Biomechanics

In Memorium
James Hay C. Harmon Brown Bert Lyle

Understanding The Sprint Performance
The Goal Get to the finish line first!

What You Need to Know About the Sprint Start

Ralph Mann, Ph.D. Ph.D.

Grand Unification Sprint Theory

Grand Unification Sprint Theory
Generate as Much Productive Force as Possible in as Little Time as Possible

Generate as Much Productive Force as Possible in as Little Time as Possible

The Velocity Profile in the 100m Sprint Performance

1.
2.

Force Can Only Be Generated on the Ground Body Center (COG) Position is Critical

1

Horizontal Velocity Profile
Horizontal Velocity 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Sprinting: Horizontal Velocity

12

11

10

9

8

7

Velocity (m/sec)

6

5

THE PHASES OF SPRINTING

3

2

Vmax

1 70 80 90 100

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance (m)

Sprinting: Horizontal Velocity
12
Start

Sprinting: Horizontal Velocity
Horizontal Velocity 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
80%

Velocity (meters/sec)

4

Sprinting: Horizontal Velocity
Horizontal Velocity
Start Transition

Horizontal Velocity

12

Start

10

10 8 6 4 2 0

80%

8

6

Velocity (meters/sec)

Velocity (meters/sec)

2

0

Velocity (meters/sec)

4

2

Sprinting: Horizontal Velocity
z
Max Velocity 80%

The Phases of Sprinting
z

The Phases of Sprinting
z

Horizontal Velocity

12

Start

Transition

z

10

8

6

Velocity (meters/sec)

4

2

z

z

0

Reaction Time (gun to first movement*) Acceleration a. Start 1. Two Leg Drive 2. One Leg Drive 3. First Step 4. Second Step b. Transition Maximum Velocity a. Attain b. Maintain

Reaction Time (gun to first movement*) Acceleration a. Start 1. Two Leg Drive 2. One Leg Drive 3. First Step 4. Second Step b. Transition Maximum Velocity a. Attain b. Maintain

The Phases of Sprinting
z

Theory Development
Research Since 1982 (USATF Funded) z Top Sprinters in Competition z Biomechanical/Statistical Analysis z Scientific Method Employed
– Opinion – Hypothesis – Theory
z

Focus
z

z

z

Sprinting z 100 Meters z Male Athletes z Start z Understanding the Event

z

Reaction Time (gun to first movement*) Acceleration a. Start 1. Two Leg Drive 2. One Leg Drive 3. First Step 4. Second Step b. Transition Maximum Velocity a. Attain b. Maintain

On-Track Application

3

Introductory Question: The Start
Difference Between 9.5 & 10.5

Set Position
First Movement

The Start
?? Seconds

3 Meter Mark

Introductory Question: The Start
Difference Between 9.5 & 10.5

Horizontal Velocity Profile
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 V2nd Step Vmax

Head Hits Line

0.30 Seconds to the 3 Meter Mark (~3 Steps)

1
0 0 20 40 60 80 100

Slowest: 1.02 sec Fastest: 0.72 sec

4

Horizontal Velocity Profile

12

Introductory Question: The Start
Difference Between 9.5 & 10.5

Introductory Question: The Start
Difference Between 9.5 & 10.0

11

10

9

8

Time Lost ~ 0.7 sec

7

6

5

4

3

2

Vmax

V2nd Step

1
80 100

0.30 Seconds to the 3 Meter Mark (~3 Steps)

0

0

20

40

60

0.30 Seconds to the 3 Meter Mark (~3 Steps) + 0.70 Seconds to the 60 Meter Mark

100 Meters Men: Start Model-A

100 Meters Men: Start Model-B

Set Position

5

Two Leg Drive

Single Leg Drive

Step One

Step Two

Sprint Strength Emphasis
A general key (1) to overall sprint start performance is to maximize the amount of available force production.

Start Forces

6

Horizontal Velocity
Front Leg 1200 1000 Back Leg

Expected Horizontal Force

Horizontal Block Forces

200 Lbs

800 600 400 200 0
0 Lbs
100 Lbs

Horizontal Force (Newtons)

0

0.05

0.1

0.15 0.2 Time (Seconds)

0.25

0.3

0.35

Horizontal Block Forces

Vertical Velocity

Expected Vertical Force

Front Leg

Back Leg

Total

1200

1000
200 Lbs

800

600
100 Lbs

Horizontal Force (Newtons)

400

200
0 Lbs

0

Minimal

0

0.05

0.1

0.15 0.2 Time (Seconds)

0.25

0.3

0.35

7

Vertical Block Forces

Front Leg

Back Leg

Vertical Block Forces
Front Leg 1200 Back Leg Both

Vertical Block Forces
Average

1200

Start
1000
200 Lbs

1000
800 600

800

For the each step, the Vertical Velocity Change ('Vv) is: 'Vv # .94 m/sec

200 Lbs

600
100 Lbs

100 Lbs

Vertical Force (Newtons)

200
0 Lbs

Vertical Force (Newtons)

