1.

The nurse knows that which statement by the mother indicates that the mother understands safety precautions with her four month-old infant and her 4 year-old child? A) "I strap the infant car seat on the front seat to face backwards." "I place my infant in the middle of the living room floor on a B) blanket to play with my 4 year old while I make supper in the kitchen." "My sleeping baby lies so cute in the crib with the little buttocks C) stuck up in the air while the four year old naps on the sofa." "I have the 4 year-old hold and help feed the four month-old a D) bottle in the kitchen while I make supper." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "I have the four year-old hold and help feed the four month-old a bottle in the kitchen while I make supper." The infant seat is to be placed on the rear seat. Small children and infants are not to be left unsupervised. Infants are to be placed on their "back when they go back" to sleep or are lying in a crib. A 4 year-old could assist with the care of an infant with proper supervision. This enhances bonding with the infant and the developmental needs of the preschooler to "help" and not feel left out. 2. Upon completing the admission documents, the nurse learns that the 87 year-old client does not have an advance directive. What action should the nurse take? A) Record the information on the chart B) Give information about advance directives C) Assume that this client wishes a full code D) Refer this issue to the unit secretary Review Information: The correct answer is B: Give information about advance directives For each admission, nurses should request a copy of the current advance directive. If there is none, the nurse must offer information about what an advance directive implies. It is then the client’s choice to sign it. In option 1 just recording the information is not sufficient. In option 3 the nurse should not assume that the client has been informed of choices for emergency care. In option 4 this represents an inappropriate delegation approach. 3. A nurse administers the influenza vaccine to a client in a clinic. Within 15 minutes after the immunization was given, the client complains of itchy and watery eyes, increased anxiety, and difficulty breathing. The nurse expects that the first action in the sequence of care for this client will be to A) Maintain the airway B) Administer epinephrine 1:1000 as ordered C) Monitor for hypotension with shock D) Administer diphenhydramine as ordered Review Information: The correct answer is B: Administer epinephrine 1:1000 as ordered .All the answers are correct given the circumstances. The correct sequence of care is to administer the epinephrine, then maintain airway. In the early stages of anaphylaxis, when the patient has not lost consciousness and is normatensive, administering the epinephrine and then applying the oxygen, watching for hypotension and shock are later responses. The prevention of a severe crisis is maintained by using diphenhydramine. 4. Which of these children at the site of a disaster at a child day care center would the triage nurse put in the "treat last" category? An infant with intermittent buldging anterior fontonel between crying episodes A toddler with severe deep abrasions over 98% of the body A preschooler with 1 lower leg fracture and the other leg with an upper leg fracture A school-age child with singed eyebrows and hair on the arms Review Information: The correct answer is B: A toddler with severe deep abrasions over 98% of the body .This child has the least chance of survival. Severe deep abrasions are to be thought of as second and third degree burns. The child has great risk of shock and infection combined. 5. When admitting a client to an acute care facility, an identification bracelet is sent up with the admission form. In the event these do not match, the nurse’s best action is to change whichever item is incorrect to the correct information use the bracelet and admission form until a replacement is supplied notify the admissions office and wait to apply the bracelet make a corrected identification bracelet for the client Review Information: The correct answer is C: notify the admissions office and wait to apply the bracelet The Admissions Office has the responsibility to verify the client’s identity and keep all the records in the system consistent. Making the changes puts the client at risk for misidentification. Using an incorrect identification bracelet is unsafe. Making a new bracelet on the unit is not appropriate. 6. The nurse is having difficulty reading the health care provider's written order that was written right before the shift change. What action should be taken?

Leave the order for the oncoming staff to follow-up Contact the charge nurse for an interpretation Ask the pharmacy for assistance in the interpretation Call the provider for clarification Review Information: The correct answer is D: Call the provider for clarification Relying on anyone else''s interpretation is very risky. When in doubt, check it out with the person who wrote the illegible order. Order entry systems help to minimize this problem. 7. An adult client is found to be unresponsive on morning rounds. After checking for responsiveness and calling for help, the next action that should be taken by the nurse is to: A) check the cartoid pulse B) deliver 5 abdominal thrusts C) give 2 rescue breaths D) open the client's airway Review Information: The correct answer is D: open the client''s airway According to the ABCs of CPR the first step in rescuing an unresponsive victim after checking responsiveness and calling for help is to open the victims airway. The airway must be opened appropriately before the need for rescue breaths can be determined. The pulse is assessed, after breathing is evaluated. The need for abdominal thrusts is determined by inability to achieve chest rise when ventilation is attempted. 8. A client has an order for 1000 ml of D5W over an 8 hour period. The nurse discovers that 800 ml has been infused after 4 hours. What is the priority nursing action? A) Ask the client if there are any breathing problems B) Have the client void as much as possible C) Check the vital signs D) Ausculate the lungs Review Information: The correct answer is D: Ausculate the lungs All of the options would be part of the evaluation for the effects of the large amount of fluid in a short period of time. However the worst result is heart failure with lung congestion so the auscultation of the lungs is the priority action. The sequence of actions would be 4 1 3 2. 9. Following change-of-shift report on an orthopedic unit, which client should the nurse see first? 16 year-old who had an open reduction of a fractured wrist 10 hours ago 20 year-old in skeletal traction for 2 weeks since a motor cycle accident 72 year-old recovering from surgery after a hip replacement 2 hours ago 75 year-old who is in skin traction prior to planned hip pinning surgery. Review Information: The correct answer is C: 72 year-old recovering from surgery after a hip replacement 2 hours ago Look for the client who is in the least stable condition. The client who returned from surgery 2 hours ago is at risk for hemorrhage and should be seen first. The 16 year-old should be seen next because it is still the first post-op day. The 75 year-old in skin traction should be seen next. The client who can safely be seen last is the 20 year-old who is 2 weeks post-injury. 10. A nurse observes a family member administer a rectal suppository by having the client lie on the left side for the administration. The family member pushed the suppository until the finger went up to the second knuckle. After 10 minutes the client was told by the family member to turn to the right side and the client did this. What is the appropriate comment for the nurse to make? Why don’t we now have the client turn back to the left side. That was done correctly. Did you have any problems with the insertion? Let’s check to see if the suppository is in far enough. Did you feel any stool in the intestinal tract? Review Information: The correct answer is B: That was done correctly. Did you have any problems with the insertion? Left side-lying position is the optimal position for the client receiving rectal medications. Due to the position of the descending colon, left side-lying allows the medication to be inserted and move along the natural curve of the intestine and facilitates retention of the medication. After a short time it will not hurt the client to turn in any manner. The suppository should be somewhat melted after 10 to 15 minutes. The other responses are incorrect since no data is in the stem to support such comments. 11. A client with a diagnosis of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has died. Which type of precautions is the appropriate type to use when performing postmortem care? A) airborne precautions B) droplet precautions C) contact precautions D) compromised host precautions Review Information: The correct answer is C: contact precautions The resistant bacteria remain alive for up to 3 days post death. Therefore, contact precautions must still be implemented. Also label the body so that the funeral home staff can protect themselves as well. Gown and gloves are required. 12. The nurse is reviewing with a client how to collect a clean catch urine specimen. Which sequence is appropriate teaching?

