the most important property : the
sum of normal stresses on any two mutually ⊥ planes
(⊥directions) is a constant at a given point.
• In 2D we have two stress invariants; in 3D we have
three invariants of stresses.

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Problem:
A plane-stress condition exists at a point on the surface of a
loaded structure, where the stresses have the magnitudes
and directions shown on the stress element. (a) Determine
the stresses acting on a plane that is oriented at a −15

w.r.t.
the x-axis (b) Determine the stresses acting on an element
that is oriented at a clockwise angle of 15

w.r.t the original
element.
Solution:

it is in C.W.
x
y
xy
Q
σ
σ
τ
= −
=
= −
= −
46
12
19
15

Solid Mechanics

Substituting θ = −15

in
nt
τ equation

x y
MPas
σ σ +
− + −
= = = −
46 12 34
17
2 2 2
( ) ( ) Sin Sin . ; Cos Cos . θ θ = − = − = − = 2 2 15 0 5 2 2 15 0 866
x y x y
n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
2 2
2 2
n
. . σ = − − × + × 17 29 0 866 19 0 5
n
. MPas σ = −
1
32 6
x y
nt xy
Sin Cos
σ σ
τ θ τ θ

(
= − +
(
¸ ¸
2 2
2
n t
MPa τ = −
1 1
31
x y
MPa
σ σ −
− − −
= = = −
46 12 58
29
2 2 2
n t
. . τ = − × − ×
1 1
29 0 5 19 0 866

Solid Mechanics

Now

As a check

t n nt
θ
σ σ τ
=
(
= =
¸ ¸ 2 75

n
Cos Sin
MPa
σ = − − × − ×
= −
17 29 2 165 19 2 165
32
nt
nt
. Sin Cos
MPa
τ
τ
= −
= −
0
0 29 330 19 330
31
n t x y
. . MPa s σ σ σ σ + = + = − − = − = − + 32 6 1 4 34 46 12
θ = 145

tn
Sin Cos
MPa
τ = + × − ×
=
29 150 19 150
31
t
cos sin σ ∴ = − − − 17 29 150 19 150
t
. MPa σ = −1 4
tn n t nt
θ
τ τ τ
=
(
= =
¸ ¸ 2 2 75

Solid Mechanics

4. Principal Stresses
Principal Stresses
Now we are in position to compute the direction and
magnitude of the stress components on any inclined plane at
any point, provided if we know the state of stress (Plane
stress) at that point. We also know that any engineering
component fails when the internal forces or stresses reach a
particular value of all the stress components on all of the
infinite number of planes only stress components on some
particular planes are important for solving our basic
component will ail or not? Therefore our objective of this
class is to determine these plane and their corresponding
stresses.
(1) ( )
n y n y
n n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ σ θ θ τ θ
+ −
= = + + 2 2
2 2

(2) Of all the infinite number of normal stresses at a point,
what is the maximum normal stress value, what is the
minimum normal stress value and what are their

Solid Mechanics

corresponding planes i.e how the planes are oriented ? Thus
mathematically we are looking for maxima and minima of
( )
n
Q σ function..
(3)
n y n y
n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + + 2 2
2 2

For maxima or minima, we know that
( )
n
x y xy
d
Sin Cos
d
σ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
= = − − + 0 2 2 2
xy
x y
tan
τ
θ
σ σ
=

2
2
(4) The above equations has two roots, because tan repeats
itself after π . Let us call the first root as
P
θ
1

xy
P
x y
tan
τ
θ
σ σ
=

1
2
2
( )
xy
P P
x y
tan tan
τ
θ θ π
σ σ
= + =

2 1
2
2 2

Solid Mechanics

P P
s
π
θ θ = +
2 1
2

(5) Let us verify now whether we have minima or minima at
P
θ
1
and
P
θ
2

( )
( )
P
n
x y xy
n
x y P xy P
d
Cos Sin
d
d
Cos Sin
d
θ θ
σ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
σ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
=
= − − −
∴ = − − −
1 1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2 4 2
2 2 4 2

We can find
P
Cos s θ
1
2 and
P
Sin s θ
1
2 as
x y
P
x y
xy
Cos
σ σ
θ
σ σ
τ

=

| |
+
|
\ .
1
2
2
2
2
2

xy xy
P
x y x y
xy xy
Sin
τ τ
θ
σ σ σ σ
τ τ
= =
− −
| | | |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2

Substituting
P
Cos θ
1
2 and
P
Sin θ
1
2

Solid Mechanics

( )( )
( )
P
x y x y
xy xy
n
x y x y
xy xy
x y
xy
x y x y
xy xy
x y
xy
x y
xy
d
d
θ θ
σ σ σ σ
τ τ
σ
θ
σ σ σ σ
τ τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ σ σ
τ τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
τ
=
− − −
= −
− −
| | | |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .
− −
= −
− −
| | | |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .
(

| | −
(
= +
|
(
\ .

| |
¸ ¸
+
|
\ .
1
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2 2
4
2 2
4
2
2

x y
n
xy
d
d
σ σ
σ
τ
θ

| |
∴ = − +
|
\ .
2
2
2
2
4
2
(-ve)
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
P P
n
x y P xy P
x y P xy P
d
Cos Sin
d
Cos Sin
π
θ θ θ
σ
σ σ θ π τ θ π
θ
σ σ θ τ θ
= = +
= − + − +
= − +
1 1
2 1
1 1
2
2
2
2 2 4 2
2 2 4 2

Substituting
P P
Cos &Sin θ θ
1 1
2 2 m we can show that
P
x y
n
xy
d
s
d
θ θ
σ σ
σ
τ
θ
=

| |
∴ = − +
|
\ .
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
(+ve)

Solid Mechanics

Thus the angles
P
s θ
1
and
P
s θ
2
define planes of either
maximum normal stress or minimum normal stress.
(6) Now, we need to compute magnitudes of these stresses
We know that,
P
x y x y
n xy
x y x y
n P xy P
Cos Sin
Cos Sin
θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ σ θ τ θ
=
+ −
= + +
+ −
= = + +
1 1
1
1
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2

Substituting
P
Cos s θ
1
2 and
P
Sin θ
1
2
x y x y
xy
Max. Normal stress because of sign
σ σ σ σ
σ τ
+ −
| |
= + +
|
\ .
+
2
2
1
2 2

Similarly,
( )
( )
P P
x y x y
n P
xy P
x y x y
P xy P
Cos
Sin
Cos Sin
π
θ θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ σ θ π
τ θ π
σ σ σ σ
θ τ θ
= = =
+ −
= = + + +
+
+ −
= − −
1
2 1
1
1 1
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2

Substituting
P
Cos θ
1
2 and
P
Sin θ
1
2

Solid Mechanics

x y x y
xy
Min.normal sressbecause of vesign
σ σ σ σ
σ τ
+ −
| |
= − +
|
\ .

2
2
2 2

We can write
x y x y
xy
or
σ σ σ σ
σ σ τ
+ −
| |
= ± +
|
\ .
2
2
1 2
2 2

(7) Let us se the properties of above stress.
(1)
P P
s
π
θ θ = +
2 1
2
- planes on which maximum normal stress
and minimum normal stress act are ⊥ to each other.
(2) Generally maximum normal stress is designated by σ
1

and minimum stress by σ
2
. Also
P P
; θ σ θ σ → →
1 2
1 2

alg ebraically i.e., σ σ
σ
σ
>

− −
1 2
1
2
0
1000

Solid Mechanics

(4) maximum and minimum normal stresses are collectively
called as principal stresses.
(5) Planes on which maximum and minimum normal stress
act are known as principal planes.
(6)
P
θ
1
and
P
θ
2
that define the principal planes are known as
principal directions.
(8) Let us find the planes on which shearing stresses are zero.
( )
nt x y xy
Sin Cos τ σ σ θ τ θ = = − − + 0 2 2
xy
x y
tan
directions of principal plans
τ
θ
σ σ
=
=
=
2
2

Thus on the principal planes no shearing stresses act.
Conversely, the planes on which no shearing stress acts are
known as principal planes and the corresponding normal
stresses are principal stresses. For example the state of stress
at a point is as shown.

Then
x
σ and
y
σ are
principal stresses because
no shearing stresses are
acting on these planes.

Solid Mechanics

(9) Since, principal planes are ⊥ to each other at a point P,
this also means that if an element whose sides are parallel to
the principal planes is taken out at that point P, then it will
be subjected to principal stresses. Observe that no shearing
stresses are acting on the four faces, because shearing
stresses must be zero on principal planes.

(10) Since
1
σ and
2
σ are in two ⊥ directions, we can easily
say that
x y x y
I σ σ σ σ σ σ
′ ′
+ = + = + =
1 2 1

Solid Mechanics

5. Maximum shear stress
Maximum and minimum shearing stresses
So far we have seen some specials planes on which the
shearing stresses are always zero and the corresponding
normal stresses are principal stresses. Now we wish to find
what are maximum shearing stress plane and minimum
shearing stress plane. We approach in the similar way of
maximum and minimum normal stresses
(1)
x y
nt xy
Sin Cos
σ σ
τ θ τ θ

| |
= − +
|
\ .
2 2
2

( )
nt
x y xy
d
Cos Cos
d
τ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
= − − + 2 2
For maximum or minimum
( )
nt
x y xy
d
Cos Sin
d
τ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
= = − − − 0 2 2 2
( )
x y
xy
tan
σ σ
θ
τ
− −
¬ = 2
2

This has two roots
( )
x y
S
xy
tan
s stands for shear stress
p stands for principal stresses.
σ σ
θ
τ

= −

1
2
2

Solid Mechanics

( )
( )
x y
S S
xy
tan tan
σ σ
θ θ π
τ
− −
= + =
2 1
2 2
2

S S
π
θ θ ∴ = +
2 1
2

Now we have to show that at these two angles we will have
maximum and minimum shear stresses at that point.
Similar to the principal stresses we must calculate
( )
( )
S
nt
x y xy
nt
x y S xy S
d
Sin Cos
d
d
Sin Cos
d
θ θ
τ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
τ
σ σ θ τ θ
θ
=
= − −
= − −
1 1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2 4 2
2 2 4 2

xy
S
x y
xy
Cos
τ
θ
σ σ
τ
=

| |
+
|
\ .
1
2
2
2
2
2
2

( )
x y
S
x y
xy
Sin
σ σ
θ
σ σ
τ
− −
=

| |
+
|
\ .
1
2
2
2
2
2

Substituting above values in the above equation we can
show that

Solid Mechanics

S
nt
d
d
θ θ
τ
θ
=
=
1
2
2
- ve
Similarly we can show that
S S
nt
d
d π
θ θ θ
τ
θ
= = +
=
2 1
2
2
2
+ ve
Thus the angles
S
θ
1
and
S
θ
2
define planes of either maximum
shear stress or minimum shear stress. Planes that define
maximum shear stress & minimum shear stress are again ⊥
to each other.. Now we wish to find out these values.
( )
( )
S
x y
nt xy
x y
nt S xy S
Sin Cos
Sin Cos
θ θ
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
σ σ
τ θ τ θ
=

= − +

= − +
1 1
1
2 2
2
2 2
2

Substituting
S
Cos θ
1
2 and
S
Sin s θ
1
2 , we can show that
x y
max xy
σ σ
τ τ

| |
= + +
|
\ .
2
2
2

( )
( ) ( )
S S
x y
nt S xy S
Sin Cos
π
θ θ θ
σ σ
τ θ π τ θ π
= = +

= − + + +
1 1
2 1
2
2 2
2

Substituting
S
Cos θ
1
2 and
S
Sin θ
1
2
x y
min xy
σ σ
τ τ

| |
= − +
|
\ .
2
2
2

Solid Mechanics

max
τ is algebraically
min
τ > , however their absolute
magnitude is same. Thus we can write
x y
max min xy
or
σ σ
τ τ τ

| |
= ± +
|
\ .
2
2
2

Generally
max S
min S
τ θ
τ θ

1
2

Q. Why
max
τ and
min
τ are numerically same. Because
S
θ
1
&
S
θ
2
are ⊥ planes.

(2) Unlike the principal stresses, the planes on which
maximum and minimum shear stress act are not free from
normal stresses.

Solid Mechanics

x y x y
n xy
Cos Sin s
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + + 2 2
2 2

S
x y x y
n S xy S
Cos Sin
θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
=
+ −
= + +
1 1
1
2 2
2 2

Substituting
S
Cos θ
1
2 and
S
Sin θ
1
2
S
x y
n
θ θ
σ σ
σ σ
=
+
= =
1 2

( )
( )
S S
x y x y
n S
xy S
Cos
Sin
π
θ θ θ
σ σ σ σ
σ θ π
τ θ π
= = +
+ −
= + +
+ +
1
2 1
1
2
2
2 2
2

Simplifying this equation gives
S
x y
n
θ θ
σ σ
σ σ
=
+
= =
2 2

Therefore the normal stress on maximum and minimum
shear stress planes is same.
(3) Both the principal planes are ⊥ to each other and also the
planes of
max
τ and
min
τ are also ⊥ to each other. Now let us
see there exist any relation between them.

Solid Mechanics

6. Mohr’s circle
Mohr’s circle for plane stress
So far we have seen two methods to find stresses acting on
an inclined plane
(a) Wedge method
(b) Use of transformation laws.

Another method which is purely graphical approaches is
known as the Mohr’s circle for plane stress.
A major advantage of Mohr’s circle is that, the state of the
stress at a point, i.e the stress components acting on all
infinite number of planes can be viewed graphically.
Equations of Mohr’s circle
We know that,
x y x y
n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
= + + 2 2
2 2

This equation can also be written as
x y x y
n xy
Cos Sin
σ σ σ σ
σ θ τ θ
+ −
− = + 2 2
2 2

x y
nt xy
Sin Cos
σ σ
τ θ τ θ

| |
= − +
|
\ .
2 2
2

( )
x y x y
n nt xy
x a y R
σ σ σ σ
σ τ τ
+ +
( | | | |
− + = +
( | |
\ . \ .
¸ ¸
↓ ↓ ↓
− + =
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2

Solid Mechanics

The above equation is
clearly an equation of
circle with center at ( ) , 0 a
on τ σ − plane it
represents a circle with
center at
x y
,
σ σ +
| |
|
\ .
0
2
and

x y
xy
R
σ σ
τ

| |
= +
|
\ .
2
2

This circle on σ τ − plane-
Mohr’s circle.
From the above deviation it
can be seen that any point P
on the Mohr’s circle
represents stress which are
acting on a plane passing
through the point.
In this way we can
completely visualize the
stresses acting on all
infinite planes.

Solid Mechanics

(3) Construction of Mohr’s circle
Let us assume that the state of stress at a point is given
A typical problem using Mohr’s circle i.e given
x y
, σ σ
′ ′
and
x y
τ
′ ′
on an inclined element. For the sake of clarity we
assume that,
x y
, s σ σ
′ ′
and
x y
τ
′ ′
all are positive and
x y
σ σ >

Solid Mechanics

• Since any point on the circle represents the stress
components on a plane passing through the point.
Therefore we can locate the point A on the circle.
• The coordinates of the plane
( )
x xy
A , σ τ = + +
Therefore we can locate the point A on the circle with
coordinates
( )
x xy
, s σ τ + +
• Therefore the line AC represents the x-axis. Moreover,
the normal of the A-plane makes 0

w.r.t the x-axis.
• In a similar way we can locate the point B
corresponding to the plane B.

Solid Mechanics

The coordinates of
( )
y xy
B , s σ τ = + −
Since we assumed that for the sake of similarity
y x
s σ σ < .
Therefore the point B diametrically opposite to point A.
• The line BC represents y- axis. The point A corresponds
to Q = 0

, and pt. B corresponds to Q = 90

(+ve) of the
stress element.
At this point of time we should be able to observe two
important points.
• The end points of a diameter represents stress
components on two ⊥ planes of the stress element.
• The angle between x- axis and the plane B is 90° (c.c.w)
in the stress element. The line CA in Mohr’s circle
represents x- axis and line CB represents y-axis or plane
B. It can be seen that, the angle between x-axis and y-
axis in the Mohr’s circle is 180° (c.c.w). Thus 2Q in
Mohr’s circle corresponds to Q in the stress element
diagram.
Stresses on an inclined element
• Point A corresponds to 0 Q = on the stress element.
Therefore the line CA i.e x-axis becomes reference line
from which we measure angles.
• Now we locate the point “D” on the Mohr’s circle such
that the line CD makes an angle of 2Q c.c.w from the x-
axis or line CA. we choose c.c.w because in the stress
element also Q is in c.c.w direction.

Solid Mechanics

• The coordinates or stresses corresponding to point D on
the Mohr’s circle represents the stresses on the x′ - face or
D on the stress element.
x avg
x y
y avg
RCos
RSin
RCos
SinceD&D are planesinthe
stress element ,thentheybecome
diametrically opposite point s on
thecircle, just likethe planes A&Bdid
σ σ β
τ β
σ σ β

′ ′

= +
=
= −

Calculation of principal stress
The most important application of the Mohr’s circle is
determination of principal stresses.
The intersection of the Mohr’s circle --- with normal stress
axis gives two points P
1
andP
2
. Thus P
1
and P
2
represents
points corresponding to principal stresses. In the current
diagram the coordinates the of
P , s
P ,
σ
σ
=
=
1 1
2 2
0
0

avg
R σ σ = +
1

avg
R σ σ = −
2

The principal direction corresponding to σ
1
is now equal to
p
θ
1
2 , in c.c.w direction from the x-axis.

Solid Mechanics

p p
π
θ θ = ±
2 1
2

We can see that the points P
1
andP
2
are diametrically
opposite, this indicate that principal planes are ⊥ to each
other in the stress element. This fact can also be verified from
the Mohr’s circle.
In- plane maximum shear stress
What are points on the circle at which the shearing stress are
reaching maximum values numerically? Points S
1
and S
2
at
the top and bottom of the Mohr’s circle.
• The points S
1
and S
2
are at angles θ = 2 90

from
pointsP
1
P
2
and, i.e the planes of maximum shear stress
are oriented at ±45

to the principal planes.
• Unlike the principal stresses, the planes of maximum
shear stress are not free from the normal stresses. For
example the coordinates of
max avg
max avg
S , s
S ,
τ σ
τ σ
= +
= −
1
2

max
R τ = ±
avg
σ σ =
Mohr’s circle can be plotted in two different ways. Both the
methods are mathematically correct.