400

Vertical Force = 77.5 kg * 'Vv /.150 sec
400
200 0

Vertical Force = 485 N (110 lbs)
0.3 0

0

0 Lbs

0

0.1

0.2 Time (Seconds)

0.1

0.2 Time (Seconds)

0.3

The Gravity Problem

Vertical Block Forces
200 Lbs

Vertical Block Forces

Front Leg 1200

Back Leg

Both
Average

1000
200 Lbs

Start The vertical effort is stressed further due to the Gravity Handicap:
Revised Vertical Force = 485 N + 750 N Vertical Force = 1235 N (277 lbs)

800
Weight

600
100 Lbs

Vertical Force (Newtons)

400
200 0
0 Lbs

0

0.1

0.2 Time (Seconds)

0.3

8

Sprint Forces
277 lbs 367 lbs 370 lbs 350 lbs

The Reality

The Strength/Mechanics Problem

Phase

Lateral Horizonal Vertical Total

Start Transition Max Velocity

0 lbs 0 lbs 0 lbs

205 lbs

50 lbs

The Strength/Mechanics Problem

Start Turnover Emphasis
A general key (2) to Start performance improvement is to maximize stride rate by minimizing both ground contact time and air time.

Stride Rate vs. Stride Length
Methods To Increase Stride Length z Jump higher (increase vertical velocity and air time) z Extend farther at Takeoff (increase ground time) z Reach farther at Touchdown (increase ground time) z Run faster (increase horizontal velocity)

9

Stride Rate vs. Stride Length
Methods To Increase Stride Rate z Jump lower (decrease vertical velocity and air time) z Extend less at Takeoff (decrease ground time) z Reach less at Touchdown (decrease ground time) z Pull ground leg through faster (decrease ground time) Methods To Increase Stride Length zJump higher (increase vertical velocity and air time) zExtend farther at Takeoff (increase ground time) zReach farther at Touchdown (increase ground time) zStart faster (increase horizontal velocity)

Stride Rate vs. Stride Length

Stride Rate vs. Stride Length
Methods To Increase Stride Rate z Jump lower (decrease vertical velocity and air time) z Extend less at Takeoff (decrease ground time) z Reach less at Touchdown (decrease ground time) z Pull ground leg through faster (decrease ground time) Methods To Increase Stride Length zJump higher (increase vertical velocity and air time) zExtend farther at Takeoff (increase ground time) zReach farther at Touchdown (increase ground time) zStart faster (increase horizontal velocity)

Methods To Increase Stride Rate z Jump lower (decrease vertical velocity and air time) z Extend less at Takeoff (decrease ground time) z Reach less at Touchdown (decrease ground time) z Pull ground leg through faster (decrease ground time)

Start: Stride Length
Step Length 2.5
Start

Start: Stride Length
Good

Start: Stride Rate
Stride Rate
5
Bad Good

Step Length

2.5

2

2

4

Bad

1.5

1.5

3

Stride Length (meters)

Stride Length (meters)

0.5

0.5

Stride Rate (steps/sec)
ep St 1 ep St 2 ep St 3 ep St 4 ep St 5 ep St 6 ep St 7 ep St 8 ep St 9 ep St 10 ep St 11 y cit lo Ve ax M

1

1

2

1

0
ep St ax M lo Ve 11 y cit

0

ep St

1

ep St

2

ep St

3

ep St

4

ep St

5

ep St

6

ep St

7

ep St

8

ep St

9

ep St

10

0

10

Start: Stride Rate
Air
0.4
Good

Start: Air and Ground Time
Ground
0.4
Start

Start: Air and Ground Time
Air Ground
0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

Stride Rate
0.35
Bad

5
0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

Start

4

Time (seconds)

Stride Rate (steps/sec)

2

1

0

Understanding The Sprint Performance
THE MECHANICS OF THE START

Time (seconds)

3

The Golden Start Position

How Do They Do It?

11

Step One: Knee Cross The Start

0.42 seconds from Start

5.0 meters/second

Specific Mechanics Descriptors

0.5 meters

Set Position Foot Placement
-0.2

COG Distance at Start (m)

Set Position Angles

Distance (m)

-0.25

-0.3

60%

100%

-0.35 Poor Poor Good

12

Block Clearance Angles

Step One Positions

Step Two Positions

Understanding The Sprint Performance

Sprint Mechanics Demands
Proper sprint mechanics are required to get the most out of talent and development.

Sprint Mechanics Demands

Back Side

Back Side

Front Side

Front Side

The Breakthrough Concept

• Maximize “Front Side Mechanics” • Minimize “Back Side Mechanics”

13

Vertical Block Forces

Front Leg
200 Lbs

Back Leg

Biomechanics
What You Need to Know About the Sprint Start
100 Lbs

1200

1000

800

600

Front Side

400

Vertical Force (Newtons)

Front Side

200
Back Side
0 Lbs

Back Side

0

Ralph Mann, Ph.D. Ph.D.

0

0.1

0.2 Time (Seconds)

0.3

14

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