A) Void a little, clean the meatus, then collect specimen B) clean the meatus, begin voiding, then catch urine stream C) Clean the meatus, then urinate into container D) Void continuously and catch some of the urine Review Information: The correct answer is B: clean the meatus, begin voiding, then catch urine stream A clean catch urine is difficult to obtain and requires clear directions. Instructing the client to carefully clean the meatus, then void naturally with a steady stream prevents surface bacteria from contaminating the urine specimen. As starting and stopping flow can be difficult, once the client begins voiding it''s best to just slip the container into the stream. Other responses are not correct technique. 13. The provider orders Lanoxin (digoxin) 0.125 mg po and furosomide 40 mg every day. Which of these foods would the nurse reinforce for the client to eat at least daily? A) spaghetti B) watermelon C) chicken D) tomatoes Review Information: The correct answer is B: watermelon Watermelon is high in potassium and will replace any potassium lost by the diuretic. The other foods are not high in potassium. 14. A nurse is stuck in the hand by an exposed needle. What immediate action should the nurse take? A) Look up the policy on needle sticks B) Contact employee health services C) Immediately wash the hands with vigor D) Notify the supervisor and risk management Review Information: The correct answer is C: Immediately wash the hands with vigor The immediate action of vigorously washing will help remove possible contamination. Then the sequence would then be options 4, 1, 2. 15. As the nurse observes the student nurse during the administration of a narcotic analgesic IM injection, the nurse notes that the student begins to give the medication without first aspirating. What should the nurse do? A) Ask the student: "What did you forget to do?” B) Stop. Tell me why aspiration is needed. C) Loudly state: “You forgot to aspirate.” Walk up and whisper in the student’s ear “Stop. Aspirate. Then D) inject.” Review Information: The correct answer is D: Walk up and whisper in the student’s ear “Stop. Aspirate. Then inject.” This action is a direct threat to the client if the medication enters into the blood stream instead of the muscle. The purpose of aspiration with IM injections is to prevent the injection of the drug directly into the blood stream. Option 4 protects the client and is the most professional. 16. A client with Guillain Barre is in a nonresponsive state, yet vital signs are stable and breathing is independent. What should the nurse document to most accurately describe the client's condition? A) Comatose, breathing unlabored B) Glascow Coma Scale 8, respirations regular C) Appears to be sleeping, vital signs stable D) Glascow Coma Scale 13, no ventilator required Review Information: The correct answer is B: Glascow Coma Scale 8, respirations regular The Glascow Coma Scale provides a standard reference for assessing or monitoring level of consciousness. Any score less than 13 indicates a neurological impairment. Using the term comatose provides too much room for interpretation and is not very precise. 17. A client enters the emergency department unconscious via ambulance from the client’s work place. What document should be given priority to guide the direction of care for this client? The statement of client rights and the client self determination act Orders written by the health care provider A notarized original of advance directives brought in by the partner The clinical pathway protocol of the agency and the emergency department Review Information: The correct answer is C: A notarized original of advance directives brought in by the partner This document specifies the client''s wishes. 18. The charge nurse has a health care team that consists of 1 PN, 1 unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) and 1 PN nursing student. Which assignment should be questioned by the nurse manager? An admission at the change of shifts with atrial fibrillation and heart failure - PN Client who had a major stroke 6 days ago - PN nursing student A child with burns who has packed cells and albumin IV running charge nurse

An elderly client who had a myocardial infarction a week ago - UAP Review Information: The correct answer is A: An admission at the change of shifts with atrial fibrillation and heart failure - PN The care for a new admissions should be performed by an RN. Since the client was admitted at the change of shifts, the stability of the client would not have been established. The charge nurse should take this client. The PN could monitor the IV fluids in option C. Tasks that do not require independent judgment should be delegated. The nurse may delegate the care for a stable client to a UAP. 19. A mother brings her 3 month-old into the clinic, complaining that the child seems to be spitting up all the time and has a lot of gas. The nurse expects to find which of the following on the initial history and physical assessment? A) Increased temperature and lethargy B) Restlessness and increased mucus production C) Increased sleeping and listlessness D) Diarrhea and poor skin turgor Review Information: The correct answer is B: Restlessness and increased mucus production This infant could be experiencing gastroesophageal reflux, or could be allergic to the formula. Restlessness, irritability and increased mucus production can develop if an allergy is present. Soy based formula is often recommended. 20. As the nurse takes a history of a 3 year-old with neuroblastoma, what comments by the parents require follow-up and are consistent with the diagnosis? A) "The child has been listless and has lost weight." B) "The urine is dark yellow and small in amounts." C) "Clothes are becoming tighter across her abdomen." D) "We notice muscle weakness and some unsteadiness." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Clothes are becoming tighter across her abdomen." One of the most common signs of neuroblastoma is increased abdominal girth. The parents'' report that clothing is tight is significant, and should be followed by additional assessments. 21. A 16 year-old enters the emergency department. The triage nurse identifies that this teenager is legally married and signs the consent form for treatment. What would be the appropriate action by the nurse? Ask the teenager to wait until a parent or legal guardian can be contacted Withhold treatment until telephone consent can be obtained from the partner Refer the teenager to a community pediatric hospital emergency department Proceed with the triage process in the same manner as any adult client Review Information: The correct answer is D: Proceed with the triage process in the same manner as any adult client Minors may become known as an "emancipated minor" through marriage, pregnancy, high school graduation, independent living or service in the military. Therefore, this client, who is married, has the legal capacity of an adult. 22. A newly admitted elderly client is severely dehydrated. When planning care for this client, which task is appropriate to assign to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? Converse with the client to determine if the mucuous membranes are impaired Report hourly outputs of less than 30 ml/hr Monitor client's ability for movement in the bed Check skin turgor every 4 hours Review Information: The correct answer is B: Report output of less than 30 ml/hr When directing a UAP, the nurse must communicate clearly about each delegated task with specific instructions on what must be reported. Because the RN is responsible for all care-related decisions, only implementation tasks should be assigned because they do not require independent judgment. 23. The nurse has admitted a 4 year-old with the diagnosis of possible rheumatic fever. Which statement by the parent would cause the nurse to suspect an association with this disease? Our child had chickenpox 6 months ago. Strep throat went through all the children at the day care last month. Both ears were infected over 3 months age. Last week both feet had a fungal skin infection. Review Information: The correct answer is B: Strep throat went through all the children at the day care last month. Evidence supports a strong relationship between infection with Group A streptococci and subsequent rheumatic fever (usually within 2 to 6 weeks). Therefore, the history of playmates recovering from strep throat would indicate that the child diagnosed with rheumatic fever most likely also had strep throat. Sometimes, such an infection has no clinical symptoms. 24. A nurse assigned to a manipulative client for 5 days becomes aware of feelings for a reluctance to interact with the client. The next action by the nurse should be to Discuss the feeling of reluctance with an objective peer or supervisor Limit contacts with the client to avoid reinforcement of the manipulative behavior