Solid Mechanics

Finally
• Intersection of Mohr’s circle with the σ -axis gives
principal stresses.
• The top and bottom points of Mohr’s circle gives
maximum –ve shear stress and maximum +ve shear
stress.
• Do not forget that all these inclined planes are obtained

Solid Mechanics

Mohr’ circle problem

Solution:

A - (15000,4000)
B - (5000,-4000)

(a)

x y
MPa
σ σ +
+
= =
15000 5000
10000
2 2
R MPa = 6403
x y
xy
R
σ σ
τ

| |

| |
= + = +
|
|
\ .
\ .
= +
2
2
2 2
2 2
15000 5000
4000
2 2
5000 4000
x y
σ σ −
= 5000
2

Solid Mechanics

Point D:
x
Cos . MPa σ

= + = 10000 6403 41 34 14807

x y
Sin . MPa τ
′ ′
= − = − 6403 41 34 4229
Point D′ :
n y
Cos . MPa σ σ

= = − = 10000 6403 41 34 593

nt x y
Sin . τ τ
′ ′
= = = 6403 41 34 4229
b)
P
.
; . σ θ = = =
1
1
38 66
16403 19 33
2

MPa σ =
2
3597

c)
max S
MPa . . τ θ = − = = −
1
6403 25 67 25 67

Solid Mechanics

(2) θ = 45

Principal stresses and principal shear stresses.
Solution:

( )
x y
x y
xy
R MPa
σ σ
σ σ
τ
+
− +
= = −

| | − −
| |
= + = + − =
|
|
\ .
\ .
2
2
2 2
50 10
20
2 2
50 10
40 50
2 2
( )
( )
A ,
B ,
→ − −

50 40
10 40
x y
x y
p R s
p R
σ σ
σ
σ σ
σ
+
= = + = − + =
+
= = − = − − = −
1 1
2 2
20 50 30
2
20 50 70
2

Solid Mechanics

p
p
p
Q .
Q .
Q .
=
=
=
1
1
2
2 233 13
116 6
206 6

s
s
s
Q .
Q .
Q .
=
=
=
1
1
2
2 143 13
71 6
161 6

Solid Mechanics

Q.
x y xy
MPa, MPa and MPa σ σ τ = = − = 31 5 33
Stresses on inclined element θ = 45

Principal stresses and maximum shear stress.
Solution:

x y
avg
MPa
σ σ
σ
+

= = =
31 5
13
2 2
x y
xy
R . MPa
σ σ
τ

| |
= + =
|
\ .
2
2
37 6
2
( )
( )
A ,
B , − −
31 33
5 33
x avg
RCos s
. Cos . MPa
σ β σ

= +
= + = 37 6 28 64 13 46
x y
RSin . . . τ β
′ ′
= − = − = − 37 6 28 64 18 02
y avg
RCos
MPa
σ β σ

= −
= −20

Solid Mechanics

. MPa σ ∴ =
1
50 6
. MPa σ = −
2
24 6
p
. θ =
1
30 68
max s
min
avg
. MPa .
. MPa
MPa
τ θ
τ
σ σ
= − = −
= −
= =
1
37 6 14 32
37 6
13

Solid Mechanics

7. 3D-Stress Transformation
3D-stress components on an arbitrary plane
Basically we have done so far for this type of coordinate
system

x x x y x z
x x x y x z
n n n D i r . c o s i n e s o f x
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
i n i n j n k
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′

= + +

y x y y y z
y x y y y z
n n n
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
j n i n j n k
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′

= + +

z x z y z z
z x z y z z
n n n
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
k n i n j n k
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′

= + +

Solid Mechanics

n x x x y x z
n x x x y x z
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T T i T j T ks
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i j k σ τ τ
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= + +
′ ′ ′
= + +
,
,

x x
x x
x z
ABC dA
PAB dAn
PAC dAn
PBC dAn

[ ]
x
F ¿ →+ = 0
x x x x x yx x y zx x z
T da dAn dAn dAn σ τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′
= + +

x x x x x yx x y zx x z
x y xy x x y x y zy x z
x z xz x x yz x y z x z
T n n n
T n n n
T n n n
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
= + +
= + +
= + +

x x y y z
x y y y z
z x y z z
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
(
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸

x x y x z
, , σ τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′

( ) ( )
x n x x x y x z x x x y x z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i T i T j T k . n i n j n k σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′

= = + + + +
,
(1)
( ) ( )
x y n x x x y x z y x y y y z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T j T i T j T k . n i n j n k τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′

= = + + + +
,
(2)
( ) ( )
x z n x x x y x z z x z y z z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T k T i T j T k . n i n j n k τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′

= = + + + +
,
(3)
y x x y x yx y y zx y z
y y xy y y y y y zy y z
y z xz y y yz y y z y z
T n n n
T n n n
T n n n
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
= + +
= + +
= + +

( )( )
y y x y y y z y x y y y z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i T j T k n i n j n k σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= + + + + (4)
( )( )
z z x z y z z z x z y z z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i T j T k n i n j n k σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= + + + + (5)

Solid Mechanics

( )( )
y z y x y y y z z x z y z z
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
T i T j T k n i n j n k τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= + + + + (6)

x x
x y
x z
n Cos
n Sin
n
θ
θ

=
=
= 0

y x
y y
y z
n Sin
n Cos
n
θ
θ

= −
=
= 0

z x
z y
z z
n
n
n

=
=
=
0
0
1

z x z y z
z
: : σ τ τ
σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= = =
=
0 0 0

( ) ( )
x x y xy
y x y xy
x y x y xy
Cos Sin Sin Cos
Sin Cos Sin Cos
Sin Cos Cos Sin
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ
τ σ σ θ θ τ θ θ

′ ′
= + +
= + −
= − − + −
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
x xy
xy y
σ τ
τ σ
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
0
0
0 0 0

Principal stresses

x y z
n ,n ,n
( )
n x y z
n nx ny nz
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ T n n i n j n k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T T i T j T k
σ σ = = + +
= + +
,
,

Where
nx x x yx y zx z
ny xy x y y zy z
nz xz x yz y z z
T n n n
T n n n
T n n n
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
= + +
= + +
= + +

x x y y z z
Tn n Tn n Tn n σ σ σ = = =

Solid Mechanics

( )
( )
( )
x x yx y zx z
yx x y y zy z
xz x yz y z z
n n n
n n n Syst. of linear homog. eqns.
n n n
σ σ τ τ
τ σ σ τ
τ τ σ σ
− + + = ¹
¦
¦
+ − + =
`
¦
+ + − =
¦
)
0
0
0

x y z x y z
n n n : n n n = = = + + =
2 2 2
0 1
( )
x xy zx
x
xy y zy y
zx yz z z
n
n
n
σ σ τ τ
τ σ σ τ
τ τ σ σ
(

¦ ¹
(
¦ ¦
− =
( ´ `
( ¦ ¦

¹ ) (
¸ ¸
0
For non trivial solution must be zero.
( ) ( )
( )
x y z x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ τ τ τ σ
σ σ σ τ τ τ σ τ σ τ σ τ
− + + + + + − − −
− + − − − =
3 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 0

This has 3- real roots , , σ σ σ
1 2 3

( )
( )
x x yx y zx z
yx x y y zy z
x y z
n n n
n n n
and n n n
σ σ τ τ
τ σ σ τ
− + + =
+ − + =
+ + =
1
1
2 2 2
0
0
1

x y z
n ,n ,n σ
σ σ σ
¬ →
> >
1
1 2 3

Stress invariants
I I I σ σ σ − + − =
3 2
1 2 3
0 (1)

Solid Mechanics

x y z
x y y z x z xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I stress invar iants
I
σ σ σ
σ σ σ σ σ σ τ τ τ
σ σ σ τ τ τ σ τ σ τ σ τ
¹
= + +
¦
¦
= + + − − −
`
¦
= + − − −
¦
)
1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
3
2
I I σ σ ′ ′ − + =
3 2
1 3
0
x y z x y x z y z x y y z x z
I I σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ τ τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′
= + + = + + − − −
2 2 2
1 2

I I ; I I ; I I

′ ′
= = =
1 1 2 2 3 3

3D 2D
I
I
I
σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ σ σ σ
σ σ
= + +
= + +
=
3
1 1 2 3
2 1 2 2 3 3 1
3 1 2

I
I
I
σ σ
σ σ
= +
=
=
1 1 2
2 1 2
3
0

Principal planes are orthogonal
n n
ˆ ˆ T n T .n

=
, ,

x y z
x y z
n nx ny nz
n n x n y n z
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ n n i n j n k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ n n i n j n k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T T i T j T k
ˆ ˆ ˆ
T T i T j T k
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
= + +

= + +
= + +
= + +
,
,

Solid Mechanics

yx
n n
xy
ˆ ˆ T n T n
τ
τ

=

=
, ,

( ) ( )
n n
ˆ ˆ T n T n
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ n n n n σ σ

=
′ ′ =
1 2
, ,

( ) ( )
x x y y z z x x y y z z
n n n n n n n n n n n n σ σ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
+ + = + +
1 2

σ σ ≠
1 2

x x y y z z
n n n n n n
′ ′ ′
+ + = 0
ˆ ˆ n .n

must be ⊥ to each other.
The state of stress in principal axis

σ
σ
σ
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1
2
3
0 0
0 0
0 0

x
y
z
n x
n y
n z
T n
T n
T n
σ
σ
σ
=
=
=
1
2
3

n x y z
n n n σ σ σ σ = + +
2 2 2
1 2 3

x y z
n n n n
x y z
T T T T s
n n n σ σ σ
= + +
= + +
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3

n n
T τ σ = −
2
2 2
,

Solid Mechanics

8. 3D Mohr’s circle and Octahedral stress
3-D Mohr’s circle & principal shear stresses
x xy
ij xy y
z
σ τ
σ τ σ
σ
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
0
0
0 0

Once if you know and σ σ
1 2

τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
σ

=
+
=
1
2 3
1
1 3
2
2

τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
σ

=
+
=
2
1 3
2
1 2
2
2
τ
σ σ
τ
σ σ
σ

=

=
3
1 2
3
1 2
2
2
max
max , ,
σ σ σ σ σ σ
τ
− − −
=
1 2 2 3 3 1
2 2 2
σ σ σ > >
1 2 3

Solid Mechanics

• The maximum normal stress
1
σ and maximum shear
stress
max
τ and their corresponding planes govern the
failure of the engineering materials.
• It is evident now that in many two-dimensional cases
the maximum shear stress value will be missed by not
considering σ =
3
0 and constructing the principal circle.

Solid Mechanics

Problem:
The state of stress at a point is given by
x y z
MPa, MPa, MPa and σ σ σ = = − = 100 40 80
xy yz zx
τ τ τ = = = 0
Determine in plane max shear stresses and maximum shear
stress at that point.
Solution:

MPa, MPa MPas σ σ σ = = = −
1 2 3
100 80 40
MPa
σ σ
τ
− −
= = =
1 2
12
100 80
10
2 2

MPa
σ σ
τ
− +
= = =
1 3
13
100 40
70
2 2

MPa
σ σ
τ
− +
= = =
2 3
23
80 40
60
2 2

MPa
MPa
σ σ
σ
σ
σ
+
= =
=
=
1 2
12
13
23
90
2
30
20

max
max , , τ τ τ τ =
12 13 23

max
MPa τ = 70 This occurs in the plane of 1-3

Solid Mechanics

, , τ τ τ →
1 2 3
Principal shear stress in 3D
( )
max
max , , τ τ τ τ =
1 2 3

Solid Mechanics

Plane stress
z
σ σ
σ σ
>
= =
1
3
0

x y
xy
σ σ
τ τ

| |
= ± +
|
\ .
2
2
2
---- in plane principal shear stresses.
max
σ σ σ
τ

= =
1 3 1
2 2

Solid Mechanics

Problem
At appoint in a component, the state of stress is as shown.
Determine maximum shear stress.

Solution:

ij
σ
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
100 0
0 50
- plane stress problem
We can also write the matrix as
ij
a
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
100 0 0
0 50 0
0 0 0

σ
σ
σ σ
=
=
− −
= =
1
2
1 2
100
50
100 50
25
2 2

max
MPa τ = 25

Solid Mechanics

Now with , , σ σ σ = = =
1 2 3
100 50 0
max
MPa
σ σ
τ

= =
1 3
50
2

Occurs in the plane 1-3 instead of 1-2

Solid Mechanics

Some important states of stresses
(1) Uniaxial state of stress: Only one non-zero principal
stress.
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1
1
0 0
0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0
- plane stress.
(2) Biaxial state of stress: two non-zero principal stresses.
σ
σ
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1
1
1
1
0 0
0
0 0
0
0 0 0
- plane stress
(3) Triaxial state of stress: All three principal stresses are
non zero.
σ
σ
σ
(
(

(
(
¸ ¸
1
2
3
0 0
0 0
0 0
3D stress
(4) Spherical state of stress: σ σ σ = =
1 2 3
(either +ve or – ve)
D
σ
σ
σ
(
(

(
(
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0 3
0 0
stress-special case of triaxial stress.

Solid Mechanics

(5) Hydrostatic state of stress

P
P
P
+
(
(
+
(
+ (
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0
0 0
hydrostatic tension

P
P
P

(
(

(
− (
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0
0 0
hydrostatic compression.
(6) The state of pure shear
zy
x xy xz
ij xy y yz
zx z
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
(
(
( =
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸

x y x z
ij x y y z
z x z y
τ τ
σ τ τ
τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
0
0
0

Then we say that the point P is in state of pure shear.
I =
1
0 is necessary and sufficient condition for state of pure
shear

Solid Mechanics

Octahedral planes and stresses
If
x y z
n n n = = w.r.t to the principal planes, then these planes
are known as octahedral planes. The corresponding stresses
are known as octahedral stresses.

Eight number of such planes can be identified at a given point ---
Octahedron
x y z
n x y z
n n n
T n n n
σ σ σ σ
σ σ σ
= + +
= + +
2 2 2
1 2 3
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 3

x y z
x y z
n n n
n n n .
+ + =
= = = ± =
2 2 2
0
1
1
54 73
3

oct
σ σ σ σ
σ σ σ
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
+ +
=
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 2 3
1 1 1
3 3 3
3

Solid Mechanics

1
I
= meanstress
3
σ σ σ + +
=
1 2 3
3

oct
canbeint erpreted meannormal stress at a pt. σ = − −
oct n oct
T τ σ = −
2
2

( ) ( ) ( )
oct
τ σ σ σ σ σ σ = − + − + −
2 2 2
1 2 2 3 3 1
1
3

Therefore, the state of stress at a point can be represented
with reference to
(i) stress components of x,y,z coordinate system
(ii) stress components of x’,y’z’ coordinate system
(iii) using principal stresses
(iv) using octahedral shear and normal stresses
We can prove that:
oct
τ is smaller than
max
τ (exist only on 4 planes) but can exist on 8
planes at a point.

Solid Mechanics

Decomposition into hydrostatic and pure shear stress
x xy xz
ij yx z yz
zx zy z
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸

Mean stress
x y z I
P
σ σ σ + +
= =
1
3 3

x xy xz x xy xz
yx y yz yx y yz
zx zy z zx zy z
P
P
P P
P
P
Hydrostatic State of pureshear
stat of stress Deviatoric state of stress
Dilitational stress Stress deviator
σ τ τ σ τ τ
τ τ τ τ σ τ
τ τ σ τ τ σ
( (

(
( (
(
= + −
( (
(
( (
(

¸ ¸
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
0 0
0 0
0 0

Thus the state of the stress at a point can alos be represented
by sum of dilational stress and stress deviator

Solid Mechanics

I
P
σ σ σ + +
= =
1 2 3 1
3 3

P P
P P
P P
σ σ
σ σ
σ σ

( ( (
( ( (
= + −
( ( (
− ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 1
2 2
3 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

σ =
1
mean stress + deviation from the mean
The deviatoric and octahedral shear stresses are the answer
for the yielding behavior of materials – which is a type of
failure of materials.

Solid Mechanics

9. Deformation and strain analysis

Two types of deformation have been observed for an
infinitesimal element.
Deformation of the whole body = Sum of deformations of
Deformation is described by measuring two quantities.
(1)Elongation or contraction of a line segment
(2)Rotation of any two ⊥ lines.

Measure of deformations of an infinitesimal
element is known as strain.
• The strain component that measures elongation or
construction – normal strain -ε
• The strain component that measures rotation of any two
⊥lines is – shearing strain- γ
( )
( )
( )
u u x, y, z
v v x, y, z ( x, y, z) is the point in the undeformed geometry
w w x, y, z
= ¹
¦
=
`
¦
=
)
( ) ( ) ( )
= + +
,
ˆ ˆ ˆ
u u x, y, z i v x, y, z j w x, y, z k

Solid Mechanics

Normal strain ε - Account for changes in length between two
points.
( )
* * *
n
s s
P Q PQ s s
P lim lim
PQ s ∆ → ∆ →
− ∆ − ∆
∈ = =
∆ 0 0

We can also define the same point
x y z
, , ∈ ∈ ∈
(1) By definition
x
∈ is + if
*
s s ∆ > ∆

x
∈ is - if
*
s s ∆ > ∆

(2) It is immaterial how
* *
P Q is oriented finally. However for
n
∈ we must consider PQ in the direction of ˆ n in the
undeformed geometry
(3) In general
( )
n n
x, y, z s ∈ =∈
(4) No units.
(5) Meaning of
nn

Shearing strain -
Accounts the change in angle
( )
n
Y P
+
Change in angle between
⊥ lines in
ˆ
ˆ n&t direction.
( )
nt nt
x x
y y
Y P lim lim
π
φ α β
∆ → ∆ →
∆ → ∆ →
− = +
0 0
0 0
2

Mm/mm,0.5%=0.005;
, µ µ

=
6
10 1000
. mm / mm

= × =
6
1000 10 0 001

( )
( )
*
n
*
n
n n
s s
s s if s
s s s s
∆ = +∈ ∆
∆ +∈ ∆ ∆ →
∈ ∆ =∈ ∆
1
1 0 =
=
lim as s ∆ →0

Solid Mechanics

(1)We must select two ⊥ lines in the undeformed geometry.
(2)Units of
nt
(3)By deflection
nt tn
Y Y =
(4)Two subscripts are required for
Y - to show directions of initial
infinitesimal line segments.
(5)
nt
Y is +ve if angle is decreased

nt
Y is -ve if angle is more.
By taking two ⊥ lines
We can define
n t nt
, &Y ∈ ∈
Rectangular strain components
x y xy
z y yz
x z xz
, andY PQRS
, andY QABS
, andY RSCD
∈ ∈ −
∈ ∈ −
∈ ∈ −

x xy xz
ij xy y yz
xz yz z
Y Y
E Y Y
Y Y
(

(
(
= ∈
(
¸ ¸
(

(
¸ ¸

They represent the state of strain at a point , since we can
determine strain along any direction ˆ n
- Rectangular strain components .
- We then say that we have strain
computer associated with x, y, z
coordinate system.