Confront the client about the negative effects of behaviors on other clients and staff Develop a behavior modification plan that will promote more functional behavior Review Information: The correct answer is A: Discuss the feeling of reluctance with an objective peer or supervisor The nurse who experiences stress in the therapeutic relationship can gain objectivity through supervision. The nurse must attempt to discover attitudes and feelings in the self that influence the nurseclient relationship. 25. A client is being treated for paranoid schizophrenia. When the client became loud and boisterous, the nurse immediately placed him in seclusion as a precautionary measure. The client willingly complied. The nurse’s action A) May result in charges of unlawful seclusion and restraint B) Leaves the nurse vulnerable for charges of assault and battery C) Was appropriate in view of the client’s history of violence D) Was necessary to maintain the therapeutic milieu of the unit Review Information: The correct answer is A: May result in charges of unlawful seclusion and restraint Seclusion should only be used when there is an immediate threat of violence or threatening behavior to the staff, the other clients, or the client upon himself. 26. A client has been admitted to the Coronary Care Unit with a myocardial infarction. Which nursing diagnosis should have priority? A) Pain related to ischemia B) Risk for altered elimination: constipation C) Risk for complication: dysrhythmias D) Anxiety related to pain Review Information: The correct answer is A: Pain related to ischemia Pain is related to ischemia, and relief of pain will decrease myocardial oxygen demands, reduce blood pressure and heart rate and relieve anxiety. Pain also stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and increased preload, further increasing myocardial demands. 27. The provisions of the law for the Americans with Disabilities Act require nurse managers to A) Maintain an environment free from associated hazards B) Provide reasonable accommodations for disabled individuals C) Make all necessary accommodations for disabled individuals D) Consider both mental and physical disabilities Review Information: The correct answer is B: Provide reasonable accommodations for disabled individuals The law is designed to permit persons with disabilities access to job opportunities. Employers must evaluate an applicant’s ability to perform the job and not discriminate on the basis of a disability. Employers also must make "reasonable accommodations." 28. A 42 year-old male client refuses to take propranolol hydrochloride (Inderal) as prescribed. Which client statement s from the assessment data is likely to explain his noncompliance? A) "I have problems with diarrhea." B) "I have difficulty falling asleep." C) "I have diminished sexual function." D) "I often feel jittery." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I have diminished sexual function." Inderal, beta-blocking agent used in hypertension, prohibits the release of epinephrine into the cells; this may result in hypotension which results in decreased libido and impotence. 29. A school-aged child has had a long leg (hip to ankle) synthetic cast applied 4 hours ago. Which statement from the mother indicates that teaching has been inadequate? "I will keep the cast for the next day uncovered to prevent burning of the skin." "I can apply an ice pack over the area to relieve itching inside the cast." "The cast should be propped on at least 2 pillows when my child is lying down." "I think I remember that standing cannot be done until after 72 hours." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "I think I remember that standing cannot be done until after 72 hours." Applying ice is a safe method of relieving the itching. Synthetic casts will typically set up in 30 minutes and dry in a few hours. Thus, standing can be done within the initial 24 hours. With plaster casts the set up and drying time, especially in a long leg cast which is thicker than an arm cast, can take up to 72 hours to dry. Both types of cast give off a lot of heat when drying and it is preferred to keep the cast uncovered in the initial 24 hours. Clients may complain of chilling from the wet cast and therefore can simply be covered lightly with a sheet or blanket.

30. Which statement best describes time management strategies applied to the role of a nurse manager? A) Schedule staff efficiently to cover the needs on the managed unit B) Assume a fair share of direct client care as a role model C) Set daily goals with a prioritization of the work Delegate tasks to reduce work load associated with direct care and D) meetings Review Information: The correct answer is C: Set daily goals with a prioritization of the work Time management strategies include setting goals and prioritization . This is similar to time management of direct care for clients 31. The pediatric clinic nurse examines a toddler with a tentative diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Findings observed by the nurse that is associated with this problem include which of these? A) Lymphedema and nerve palsy B) Hearing loss and ataxia C) Headaches and vomiting D) Abdominal mass and weakness Review Information: The correct answer is D: Abdominal mass and weakness Clinical manifestations of neuroblastoma include an irregular abdominal mass that crosses the midline, weakness, pallor, anorexia, weight loss and irritability. 32. A 15 year-old client has been placed in a Milwaukee Brace. Which statement from the adolescent indicates the need for additional teaching? A) "I will only have to wear this for 6 months." B) "I should inspect my skin daily." C) "The brace will be worn day and night." D) "I can take it off when I shower." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "I will only have to wear this for 6 months." The brace must be worn long-term, during periods of growth, usually for 1 to 2 years. It is used to correct curvature of the spine. 33. The nurse manager has been using a decentralized block scheduling plan to staff the nursing unit. However, staff have asked for many changes and exceptions to the schedule over the past few months. The manager considers selfscheduling knowing that this method will A) Improve the quality of care B) Decrease staff turnover C) Minimize the amount of overtime payouts D) Improve team morale Review Information: The correct answer is D: Improve team morale Nurses are more satisfied when opportunites exist for autonomy and control. The nurse manager becomes the facilitator of scheduling rather than the decisionmaker of the schedule when self-scheduling exists. 34. A client is admitted to the emergency room following an acute asthma attack. Which of the following assessments would be expected by the nurse? A) Diffuse expiratory wheezing B) Loose, productive cough C) No relief from inhalant D) Fever and chills Review Information: The correct answer is A: Diffuse expiratory wheezing In asthma, the airways are narrowed - creating difficulty getting air in and a wheezing sound. 35. The nurse manager hears a health care provider loudly criticize one of the staff nurses within the hearing of others. The employee does not respond to the health care provider's complaints. The nurse manager's next action should be to Walk up to the health care provider and quietly state: "Stop this unacceptable behavior." Allow the staff nurse to handle this situation without interference Notify the of the other administrative persons of a breech of professional conduct Request an immediate private meeting with the health care provider and staff nurse Review Information: The correct answer is D: Request an immediate private meeting with the health care provider and staff nurse Assertive communication respects the needs of all parties to express themselves, but not at the expense of others. The nurse manager needs first to protect clients and other staff from this display and come to the assistance of the nurse employee. 36. A client is admitted to a voluntary hospital mental health unit due to suicidal ideation. The client has been on the unit for 2 days and now states “I demand to be released now!” The appropriate action is for the nurse to A) You cannot be released because you are still suicidal. B) You can be released only if you sign a no suicide contract. Let’s discuss your decision to leave and then we can prepare you C) for discharge. You have a right to sign out as soon as we get an order from the D) health care provider's discharge order. Review Information: The correct answer is C: Let’s discuss your decision to leave and then we can prepare you for discharge.

Clients voluntarily admitted to the hospital have a right to demand and obtain release. Discussing the decision initially allows an opportunity for other interventions. 37. A client is admitted with infective endocarditis (IE). Which symptom would alert the nurse to a complication of this condition? A) Dyspnea B) Heart murmur C) Macular rash D) Hemorrhage Review Information: The correct answer is B: Heart murmur Large, soft, rapidly developing vegetations attach to the heart valves. They have a tendency to break off, causing emboli and leaving ulcerations on the valve leaflets. These emboli produce symptoms of cardiac murmur, fever, anorexia, malaise and neurologic sequelae of emboli. Furthermore, the vegetations may travel to various organs such as spleen, kidney, coronary artery, brain and lungs and obstruct blood flow. 38. A nurse admits a premature infant who has respiratory distress syndrome. In planning care, nursing actions are based on the fact that the most likely cause of this problem stems from the infant's inability to A) Stabilize thermoregulation B) Maintain alveolar surface tension C) Begin normal pulmonary blood flow D) Regulate intracardiac pressure Review Information: The correct answer is B: Maintain alveolar surface tension Respiratory distress syndrome is primarily a disease related to the developmental delay in lung maturation. Although many factors may lead to the development of the problem, the central factor is the lack of a normally functioning surfactant system in the alveolar sac from immaturity in lung development since the infant is premature. 39. An 18 year-old client is admitted to intensive care from the emergency room following a diving accident. The injury is suspected to be at the level of the 2nd cervical vertebrae. The nurse's priority assessment should be A) Response to stimuli B) Bladder control C) Respiratory function D) Muscle weakness Review Information: The correct answer is C: Respiratory function Spinal injury at the C-2 level results in quadriplegia. While the client will experience all of the problems identified, respiratory assessment is a priority. 40. The nurse is caring for a client who was successfully resuscitated from a pulseless dysrhythmia. Which of the following assessments is CRITICAL for the nurse to include in the plan of care? A) Hourly urine output B) White blood count C) Blood glucose every 4 hours D) Temperature every 2 hours Review Information: The correct answer is A: Hourly urine output Clients who have had an episode of decreased glomerular perfusion are at risk for pre-renal failure. This is caused by any abnormal decline in kidney perfusion that reduces glomerular perfusion. Pre-renal failure occurs when the effective arterial blood volume falls. Examples of this phenomena include a drop in circulating blood volume as in a cardiac arrest state or in low cardiac perfusion states such as congestive heart failure associated with a cardiomyopathy. Close observation of hourly urinary output is necessary for early detection of this condition. 41. The charge nurse on the night shift at an urgent care center has to deal with admitting clients of a higher acuity than usual because of a large fire in the area. Which style of leadership and decision-making would be best in this circumstance? A) Assume a decision-making role B) Seek input from staff C) Use a non-directive approach D) Shared decision-making with others Review Information: The correct answer is A: Assume a decisionmaking role Authoritarian leadership assumes that decision-making is the role of the leader with little input by subordinates. This style is best used in emergency situations or as a triage nurse. 42. The nurse admitting a 5 month-old who vomited 9 times in the past 6 hours should observe for signs of which overall imbalance? A) Metabolic acidosis B) Metabolic alkalosis C) Some increase in the serum hemaglobin D) A little decrease in the serum potassium Review Information: The correct answer is B: Metabolic alkalosis

Vomiting causes loss of acid from the stomach. Prolonged vomiting can result in excess loss of acid and lead to metabolic alkalosis. Options c and d are corrrect answers but not the best answer since they are too general. 43. Which activity can the RN ask an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) to perform? A) Take a history on a newly admitted client B) Adjust the rate of a gastric tube feeding C) Check the blood pressure of a 2 hours post operative client D) Check on a client receiving chemotherapy Review Information: The correct answer is C: Check the blood pressure of a 2 hours post operative client UAPs must be assigned tasks that require no nursing judgment or decision making situations. Vital signs on stable clients are commonly assigned to unlicensed staff. 44. A child is injured on the school playground and appears to have a fractured leg. The first action the school nurse should take is A) Call for emergency transport to the hospital B) Immobilize the limb and joints above and below the injury C) Assess the child and the extent of the injury D) Apply cold compresses to the injured area Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assess the child and the extent of the injury When applying the nursing process, assessment is the first step in providing care. The 5 "Ps" of vascular impairment can be used as a guide (pain, pulse, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis). 45. When interviewing the parents of a child with asthma, it is most important to gather what information about the child's environment? A) Household pets B) New furniture C) Lead based paint D) Plants such as cactus Review Information: The correct answer is A: Household pets Animal dander is a very common allergen affecting persons with asthma. Other triggers may include pollens, carpeting and household dust. 46. An 80 year-old client admitted with a diagnosis of possible cerebral vascular accident has had a blood pressure from 180/110 to 160/100 over the past 2 hours. The nurse has also noted increased lethargy. Which assessment finding should the nurse report immediately to the health care provider? A) Slurred speech B) Incontinence C) Muscle weakness D) Rapid pulse Review Information: The correct answer is A: Slurred speech Changes in speech patterns and level of conscious can be indicators of continued intercranial bleeding or extension of the stroke. Further diagnostic testing may be indicated. 47. A 3 year-old child is brought to the clinic by his grandmother to be seen for "scratching his bottom and wetting the bed at night." Based on these complaints, the nurse would initially assess for which problem? A) Allergies B) Scabies C) Regression D) Pinworms Review Information: The correct answer is D: Pinworms Signs of pinworm infection include intense perianal itching, poor sleep patterns, general irritability, restlessness, bed-wetting, distractibility and short attention span. Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by a tiny, eight-legged burrowing mite called Sarcoptes scabiei . The presence of the mite leads to intense itching in the area of its burrows. 48. A 72 year-old client with osteomyelitis requires a 6 week course of intravenous antibiotics. In planning for home care, what is the most important action by the nurse? Investigating the client's insurance coverage for home IV antibiotic A) therapy Determining if there are adequate hand washing facilities in the B) home Assessing the client's ability to participate in self care and/or the C) reliability of a caregiver D) Selecting the appropriate venous access device Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assessing the client''s ability to participate in self care and/or the reliability of a caregiver The cognitive ability of the client as well as the availability and reliability of a caregiver must be assessed to determine if home care is a feasible option. 49. The mother of a child with a neural tube defect asks the nurse what she can do to decrease the chances of having another baby with a neural tube defect. What is the best response by the nurse? A) "Folic acid should be taken before and after conception." B) "Multivitamin supplements are recommended during pregnancy." C) "A well balanced diet promotes normal fetal development." D) "Increased dietary iron improves the health of mother and fetus."