Solid Mechanics

Strain displacement relations: Strains are due to
deformation as displacement so there must be some relation
between deformational displacements and strains. So let us
consider the side of the element PQRS. We shall demonstrate
that ‘w’ has no impact. So it can be neglected.
P u, v
u v
Q u x ; v x
x x

∂ ∂
→ + ∆ + ∆
∂ ∂

* * *
PQ x
P Q x
= ∆
= ∆

( )
*
x
x x ∆ +∈ ∆ 1 =
( )
*
x
x
lim x x
∆ →
∆ = +∈ ∆
0
1
*
u v w
x x x x
x x x
u u v w
x
x x x x
∂ ∂ ∂
| | | | | |
∆ = + ∆ + ∆ + ∆
| | |
∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ . \ .
(
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
| | | | | |
= + + + + ∆
| | | (
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ . \ .
¸ ¸
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
1 2

Solid Mechanics

*
x
x
x
x
y
z
x x
lim
x
u u v w
lim
x x x x
u u v w
x x x x
v u v w
y y y y
w u v
z z z
∆ →
∆ →
∆ − ∆
∈ =

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
| | | | | |
= + + + + −
| | |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ . \ .
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
| | | | | |
∈ = + + + + −
| | |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ . \ .
| | | | | |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∈ = + + + + −
| | |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
\ . \ . \ .
∂ ∂ ∂
| | | |
∈ = + + +
| |
∂ ∂ ∂ \ . \ .
0
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
1 2 1
1 2 1
1 2 1
1 2
w
z

| |
+ −
|
∂ \ .
2 2
1
So far no assumption has been made except for size of
x, y& z ∆ ∆ ∆
*
xy
* *
y u x u
Cos
x y
x y
φ
∆ ∂ ∆ ∂
(
| |
= +
|
(
∂ ∂ \ . ∆ ∆ ¸ ¸
1

* *
y v x v
x y
x y
(
| | ∆ ∂ ∆ ∂
| |
+ +
( | |
∂ ∂
\ . ∆ ∆
\ .
¸ ¸
1

* *
y w x w
x y
x y
(
∆ ∂ ∆ ∂
| |
+
( |
∂ ∂
\ . ∆ ∆
¸ ¸

*
xy xy
x
y
z
Y lim
π
φ
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
= −
0
0
0
2

Solid Mechanics

*
xy xy
x
y
z
SinY lim Cosφ
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
=
0
0
0

( )
( )
xy
* *
x
y
z
*
x
*
y
x y u u v v w w
SinY lim
x y y x x y
x y
x x
y y
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
( | | ∆ ∆ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
| |
= + + + +
| ( |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ . ∆ ∆
\ .
¸ ¸
∆ = +∈ ∆
∆ = +∈ ∆
0
0
0
1 1
1
1

( )
( )
xy
x
x y
y
z
u v u u v v w w
y x x y x y x y
SinY lim
∆ →
∆ →
∆ →
| |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ + + +
|
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
\ .
=
+∈ +∈
0
0
0
1 1

( )
( )
xy
x y
u v u u v v w w
Sin
y x x y x y x y
Y

| |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ + + +
|
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
\ .
=
+∈ +∈
1
1 1

( )
( )
yz
x y
u v u u v v w w
y x x y x y x y
Y sin

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(
+ + + +
(
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
=
(
+∈ +∈
(
(
¸ ¸
1
1 1

( )( )
xz
x z
w u w w u u v v
x w x z x w x z
Y sin

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
(
+ + + +
(
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
=
(
+∈ +∈
(
¸ ¸
1
1 1

All bodies after the application of loads under go “small
deformations”

Solid Mechanics

Small deformations :
(1) The deformational displacements
ˆ ˆ
u ui vj wk = + +
,
are
infinitesimally small.
(2) The strains are small
(a) Changes in length of a infinitesimal line segment are
infinitesimal.
(b) Rotations of line segment are also infinitesimal.
x y z
u u u v u u v
, , , ; ; ; ;
x u w x x x y
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
| |
∈ ∈ ≤< ∈
|
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ .
2
1 1 1 1 < < < are
negligible compare to
u v
,
x x
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
quantities.
x
u
x
u
x

∈ = + −

= +
1 2 1
2
1
1
2

x
y
z
u
x
v
y
w
z

∈ =

∈ =

∈ =

xy xy
SinY Y ≈

Solid Mechanics

( )
xy
x y
u v
y x v u
Y
x y
∂ ∂
+
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= = +
∂ ∂
+∈ +∈ 1

xz
yz
w u
Y
x z
v w
Y
z y
∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂

Another derivation : Let us take plane PQRS in xy plane.
Also assume that
( ) ( )
u u x, y & v v x, y = = only.
Small deformation
Displacements are small
Strains are small
* * *
x
x
P Q PQ x x
lim
PQ x ∆ →
− ∆ − ∆
∈ = =
∆ 0

Strains<0.001
* * *
x
x
y
y
y
x P Q x
x
y
x x
u
x
lim
x x
v
y y
y
v
lim
y y

∆ →
∆ →

| |
∆ = + ∆
|

\ .

| |
+ ∆ − ∆
|

\ .
∈ = =
∆ ∂
| |

+ ∆ − ∆
|

\ .
∈ = =
∆ ∂
0
0
1
1
1
=
Y . < 0 06

*
s .
s mm

∆ =
= ×
4
0 2002
2 10

Solid Mechanics

*
xy xy
x x
y y
Y lim lim
π
φ α β
∆ → ∆ →
∆ → ∆ →
= − = +
0 0
0 0
2

v v
x
x x
tan
y y
x
x
x
α
∂ ∂

∂ ∂
= =
∂ ∂
| |
+
+ ∆
|

\ .
1
1

tanα α ≈
v
x
u
y
α
β

=

=

xy
u v
Y
y x
∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂

u u v v
, , ,
x y y x
u u v
, ,
x y yx
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
| | | |
∂ ∂ ∂
| |
|
| |
∂ ∂ ∂ \ .
\ . \ .
2 2
2
1 <

We can define the state of strain at point by six components
of strains

State of strain

- Engineering strain matrix
- We can find
n
∈ in any
direction we can find
nt
Y for
any two arbitrary directions.
x y, z, xy xz yz
yx zx zy
, Y , Y , Y
Y Y Y
∈ ∈ ∈
↓ ↓ ↓
x xy xz
ij xy y yz
xz yz z
Y Y
E Y Y
Y Y
(

(
(
= ∈
(
¸ ¸
(

(
¸ ¸

Solid Mechanics

2D- strain transformation

Plain strain: In which

x xy
xy y
Y
Y

(
(

(
¸ ¸

( )
( )
( )
x x
y y
xy xy
x, y
x, y
Y Y x, y
∈ =∈
∈ =∈
=

z
yz
zx
Y
Y
∈ =
=
=
0
0
0
implication of these
equation is that a point in
a given plane does not
leave that plane all
deformations are in to
plane of the body.

Solid Mechanics

Given
x y xy
, & Y ∈ ∈ what are
n t nt
, & Y ∈ ∈ .
We can always draw PQRS for given ˆ n
If
x y xy
, & Y ∈ ∈

As in case of stress we call these formulae as transformations
laws.

x
x
x
dxSin
ds
dx
sin
ds
sin cos
θ
α
θ
θ θ

=
=∈
=∈
1
y y
dy
cos cos sin
ds
α θ θ θ =∈ =∈
2
xy
xy
dy
Y sin
ds
Y sin sin
α θ
θ θ
=
=
3

Solid Mechanics

x y xy
n x y xy
x y xy
dL dxcos dysin Y dycos
dy dy dL dx
cos sin Y cos
dS ds ds ds
cos cos sin Y sin cos
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ
=∈ +∈ +
=∈ =∈ +∈ +
=∈ +∈ +
2

- state of strain at a point
- stress tensor
- strain tensor
Replace

x x
y y
xy
xy xy
Y
σ
σ
τ
→∈
→∈
→∈ =
2

( ) ( )
x y xy
x y xy
x y xy
sin cos sin cos Y sin
cos sin cos sin Y cos
cos sin cos sin Y cos
α θ θ θ θ θ
β θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ
= −∈ +∈ −
= −∈ − +∈ − −
=∈ −∈ −
2
2
2
( )
x y
xy
nt
Y
Y
sin cos θ θ
∈ −∈
= − + 2 2
2 2 2
x xy
xy y
Y
Y

(
(

(
¸ ¸
xy
x
xy
y
Y
Y
(

(
(
(

(
¸ ¸
2
2
x xy
xy y
∈ ∈
(
(
∈ ∈
(
¸ ¸
xy
xy
Y
∈ =
2
x xy
xy y
σ τ
τ σ
(
(
(
¸ ¸
x y x y xy
n
Y
cos sin θ θ
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + + 2 2
2 2 2

Solid Mechanics

Principal shears and maximum shear
In plane- principal strains

xy xy
p
x y
/
tan Q
ϒ ∈ →
=
∈ −∈
2 2
2
p p
θ θ − − ⊥
1 2
to each other
, ∈ ∈ ∈ >∈
1 2 1 2

( )
x y
s
xy
s p
tan
/
θ
θ θ π
∈ −∈
= −

= ±
1
2
2
4

s s
θ θ − − ⊥
1 2
to each other

x y
x y I
x y xy
y xy
xy
x y
I
J
I
J
Y
J
σ σ
σ σ τ
+ =
∈ +∈ =
− =
∈∈ −∈ =
| |
∈ ∈ − =
|
\ .
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
x y
max min xy
max
max s
min
min s
or R
Y
Y
θ
θ
∈ −∈
| |
∈ ∈ = ± = ± +∈
|
\ .
=∈ −
=∈ −
1
2
2
2
2
2
2

Solid Mechanics

Mohr’s Circle for strain

3D-strain transformation
xy
x x y y z z xy xy
Y
; ; ; σ σ σ τ →∈ →∈ →∈ =∈ =
2

( )
( )
( )
x xy xz
xy y yz
xz yz z
∈ −∈ ∈ ∈
∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ =
∈ ∈ ∈ −∈
0

, , ∈ ∈ ∈
1 2 3
- ∈ >∈ >∈
1 2 3

* * * * *
s x y
s P Q P R
u v
x y x y
x x
′ ′
∆ = ∆ + ∆
∆ = +
∂ ∂
( ( | | | |
= + ∆ + + ∆ − ∆ + ∆
| |
( (
∂ ∂ \ . \ . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1

x x y y
,Y ,
′ ′ ′ ′
∈ ∈

Solid Mechanics

n
y
. x
x
y u v
x x y
x x x

| |
∈ = + ∆
|

\ .
∆ ∂ ∂
(
| | | |
= + + + ∆ − ∆ − ∆
| |
(
∂ ∂ ∆ \ . \ . ¸ ¸
2
2 2
2 2 2
1
1 1
u u v v
x y x y
x x y y
y
x
x
u v
x y x y
x y
y
x
x
(
| |
| |
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
| |
( + + ∆ + + + ∆ − ∆ − ∆
| |
|
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ \ .
(
\ .
\ .
¸ ¸
=

| |
+ ∆
|

\ .
| |
∂ ∂
| |
+ ∆ + + ∆ − ∆ + ∆
|
|
∂ ∂ \ .
\ .
=

| |
+ ∆
|

\ .
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1 2 1 2
1
1 2 1 2
1

Transformation
x x x x y y y z z z xy x x x y
yz x y x z zx x z x x
n n n n n
n n n n
σ σ σ σ τ
τ τ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
= + + +
+ +
2 2 2

x x x x y x y z x z xy x x x y
yz x y x z zx x z x x
n n n n n
n n n n
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
∈ =∈ +∈ +∈ +∈
+∈ +∈
2 2 2

x y
x y x y
Y
τ
′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
→∈ →
2

xy xy
yz yz
zx zx
τ
τ
τ
→∈
→∈
→∈
x x
y y
z zx
σ
σ
σ
→∈
→∈
→∈

Solid Mechanics

Principal strains:
( )
( )
( )
x x xy y xz z
xy x y y yz z
xz x yz y z z
n n n
n n n
n n n
∈ −∈ +∈ +∈ =
∈ + ∈ −∈ +∈ =
∈ +∈ + ∈ −∈ =
0
0
0

( )
( )
( )
x xy xz
xy y yz
xz yz z
∈ −∈ ∈ ∈
∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ =
∈ ∈ ∈ −∈
0
J J J ∈ − ∈ + ∈− =
3 2
1 1 2 3
0
x y z
J =∈ +∈ +∈
1

x xy
x y x z y z xy yz zx
xy y
y yz
x xz
yz z xz z
J
∈ ∈
=∈ ∈ +∈ ∈ +∈ ∈ −∈ −∈ −∈ +
∈ ∈
∈ ∈
∈ ∈
+
∈ ∈ ∈ ∈
2 2 2
2

x y z xy yz zx x yz y xz
x xy xz
z xy yx y yz
zx zy z
J =∈ ∈ ∈ +∈ ∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ −∈ ∈
∈ ∈ ∈
−∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ ∈
∈ ∈ ∈
2 2
3
2

∈ >∈ >∈
1 2 3

System of linear
homogeneous
equations

Solid Mechanics

( )
( )
x x xy y zx z
xy x y y zy z
x y z
n n n
n n n
n n n
∈ −∈ +∈ +∈ =
∈ + ∈ −∈ +∈ =
+ + =
1
1
2 2 2
0
0
1

x y z
n ,n &n ¬ unique

Decomposition of a strain matrix into state of pure shear +
hydrostatic strain
x xy xz x xy xz
ij yx y yz yx y yz
zx zy z zx zy z
State of pureshear Hydrostatic
( (
∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ ∈

(
( (
(
(
∈ = ∈ ∈ ∈ = ∈ ∈ −∈ ∈ + ∈
( (
¸ ¸ (
( (
∈ (
∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ ∈ −∈
¸ ¸
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
0 0
0 0
0 0
where
x y z
∈ +∈ +∈
∈=
3

J
J
J
=∈ +∈ +∈
=∈ ∈ +∈ ∈ +∈ ∈
=∈ ∈ ∈
1 1 2 3
2 1 2 2 3 3 1
3 1 2 3

Solid Mechanics

Plane strain as a special case of 3D

∈ =
3
0 is also a principal strain
z → is a principal direction
if ; ∈ >∈ ∈ =∈
1 2 1 2
+ve

if ∈
1
+ve, ∈
2
-ve.

if +ve, -ve ∈ ∈
1 2

P & z ′ ′
1
will come closer
to the maximum extent,
so that the included angle
is
max
π
−∈
2

Solid Mechanics

Transformation equations for plane-strain
Given state of strain at a point P.

xx xy
ij
xy yy
Y
E
Y

(
(
=
(
¸ ¸

(
¸ ¸
This also means that

Now what are the strains associated with x , y ′ ′ i.e

x x x y
i j
x y y y
Y
E
Y
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′

(
(
=
(
¸ ¸

(
¸ ¸
This also means that

deformation

Solid Mechanics

Assume that
xx yy
, ∈ ∈ and
x y
Y
′ ′
are +ve
Applying the law of cosines to triangular P* Q* R*
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
xy
x x y x
y xy
P* R* P* R* Q* R* P* R* Q* R*
cos Y
x x y x
y cos Y
π
π

= + −
| |
+
|
\ .
(

∆ +∈ = ∆ +∈ + ∆ +∈ − ∆ +∈ ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
| |
(
∆ +∈ +
|
¸ ¸
\ .
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2
1 1 1 2 1
1
2
x x cosθ

∆ = ∆ and y x sinθ ′ ∆ = ∆
( )
xy xy xy
cos Y sinY Y
π
+ = − ≈ −
2

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( )
x x y
x y xy
x x cos x sin
x sin cos Y
θ θ
θ θ

′ ′ ′ ∆ +∈ = ∆ +∈ + ∆ +∈

− ∆ +∈ +∈ −
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2
1 1 1
2 1 1

Solid Mechanics

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
x x y
x y xy
x x x x y y
xy x y x y
cos sin
sin cos Y
cos sin
sin Y
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ

+∈ = +∈ + +∈
− +∈ +∈ −
+∈ + ∈ = +∈ + ∈ + +∈ + ∈
+ +∈ +∈ +∈ ∈
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
2 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x x y
xy x y
x y
xy
cos sin
Y sin
cos sin
Y sin
θ θ
θ
θ θ
θ
+ ∈ = + ∈ + + ∈
+ +∈ +∈
= + ∈ + + ∈
+
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1
1 2 1 2
2

x x y xy
xy
x x y
cos sin Y sin
Y
cos sin sin
θ θ θ
θ θ θ

+ ∈ = + ∈ + ∈ +
∈ =∈ +∈ +
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
2
2

x y x y xy
x
Y
cos sin θ θ

∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + + 2 2
2 2 2

If
y
Q
π
θ

= + ¬∈
2

x y x y xy
x
Y
cos sin θ θ

∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + + 2 2
2 2 2

x y x y xy
y
Y
cos sin θ θ

∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + − 2 2
2 2 2

x y x y ′ ′
∈ +∈ =∈ +∈ J = =
1
first invariant of strain.

Solid Mechanics

( )
x y xy
x OB
Q
OB x y xy
xy OB x y
Y
Y
Y
π

=
∈ +∈
∈ =∈ = +
∈ =∈ +∈ +
= ∈ − ∈ +∈
4
2 2
2
2

( )
( )
OB x y x y
x y OB x y
OB x y
Y
Y
( )
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′

∈ =∈ +∈ +
= ∈ − ∈ +∈
= ∈ − ∈ +∈
2
2
2 3

x y x y xy
x OB
Q Q
Y
sin cos
π
θ θ
′ ′
= +
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ =∈ = − +
4
2 2
2 2 2
- (4)
Substituting (4) in (3)
( ) ( ) ( )
x y x y x y xy x y
Y sin Y cos θ θ
′ ′
= ∈ +∈ − ∈ −∈ + − ∈ +∈ 2 2
( )
x y x y xy
Y sin Y cos θ θ
′ ′
= − ∈ −∈ + 2 2 (5)
tensorial normal strain
xx
∈ =engineering normal strain
xx yy z
, , =∈ ∈ ∈
tensorial shear strain
( )
xy
xy
Y
Engineeringshear strain| |
∈ =
|
\ .
2 2

Solid Mechanics

( )
xz
xx xy xz
ij xy yy yz
zx zy zz zz
Y
(
| |
∈ ∈ ∈ =
|
(
\ .
(
(
∈ = ∈ ∈ ∈
(
¸ ¸
(
∈ ∈ ∈ =∈
(
¸ ¸
2

( )
x y x y
x xy
x y x y
y xy
x y
x y xy
cos sin
cos sin
sin cos
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ

′ ′
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = + +∈
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
∈ = − −∈
∈ −∈
∈ = − +∈
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2

Components.
- Strain tensors

Solid Mechanics

Problem:
An element of material in plane strain undergoes the
following strains
x y xy
Y
− − −
∈ = × ∈ = × = ×
6 6 6
340 10 110 10 180 10
Show them on sketches of properly oriented elements.
Solution:

x

∈ = − ×
6
340 10 ;
y

∈ = ×
6
110 10 ;
x y
Y

= ×
6
180 10

x

∈ = ×
6
340 10

Solid Mechanics

Problem:
During a test of an airplane wing, the strain gage readings
from a 45

rosette are as follows gage A,

×
6
520 10 ; gage B

×
6
360 10 and gage C

− ×
6
80 10
Determine the principal strains and maximum shear strains
and show them on sketches of properly oriented elements.
Solution:

(1)

x
OB
y

∈ = ×
∈ = ×
∈ = − ×
6
6
6
520 10
360 10
80 10
( )
( )
xy OB x y
Y
− − −

= ∈ − ∈ +∈
= × × − × − ×
= ×
6 6 6
6
2
2 360 10 520 10 80 10
280 10
x y
− −

∈ +∈
× − ×
= = ×
6 6
6
520 10 80 10
220 10
2 2

Solid Mechanics

x y
− −

∈ −∈
× + ×
= = ×
6 6
6
520 10 80 10
300 10
2 2
xy
p
x y
xy
xy
e
tan
Y
θ

× ×
= =
∈ −∈
×
×
∈ = = = ×
6
6
6
6
2
140 10
2
300 10
280 10
140 10
2 2
p
p p
.
. .
θ
θ θ
∴ =
= =
2 25 02
12 51 102 51

( ) ( )
x y x y
xy
or
.
− − −
− −
∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
| |
∈ ∈ = ± +∈
|
\ .
= × ± × + ×
= × ± ×
2
2
1 2
2 2
6 6 6
6 6
2 2
220 10 300 10 140 10
220 10 331 06 10
.
.

∴ ∈ = ×
∈ = − ×
6
1
6
2
551 06 10
111 06 10
( ) ( )
x
.
x y x y
xy
Cos Sin
cos . Sin .
.
θ
θ θ

=
− − −

∈ +∈ ∈ −∈
= + +∈
= × + × × + × ×
= ×
12 51
6 6 6
6
2 2
2 2
220 10 300 10 2 12 51 140 10 2 12 51
551 06 10

Solid Mechanics

p
. θ =
1
12 51 and
p
. θ =
2
102 51

(b) In- plane maximum shear strains are

x y
xy xy
max xy
min
or
.

∈ −∈
| |
∈ ∈ = ± +∈
|
\ .
= ± ×
2
2
6
2
331 06 10
( )
( )
xy
max
xy
min
.
.

∈ = ×
∈ = − ×
6
6
331 06 10
331 06 10
( )
x y
s
xy
tan Q
.

∈ −∈
− ×
= − =

×
6
6
300 10
2
2
140 10
s
s s
Q .
Q . Q .
=
= − =
2 64 98
32 5 57 5

( )
( ) ( )
x y
x y xy
Q .
Sin . Cos .
. . .
′ ′
=
− − −
∈ −∈
∈ = − +∈
= − × − × = ×
57 5
6 6 6
2 57 5 2 57 5
2
271 89 10 59 17 10 331 06 10

Solid Mechanics

and

s
. θ = −
1
32 5

s
. θ = −
2
32 5

x y

∈ +∈
∈= = ×
6
220 10
2
min
max
Y .
Y .

= − ×
= ×
6
6
662 11 10
662 11 10

Solid Mechanics

10. Stress strain diagrams
• Bar or rod – the longitudinal direction is considerably
greater than the other two, namely the dimensions of
cross section.
• For the design of the m/c components we need to
understand about “mechanical behavior” of the
materials.
• We need to conduct experiments in laboratory to
observe the mechanical behavior.
• The mathematical equations that describe the
mechanical behavior is known as “constitutive
equations or laws”
• Many tests to observe the mechanical behavior- tensile
test is the most important and fundamental test- as we
gain or get lot of information regarding mechanical
behavior of metals
• Tensile test Tensile test machine, tensile test specimen,
extensometer, gage length, static test-slowly varying
Stress -strain diagrams
After performing a tension or compression tests and
determining the stress and strain at various magnitudes of
load, we can plot a diagram of stress Vs strain.

Solid Mechanics

Such is a characteristic of the particular material being tested
and conveys important information regarding mechanical
behavior of that metal.
We develop some ideas and basic definitions using σ −∈
curve of the mild steel.
Structural steel = mild steel = 0.2% carbon=low carbon steel

Region O-A
(1) σ and ∈ linearly proportional.
(2) A- Proportional limit

p
σ - proportionality is maintained.
(3) Slope of AO = modulus of elasticity “E” – N/m
2
,Pa
(4) Strains are infinites ional.
f o
o
L L
L

∈=

Solid Mechanics

Region A-B
(1) Strain increases more rapidly than σ
(2) Elastic in this range
Proportionality is lost.

Region B-C
(1) The slope at point B is horizontal.
(2) At this point B, ∈ increases without increase in further
(3) This phenomenon is known as yielding
(4) The point B is said to be yield points, the corresponding
stress is yield stress
ys
σ of the steel.
(5) In region B-C material becomes “perfectly plastic i.e
which means that it deforms without an increase in the
(6) Elongation of steel specimen or ∈ in the region BC is
typically 10 to 20 times the elongation that occurs in region
OA.
(7)
s
∈ below the point A are said to be small, and
s
∈ above A
are said to be large.
(8)
s A
∈ <∈ are said to be elastic strains and
A
∈>∈ are said to
be plastic strains = large strains = deformations are
permanent.

Solid Mechanics

Region C-D
(1)The steel begins to “strain harden” at “C” . During strain
hardening the material under goes changes in its crystalline
structure, resulting in increased resistance to the
deformation.
(2)Elongation of specimen in this region requires additional
∴ σ −∈ diagram has + ve slope C to D.
(3) The load reaches maximum value – ultimate stress.
(4)The yield stress and ultimate stress of any material is also
known as yield strength and the ultimate strength .
(5)
u
σ is the highest stress the component can take up.
Region-DE
Further stretching of the bar is needed less force than
ultimate force, and finally the component breaks into two
parts at E.

Solid Mechanics

Look of actual stress strain diagrams
CtoE BtoC Oto A
∈ >∈ >∈
(1) Strains from O to A are
so small in comparison to the
strains from A to E that they
cannot be seen.
(2) The presence of well defined
yield point and subsequent large
plastic strains are characteristics of mild – steel.
(3) Metals such a structural steel that undergo large
permanent strains before failure are classified as ductile
metals.
Ex. Steel, aluminum, copper, nickel, brass, bronze,
Aluminum alloys – Offset method
(1) They do not have clear cut yield point.
(2) They have initial straight line portion with clear
proportional limit.
(3) All does not have obvious
yield point, but undergoes
large permanent strains after
proportional limit.
(4) Arbitrary yield stress is

Solid Mechanics

determined by off- set method.
(5) Off-set yield stress is not material property
Elasticity & Plasticity
(1) The property of a material by which it (doesn’t) returns to
elasticity and the material is said to be elastic (plastic).

(2) For most of the metals proportional limit = elastic limit.
(3) For practical purpose proportional limit = elastic limit =
yield stress
(4 )All metals have some amount of straight line portion.

Solid Mechanics

Brittle material in tension

(1) Materials that fail in tension at relatively low values of
strain are classified or brittle materials.
(2) Brittle materials fail with only little elongation (elastic)
after the proportional limit.
(3)Fracture stress = Ultimate stress for brittle materials
(4)Up to B, i.e fracture strains are elastic.
(5)No plastic deformation in case of brittle materials.
Ex. Concrete, stone, cast iron, glass, ceramics
Ductile metals under compression

Solid Mechanics

(1) σ −∈ curves in compression differ from σ −∈ in tension.
(2)For ductile materials, the proportional limit and the initial
portion of the σ −∈ curve is same in tension and
compression.
(3)After yielding starts the behavior is different for tension
and compression.
(4)In tension after yielding – specimen elongates – necking
and fractures or rupture. In compression – specimen bulges
out- with increasing load the specimen is flattened out and
offers greatly increased resistance.
Brittle materials in compression

(1)Curves are similar both in tension and compression
(2)The proportional limit and ultimate stress i.e fracture
stress are different.
(3)In case of compression both are greater than tension case
(4)Brittle material need not have linear portion always they
can be non-linear also.

Solid Mechanics

11. Generalized Hooke’s Law

(1) A material behaves elastically and also exhibits a linear
relationship between σ and ∈ is said to be linearly elastic.
(2) All most all engineering materials are linearly elastic up
to their corresponding proportional limit.
(3) This type of behavior is extremely important in
engineering – all structures designed to operate within this
region.
(4) Within this region, we know that either in tension or
compression
E
Stressinparticular direction straininthat dir. X E
σ = ∈
=

E =Modulus of elasticity –Pa,N / m
2

= Young’s modulus of elasticity.
(5)
x x
E σ = ∈ or
y y
E σ = ∈
(6) E σ = ∈ is known as Hooke’s law.
(7) Hooke’s law is valid up to the proportional limit or
within the linear elastic zone.

Solid Mechanics

Poisson’s ratio
When a prismatic bar is loaded in tension the axial
elongation is accompanied by lateral contraction.
Lateral contraction or lateral strain

f o
o
d d
d

∈= this comes out to be –ve
( )
lateral strain
Poisson's ratio = nu
axial strain
is perpendicular to
ν

−∈
=− =

∈ ∈

If a bar is under tension ∈ +ve, ′ ∈ -ve and ν = +
If a bar is under compression ∈ -ve, ′ ∈ +ve and ν = +
ν =always +ve = material constant
For most metals . to . s ν = 0 25 0 35
Concrete . to . ν = 0 1 0 2
Rubber . ν = 0 5
ν is same for tension and compression
ν is constant within the linearly elastic range.

Solid Mechanics

Hooks law in shear
(1)To plot ,Y τ the test is twisting
of hollow circular tubes

(2) ,Y τ diagrams are (shape of them) similar in shape to
tension test diagrams
( )
Vs σ ∈ for the same material,
although they differ in magnitude.
(3)From Y τ − diagrams also we can obtain material
properties proportional limit, modulus of elasticity, yield
stress and ultimate stress.
(4)Properties are usually ½ of the tension properties.
(5)For many materials, the initial part o the shear stress
diagram is a st. line through the origin just in case of tension.
GY τ = - Hooke’s law in shear
G =Shear modulus of elasticity or modulus of rigidity.
Pa or N / m s =
2

Proportional limit
Elastic limit
Yield stress
Ultimate stress
Material properties
τ
ϒ
Proportional limit
G
1
Yield point

Solid Mechanics

E, v, and G → material properties – elastic constants - elastic
properties.
Basic assumptions solid mechanics
Fundamental assumptions of linear theory of elasticity are:
(a) The deformable body is a continuum
(b) The body is homogeneous
(c) The body is linearly elastic
(d) The body is isotropic
(e) The body undergoes small deformations.
Continuum
Completely filling up the region of space with matter it
occupies with no empty space.
Because of this assumption quantities like
( )
( )
( )
u u x, y, z
x, y, z
x, y, z
σ σ
=
=
∈=∈

Homogeneous
Elastic properties do not vary from point to point. For non-
homogenous body
( )
( )
( )
E E x, y, z
v v x, y, z
G G x, y, z
=
=
=

Solid Mechanics

Linearly elastic
Material follows Hooke’s law

E
GY
v Constant
σ
τ
= ∈
=
=

Isotropic
Material properties are same in all directions at a point in the
body

E C for all
C for all
G C for all
θ
ν θ
θ
=
=
=
1
2
3

The meaning is that
x x
y y
E
E
σ
σ
= ∈
= ∈

The material that is not isotropic is anisotropic
( )
( )
( )
E E
G G
θ
ν ν θ
θ
=
=
=

The meaning is that
x x
y y
E
E
E E
σ
σ
= ∈
= ∈

1
2
1 2

Solid Mechanics

Small deformations
(a) The displacements must be small
(b) The strains must also be small
Generalized Hooke’s law for isotropic material
We know the following quantities from the tension and
shear testing.

E
Tensiletest
v
σ = ∈
¹
¦

∈ `
= −
¦
) ∈

GY τ = - Shear test or torsion test.

What are the stress –strain relation for an element subjected
to 3D state of stress. i.e what is the generalized Hooke’s law.
Hooke’s law – when only one stress is acting
Generalized Hooke’s law – when more than one stress acting
We assume that
Material is linearly elastic, Homogeneous, Continuum,
undergoing small deformations and isotropic.
For an isotropic material the following are true
(1)Normal stress can only generate normal strains.
- Normal stresses for reference xyz cannot produce Y of this
reference

Solid Mechanics

(2)A shear stress say
xy
τ can only produce the corresponding
shear strain
xy
Y in the same coordinate system.
Principal of superposition:
This principle states that the effect of a given combined loading on
a structure can be obtained by determining separately the effects of
the various loads individually and combining the results obtained,
provided the following conditions are satisfied.
(1)Each effect is linearly related to the load that produces it.
(2)The deformations must be small.

Solid Mechanics

Let us know consider only
x
σ is applied to the element.
From Hooke’s we can write

x
x
x
y
x
z
E
v
E
v
E
σ
σ
σ
∈ =
∈ = −
∈ = −

Solid Mechanics

Only
y
σ applied

y
y
y
x
y
z
E
v
E
v
E
σ
σ
σ
∈ =
∈ = −
∈ = −

Similarly,
z
σ alone is applied

z
z
z
x
z
y
E
v
E
v
E
σ
σ
σ
∈ =
∈ = −
∈ = −

Contribution to
x
∈ due to all three normal stresses is
y
x
x
v
v
E E E
σ
σ σ
∈ = − −
3

( )
( )
( )
x x y z
y y x z
x z x y
Therefore
v
E
v
E
v
E
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
1
1
1

Normal strains are not affected by shear stresses

Solid Mechanics

Now let us apply only
xy
τ
xy
xy
Y
G
τ
=

Similarly because of
yz xz
and τ τ
yz
yz
xz
xz
Y
G
Y
G
τ
τ
=
=

Therefore, when all six components of stresses and strains
are acting on an infinitesimal element or at a point then the
relation between six components of stresses and strains is
( )
( )
( )
x x y z
y y x z
x z x y
xy
xy
yz
yz
xz
xz
v
E
v
E
v
E
Y
G
Y
G
Y
G
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
τ
τ
τ
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − +
¸ ¸
=
=
=
1
1
1

These six equations are known as generalized Hooke’s law for
isotropic materials.

Solid Mechanics

Matrix representation of generalized Hooke’s law for
isotropic materials is therefore,
x x
y y
z z
xy xy
yz yz
xz xz
v v
E E E
v v
E E E
v v
E E E
Y
G
Y
Y
G
G
σ
σ
σ
τ
τ
τ
− −
(
(
(
− −
∈ (
¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
− −
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
=
´ ` ´ `
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
(
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ) ¹ )
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1
0 0 0
1
0 0 0
1
0 0 0
1
0 0 0 0 0
1
0 0 0 0 0
1
0 0 0 0 0

Stress components in terms of strains
( ) ( )
( )
x y z x y z x y z
x y z
v
s
E E
v
e
E
σ σ σ σ σ σ
σ σ σ
∈ +∈ +∈ = + + − + +

(
= + +
(
¸ ¸
1 2
1 2

x y z
e ∈ +∈ +∈ =
( )
x x x y z
v v
E
σ σ σ σ
(
∈ = − − +
¸ ¸
1

( )
x x y z x
v v
E
σ σ σ σ σ
(
= − + + +
¸ ¸
1

( )
( )
x x y z
v v
E
σ σ σ σ
(
= + − + +
¸ ¸
1
1

Solid Mechanics

( )
( )
( )
( )
x
veE
v
E v
v ve
E v
σ
σ
(
= + −
(

¸ ¸
× +
= −

1
1
1 2
1
1 2

x x
ve E
v v
σ
(
∴ = ∈ +
(
− + ¸ ¸ 1 2 1

E
v
µ =
+ 1
(mu) where
( )( )
Ev
v v
λ =
+ − 1 1 2

,
λ µ are Lames constants
x x
y y
z z
xy xy xy
xy yz yz
xy zx zx
e
e
e
Y G Y
Y G Y
Y G Y
σ λ µ
σ λ µ
σ λ µ
τ µ
τ µ
τ µ
= +∈
= +∈
= +∈
= =
= =
= =
2
2
2

Lame’s constants have no physical meaning
Stress-strain relations for plane stress

Solid Mechanics

( )
( )
( )
x x
y y
xy xy
z yz zx
x, y
x, y
x, y
σ σ
σ
τ τ
σ τ τ
=
=∈
=
= = = 0

( )
( )
( ) ( )
x x y
y y x
z x y x y
xy
xy
yz xz
v
E
v
E
v v
E v
Y
G
Y Y
σ σ
σ σ
σ σ
τ
∈ = −
∈ = −

∈ = − + = ∈ +∈

=
= =
1
1
1
0

Stress- strain relations for plane strain
( )
( )
( )
x x
y y
xy xy
xz yz
x y
x, y
x, y
Y Y x, y
Y Y
e
∈ =∈
∈ =∈
=
∈ = = =
=∈ +∈
3
0

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x x x
y y y
z x y z
x y
e x, y
e x, y
v x, y
v e e
ve
v
σ λ µ σ
σ λ µ σ
σ σ σ σ
λ µ
λ µ
λ µ
= + ∈ =
= + ∈ =
= − + =
= − +
= − +
= − + ∈ +∈
2
2
2

xy xy
xz yz
GY τ
τ τ
=
= = 0

Solid Mechanics

• Therefore, the stress transformation equations for plane
stress can also be used for the stresses in plane strain.
• The transformation laws for plane strain can also be
used for the strains in plane stress.
z
∈ does not effect
geometrical relationships used in derivation.
Example of Generalized Hooke’s law

Principal stress and strain directions of
isotropic materials
τ is zero along those planes,
therefore Y is also zero along these planes
i.e normal strains of the element are
principal strains. For isotropic materials -
the principal strains and
principal stresses occurs in the same direction.
σ λ µ
(
∈ = − − ∈
¸ ¸
x x y
v e v
E
1
σ σ =
x y
2
σ σ
σ λ µ
σ σ
σ λ µ
(
∈ = −
¸ ¸
= + ∈
(
∈ = −
¸ ¸
= + ∈
x x y
x x
y y x
y y
v
E
e
v
E
e
1
1
σ σ = −
x y
σ σ
σ
(
∈ = +
¸ ¸
+
| |
=
|
\ .
x x y
x
v
E
v
E
1
1

Solid Mechanics

12. Volumetric strain and Bulk modulus
Relation between E, andG ν
( )
( )
xy
xy
v
E
v
E
σ τ σ σ
σ τ σ σ
= ∈ = −
= − ∈ = −
1 1 1 2
2 2 2 1
1
1

( )
( )
( )
xy
xy xy
xy
xy xy
xy
xy
v
v
E E
v
E
Y
G
G
τ
τ τ
τ
τ
τ
+
∈ = + =
− +
∈ =
∈ =∈ = =

∈ =
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2 2
2

( )
xy xy
v
E G
τ τ +
= ¬
1
2

( )
E
G
v
=
+ 2 1

Only two elastic constants are independent.