Review Information: The correct answer is A: "Folic acid should be taken before and after conception." The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all childbearing women increase folic acid from dietary sources and/or supplements. There is evidence that increased amounts of folic acid prevents neural tube defects. 50. A PN is assigned to care for a newborn with a neural tube defect. Which dressing if applied by the PN would need no further intervention by the charge nurse? A) Telfa dressing with antibiotic ointment B) Moist sterile nonadherent dressing C) Dry sterile dressing that is occlusive D) Sterile occlusive pressure dressing Review Information: The correct answer is B: Moist sterile nonadherent dressing Before surgical closure the sac is prevented from drying by the application of a sterile, moist, nonadherent dressing over the defect. Dressings are changed frequently to keep them moist. 51. A nurse is providing a parenting class to individuals living in a community of older homes. In discussing formula preparation, which of the following is most important to prevent lead poisoning? A) Use ready-to-feed commercial infant formula B) Boil the tap water for 10 minutes prior to preparing the formula C) Let tap water run for 2 minutes before adding to concentrate D) Buy bottled water labeled "lead free" to mix the formula Review Information: The correct answer is C: Let tap water run for 2 minutes before adding to concentrate Use of lead-contaminated water to prepare formula is a major source of poisoning in infants. Drinking water may be contaminated by lead from old lead pipes or lead solder used in sealing water pipes. Letting tap water run for several minutes will diminish the lead contamination. 52. A client is admitted to the rehabilitation unit following a CVA and mild dysphagia. The most appropriate intervention for this client is * A) Position client in upright position while eating B) Place client on a clear liquid diet C) Tilt head back to facilitate swallowing reflex D) Offer finger foods such as crackers or pretzels Review Information: The correct answer is A: Position client in upright position while eating An upright position facilitates proper chewing and swallowing. 53. The nurse explains an autograft to a client scheduled for excision of a skin tumor. The nurse knows the client understands the procedure when the client says, "I will receive tissue from… A) a tissue bank." B) a pig." C) my thigh." D) synthetic skin." Review Information: The correct answer is C: my thigh." Autografts are done with tissue transplanted from the client''s own skin. 54. The nurse is caring for a newborn with tracheoesophageal fistula. Which nursing diagnosis is a priority? A) Risk for dehydration B) Ineffective airway clearance C) Altered nutrition D) Risk for injury Review Information: The correct answer is B: Ineffective airway clearance The most common form of TEF is one in which the proximal esophageal segment terminates in a blind pouch and the distal segment is connected to the trachea or primary bronchus by a short fistula at or near the bifurcation. Thus, a priority is maintaining an open airway, preventing aspiration. Other nursing diagnoses are then addressed. 55. A client has been hospitalized after an automobile accident. A full leg cast was applied in the emergency room. The most important reason for the nurse to elevate the casted leg is to A) Promote the client's comfort B) Reduce the drying time C) Decrease irritation to the skin D) Improve venous return Review Information: The correct answer is D: Improve venous return Elevating the leg both improves venous return and reduces swelling. 56. During the initial home visit a nurse is discussing the care of a newly diagnosed client with Alzheimer's disease with family members. Which of these interventions would be most helpful at this time? A) Leave a book about relaxation techniques B) Write out a daily exercise routine for them to assist the client to do

C) List actions to improve the client's daily nutritional intake D) Suggest communication strategies Review Information: The correct answer is D: Suggest communication strategies Alzheimer''s disease, a progressive chronic illness greatly challenges caregivers. During the initial visit the nurse can be of greatest assistance in helping family to use communication strategies to enable identification of language changes in the client. By use of select verbal and nonverbal communication strategies the client’s aberrant behavior may be minimized. 57. The nurse is teaching a client with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus about the prescribed diet. The nurse should teach the client to A) Maintain previous calorie intake B) Keep a candy bar available at all times C) Reduce carbohydrates intake to 25% of total calories D) Keep a regular schedule of meals and snacks Review Information: The correct answer is D: Keep a regular schedule of meals and snacks Currently, calorie-controlled diets with strict meal plans are rarely suggested for clients who have diabetes. Try to incorporate schedule or food changes into clients'' existing dietary patterns. Help clients learn to read labels and identify specific canned foods, frozen entrees, or other foods which are acceptable and those which should be avoided. 58. The mother of a 2 month-old baby calls the nurse 2 days after the first DTaP, IPV, Hepatitis B and HIB immunizations. She reports that the baby feels very warm, cries inconsolably for as long as 3 hours, and has had several shaking spells. In addition to referring her to the emergency room, the nurse should document the reaction on the baby's record and expect which immunization to be most associated to the findings in the infant? A) DTaP B) Hepatitis B C) Polio D) H. Influenza Review Information: The correct answer is A: DTaP The majority of reactions occur with the administration of the DTaP vaccination. Contradictions to giving repeat DTaP immunizations include the occurrence of severe side effects after a previous dose as well as signs of encephalopathy within 7 days of the immunization. 59. The nurse is teaching a class on HIV prevention. Which of the following should be emphasized as increasing risk? A) Donating blood B) Using public bathrooms C) Unprotected sex D) Touching a person with AIDS Review Information: The correct answer is C: Unprotected sex Because HIV is spread through exposure to bodily fluids, unprotected intercourse and shared drug paraphernalia remain the highest risk for infection. 60. The charge nurse is planning assignments on a medical unit. Which client should be assigned to the unlicensed assistive presonnel (UAP)? A client with A) Difficulty swallowing after a mild stroke B) an order of enemas until clear prior to colonoscopy C) an order for a post-op abdominal dressing change D) transfer orders to a long term facility Review Information: The correct answer is B: an order of enemas until clear prior to colonoscopy The UAP can be assigned routine tasks which have predictable outcomes. 61. A 6 year-old child is seen for the first time in the clinic. Upon assessment, the nurse finds that the child has deformities of the joints, limbs, and fingers, thinned upper lip, and small teeth with faulty enamel. The mother states: ”My child seems to have problems in learning to count and recognizing basic colors.” Based on this data, the nurse suspects that the child is most likely showing the effects of which problem? A) Congenital abnormalities B) Chronic toxoplasmosis C) Fetal alcohol syndrome D) Lead poisoning Review Information: The correct answer is C: Fetal alcohol syndrome Major features of fetal alcohol syndrome consist of facial and associated physical features, such as small head circumference and brain size (microcephaly), small eyelid openings, a sunken nasal bridge, an exceptionally thin upper lip, a short, upturned nose and a smooth skin surface between the nose and upper lip. Vision difficulties include nearsightedness (myopia). Other findings are mental retardation, delayed development, abnormal behavior such as short attention span, hyperactivity, poor impulse control, extreme nervousness and anxiety. Many behavioral problems, cognitive impairment and psychosocial deficits are also associated with this syndrome. 62. The nurse has performed the initial assessments of 4 clients admitted with an acute episode of asthma. Which assessment finding would cause the nurse to call the health care provider immediately? A) Prolonged inspiration with each breath B) Expiratory wheezes that are suddenly absent in 1 lobe C) Expectoration of large amounts of purulent mucous