Solid Mechanics

Volumetric strain-dilatation
Consider a stress element size dx,dy,dz
dv dxdydz =
After deformations
( )
( )
( )
*
x
*
y
*
z
dx dx
dy dy
dz dz
= +∈
= +∈
= +∈
1
1
1

In addition to the changes of length of the sides, the element
also distorts so that right angles no longer remain sight
angles. For simplicity consider only
xy
Y .
The volume
*
dv of the deformed element is then given by
( )
* * * * *
dv Area OA B C dz = ×
( ) ( )
* * * * *
xy
* *
xy
Area OA B C dx dy CosY
dx dy CosY
=
=

* * * *
xy
dv dx dy dz CosY ∴ =
For small
xy xy
Y CosY ≈ 1
( )
( )
( )
* * * *
x y z
dv dx dy dz Volumechange doesn't dependonY
dxdydz
∴ = −
= +∈ +∈ +∈ 1 1 1

dropping all second order infinitesimal terms

Solid Mechanics

( )
*
x y z
dv dxdydz = +∈ +∈ +∈ 1
Now, analogous to normal strain, we define the measure of
volumetric strain as

final volume-initial volume
Volumetric strain
initialvolume
=
*
dv dv
e
dv

=
x y z
e =∈ +∈ +∈
• e =volumetric strain = dilatation. This expression is
valid only for infinitesimal strains and rotations

x y z
e J first invariance of strain. =∈ +∈ +∈ = =
1

• Volumetric strain is scalar quantity and does not
depend on orientation of coordinate system.
• Dilatation is zero for state of pure shear.
Bulk modulus of elasticity
( )
( )
x y z x y z
v
E
σ σ σ

∈ +∈ +∈ = + +
1 2

Mean stress
( )
x y z
σ σ σ σ = = + +
1
3

( ) v
e
E
σ

=
3 1 2

Ke σ =

Solid Mechanics

Where
( )
E
K
v
=
− 3 1 2
bulk modulus of elasticity.
• Bulk modulus is widely used in fluid mechanics.
• From physical reasoning E ,G ,K > > ≥ 0 0 0
Steel : E = 200 Gpa
v = 0.3
Al : E = 70 Gpa
v = 0.33
Copper: E = 100 Gpa
v = 0.35
( )
( )
E
G SinG Eand G
v
v v
= >
+
+ > → > −
0
2 1
1 0 1

Similarly SinG E & K > ≥ 0 0
( )
E
K v v .
v
= → − ≥ → ≤

1 2 0 0 5
3 1 2

∴ Theoretical bounds on v are
v . − < ≤ 1 0 5
asv . K α → → 0 5 and 0 C → material is incompressible.

Solid Mechanics

Solid Mechanics

Geometry, locating and material properties
• A prismatic bar is a st. structural member having
constant cross-section through out it length.
• Bar or rod →length of the member is > cross sectional
dimensions.

Axial force is a load directed along the axis of the member –
can create tension or compression in the member.
Typical cross sections of the members

- Solid Sections
- Hollow Sections

Solid Mechanics

Material properties: The member is homogenous linearly
elastic and isotropic material.
Stresses, strains and deformations
Consider a prismatic bar of constant cross-sectional area A
and length L, with material properties A & v. Let the rod be
subjected to an axial force “p”, which acts along x-axis.

x y z
y z
F P
M M M
V V
=
= = =
= =
0
0

The right of the section m-m exerts elementary forces or
stresses on to the left of the section to maintain the
equilibrium. Sum of all these elementary forces must be
equal to the resultant F.
- Other sections

Solid Mechanics

x
A
y x
z x
dA F
M zdA
M ydA
σ
σ
σ
=
= =
= − =
}
}
}
0
0

Above equation must be satisfied at every cross-section,
however, it does not tell how
x
σ is distributed in the cross-
section.
The distribution cannot determine by the methods of static
or equations of equilibrium- statically indeterminate
To know about the distribution of
x
σ in any given section, it is
necessary to consider the deformations resulting from the
Since the body needs to develop only
x
σ component in order
to maintain equilibrium, therefore the state of stress at any
point of prismatic rod is

x
ij
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

Solid Mechanics

We make the following assumptions on deformation based
on experimental evidence
(1)The axis of the bar remains straight after
deformation
(2)All plane cross-sections remain plane and
perpendicular to the axis of the bar
Key
kinematical
assumptions

• As a result of the above kinematic assumptions all
points in a given y-z plane have the same displacements
in the x-direction.
• Any line segment AB undergoes same strain
x
∈ therefore
x
∈ cannot be a function of y or z, but at most is a function
of x- only.
In the present case situation is same at all cross-sections of
the prismatic bar, therefore
x
Constant ∈ =
at all points of the body i.e
x
∈ is also no a function of x.

Solid Mechanics

Since we are studying a homogenous, linearly elastic and
isotropic prismatic bar

( )
( )
( )
x x y z
y y x z
z z x y
v
E
v
E
v
E
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − − →
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − − →
¸ ¸
(
∈ = − − →
¸ ¸
1
1
1

In the present case,
x
∈ is independent of y and z coordinates,
therefore
x
σ is also independent of y and z coordinates i.e
x
σ is uniformly distributed in a cross-section

Moreover throughout the bar.
We know that internal resultant force
x
A
F dA σ =
}

Since
x
σ is a independent of y & z
x
x
y x
z x
E
V
E
V
E
σ
σ
σ
∈ =
∈ = −
∈ = −
x x
E Constant σ = ∈ =

Solid Mechanics

A
F da A σ σ = =
}

F P
A A
σ = =
y x
A A
z x
A A
M .zdA zdA
M .ydA ydA
σ
σ
= = ¬ =
= − = ¬ =
} }
} }
0 0
0 0
(1)
Eq. (1) indicates that moment are taken about the centroid of
the cross-section.
Elongation or Contraction

x
x
P
E AE
σ
∈ = =
Total elongation of the rod
( ) ( )
L L
x
P PL
u L u da dx
AE AE
δ − = = ∈ = =
} }
0 0
0

Solid Mechanics

x
P
A
PL
AE
AE Axial rigidity
σ
δ
=
=
=

If A,E and P are functions of x then
( )
( ) ( )
L
P x
dx
A x E x
δ =
}
0

Stiffness and flexibility

These are useful in computer analysis of structural members.

k
f
=
1
AE
k
L
=
L
f
AE
=
P kS
S fP
=
=

Solid Mechanics

Extension of results: Non-uniform bars (non-prismatic)
For a prismatic bar

This is exact solution for prismatic bar.

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
x
L
P x F x
A x A x
P x
S dx
A x E x
Approximate expression
σ = =
=
}
0

The above formula becomes a good approximation for
uniformly varying cross-sectional area ( ) A x member.
Above formula is quite satisfactory if the angle of taper is
small
Plane sections remain plane and perpendicular to the x- axis
is no longer valid for the case of non-prismatic rods.

x
P PL
&
A AE
σ δ = =

Solid Mechanics

( ) ( )
x x yx
F b y b x Σ σ τ = ¬ ∆ − ∆ = 0 0
( )
xy yx x
y
x . s
x
τ τ σ

= =

Taking x ∆ →0, we note that
yx
τ →0 only if
y
x

0 i.e at the
slope of the upper surface of the rod tends to zero.

Solid Mechanics

Case2

( )
A B
BC
A
AB
P P L PL
AE A E
PL P L
AE A E
δ
δ
− +
= =

= =
2
2 2
1
1 1

( )
A B
BC
AB A
P P
A
P / A
σ
σ
+
= −
= −
2
1

CA BC AB
S S δ = +
This method can be used when a bar consists of several
prismatic segments each having different material, each
having different axial forces, different dimensions and
different materials. The change in length may be obtained
from the equation
n
i i i
i
i i i
i
PL P
and
A E A
δ σ
=
= =
¿
1

Solid Mechanics

Statically indeterminate problems
Equilibrium
y
a a s
F
F F F P
Σ
(
=
¸ ¸
+ + − =
1 2
0
0

[ ]
C
a a
M
bF bF
Σ =
− =
1 2
0
0

(1)

For statically indeterminate problems we
must consider the deformation of the
entire system to obtain “compatibility
equation”
The rigid plate must be horizontal
after deformation

s A
geometric compatibility equation δ δ = ¬
s s A A
s A
s s A A
F L F L
and
A E E A
δ δ = =
Then using the geometry compatibility
(2)

a a
F F =
1 2
a s
F F P + = 2
s A
δ δ = ¬
A A s As
A A s s
F L F L
E A E A
=

Solid Mechanics

By solving (1) & (2) we can obtain internal forces
s
F &
A
F

Uniaxial state stress is a special case of plane stress
x
ij
σ
σ
(
(
=
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
0
0 0

x
x
max
σ σ
σ σ
τ
=
= =
1
1
2 2

Occurs at 45

to x y − or x z − planes.

Solid Mechanics

A−Principal stress elements
B,C −maximum shear stress elements.

Ductile material are weak in shear. They fail along
max
τ
planes.

Brittle materials weak in normal tensile stresses. They fail
along σ
1
planes.
Limitations of analysis
x
P PL
& S
A AE
σ = =
(1)They are exact for long prismatic bars of any cross-section,
when axial force is applied at the centroid of the end cross-
sections.

Solid Mechanics

(2)They should not be employed (especially
x
P
A
σ = ) at
concentrated loads and in the regions of geometric
discontinuity.
(3)They provide good approximation if the taper is small.
(4)Above equations should not be applied for the case of
relatively short rods.
(5)They are exact for relatively short members under

Solid Mechanics

Stress concentrations
• High stresses are known as stress concentrations
• Sources of stress concentrations- stress raisers
• Stress concentrations are due to :
(2)Geometric discontinuities
Stress concentration due to concentrated loads

max
ave
nom
Stress concentration factor=K
P
bt
σ
σ
σ
=
=

Solid Mechanics

Stress concentration due to hole
Discontinuities of cross section may result in high localized
or concentrated stresses.

max
nom
nom
P
K
dt
K Stressconcentration factor
σ
σ
σ
= =
=

Solid Mechanics

Stress Concentration due to fillet

max
ave
ave
P
K
dt
σ
σ
σ
= =

Solid Mechanics

14. Torsion of circular bars
A prismatic bar of circular cross- section subjected to equal
and opposite torques acting at the ends.

Whenever torques act on a member, then it will be twisted.
Torsion refers to the twisting of a straight bar when it is
Material: Homogeneous, linearly elastic, and isotropic
undergoing small deformations.
Presently theory is valid only for

Stresses and strains in polar coordinates
Stresses, strains and displacements in polar coordinates.
Since we are dealing with a circular member it is preferable
to use polar coordinates

Solid Mechanics

r r rx
ij r x
xr x x
θ
θ θ θ
θ
σ τ τ
σ τ σ τ
τ τ σ
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸

( )
( )
( )
x x r
r r x
x r x
rQ
x rx
r x x xr rx
v
E
v
E
v
E
Y ; Y Y ; Y Y
G G G
θ
θ
θ
θ θ θ
σ σ σ
σ σ σ
σθ σ σ
τ
τ τ
∈ = − + (
¸ ¸
∈ = − + (
¸ ¸
∈ = − + (
¸ ¸
= = = = =
1
1
1

Equilibrium and elementary forces

Since every cross-section of the bar is identical and since every
cross-section is subjected to the same internal torque “T”, then the
bar is said to be under “pure torsion”
To keep the body under
equilibrium, elementary forces
x
dF dA
θ
τ = are only forces that are
required to be exerted by the other
section, so that
x y z y z
x
F V V M M
M T T
= = = = =
= =
0
0

Solid Mechanics

(1)

Direction of

τ can be obtained from the direction of
internal torque T at that section.
The state of stress in pure torsion is therefore

While the relation in (1) express an important condition that
must be satisfied by the shearing stresses
xQ
τ in any given
cross-section of the bar it does not tell how these stresses are
distributed in the cross-section.
The actual distribution of stresses under a given load is
statically indeterminate. So we must know about the
deformation of the bar.
Presence of

τ in polar coordinates means, presence of
xy xQ
xz xQ
Cos
Sin
τ τ θ
τ τ θ
=
=

x
x
A
dT dF r rdA
T rdA
T T
θ
θ
σ
τ
= × =
=
=
}
0
x
x
θ
θ
τ
τ
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0 0
0 0
0 0

Solid Mechanics

Therefore the state of stress in case pure torsion in terms of
rectangular stress components is then
xy xz
yx
zx
τ τ
τ
τ
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
0
0 0
0 0
- state of pure shear.
We must then ensure that

Deformation in pure torsion

Following observations can be made from the deformation of
a circular bar subjected to equal and opposite end torques.
(1)The cross-sections of the bar do not change in shape i.e
they remain circular.
(2)A line parallel to the x- axis or longitudinal line become a
helical curve.
(3)All cross-sections remain plane.
(4)All cross-sections rotate about the axis of the bar as a solid
rigid slab.
y xy
z xz
V dA
V dA
τ
τ
= =
= =
}
}
0
0

Solid Mechanics

(5)However, various cross-sections along the bar rotate
through different amount.
(7)Neither the length of the bar nor the length of radius will
change.
These are especially of circular bars only. Not true for non-
circular bars.
Assumptions on deformation for pure torsion
(1)All cross –sections rotate with respect to the axis of the
circular bar i.e x-axis.
(2)All cross-sections remain plane and remain perpendicular
to the axis of the bar.
(3)Radial lines remain straight after the deformation.
(4)Neither the length of the bar nor its radius will change
during the deformation.
These assumptions are correct only if the circular bar
undergoes “small deformations” only.
Variation of shear strain (
x
Y
θ
)

Because of T
0
, the right
end will rotate through
an infinitesimal angle

φ - angle of twist.

Solid Mechanics

*φ - varies along the axis of the bar.
angle of twist per unit length.

xQ
Y dx Ydx rdφ = =

d
dx
φ
= − ¸ rate of twist
xQ
Y is independent of x and
d
Y r
dx
φ
=

Solid Mechanics

In case of pure torsion the shear strain Y varies linearly with
“r”
Maximum shear strain Y occurs at the outer surface of the
circular bar i.e., r R =

Shear strain is zero at the center of the bar.
The equation
d
Y r
dx
φ
= is strictly valid to circular bars having
small deformations.
If the material is linearly elastic

Therefore, variation of shear stress
xQ
τ in pure torsion is
given by

Shear stress τ is only function of “r” and varies linearly with
radius r of the circular bar.

max
d
Y R
dx
φ
=
GY τ =
xQ xQ
d
GY GY
dx
φ
τ τ = = =
max
max xQ
d
RG
dx
φ
τ τ = =

Solid Mechanics

The torsion formula
Relation between internal torque T and shear stressτ

A
T rdA
d
T Gr rdA
dx
τ
φ
=
=
}
}

Since G &
d
dx
φ
are independent of area A then
A
d
T G r dA
dx
φ
=
}
2

For solid circular bar,
P
d
T GI
dx
φ
∴ =

But
d
Gr
dx
φ
τ =
P
T
Gr GI
τ
=

P
A
I r dA
Polar moment of inertiaof across sec tion
=

}
2
P
I D
π
=
4
32
P
I R
π
=
4
2
P
d T
dx GI
φ
= = ¸
P
Tr
I
Torsion formula
τ =

Solid Mechanics

This is the relation between shear stresses
xQ
τ and torque T
existing at the section.
Torsion formula is independent of material property.

Angles of twist
We now determine the relative rotation of any two cross-
sections

P
d T
dx GI
φ
= = ¸

max
max xQ
P
TR
I
τ τ = =
max
T
D
for solidcircular bars
τ
π
=
3
16
B
A
x
B / A B A
P
x
T
dx
GI
φ φ φ = − =
}

Solid Mechanics

In case of prismatic circular bar subjected to equal opposite
torques at the ends

Direction of φ at a section is same as that of T

Since
P
d T
dx GI
φ
= = ¸ then, in case of pure torsion.

Thus in case of pure torsion ( ) x φ varies linearly with x
In case of torsion

The product
displacement
P
GI −Torsional rigidity
B / A B A
P
B A
TL
n
GI
if x x L
puretorsion
φ φ φ = − =
− =
P P
TL T L
GI GI
φ = =
0
d
constant
dx L
φ φ
= = = ¸
P
TL
GI
φ =
P
P
GI L
k ; f
L GI
= =

Solid Mechanics

xy xQ
xz xQ
Cos
Sin
τ τ θ
τ τ θ
=
=

We should ensure that distribution of
xQ
τ should also gives
y z
V V = = 0
y xy x
A A
R
y
P
R
P
V dA Cos dA
Tr
V Cos drd
I
T
rCos drd
I
θ
π
π
τ τ θ
θ θ
θ θ
= =
=
= =
} }
} }
} }
2
0 0
2
0 0
0

R
z
P
T
V rSin drd
I
π
θ θ = =
} }
2
0 0
0

Hollow circular bars: The deformation of hollow circular
bars and solid circular bars are same. The key kinematic
assumptions are valid for any circular bar, either solid or
hollow. Therefore all equations of solid circular bars can be
employed for hollow circular bars, instead of using
y
V = 0

z
V = 0 ∴

Solid Mechanics

Hollow bars are move efficient than solid bars of same “A”.
• Most of the material in soild shaft is stressed below the
maximum stress and also have smaller moment arm “r”.
• In hollow tube most of the material is near the outer
boundary, where τ is maximum values and has large
moment arms “r”.

( )
P
P
o i
Tr
I
I D solid
D D hollow
τ
π
π
=
= −
= − −
4
4 4
32
32

( )
P
P o i
I D Soild
I D D hollow
π
π
= −
= − −
4
4 4
32
32
o
max
P
i
min
P
TR
I
TR
I
τ
τ
=
=

Solid Mechanics

o
max
P P
i
min
P
TR TR
;
I I
TR
I
τ
τ
=
=

( )
Y
G
,Y f r
τ
τ
=

P
d T
dx GI
φ
= = ¸
B A
B / A
P
B A
TL
GI
L x x
constant
linearly withx
φ φ φ
φ
= − =
= −
=
=
¸

(4) If weight reduction and savings of materials are
important, it is advisable to use a circular tube.
(5) Ex large drive shafts, propeller shafts, and generator
shafts usually have hollow circular cross sections.
Extension of results
Case-I Bar with continuously varying cross-sections and
continuously varying torque
• Pure torsion refers to torsion of prismatic bar subjected
to torques acting only at the ends.

Solid Mechanics

• All expressions are developed based on the key
kinematic assumptions, these are therefore, strictly valid
only for prismatic circular bars.

The above equations yield good approximations to the exact
solution, provide if ( ) R x doesn’t vary sharply with x.

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
B
A
P
P
x
B A B / A
P
x
T x r
x
I x
T x d
x
dx GI x
T x
dx
GI x
τ
φ
φ φ φ
=
= =
− = =
}
¸

Solid Mechanics

Some special cases

( )
( )
( )
( )
P
P
Tr
x
I x
T
x
GI x
τ =
= ¸

( )
( )
( )
( )
P
P
T x r
x
I
T x
x
GI
τ =
= ¸

Case II

i
i i
i
P
T r
I
τ =
i
n
i i
B / A
i P
i
T L
G I
φ
=
=
¿
1

Solid Mechanics

Statically indeterminate problems

(1)
We note that within
A
AB, T T = and
within
C
BC T T =
• To solve the problem we must consider geometry of
deformation to formulate the compatibility equation.
• Clearly the rotation of section B with respect to A must
be same as that with respect to C i.e

AB BC
A AB C BC
B / A B / C
AB P BC P
T L T L
;
G I G I
φ φ = =
(2)

A C
T T T + + = 0
[ ]
x
M Σ = 0
B / A B / C
Compatibility equation
φ φ =
AB BC
A AB C BC
AB P BC P
T L T L
G I G I
=

Solid Mechanics

Stresses in pure torsion

If a torsion bar is made up of brittle material, which is
generally weak in tension, failure will occur in tension along
a helix inclined at 45

to the axis.
Ductile materials generally fail in shear. When subjected to
torsion, a ductile circular bar breaks along a plane
perpendicular to its longitudinal axis or x – axis.

Solid Mechanics

x
P
A
σ =
Torsion testing m/c

Solid Mechanics

Principal of
superposition
max
P
TR
I
τ =
x
P
A
σ =

Solid Mechanics

Stress concentrations in torsion

Stress concentration effect is greatest at section B-B

avg nom
T
K K
D
τ τ τ
π
| |
= = =
|
\ .
1
3
1
16

max avg nom
K K τ τ τ = =

Solid Mechanics

Limitations of torsion formulae
(1)The above solutions are exact for pure torsion of circular
members (solid or hollow section)
(2)Above equations can be applied to bars (solid or hollow)
with varying cross-sections only when changes in ( ) R x are
(3)Stresses determined from the torsion formula are valid in
regions of the bar away from stress concentrations, which are
high localized stresses that occur whenever diameter
changes abruptly and whenever concentrated torque are
applied.
(4)It is important to recognize that, the above equation
should not be used for bars of other shapes. Noncircular bars
under torsion are entirely different from circular bars.

P P P
Tr T TL d
, ; ;Y r
I GI GI dx
φ
τ φ = = = = ¸

Solid Mechanics

15. Symmetrical bending of beams
Some basics

having their vectors perpendicular to the axis of the bar.
• Classification of structural members.
• Axially loaded bars :- Supports forces having their
vectors directed along the axis of the bar.
• Bar in tension:- Supports torques having their moment
vectors directed along the axis.
• Beams :- Subjected to lateral loads.
• Beams undergo bending (flexure) because of lateral

Solid Mechanics

Roughly speaking, “bending” refers to a change in shape from
a straight configuration to a non straight configuration.
Bending moments i.e
z
M and
y
M are responsible for
bending of beams.
The loads acting on a beam cause the beam to bend or flex,
thereby deforming its axis into a curve-known as “
deflection curve” of the beam.

If all points inx y − plane remain in the xy − plane after
deformation i.e after bending then xy − plane is known as
“plane of bending”.
If a beam bend in a particular plane, then the deflection
curve is a plane curve lying in the plane of bending.

Solid Mechanics

The y −direction displacement [i.e. v −component] of any
point along its axis is known as the “deflection of the
beam”.
Pure bending and non-uniform bending
If the internal bending moment is constant at all sections
then beam is said to be under “pure bending”.
dM
V
dx
= −
Pure bending (i.e., M=constant) occurs only in regions of a beam
where the shear force is zero.

If ( ) M M x = it is non- uniform bending

Solid Mechanics

Curvature of a beam
When loads are applied to the beam, if it bends in a plane
say xy −plane, then its longitudinal axis is deformed into a
curve.
O− Center of curvature

k
R
= =
1
Curvature

in general ( ) R R x = and ( ) k k x = .
RdQ dS =

dQ
k
R dS
= =
1
for any amount of R
The deflections of beams are very small under small
deformation condition. small deflections means that the
deflection curve is nearly flat.
under small deformations.

dQ
k
R dX
= =
1

Solid Mechanics

It is given that deflections at A and B should be zero.
Symmetrical bending of beams in a state of pure bending
A long prismatic member possess a plane of symmetry
subjected to equal and opposite couples M
0
(or bending
moments) acting in the same plane of symmetry.

Solid Mechanics

Initially we choose origin of the coordinate system “O” is
not at the centroid of the cross-section.
The y −axis passing through the cross-section is an axis of
symmetry. The XY plane is the plane of symmetry.

Material is homogeneous, linearly elastic and isotropic
undergoing small deformations.
Stresses in symmetric member in pure bending

x y z
x y
z
F V V
M M
M M M
= = =
= =
= =
0
0
0

Solid Mechanics

Therefore,
x
dA σ are the only elementary forces that are
required to be developed by right of the section on to the left
of the section.
The distribution of
X
σ any section should satisfy
x x
y x
z x
F dA
M z dA
M M y dA M
σ
σ
σ
= ¬ =
= ¬ =
= ¬ − =
}
}
}
0 0
0 0
Actual distribution of stresses - cannot by statics - statically
indeterminate - deformations should be considered.
Thus, the state of stress at any point within a prismatic beam
(cross-section having an axis of symmetry) subjected to pure
bending is a uniaxial state of stress.

x
M y dA σ = −
}
x
ij
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

Solid Mechanics

Deformations in a symmetric member in pure bending
Since the member is subjected to bending moments, it will
bend under the action of these couples.

Since, the prismatic member possessing a plane of symmetry
(i.e xy- plane) and subjected to equal and opposite couples
M
0
acting in the plane of symmetry, the member will bend
in the plane of symmetry (i.e xy plane).
The curvature k at a particular point on the axis of the beam
depends on the bending moment at that point. Therefore a
prismatic beam in pure bending will have constant
curvature.
The line AB, which was originally a straight line, will be
transformed in to a circle of center O and so the line A B ′ ′.

Solid Mechanics

Decrease in length of AB and increase in length of A B ′ ′ in
positive bending.
Cross-sections which are plane and ⊥ to the axis of
the undeformed beam, remain plane and remain⊥ to
the axis of the deformed beam i.e to the deflection
curve.
Kinematic
assumption

Variation of strain and M κ − relation
Elementary theory of bending or Euler-Bernoulli theory

Under the action of M
0
, the beam deflects in the xy – plane
(plane of symmetry) and any longitudinal fibers such as SS
bent into a circular curve. The beam is bent concave upward
(due to +ve bending) upon which is a +ve curvature.

Solid Mechanics

Cross-sections mn and pq remain plane and normal to the
longitudinal axis of the beam. Cross-sections mn and pq
rotate with respect to each other about z-axis.
Lower part of the beam is intension and upper part is in
compression.
The x- axis lies along the neutral surface of undeformed
beam
Variation of strain and M-k relations (contd.)

Initial length of fiber ef dx =
Final length of
( )
* *
ef e f R y dQ = = −
The distance dx between two planes is unchanged at the
neutral surface,

dQ
RdQ dx k
R dx
= ¬ = =
1

Solid Mechanics

Therefore, the longitudinal strain i.e
x
∈ at a distance “y”
from the neutral axis is
( )
* *
x
R y dQ dx e f ef y
ef dx R
− − − −
∈ = = =

In case of pure bending
( ) ( )
x x x x
x and z , y ∈ ≠∈ ∈ =∈
The preceding equation shows that the longitudinal strains
( )
x
∈ in the beam (in pure bending) are proportional to the
curvature and vary linearly with the distance y from the
neutral axis or neutral surface.

x
∈ = 0 at the neutral surface
Maximum compressive
x
y
R

∈ =
1

Maximum tensile
x
y
R
+
∈ =
2

However, we still do not know the location of neutral axis or
neutral surface.
x
y
R
∴ ∈ = − ¬
x
ky ∈ = −

Solid Mechanics

Stresses in beams in pure bending :- For linearly elastic and
isotropic beam material
( )
xy
x x y z xy
v Y
E G
τ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − + =
¸ ¸
1

( )
yz
y y x z yz
v Y
E G
τ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − + =
¸ ¸
1

( )
zx
z z x y xz
v Y
E G
τ
σ σ σ
(
∈ = − + =
¸ ¸
1

The state of the stress at any point within a prismatic beam
in pure bending is
x
ij
σ
σ
(
(
(
=
¸ ¸
(
(
¸ ¸
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

x x
Ey
E Eky
R
σ

∴ = ∈ = = −
y x x
z x x
V
V
E
V
V
E
σ
σ
∈ = − = − ∈
∈ = − = − ∈

From the above equation
( )
( ) ( )
x
x x x
x
x
x, z
y y
linear f ( y)
linear f ( y)
i.e., var ylinearly with the distance y from the neutral surface
σ σ
σ σ
σ

= ∈ =∈
∈ =
∴ =

Solid Mechanics

x
σ at y = 0 i.e on the neutral surface = 0
Maximum compressive
x
EC
R
σ = −
1

Maximum tensile
x
EC
R
σ =
2

Maximum normal stress
x
σ occurs at the points farthest
from the neutral axis.
In order to compute the stresses and strain we must locate
the neutral axis of the cross-section.

Solid Mechanics

Location of neutral axis
We must satisfy the following equations at any given section
m-m

Considering first equation

The above equation shows that the distance y between
neutral axis and centroid “C” of a cross-section is zero.

In other words, the neutral axis i.e z-axis pass through
the centroid of the cross-section, provided if the
material follows Hooke’s law.
x
x z
x y
dA
ydA M M M
zdA M
σ
σ
σ
=
− = = =
= =
}
}
}
0
0
0
x
A A
A
Ey
dA
R
ydA
σ = − =
=
} }
}
0
0

Solid Mechanics

The origin ‘O’ of coordinates is located at the centroid of the
cross-sectional area.
Thus, when a prismatic beam of linearly elastic material is
subjected to pure bending, the y and z (neutral axis) axes are
principal centroidal axes.
Moment – Curvature relationship

Moment of inertia of
neutral axis
Moment-Curvature relation
x
A
M ydA σ = −
}
A
Ey
M ydA
R
= +
}
A
E
M y dA
R
=
}
2
zz
A
y dA I = =
}
2
EI
M
R
∴ =
M
k
R EI
= =
1
M
k
R EI
= =
0
1

Solid Mechanics

Curvature k is directly proportional to M- internal bending
moment and inversely proportional to EI- flexural rigidity of
the beam.
Flexural rigidity is a measure of the resistance of a beam to
bending.

Relation between
x
σ and M- Flexure formula
x
Eky σ = −
and
M
k
EI
=
- flexure formula.
Stresses evaluated from flexure formula are called bending
stresses or flexural stresses.

x
My
I
σ ∴ = −

Solid Mechanics

The maximum tensile and compressive bending stresses
occur at points located farthest from the neutral axis.
The maximum normal stresses are

Cross- sectional properties of some common shapes

-Section moduli
S =Section modulus
z − axis – neutral axis
MC M
I S
σ

= = −
1
1
1
MC M
I S
σ = =
2
2
2
I I
S and S
C C
= =
1 2
1 2

Solid Mechanics

zz
bh bh
I S = =
3 2
12 6
zz
d
I d S
π π
= =
3
4
64 32
zz
bh
I
h b / for eqilateral triangle
=
=
3
36
3 2
zz
I . r =
4
0 1098

Solid Mechanics

Distribution
x
σ on various cross-sections

max
M
S
σ =
max
I
S
y
=
alllow
M S σ =
square
circle
S
.
S
= 1 18

Solid Mechanics

• This result shows that a beam of square cross-section is
more efficient in resisting bending then circular beam of
same area.
• A circle has a relatively larger amount of material
located near the neutral axis. This material is less highly
stresses.
• I - Section is more efficient then a rectangular cross-
section of the same area and height, because I - section
has most of the material in the flanges at the greatest
available distance from the neutral axis.
Extension of results
Long prismatic beam under pure bending, and symmetrical
bending.

Elementary theory of bending
( ) M M x
M Constant

=
( )
x
zz
My
y
I
I I
M
k
R EI
σ = −
=
= =
1
x
x
y x
z z
E
v
v
σ
∈ =
∈ = − ∈
∈ = − ∈

Solid Mechanics

Bending of beams due to applied lateral loads

Consider now a beam subjected to typical arbitrary
transverse loads acting. In this case the interval bending
moment ( ) M M x = and ( ) V x ≠ 0, and thus we have non-
uniform bending.
Non-uniform bending is a result of presence of transverse shear
force
( )
V y . If
( )
V y = 0 then M = constant.
It can be shown that the above results can also be used for
non-uniform bending problems.

dM
V
dx
= −
( )
( )
( )
( )
x
M x y
x, y
I
M x
k
R x EI
σ

=
= =
1
( )
( )
x
x
y x
z x
x, y
x, y
E
σ
ν
ν
∈ =
∈ = − ∈
∈ = − ∈

Solid Mechanics

The above results can also be used for non-uniform bending
problems provided if they satisfy the following conditions.

• The cross-sections should have y-axis of symmetry
• All applied transverse or lateral loads should lie in the
x-y plane of symmetry and all applied couples act about
z-axis only.
• L h longslender beams − − >
• Bending that conforms to conditions (i) and (ii) is called
symmetrical bending.
If these three conditions are satisfied then one can employ
the following expressions for non-uniform bending as-well

Solid Mechanics

Application of above equations to the non-uniform bending
problems is equivalent to the following two assumptions.
still remain plane after deformation and they remain ⊥ to
the deformed longitudinal axis or neutral surface.
Bending stresses in a non-prismatic beam
The above equation can also be applied to the case of non-
prismatic beam subjected to either pure or non-uniform
bending, provided cross-sectional properties do not vary
sharply.

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x
zz
M x y
x, y
I
I I
M x
k x
R x EI
σ = −
=
= =
1
( )
( )
( )
x
x
y x
z z
x, y
E
x, y v
x, y v
σ
∈ =
∈ = − ∈
∈ = − ∈
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
x
M x y
I x
M x
k x
R x EI x
σ = −
= =
1

Solid Mechanics

Problem
Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in
the beam due to the uniform load.

Solution
Centroid :-

2
A mm
y
3
yA mm
1
× = 20 90 1800
50
×
3
90 10
2
× = 40 30 1200
20
×
3
24 10

A A Σ = = 3000
yA Σ = ×
3
114 10
Ay yA Σ =
y = × ¬
3
3000 114 10 ¬
y mm = 38
( )
zz
I I I Ad s Σ = = +
2
bh
| |
= +
|
\ .
= × + × + × × + ×
3
2
3 2 2 2
12
1 1
90 20 1800 12 30 40 1200 18
12 12
4 4
zz
I I mm m

= = × = ×
3 9
868 10 868 10

Solid Mechanics

C mm =
1
22 and C mm =
2
38

x
max
max
My
I
M I
: S
S
y
σ
σ
= −
= =

At maximum +ve bending moment i.e at (D)

at D:

At maximum -ve moment i.e at (B)

I
S .
C
I
S .
C

×
= = = ×
×
×
= = = ×
×
9
6
1
3
1
9
6
2
3
2
868 10
39 45 10
22 10
868 10
22 84 10
38 10
max
t
M .
s .
σ

= =
×
6
2
1 898
22 84 10
max
t
. MPa σ = 83 1
max
C
M .
s .
σ

= =
×
6
1
1 898
39 45 10
max
C
. MPa σ = 48 11
max
t
M .
. MPa
s .
σ

= = =
×
6
1
3 375
85 55
39 45 10
max
C
M .
. MPa
s .
σ

= = =
×
6
2
3 375
147 8
22 84 10
max max
t C
. and . MPa σ σ = = 85 55 147 8

Solid Mechanics

Problem
a wooden member of length L = 3m having a rectangular
cross-section 3 cm × 6 cm is to be used as a cantilever with a
load P = 240N acting at the free end. Can the member carry
this load if the allowable flexural stress both in tension and
in compression is
allow
σ = 50 Mpa ?

Solution

max
M N-m = 720
A
. .
S m
.

×
= = ×
3
6 3
1 0 06 0 03
9 10
12 0 015

max max
t C
A A
M PL
S S
σ σ = = =
max max
t C allow
σ σ σ = =

∴The beam can carry P N = 240 only when oriented as in (B)
allow A
alow
S
P N
L
σ ×
= = 150
B
. .
S . m
.

×
= = ×
3
5 3
1 0 03 0 06
1 8 10
12 0 03
allow B
alow
S
P N
L
σ ×
= = 300

Solid Mechanics

Limitations
(1)The flexure formula is exact for a prismatic beam in pure
bending.
(2)It provides very good approximation of
x
σ for long
slender beams (L h) >> under symmetrical bending.
(3)The flexure formula can be employed for any shape of the
cross-section, provided the cross-section has y-axis of
symmetry.
(4)It should not be employed in regions close to geometric

Solid Mechanics

16. Shear Stresses in Beams

( )
y xy
A
V x dA τ =
}

It is reasonable to assume that
(1)The shear stresses acting on the cross-section are parallel
to the shear force ( )
y
V x i.e ⊥ to the line PQ
(2)It is also reasonable to assume that the shear stresses
xy
τ
are uniformly distributed across the width of the beam, so
that
x
M T = = 0 for symmetrical bending
( )
( ) ( )
xy xy
y xy
A
x, y such thats
V x x, y dA
τ τ
τ
∴ =
=
}

Solid Mechanics

• Thus, there are horizontal shear stresses (or longitudinal
shear stresses) acting between horizontal layers of the
beam as well as vertical shear stresses acting on the
cross-sections.
• At any point of the beam
xy yx
τ τ =
• Pattern of distribution of
xy
τ =pattern of distribution of
yx
τ
• Since
xy yx
τ τ = , it follows that the vertical shear stresses
xy
τ must vanish at
h
y = ±
2
, if the beam is subjected only

Solid Mechanics

Derivation of shear stress formula
Beam under non-uniform bending i.e ( ) M M x =

t = width or thickness of the beam at y y =
1

t = width or thickness of the beam at y y =
1

Solid Mechanics

We now wish to satisfy equilibrium in the x- direction.
Taking
[ ]
x
F Σ →+ = 0 we have then
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
x x yx
A A
yx x x
A A
x
x x, y dA x, y dA t x
t x x, y dA x, y dA
x
M x y
x, y
I
σ σ τ
τ σ σ
σ
− + ∆ + + ∆ =
(
= + ∆ −
(

(
¸ ¸

=
} }
} }
0
1

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
yx
A A
yx
A
yx
A
t M x x ydA M x ydA
x I I
t M x x M x ydA
xI
M x x M x
ydA
It x
τ
τ
τ
(
= − + ∆ +
(

(
¸ ¸
(
= − + ∆ −
(

(
¸ ¸
+ ∆ − −
(
=
(

¸ ¸
} }
}
}
1 1 1
1
1

taking limit as x ∆ →0
( ) ( )
yx
x
A
yx
A
M x x M x
lim ydA
It x
dM
ydA
It dx
τ
τ
∆ →
+ ∆ − −
=

=
}
}
0
1
1

( )
y
dM
V x
dx
= −
( )
y
yx
A
V x
ydA
It
τ ∴ =
}

Solid Mechanics

The above integral is by definition the first moment of are A
about the z-axis, we denote it by symbol Q.
A
Q ydA =
}

y
yx xy
V Q
It
shear formula
τ τ τ ∴ = = =
(1)
in the above equation
zz
I I = stands for the moment of
inertia of the entire cross sectional area around the neutral
axis.