D) Appearance of the use of abdominal muscles for breathing Review Information: The correct answer is B: Expiratory wheezes that are suddenly absent in one lobe Acute asthma is characterized by expiratory wheezes caused by obstruction of the airways. Wheezes are a high pitched musical sounds produced by air moving through narrowed airways. Clients often associate wheezes with the feeling of tightness in the chest. However, sudden cessation of wheezing is an omnious or bad sign that indicates an emergency in that the small airways are now collasped. 63. The nurse is planning a meal plan that would provide the most iron for a child with anemia. Which dinner menu would be best? A) Fish sticks, french fries, banana, cookies, milk B) Ground beef patty, lima beans, wheat roll, raisins, milk C) Chicken nuggets, macaroni, peas, cantaloupe, milk D) Peanut butter and jelly sandwich, apple slices, milk Review Information: The correct answer is B: Ground beef patty, lima beans, wheat roll, raisins, milk Iron rich foods include red meat, fish, egg yolks, green leafy vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and dried fruits such as raisins. This dinner is the best choice, high in iron and is appropriate for a toddler. 64. A 10 year-old client is recovering from a splenectomy following a traumatic injury. The clients laboratory results show a hemoglobin of 9 g/dL and a hematocrit of 28 percent. The best approach for the nurse to use is to A) Limit milk and milk products B) Encourage bed activities and games C) Plan nursing care around lengthy rest periods D) Promote a diet rich in iron Review Information: The correct answer is C: Plan nursing care around lengthy rest periods The initial priority for this client is rest due to the inability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. 65. The nurse planning care for a 12 year-old child with sickle cell disease in a vaso-occlusive crisis of the elbow should include which one of the following as a priority? A) Limit fluids B) Client controlled analgesia C) Cold compresses to elbow D) Passive range of motion exercise Review Information: The correct answer is B: Client controlled analgesia Management of a crisis is directed towards supportive and symptomatic treatment. The priority of care is pain relief. In a 12 year-old child, client controlled analgesia promotes maximum comfort. 66. As the nurse provides discharge teaching to the parents of a 15 month-old child with Kawasaki disease. The child has received immunoglobulin therapy. Which instruction would be appropriate? A) High doses of aspirin will be continued for some time B) Complete recovery is expected within several days C) Active range of motion exercises should be done frequently D) The measles, mumps and rubella vaccine should be delayed Review Information: The correct answer is D: The measles, mumps and rubella vaccine should be delayed Discharge instructions for a child with Kawasaki Disease should include immunoglobulin therapy may interfere with the body''s ability to form appropriate amounts of antibodies and live immunizations should be delayed. 67. The nurse is giving instructions to the parents of a child with cystic fibrosis. The nurse would emphasize that pancreatic enzymes should be taken A) Once each day B) 3 times daily after meals C) With each meal or snack D) Each time carbohydrates are eaten Review Information: The correct answer is C: With each meal or snack Pancreatic enzymes should be taken with each meal and every snack to allow for digestion of all foods that are eaten. 68. The nurse is assessing an 8 month-old infant with a malfunctioning ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Which one of the following manifestations would the infant be most likely to exhibit? A) Lethargy B) Irritability C) Negative Moro D) Depressed fontanel Review Information: The correct answer is B: Irritability Signs of IICP (increased intracranial pressure) in infants include bulging fontanel, instability, high-pitched cry, and cries when held.

Vital sign changes include pulse that is variable, i.e., rapid, slow and bounding, or feeble. Respirations are more often slow, deep, and irregular. 69. The nurse is performing a physical assessment on a toddler. Which of the following should be the first action? A) Perform traumatic procedures B) Use minimal physical contact C) Proceed from head to toe D) Explain the exam in detail Review Information: The correct answer is B: Use minimal physical contact The nurse should approach the toddler slowly and use minimal physical contact initially so as to gain the toddler''s cooperation. Be flexible in the sequence of the exam, and give only brief simple explanations just prior to the action. 70. A client has been tentatively diagnosed with Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism). Which of these findings noted on the initial nursing assessment requires quick intervention by the nurse? A) A report of 10 pounds weight loss in the last month B) A comment by the client "I just can't sit still." The appearance of eyeballs that appear to "pop" out of the client's C) eye sockets D) A report of the sudden onset of irritability in the past 2 weeks Review Information: The correct answer is C: The appearance of eyeballs that appear to "pop" out of the client''s eye sockets Exophthalmos or protruding eyeballs is a distinctive characteristic of Graves'' Disease. It can result in corneal abrasions with severe eye pain or damage when the eyelid is unable to blink down over the protruding eyeball. Eye drops or ointment may be needed. 71. Which serum blood findings with diabetic ketoacidosis alerts the nurse that immediate action is required? A) pH below 7.3 B) Potassium of 5.0 C) HCT of 60 D) Pa O2 of 79% Review Information: The correct answer is C: HCT of 60 This high HCT is indicative of severe dehydration which requires priority attention in diabetic ketoacidosis. Without sufficient hydration all systems of the body are at risk for hypoxia from a lack of or sluggish circulation. In the absence of insulin, which facilitates the transport of glucose into the cell, the body breaks down fats and proteins to supply energy ketones, a by-product of fat metabolism. These accumulate causing metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.3), which would be the second concern for this client. The potassium and PaO2 are near normal. 72. The nurse is preparing the teaching plan for a group of parents about risks to toddlers. The nurse plans to explain proper communication in the event of accidental poisoning. The nurse should plan to tell the parents to first state what substance was ingested and then what information should be the priority for the parents to communicate? A) The parents' name and telephone number B) The currency of the immunization and allergy history of the child The estimated time of the accidental poisoning and a confirmation C) that the parents will bring the containers of the ingested substance D) The affected child's age and weight Review Information: The correct answer is D: The affected child''s age and weight All of the above information is important. However, once the substance is stated the age and weight is a priority. This gives the appropriate healthcare providers an opportunity to calculate the needed dosage for an antidote while the child is being transported to the emergency department. After this information, the time of the accidental poisoning is next in importance to report. 73. A 2 year-old child is brought to the health care provider's office with a chief complaint of mild diarrhea for 2 days. Nutritional counseling by the nurse should include which statement? A) Place the child on clear liquids and gelatin for 24 hours B) Continue with the regular diet and include oral rehydration fluids C) Give bananas, apples, rice and toast as tolerated D) Place NPO for 24 hours, then rehydrate with milk and water Review Information: The correct answer is B: Continue with the regular diet and include oral rehydration fluids Current recommendations for mild to moderate diarrhea are to maintain a normal diet with rehydration fluids. 74. The nurse is teaching an elderly client how to use MDI's (multi-dose inhalers). The nurse is concerned that the client is unable to coordinate the release of the medication with the inhalation phase. What is the nurse's best recommendation to improve delivery of the medication? A) Nebulized treatments for home care B) Adding a spacer device to the MDI canister C) Asking a family member to assist the client with the MDI D) Request a visiting nurse to follow the client at home Review Information: The correct answer is B: Adding a spacer device to the MDI canister If the client is not using the MDI properly, the medication can get trapped in the upper airway, resulting in dry mouth and throat irritation. Using a spacer will allow