From (1)
y
yx
V Q
VQ
t f
I I
τ = = =
The quantity “f” is known as the “shear flow”.
Shear flow is the horizontal shear force per unit distance
along the longitudinal axis of the beam.

Solid Mechanics

Distribution of shear stresses in a Rectangular beam
An example of application of equations
A
h / y h
Q udA b y y s
b h
Q y
I bh

( | |
= = − +
|
(
\ . ¸ ¸
| |
= −
|
\ .
=
}
2
2
3
2
2 2
2 4
1
12

at
xy yx
h
y τ τ = ± = = 0
2

The shear stresses in a rectangular beam vary quadratically
with the distance y from the neutral axis.
Maximum value of shear stress occurs at the neutral axis
where Q is maximum.
max max
xy yx
Vh V
I A
τ τ = = =
2
3
8 2

xy yx
VQ V h
y
It I
τ τ
| |
= = = −
|
\ .
2
2
2 4

Solid Mechanics

Thus
max
τ in a beam of rectangular cross-section is 50%
larger than the average shear stress
V
A

It is always possible to express the maximum shear stress
xy
τ
as
max
xy
V
K
A
τ =
for most of the cross-sectional areas
K Rectangular =
3
2

K Circular =
4
3

K Triangular =
3
2

For most of the cross-section
max
τ occurs at the neutral axis.
This is not always true.

Solid Mechanics

Stress elements in non-uniform bending

Solid Mechanics

Problem
A wood beam AB is loaded as shown in the figure. It has a
rectangular cross –section (see figure). Determine the
maximum permissible value
max
p of the loads if the
allowable stress is bending is
allow
MPa σ = 11 (for both tension
and compression) and allowable stress in horizontal shear is
allow
. MPa τ = 1 2

Solution
max
V occurs at supports and maximum BM occurs in

Therefore, the maximum permissible values of the load P in
dending and shear respectively are

max
V P = max
M . P Pa = = 0 5
bh
S =
2
6
A bh =
max
max
M Pa
S
bh
σ ∴ = =
2
6
max max
max
xy yx max
V P P
A A bh
τ τ τ = = = = =
3 3 3
2 2 2
allow allow
allow allow
b s
bh bh
P P
a
σ τ
= =
2
2
6 3

Solid Mechanics

Substituting numerical values into these formulas,

Thus bending governs the design and the maximum

Problem
An I –beam is loaded as in figure. If it has the cross-section as
shown in figure, determine the shearing stresses at the levels
indicated. Neglect the weight of the beam.

Solution

Vertical shear is same at all sections

allow
b
allow
s
P . kN
P . kN
=
=
8 25
8 25
max
P . kN = 8 25

Solid Mechanics

( )( ) ( )( )
zz
I I . mm s = = − = ×
3 3
6 4
150 300 138 276
95 7 10
12 12

The ratio
V
. N / mm s
I .

×
= = ×
×
3
3 4
6
250 10
2 61 10
95 7 10

Level
( )
2
A mm
y
mm
3
Q Ay
mm
=
×
3
10

t
mm
xy
VQ
MPa
It
τ =
1-1 0 150 0 150 0
2-2
×
=
12 150
1800

144 259.2 150
12
4.5
56.4
3-3
×
=
×
=
12 150
1800
12 12
144

144
132
259.2
19.0

12

60.5
4-4
×
=
×
=
12 150
1800
12 138
1656

144
69
259.2
114.3

12

81.3

278.2
373.5
max
. MPa τ = 81 3

Solid Mechanics

Warping of the cross sections due to shear stress

Plane sections will not remain plane and perpendicular to
the axis of the beam in the deformed configuration due to
the presence of shear force.
The cross-sections are wrapped with highest distortion at the
axis.
It can be shown that if L h >> then distortion of cross-sections
due to shear negligible.
Use all formulae developed so far only when L h >> - such
beams are called slender beams.
Do not apply them if L h << -- short beams.

Solid Mechanics

17. Theories of failure or yield criteria
(1) Maximum shearing stress theory
(2) Octahedral shearing stress theory
(3) Maximum normal stress theory – for brittle materials.
Maximum shearing stress theory or Tresca Criterion
This theory says that:
Yielding occurs when the maximum shear stress in the material
reaches the value of the shear stress at yielding in a uniaxial
tension (or compression) test.
Maximum shearing stress under general state of stress is
( )
max
max , , τ τ τ τ =
1 2 3

where ; ;
σ σ σ σ σ σ
τ τ τ
− − −
= = =
2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3
2 2 2

The maximum shearing stress in uniaxial tension test at the
moment of yielding is
ys
t
σ
τ =
2

Tresca criterion is
ys
max
σ
τ ≥
2

Octahedral shearing stress theory or Hencky-Von-Mises
failure criterion
This theory also known as “The maximum distortion strain-
energy theory”

For ductile materials

Solid Mechanics

This theory states that
Yielding occurs when the octahedral shear stress in the material is
equal to the value of the octahedral shear stress at yielding in a
uniaxial tensile test.
( ) ( ) ( )
oct
τ σ σ σ σ σ σ = − + − + −
2 2 2
1 2 2 3 1 3
1
3

Octahedral shear stress in the uniaxial tension test at the
moment of yielding i.e.
y ys
σ σ σ = =
1

( )
( )
( )
t ys ys
t ys
τ σ σ
τ σ
= − + − + −
=
2 2
2
1
0 0 0 0
3
2
3

Von Mises theory says that
oct ys
τ σ ≥
2
3

von oct
σ τ =
3
2

Von Mises theory says that
von ys
τ σ ≥

Maximum Normal stress criterion or Rankine Theory:
This theory is generally used for design of components made
up of brittle materials.
* Excellent experimental evidence is available for
supporting maximum shearing stress and Von Mises
criterion

Solid Mechanics

According to this theory, a given structural component fails when
the maximum normal stress (tensile) in that component reaches the
ultimate strength or ultimate stress
ult
σ obtained from the tensile
test of a specimen of the same material.
Thus the structural component will fail when

Simple application of theories

ult
σ σ ≥
1

Solid Mechanics

Torsion + Direct shear

A
Mr
I
σ =
p
Tr
I
τ =
1
V
A
τ =
2
4
3

Solid Mechanics

Neutral surface is now shifted due to the application of axial
x
P
A
σ =
x
My
I
σ

=
zz
x
zz
M y P
A I
σ
| | −
= +
|
\ .

Solid Mechanics

19. Elastic strain energy
Consider an infinitesimal stress element at point in a linearly
elastic body, subjected to a normal stress
x
σ

The work done by this force
¸
int
x x
distance
force
dW dF dS
dydz dx σ
= ×
= × ∈
1
2
1
2
¸¸_¸¸

int x x
dW dV σ = ∈
1
2

This internal work is stored in the volume of the element as
the internal elastic energy or the elastic strain energy.
x x
dU dV σ ∴ = ∈
1
2

dV =volume of the element.
The strain energy density U
0
is defined as the internal elastic
energy stored in an elastic body per unit volume of the
material.

x x
dU
Strainenergydensity U
dV
σ ∈
∴ = = =
0
2

Solid Mechanics

U
0
can be interpreted as an area under the inclined line on
the stress-strain diagram. Similar expressions can developed
for
y
σ and
z
σ corresponding to strains
y
∈ and
z
∈ .
Elastic strain energy for shearing stresses:

Analogous expressions apply for the shearing stresses
xz zx
, τ τ with the corresponding shear strains
yz
Y and
xz
Y
Strain energy for multiaxial states of stress
The strain energy expressions for a 3D state of stress follow
directly by addition of the energies of each stress component.
x x y y z z xy xy yz yz zx zx
dU
Y Y Y dV σ σ σ τ τ τ
=
(
∈ + ∈ + ∈ + + +
(
¸ ¸
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2

The strain energy density for the most general case is
¸
shear xy xy
distance
average force
dU dxdz Y dy τ = ×
1
2
¸¸_¸¸
shear xy xy
dU Y dv τ =
1
2

Solid Mechanics

x x y y z z xy xy
yz yz zx zx
dU
U Y
dv
Y Y
σ σ σ τ
τ τ
= = ∈ + ∈ + ∈ +
+ +
0
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1
2 2

Substituting the values of strain components from
generalized Hooke’s law, we can show that

It is the expression for elastic strain energy per unit volume
for linearly plastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials.
In general, for a stressed body the total strain energy is
obtained by integration of
0
U over its volume.

Internal strain energy in axially loaded bars

x z xy xz yz
σ σ τ τ τ = = = = = 0
x
x x x x
U
E E
σ
σ σ σ ∴ = ∈ = =
2
0
1 1 1
2 2 2

∴The total internal energy
x
V V
U U dv dV
E
σ = = =
} }
2
0
1
2

( ) ( )
( )
x y z x y y z z x
xy yz zx
v
U
E E
G
σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ
τ τ τ
= + + − + +
+ + +
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
1
2
1
2
( )
V
U elastic energy stored U dV = =
}
0

Solid Mechanics

x
P P L
U AL .AL
E EA
EA
σ
= == =
2 2 2
2
2 2
2

P L
U
EA
=
2
2

Strain energy in torsion of circular shafts

U .Y .
G G
τ
τ τ τ = = =
2
0
1 1 1
2 2 2

v v
U U dv dv
G
τ = =
} }
2
0
1
2

p
Tr
I
τ = where
p
I R
π
=
4
2

R
p
T
U . .r . r.dr.L
G
I
π =
}
2
2
2
0
1
2
2

Strain energy in bending

x
v v
M M
U dv y dv y dA.L
E
EI EI
σ
∴ = = =
} } }
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2

p
T L
U
GI
=
2
2
P
TY
I
τ =

Solid Mechanics

Conclusion
P L
U
AE
=
2
2

Torsion of shafts
P
T L
U
GI
=
2
2

Bending (pure) of beams
M L
U
EI
=
2
2

We can use the following equations in case of non-uniform
cases
L L L
P
P T M
U dx ; U dx ; U dx
AE GI EI
= = =
} } }
2 2 2
0 0 0
2 2 2

M L
U
EI
=
2
2

Solid Mechanics

Problem:
( ) ( ) P x Y.A L x = −
( )
L
L
L
P
U dx
AE
Y A L x
dx
AE
Y A Y A L
L x Lx.dx L L L
AE E
Y A L Y AL
L L
AE E
=

=
(
= + − = + −
(
¸ ¸
(
= + − =
(
¸ ¸
}
}
}
2
0
2 2 2
0
2 2 2 3
2 2 2
3
0
2 2 3 2 3
3 3
2
2
2
2 2 3
2 3 6

P L
U
AE
=
2
2

( ) ( ) P x Y.A L x P = − +
( ) ( )
L
Y A L x P YA L x .P
U dx
AE
− + + −
=
}
2 2 2 2
0
2
2

Y AL P L YAP L
U L
E AE AE
Y AL P L YP
E AE E
(
= + + −
(
¸ ¸
= + +
2 3 2 2 2
2
2 3 2 2 2
2
6 2 2 2
6 2 2

Since U P or U δ ∞ ∞
2 2
principle of superposition should
not be used.

Solid Mechanics

20. Deflection of beams
When a beam with a straight longitudinal axis is loaded by
lateral loads, the axis is deformed into a curve, called the
“deflection curve” or “elastic-curve”

Deflections: means u ,v displacement of any particle. In case
of beams deflection means v displacement of particles
located on the axis of the beam.
Deflection calculation is an important part of component
design
Deflections -- useful in vibration, analysis of various
Undesirable vibrations are due to excessive deflections.

Solid Mechanics

Approximate sketches of deflection curves
Approximate sketches of the deflection curve can be drawn
We know that +BM means

- BM means

Examples
(1)

Solid Mechanics

The objective is to find the shape of the elastic curve or
deflection curve for given loads i.e., what is the function v(x).
There are two approaches
(1) Differential equations of the deflection curve
(2) Moment-area method
Differential equations of the deflection curve
Consider a cantilever beam: The axis of the beam deforms
into a curve as shown due to load P.

Here we assume only symmetrical bending case. The xy
plane is the plane of bending.
v ↓ − deflection of the beam.
v ve ↑ + and. v ↓ −
To obtain deflection curve we must express v as a function
of x.

Solid Mechanics

When the beam is bent, there is not only a deflection at each
point along the axis but also a rotation.
The angle of rotation θ of the axis of the beam is the angle
between x – axis and the tangent to the deflection curve at a
point.
For given x-y coordinate system
ve anticlockwise θ →+ →
O Center of curvature ′ =
From geometry d ds ρ θ =
d
k
ds
curvature of the deflectioncurve
θ
ρ
= =
1

k - curvature - +ve when angle of rotation increases as we
move along the beam in the +ve x – direction.
dv
Slopeof thedeflectioncurve tan
dx
θ = =
Slope
dv
dx
is positive when the tangent to the curve slopes
upward to the right.
The deflection curves of most beams have very small angles
of rotations, very small deflection and very small curvatures.
That is they undergo small deformations.
When the angle of rotation θ is extremely small, the
deflection curve is nearly horizontal

Solid Mechanics

ds dx ≈
This follows from the fact that
( ) ds dx dv v dx

= + = +
2 2 2
1
for small θ ( ) v′
2
can be neglected compared to 1
ds dx ∴ ≈
Therefore, in small deflection theory no difference in length
is said to exist between the initial length of the axis and the
arc of the elastic curve.
d
k
dx
θ
ρ
= =
1

Since θ is small tanθ θ ≈

d d v
k
dx
dx
θ
ρ
∴ = = =
2
2
1

d
k
dx
onlyinsmall deformationtheory
du
u
dx
ν
ν
θ
¹
′′
= =
¦
¦
`
¦
′ = =
¦
)
2
2

If the material of the beam is linearly elastic and follows
Hooke’s law, the curvature is
M
k
EI ρ
= =
1

dv
dx
θ ∴ =

Solid Mechanics

M + →leads to +K and so on
d v M
EI
dx
∴ =
2
2
or
d v
EI M
dx
=
2
2

The basic differential equations of the deflection curve.
Sign conventions used in the above equation:
(a) The (b)
dv
dx
and θ are
(c) k is + (d) M is +ve if beam bends
Another useful equations can be obtained by noting that

Non-prismatic beams
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
d v
EI x M x
dx
EI x v v x
EI x v P x
=

′′
= −
′′
′′
= +
2
2

dM
V
dx
dV
p
dx
= −
= −

Solid Mechanics

For prismatic beams.
( )
( )
( )
nd
rd
th
EIv M x BMequation( order )
EIv V x Shear force equation( order )
EIv P x Load equation( order )
′′
=
′′′
= −
′′′′
= +
2
3
4

Integrating the equations and then evaluating constants of
integration from boundary conditions of the beam.
Assumptions involved in the above equations
(a) Material obeys Hooke’s law
(b) Slope of deflection curve small – small deformations
(c) Deformations due to bending only – shear neglected
When sketching deflection curve we greatly exaggerate the
deflection for clarity. Otherwise they actually are very small
quantities.

Solid Mechanics

Approximate sketching
(3) (4)

(5) (6)

Solid Mechanics

Boundary conditions
(1)Boundary conditions
(2)Continuity conditions
(3)Symmetry conditions
Boundary conditions
Pertain to the deflections and slopes at the supports of a
beam:
(i)Fixed support or clamped support

(ii)

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
v a
M a EIv a v a
=
′′ ′′
= = ¬ =
0
0 0

(iii)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
M a EIv a
V a EIv a
′′
= =
′′
= − =
0
0

( )
( ) ( )
v a
a v a θ
=

= =
0
0

Solid Mechanics

Continuity conditions
All deflection curves are physically
continuous. Therefore

Similarly at “C”
( ) ( )
from side AC from side BC
v c v c
′ ′
=
Symmetry conditions
L
v
| |

=
|
\ .
0
2
and beam. This we should load
The method for finding deflection using differential
equations is known as “ method of successive integration”.
Application of principle of superposition: Numerous
readily available. Therefore in practice the deflection of beam
solved using principle of superposition.

+ +

( ) ( )
from side AC from side BC
v c v c =

Solid Mechanics

Problem 1
Determine the equation of the deflection curve for a simple
beam AB supporting a uniform load of intensity of acting
through out the span of the beam. Also determine maximum
deflection
max
δ at the mid point of the beam and the angles
of rotation
A
Q and
B
Q at the supports. Beam has constant EI.
Solution

qL
V qx = −
2
(1)
qL qx
M x − + =
2
0
2 2

qLx qx
M = −
2
2 2
(2)
Differential equation of deflection curve.
( ) EIv M x
qLx qx
EIv
′′
=
′′
= −
2
2 2

Slope of the beam
qL
V qx + − = 0
2

Solid Mechanics

qLx qx
EIv C ′ = − +
2 3
1
4 6

BC →Symmetry conditions
L
v x
qLL qL
C
qL qL
C
| |

= =
|
\ .
= − +
= − +
2 3
1
3 3
1
0
2
0
16 48
0
16 48

qL
C = −
3
1
24

Slope equation is
( )
qLx qx qL
EIv s
q
v L L x
EI

= − −

= − +
2 3 3
3 2 3
4 6 24
6
24

Deflection of the beam
qLx qx qL
EIv x C = − − +
3 4 3
2
12 24 24

B.C.
( ) v x
C
= =
= − − + ¬
2
0 0
0 0 0 0

qLx qx qL
EIv x = − −
3 4 3
12 24 24

C =
2
0

Solid Mechanics

( )
( )
q
v L x Lx x
EI
q
v x L x Lx
EI

∴ = − +

= + −
3 3 4
4 3 3
2
24
2
24

you can check v = 0 at x = 0and L = 0
(b) From symmetry maximum deflection occurs at the
midpoint
L
x =
2

qL L
v x
EI

| |
= =
|
\ .
4
5
2 384

-ve sign means that deflection is downward as expected.
max
qL L
v x s
EI
δ
| |
= = =
|
\ .
4
5
2 384

( )
A
qL
Q v
EI

= =
3
0
24

( )
B
qL qL qL
Q v x L
EI EI EI
′ = = = − −
3 3 3
4 6 24

( )
qL
v L
EI

=
3
24
+ ve sign means anticlockwise direction.
since the problem is symmetric, ( ) ( ) v v L
′ ′
= 0

Solid Mechanics

Problem: 2
Above problem using third order equation
( ) EIv V x ′′′ = −
qL qL
EIv qx qx
| |
′′′
= − − = −
|
\ .
2 2

Moment equation
qLx qx
EIv C
′′
= − +
2
1
2 2

B.C.
( ) ( ) M x EIv x
C
qLx qx
EIv
′′
= = ¬ = =
¬ =
′′
= −
1
2
0 0 0 0
0
2 2

Problem 3
Above problem using fourth order differential equation
P q
EIv q
=
′′′′
= −

Shear for a equation
EIv qx C ′′′ = − +
1

From symmetry conditions

Solid Mechanics

L L
V x EIv x
qL L
q C C
qL
EIv qx
| | | |
′′′
= = ¬ = =
| |
\ . \ .
= − + ¬ = +
′′′
∴ = − +
1 1
0 0
2 2
0
2 2
2

Problem 4
Determine the equation of the deflection curve for a
cantilever beam AB subjected to a uniform load of intensify
q. Also determine the angle of rotation and deflection at the
free end. Beam has constant EI.

Solution:

qL qx
M qLx + − + ¬
2 2
2 2

Differential equation of deflection curve
( ) EIv M x
qL qx
EIv qLx
′′
=
′′
= − + −
2 2
2 2

V qL qx + − = 0
V qx qL = −
qL qx
M qLx = − −
2 2
2 2

Solid Mechanics

Slope equation:
qL x qLx qx
EIv C ′ = − + − +
2 2 3
1
2 2 6

BC: ( ) v x ′ = = ¬ 0 0
qL x qLx qx
EIv′ = − + −
2 2 3
2 2 6

Deflection equation
qL x qLx qx
EIv C = − + − +
2 2 3 4
2
4 6 24

( ) v x
C
= =
= + − + ¬
2
0 0
0 0 0 0

qL x qLx qx
EIv ∴ = − + −
2 2 3 4
4 6 24

( ) v x L
qL qL qL qL
EIv
′ = ¬
− −

= + − =
3 3 3 3
2 2 6 6

B
qL
v Q
EI

∴ = = −
3
6

( ) v x L
q qL
v L L L
EI EI
= ¬
− −
(
= − + =
¸ ¸
4
4 4 4
3
6 4
24 24

-maximum deflection also.
C =
1
0
C =
2
0
q
v L x Lx x
EI
− +
− (
= +
(
¸ ¸
2 2 3 4
6 4
24
¸
qL
v
EI
=
4
8
¬
( )
qL
v x L
EI

= =
4
3
24

Solid Mechanics

Problem 5
Above problem using third order equation
( ) EIv V x
EIv qL qx
′′
= −
′′′
= −

Moment equation
qx
EIv qLx C
′′
= − +
2
1
2

B.C. ( ) ( ) M x L EIv x L ′′ = = ¬ = = 0 0
qL qL qL
qL
qx qL
EI v qLx
¬ = − = ¬ = −
′ ′′
= − +
2 2 2
2
2 2
0 4
2 2 2
2 2

qx qL
EIv qLx
′′
= − +
2 2
2 2

Problem 6
Above problem with fourth order equation
( ) EIv P x
EIv q

′′′′ =
′′′′
∴ = ⊕

Shear force equation
EIv qx C ′′′ = − +
1

( ) ( ) B.C V x L EIv x L
qL C C qL
′′′
= = ¬ = =
= − + ¬ = +
1 1
0 0
0

Solid Mechanics

EIv qx qL ′′′ ∴ = − +
Problem 7
A simple beam AB supports a concentrated load P acting at
distances a and b from the left-hand and right-hand supports
respectively. Determine the equations of the deflection
curve, the angles of rotation and at the supports, the
maximum deflection and the deflection at the midpoint C of
the beam. Constant EI
Solution

Pb
M x
L
− = ¬ 0
A
Q
B
Q
max
δ
L
δ
EI =
Pb
V
L
+ = 0
Pb
V
L
= −
Pbx
H
L
=
Pb
V P
L
+ − = 0
Pb
V P
L
= −
Pb Pb
x P x P
L L
+ = ¬ = −

Solid Mechanics

( )
( )
Pbx
M P x a
L
Pbx
M P x a
L
Pbx Pxa
M Px Pa Pa
L L
+ − −
= − −
= − + = − +

Differential equation of deflection curve
Pbx
EIv x a
L
Pxa
EIv Pa a x L
L
′′
= ≤ ≤
′′
= − + ≤ ≤
0

Slope equations:
Pbx
EIv C o x a
L

= + ≤ ≤
2
1
2

Px a
EIv Pax C a x L
L

= + + ≤ ≤
2
2
2

B.C. ( ) ( )
AP PB
v x a v x a
′ ′
= = =
( ) P L a a Pa
C Pa C
L L
PLa Pa Pa
C Pa C
L L L
Pa
C C
− −
+ = + +
/ / /
/ /
− + = − + +
/ / / / /
¬ = +
2 3
2
1 2
2 3 3
2
1 2
2
1 2
2 2
2 2 2
2

Solid Mechanics

Deflection curve equations:
Pbx
EIv C x C x a
L
Px a Pax
EIv C x C a x L
L

= + + ≤ ≤

= + + + ≤ ≤
3
1 3
3 2
2 4
0
6
6 2

B.C: ( ) v x = = 0 0 and ( ) v x L = = 0
C = + + ¬
3
0 0 0
PL a PaL
C L C
L
PL a PaL
C L C
PaL
C L C
= − + + +
= − + + +
= + +
3 2
2 4
2 2
2 4
2
2 4
0
6 2
0
6 2
3

( ) ( )
( )
AP PB
v x a v x a
P L a a Pa Pa
C a C a C
L L
PLa Pa Pa Pa
C a C a C
L L L
Pa Pa
C a C a C
Pa PaL
C a C a C L
= = =
− −
+ = + + +
/ / −
/ /
+ + = + + +
/ / /
+ = + +
= + − −
3 4 3
1 2 4
3 4 4 3
1 2 4
3 3
1 2 4
3 2
1 2 2
6 6 2
6 6 6 2
6 2
3 3

C =
3
0
PaL
C C L = − −
2
4 2
3

Solid Mechanics

Pa Pa PaL
C a C a C L
Pa PaL PaL Pa
C L C L
PaL Pa
C
/ / + = + − −
= − − ¬ = − −
= − −
3 3 2
2 2 2
3 2 2 3
2 2
3
2
2 3 3
6 3 3 6
3 6

Some important formulae to remember
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Problem 8
A simple beam AB supports a concentrated load P acting at
the center as shown. Determine the equations of the
deflection curve, the angles of rotation
A
Q and
B
Q at the
supports, the maximum deflection
max
δ of the beam.
B B
qL qL
,Q
EI EI
δ = =
4 3
8 6
B B
PL PL
, Q
EI EI
δ = =
3 2
3 2
B B
M L M L
, Q
EI EI
δ = =
2
0 0
2
c max A B
qL qL
; Q Q
EI EI
δ δ = = = =
4 3
5
384 24
c max A B
PL PL
;Q Q
EI EI
δ δ = = = =
3 2
48 16

Solid Mechanics

Solution

P
V = −
2
Px
M =
2
Px
M =
2
P
M x − = 0
2
Px
M =
2
V P / = 2
P
V P + − = 0
2
Px L
M P x
Px L Px PL PL Px
M P x Px
| |
− + − =
|
\ .
| |
= − − = − + = −
|
\ .
0
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
PL Px
M = −
2 2

Solid Mechanics

Differential equation deflection curve
Px
EIv x L /
PL Px L
EIv x L
′′
= ≤ ≤
′′
= − ≤ ≤
0 2
2
2 2 2

Slope equations
Px
EIv C x L /
PLx Px L
EIv C x L

= + ≤ ≤

= − + ≤ ≤
2
1
2
2
0 2
4
2 4 2

AP PB
L L
v x v x
| | | |
′ ′
= = =
| |
\ . \ . 2 2

PL PL PL
C C + = − +
2 2 2
1 2
16 4 16

PL PL PL
C C C = + − = +
2 2 2
1 2 2
4 8 8

Deflection equations:
Px
EIv C x C x L /
PLx Px
EIv C x C L / x L
= + + ≤ ≤
= − + + ≤ ≤
3
1 3
2 3
2 4
0 2
12
2
4 12

B.C: ( ) v x = = 0 0 and ( ) v x L = = 0
PL
C C = +
2
1 2
8

Solid Mechanics

C = + + ¬
3
0 0 0
PL PL
C L C
PL
C L C
= − + +
= + +
3 3
2 4
3
2 4
0
4 12
6

AP PB
L L
v x v x
PL C L PL PL L
C C
L PL PL L
C C C
| | | |
′ ′
= = =
| |
\ . \ .
+ = − + +
= − + +
3 3 3
1
2 4
3 3
1 2 4
2 2
96 2 16 96 2
2 16 48 2

L PL PL L PL
C C C L
/ /
/ / + = + − −
/ /
3 3 3
2 2 2
2 16 24 2 6

( ) PL PL PL PL
C L C
− −
− − = ¬ =
2 3 3 3
2 2
2 8 3
24 6 16 48

C =
3
0
PL
C C L = − −
3
4 2
6
L PL L
C C C = + +
3
1 2 4
2 24 2
PL PL
C

= − =
2 2
2
9 3
48 16
PL
C = −
2
2
3
16

Solid Mechanics

PL PL PL
C ∴ = − + = −
2 2 2
1
3
16 8 16

( )
PL PL
C L
PL PL PL
| |

∴ = − −
|
\ .
− + −
= + =
3 2
4
3 3 3
3
6 16
8 9 3
6 16 48

Deflection curves
Px PL L
EIv x C x
PLx Px PL PL L
EIv x x L
= − + ≤ ≤
= − + − + ≤ ≤
3 2
3
2 3 2 3
0
12 16 2
3
4 12 16 48 2

L
x
PL PL PL
EIv
=

= − =
3 3 3
2
96 32 48

( )
L
x
PL PL PL PL PL
EIv
PL
=
− − +
= − − + =
= −
3 3 3 3 3
2
3
6 1 9 2 3
16 96 32 48 96
48

PL
C = −
2
1
16
PL
C = −
3
4
48
L
x
PL
v
EI
=
∴ = −
3
2
48

Solid Mechanics

Slope equations:
Px PL L
EIv x
PLx Px PL L
EIv x L

= − ≤ ≤

= − − ≤ ≤
2 2
2 2
0
4 16 2
3
2 4 16 2

( )
( ) ( )
A
PL PL
EIv x
PL
v x Q Clock wise
EI

= = − = −

∴ = = = − −
2 2
2
0 0
16 16
0
16

( )
( )
( ) ( )
B
PL PL PL PL PL
EIv x L
PL
v x L Q +ve, CCW from x-axis
EI
− −

= = − − = =
′ ∴ = = =
2 2 2 2 2
2
8 4 3 3
2 4 16 16 16
16

Problem 9
A cantilever beam AB supports load of intensity of acting
over part of the span and a concentrated load P acting at the
free end. Determine the deflections
B
δ and angle of rotation
B
Q at end B of the beam. Beam has constant EI. Use principle
of superposition.
Solution
( )
B B
qa qL
L a , Q
EI EI
δ = − =
1 1
3 3
4
24 6

B B
PL PL
, Q
EI EI
δ = =
2 2
3 2
3 2

v PL / EI = −
3
48

Solid Mechanics

( )
B B B
B B B
qa PL
L a
EI EI
qa PL
Q Q Q
EI EI
δ δ δ = + = − +
= + = +
1 2
1 1
3 3
3 2
4
24 3
6 2

Solid Mechanics

21. Moment- Area Method
This method is based upon two theorems related to the area
of the bending moment diagram it is called moment-area
method.
First moment area theorem
Consider segment AB of the deflection curve of a beam in
region of + ve curvature.
The equation
d M
EI
dx
θ
=
2
2
can be written as
d d M
dx EI
dx
θ θ
= =
2
2

M
d dx
EI
θ =

The quantity
M
dx
EI
corresponds to an infinitesimal area of
the
M
EI
diagram. According to the above equation the area is
equal to the arrange in angle between two adjacent point m
1

and m
2
. Integrating the above equation between any two
points A & B gives.

B B
B A BA
A A
M
d dx
EI
θ θ θ θ = − = ∆ =
} }

Solid Mechanics

This states that the arrange in angle measured in radius
between the two tangents at any two points A and B on the
elastic curve is equal to the area of
M
EI
diagram between A &
B , If
A
θ is known then
B A BA
θ θ θ = + ∆
In performing above integration, areas corresponding to the
M + are taken + ve, area corresponding to the – ve M are
taken –ve
If
B
A
M
dx
EI
}
is +ve- tangent B rotates c.c.w from A or
B
θ is
algebraically larger than A.
If – ve – tangent B rotates c.w from A.
Second moment-area theorem
This is related to the deflection curve between A and B.

Solid Mechanics

We see that dt is a small contribution to
BA
t . Since the angles
between the tangents and x-axis are very small we can take

The expression
M
x dx
EI
=
1
first moment of infinitesimal area
M
dx
EI
w.r.t. a vertical line through B.
Integrating between the point A & B
B B
BA
A A
M
t dt x dx
EI

= =
} }
1
= First moment of the area of the
M
EI

diagram between points A & B, evaluated w.r.t. B.

if M is +ve φ =+ve
if M is -ve φ =-ve
x and x
1
are always taken +ve quantities.
∴Sign of tangential deviation depends on sign of M.
M
dt x d x dx
EI
θ = =
1 1
BA
AB
B
A
t x
t x
M
where dx
EI
φ
φ
φ
=
=
=
}
1

Solid Mechanics

A positive value of tangential deviation- point B is above A
and vice versa – ve value means point B is below the point A.
In applying the moment area method a carefully prepared
sketch of the elastic curve is always necessary.

Problem:1
Consider an aluminum cantilever beam 1600 mm long with a
10 –kN for a applied 400 mm from the free end for a distance
of 600 mm from the fixed end, the beam is of greater depth
than it is beyond, having
4
I mm = ×
6
1
50 10 . For the
remaining 1000 mm of the beam
4
I mm = ×
6
2
10 10 . Find the
deflection and angular rotation of the free end. Neglect
weight of the beam and E GPa = 70
Solution:

2
2
N/mm
N/mm

× ×
= ×
9 6
3
70 10 10
70 10
EI . = ×
24
3 5 10

Solid Mechanics

.
A bh
E E
.
A bh
E
. .
A bh
E E
. .
A bh
E E

| |
= = × × = −
|
\ .
= = −

| |
= = × × = −
|
\ .

| |
= = × × = −
|
\ .
1
2
3
4
1 1 0 12 36
600
2 2
129 6
1 1 0 48 115 2
480
2 2
1 1 0 12 7 2
120
2 2

B
BA B A
A
M
Q Q Q dx A A A A
EI
∆ = − = = + + +
}
1 2 3 4

B
. . .
Q
E E E E E
= − − − − = −
36 129 6 115 2 7 2 288

Solid Mechanics

B
E

= − = − = − ×
×
3
3
288 288
4 14 10
70 10

from tangent at
A.
BA B
t δ =
x mm; x ; x mm; x mm = = = =
2 1 3 4
1060 1400 840 480
BA B
t A x A x A x A x
. . .
E E E E
. mm
E
δ = = + + +
− − − −
| | | | | | | |
= + + +
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .

= = −
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
36 129 6 115 2 7 2
1400 1060 840 480
288000
4 11
below the tangent at point A.
Problem 2
Find the deflection due to the concentrated force P applied as
soon as figure, at the center of a simply supported beam EI
constant.
Solution:

B

= ×
3
4 14 10
B
. mm δ = −4 11

Solid Mechanics

c CB
AB
v c c t
c c t
′′ ′
= −
′′ ′
=
1
2

Pa Pa
A bh a s
EI EI
Pa Pa
A bh a
EI EI
= = × × =
= = × × =
2
1
2
2
1 1 3 3
2 2 4 8
1 1 3 9
3
2 2 4 8

x a ; x a = =
1 2
2
2
3

( )
AB
Pa Pa
t A x A x a a
EI EI
Pa Pa Pa Pa
ve
EI EI EI EI
= + = +
= + = = +
2 2
1 1 2 2
3 3 3 3
3 2 9
2
8 3 8
9 10 5
4 4 4 2

Since EI is constant
M
EI

diagram is same as M
diagram.

Solid Mechanics

CB
Pa a Pa
t a s
EI EI
| |
= × × × =
|
\ .
3
1 2
2
2 2 3 3

AB /
Pa
c c t
EI
′′ ′
= =
3
2
5
4

( )
c
Pa Pa Pa Pa
v
EI EI EI EI

∴ = − = =
3 3 3 3
15 4 5 11
4 3 4 12

The +ve sign of
AB
t &
CA
t indicate points A & C above the
tangent through B.
(a) The slope of the elastic curve at C can be found from the
slope of one of the ends as:
BC B C C B BC
Q Q Q Q Q Q ∆ = − ¬ = − ∆
B
BC B C
C
M Pa Pa
Q Q Q dx a s
EI EI EI
∆ = − = × × =
}
2
1
2
2 2 2

B AB
Pa Pa Pa Pa
Q t / L
EI a EI EI EI
≈ = − = −
3 2 2 2
5 1 5
2 4 2 8 2

(b) If the deflection curve equations is wanted then by
selecting an ordinary point E at a distance x
E
v E E EE
′′ ′ ′′
= −

c
Pa
v
EI
=
3
11
12
c
Pa
Q
EI
=
2
8

Solid Mechanics

E AB EB
L x
v t t
L

| |
= −
|
\ .

In this way one
can obtain equation
of the deflection curve.

(c) To simplify the calculations some care in selecting the
tangent at a support must be considered.
In this approach to find
CA
t we need to consider
unhatched region which
is more difficult.

(d) The deflection at C can also be calculated as follows.
AC BC
c
t t
v
+
=
2

∴C is at the center of the beam. However, this is also move
complicated approach compared to first, as to find
CA
t we
again need to consider unhatched region.

Solid Mechanics

Problem 3
Find the deflection of the end A of the beams shown in
figure caused by the applied forces. The EI is constant.
Solution

Solid Mechanics

Pa Pa
A bh a
EI EI
a Pa Pa
A
EI EI
Pa Pa
A and A
EI EI

| |
= = × × = −
|
\ .
| |
= × × − = −
|
\ .
= =
2
1
2
2
2 2
3 4
1 1
2 2 2
1
2 2 4
4 2

a a a a a
x a ; x a
a a
x a a / ; x
= + = = + + =
= + = =
1 2
3 4
7 2 11
2
3 3 3 3 2 6
1 2
7 6
3 2 3

( )
CB
t A x A x A x
Pa a Pa a Pa a
EI EI EI
Pa Pa Pa Pa
EI EI EI EI
= + +
= − × + × + ×
− + +
= − + + =
2 2 3 3 4 4
2 2 2
3 3 3
3
11 7 2
4 6 4 6 2 3
11 7 8 11 7
24 24 3 24

CB
Pa Pa
t
EI EI
= =
3 3
4
24 6

The + sign of
CB
t indicates that the point C is above the
tangent through B. Hence corrected sketch of the elastic

Solid Mechanics

AB
Pa Pa
t a
EI EI
= − × = −
2 3
2
2 3 3

A AB
v t A A
Pa Pa Pa
EI EI EI
′′ ′
∴ = −
= − =
3 3 3
3 12 4

Note: Another method to find
A
v is shown. This may be
simpler method than the present one.

A
Pa
v
EI
=
3
4