more drug to be deposited in the lungs and less in the mouth. It is especially useful in the elderly because it allows more time to inhale and requires less eye-hand coordination. 75. Which of the following manifestations observed by the school nurse confirms the presence of pediculosis capitis in students? A) Scratching the head more than usual B) Flakes evident on a student's shoulders C) Oval pattern occipital hair loss D) Whitish oval specks sticking to the hair Review Information: The correct answer is D: Whitish oval specks sticking to the hair Diagnosis of pediculosis capitis is made by observation of the white eggs (nits) firmly attached to the hair shafts. Treatment includes shampoo application, such as lindane for children over 2 years of age, and meticulous combing and removal of all nits. 76. When parents call the emergency room to report that a toddler has swallowed drain cleaner, the nurse instructs them to call for emergency transport to the hospital. While waiting for an ambulance, the nurse would suggest for the parents to give sips of which substance? A) Tea B) Water C) Milk D) Soda Review Information: The correct answer is B: Water Small amounts of water will dilute the corrosive substance prior to gastric lavage. 77. A client is scheduled for an IVP (Intravenous Pyelogram). Which of the following data from the client’s history indicate a potential hazard for this test? A) Reflex incontinence B) Allergic to shellfish C) Claustrophobia D) Hypertension Review Information: The correct answer is B: Allergic to shellfish It is important to know if the client has an allergy to iodine or shellfish. If the client does, they may have an allergic reaction to the IVP contrast dye injected during the procedure. 78. The nurse is preparing a handout on infant feeding to be distributed to families visiting the clinic. Which notation should be included in the teaching materials? A) Solid foods are introduced 1 at a time beginning with cereal B) Finely ground meat should be started early to provide iron C) Egg white is added early to increase protein intake D) Solid foods should be mixed with formula in a bottle Review Information: The correct answer is A: Solid foods are introduced 1 at a time beginning with cereal Solid foods should be added 1 at a time between 4-6 months. If the infant is able to tolerate the food, another may be added in a week. Iron fortified cereal is the recommended first food. 79. The nurse is caring for a client with sickle cell disease who is scheduled to receive a unit of packed red blood cells. Which of the following is an appropriate action for the nurse when administering the infusion? Storing the packed red cells in the medicine refrigerator while A) starting IV B) Slow the rate of infusion if the client develops fever or chills C) Limit the infusion time of each of the unit to a maximum of 4 hours D) Assess vital signs every 15 minutes throughout the entire infusion Review Information: The correct answer is C: Limit the infusion time of each of the unit to a maximum of four hours Infuse the specified amount of blood within 4 hours. If the infusion will exceed this time, the blood should be divided into appropriately sized quantities. 80. A client with a documented pulmonary embolism has the following arterial blood gases: PO2 - 70 mm hg, PCO2 - 32 mm hg, pH - 7.45, SaO2 - 87%, HCO3 - 22. Based on this data, what is the first nursing action? A) Review other lab data B) Notify the health care provider C) Administer oxygen D) Calm the client Review Information: The correct answer is C: Administer oxygen The client has a low PCO2 due to increased respiratory rate from the hypoxemia and signs of respiratory alkalosis. Immediate intervention is indicated. 81. A client diagnosed with hepatitis C discusses his health history with the admitting nurse. The nurse should recognize which statement by the client as the most important? A) I got back from Central America a few weeks ago.

B) I had the best raw oysters last week. C) I have many different sex partners. D) I had a blood transfusion 15 years ago. Review Information: The correct answer is D: I had a blood transfusion 15 years ago. The client who was transfused prior to blood screening for hepatitis C may show findings many years later. Options b and c are associated with risk of hepatitis B. 82. A client is recovering from a thyroidectomy. While monitoring the client's initial post operative condition, which of the following should the nurse report immediately? A) Tetany and paresthesia B) Mild stridor and hoarseness C) Irritability and insomnia D) Headache and nausea Review Information: The correct answer is A: Tetany and paresthesia Because the parathyroid gland may be damaged in this surgery, secondary hypocalcemia may occur. Findings of hypoparathyroidism include tetany, paresthesia, muscle cramps and seizures. 83. A client is admitted with a right upper lobe infiltrate and to rule out tuberculosis. The most appropriate action by the nurse to protect the self would be which of these? A) Negative room ventilation B) Face mask with sheild C) Particulate respirator mask D) Airborne precautions Review Information: The correct answer is C: Particulate respirator mask Tight fitting, high-efficiency masks are required when caring for clients who have suspected communicable disease of the airborne variety. 84. A client had 20 mg of Lasix (furosemide) PO at 10 AM. Which would be essential for the nurse to include at the change of shift report? A) The client lost 2 pounds in 24 hours B) The client’s potassium level is 4 mEq/liter. C) The client’s urine output was 1500 cc in 5 hours D) The client is to receive another dose of Lasix at 10 PM Review Information: The correct answer is C: The client’s urine output was 1500 cc in five hours Although all of these may be correct information to include in report, the essential piece would be the urine output. 85. The nurse is caring for a client with a colostomy. During a teaching session, the nurse recommends that the pouch be emptied A) When it is 1/3 to 1/2 full B) Prior to meals C) After each fecal elimination D) At the same time each day Review Information: The correct answer is A: When it is 1/3 to 1/2 full If the pouch becomes more than half full it may separate from the flange. 86. Lactulose (Chronulac) has been prescribed for a client with advanced liver disease. Which of the following assessments would the nurse use to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment? A) An increase in appetite B) A decrease in fluid retention C) A decrease in lethargy D) A reduction in jaundice Review Information: The correct answer is C: A decrease in lethargy Lactulose produces and acid environment in the bowel and traps ammonia in the gut; the laxative effect then aids in removing the ammonia from the body. This decreases the effects of hepatic encephalopathy, including lethargy and confusion. 87. The mother of a 3 month-old infant tells the nurse that she wants to change from formula to whole milk and add cereal and meats to the diet. What should be emphasized as the nurse teaches about infant nutrition? A) Solid foods should be introduced at 3-4 months B) Whole milk is difficult for a young infant to digest C) Fluoridated tap water should be used to dilute milk D) Supplemental apple juice can be used between feedings Review Information: The correct answer is B: Whole milk is difficult for a young infant to digest Cow''s milk is not given to infants younger than 1 year because the tough, hard curd is difficult to digest. Also it contains little iron and creates a high renal solute load. 88. The nurse is assessing a 55 year-old female client who is scheduled for abdominal surgery. Which of the following information would indicate that the client is at risk for thrombus formation in the post-operative period? A) Estrogen replacement therapy B) 10% less than ideal body weight C) Hypersensitivity to heparin D) History of hepatitis Review Information: The correct answer is A: Estrogen replacement therapy Estrogen increases the hypercoagualability of the blood and increased the risk for development of thrombophlebitis.

89. The nurse is planning discharge for a 90 year-old client with musculo-skeletal weakness. Which intervention should be included in the plan and would be most effective for the prevention of falls? A) Place nightlights in the bedroom B) Wear eyeglasses at all times C) Install grab bars in the bathroom D) Teach muscle strengthening exercises Review Information: The correct answer is A: Place nightlights in the bedroom Because more falls occur in the bedroom than any other location, begin there. However, work in partnership with the client and family so they are willing to move furniture, lamp cords, and storage areas; add lighting; remove throw rugs; and decrease other environmental hazards. 90. An 8 year-old client is admitted to the hospital for surgery. The child’s parent reports the following allergies. Of these allergies which one should all health care personnel be aware of? A) Shellfish B) Molds C) Balloons D) Perfumed soap Review Information: The correct answer is C: Balloons Allergy to balloons indicates a latex allergy. All personnel in contact with the child will need to be aware of this condition and use nonlatex gloves. 91. The nurse is caring for a client who is post-op following a thoracotomy. The client has 2 chest tubes in place, connected to 1 chest drain. The nursing assessment reveals bubbling in the water seal chamber when the client coughs. What is the most appropriate nursing action? A) Clamp the chest tube B) Call the surgeon immediately C) Continue to monitor the client to see if the bubbling increases D) Instruct the client to try to avoid coughing Review Information: The correct answer is C: Continue to monitor the client to see if the bubbling increases Bubbling associated with coughing after lung surgery is to be expected as small amounts of air escape the pleural space when pressures inside the chest increase with coughing. Monitoring is the only nursing action required. 92. The nurse is reinforcing teaching to a 24 year-old woman receiving acyclovir (Zovirax) for a Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 infection. Which of these instructions should the nurse give the client? A) Complete the entire course of the medication for an effective cure Begin treatment with acyclovir at the onset of symptoms of B) recurrence Stop treatment if she thinks she may be pregnant to prevent birth C) defects Continue to take prophylactic doses for at least 5 years after the D) diagnosis Review Information: The correct answer is B: Begin treatment with acyclovir at the onset of symptoms of recurrence When the client is aware of early symptoms, such as pain, itching or tingling, treatment is very effective. Medications for herpes simples do not cure the disease; they simply decrease the level of symptoms. 93. An 8 year-old child is hospitalized during the edema phase of minimal change nephrotic syndrome. The nurse is assisting in choosing the lunch menu. Which menu is the best choice? A) Bologna sandwich, pudding, milk B) Frankfurter, baked potato, milk C) Chicken strips, corn on the cob, milk D) Grilled cheese sandwich, apple, milk Review Information: The correct answer is C: Chicken strips, corn on the cob, milk This menu is lowest in sodium. Ideally, low fat milk would be available. 94. The nurse is teaching parents about accidental poisoning in children. Which point should be emphasized? A) Call the Poison Control Center once the situation is identified B) Empty the child's mouth in any case of possible poisoning C) Have the child move minimally if a toxic substance was inhaled D) Do not induce vomiting if the poison is a hydrocarbon Review Information: The correct answer is B: Empty the child''s mouth in any case of possible poisoning Emptying the mouth of poison interferes with further ingestion and should be done first to limit contact with the substance. Note that all of the actions are correct. However option B is the priority to emphasize. 95. Which of the following findings contraindicate the use of haloperidol (Haldol) and warrant withholding the dose?

A) Drowsiness, lethargy, and inactivity B) Dry mouth, nasal congestion, and blurred vision C) Rash, blood dyscrasias, severe depression D) Hyperglycemia, weight gain, and edema Review Information: The correct answer is C: Rash, blood dyscrasias, severe depression Rash and blood dyscrasias are side effects of anti-psychotic drugs. A history of severe depression is a contraindication to the use of neuroleptics. 96. The nurse is planning care for a 14 year-old client returning from scoliosis corrective surgery. Which of the following actions should receive priority in the plan? A) Antibiotic therapy for 10 days B) Teach client isometric exercises for legs C) Assess movement and sensation of extremities D) Assist to stand up at bedside within the first 24 hours Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assess movement and sensation of extremities Following corrective surgery for scoliosis, neurological status requires special attention and assessment, especially that of the extremities. 97. A 3 year-old child diagnosed as having celiac disease attends a day care center. Which of the following would be an appropriate snack? A) Cheese crackers B) Peanut butter sandwich C) Potato chips D) Vanilla cookies Review Information: The correct answer is C: Potato chips Children with celiac disease should eat a gluten free diet. Gluten is found mainly in grains of wheat and rye and in smaller quantities in barley and oats. Corn, rice, soybeans and potatoes are digestible in persons with celiac disease. 98. A client with moderate persistent asthma is admitted for a minor surgical procedure. On admission the peak flow meter is measured at 480 liters/minute. Post-operatively the client is complaining of chest tightness. The peak flow has dropped to 200 liters/minute. What should the nurse do first? A) Notify the health care provider B) Administer the prn dose of Albuterol C) Apply oxygen at 2 liters per nasal cannula D) Repeat the peak flow reading in 30 minutes Review Information: The correct answer is B: Administer the prn dose of Albuterol Peak flow monitoring during exacerbations of asthma is recommended for clients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma to determine the severity of the exacerbation and to guide the treatment. A peak flow reading of less than 50% of the client''s baseline reading is a medical alert condition and a short-acting betaagonist must be taken immediately. 99. What finding signifies that children have attained the stage of concrete operations (Piaget)? A) Explores the environment with the use of sight and movement B) Thinks in mental images or word pictures C) Makes the moral judgement that "stealing is wrong" D) Reasons that homework is time-consuming yet necessary Review Information: The correct answer is C: Makes the moral judgment that "stealing is wrong" The stage of concrete operations is depicted by logical thinking and moral judgments. 100. The nurse is caring for a 17 month-old with acetaminophen poisoning. Which of the following lab reports should the nurse review first? A) Protime (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) B) Red blood cell and white blood cell counts C) Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance D) Liver enzymes (AST and ALT) Review Information: The correct answer is D: Liver enzymes (AST and ALT) Because acetaminophen is toxic to the liver and causes hepatic cellular necrosis, liver enzymes are released into the blood stream and serum levels of those enzymes rise. Other lab values are reviewed as well. 101. The nurse is teaching parents about diet for a 4 month-old infant with gastroenteritis and mild dehydration. In addition to oral rehydration fluids, the diet should include A) Formula or breast milk B) Broth and tea C) Rice cereal and apple juice D) Gelatin and ginger ale Review Information: The correct answer is A: Formula or breast milk The usual diet for a young infant should be followed. 102. The nurse instructs the client taking dexamethasone (Decadron) to take it with food or milk. What is the physiological basis for this instruction? A) Retards pepsin production B) Stimulates hydrochloric acid production C) Slows stomach emptying time D) Decreases production of hydrochloric acid

Review Information: The correct answer is B: Stimulates hydrochloric acid production Decadron increases the production of hydrochloric acid, which may cause gastrointestinal ulcers. 103. The nurse is planning care for a 3 month-old infant immediately postoperative following placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus. The nurse needs to A) Assess for abdominal distention B) Maintain infant in an upright position C) Begin formula feedings when infant is alert D) Pump the shunt to assess for proper function Review Information: The correct answer is A: Assess for abdominal distention The child is observed for abdominal distention because cerebrospinal fluid may cause peritonitis or a postoperative ileus as a complication of distal catheter placement. 104. The mother of a 2 year-old hospitalized child asks the nurse's advice about the child's screaming every time the mother gets ready to leave the hospital room. What is the best response by the nurse? "I think you or your partner needs to stay with the child while in the A) hospital." B) "Oh, that behavior will stop in a few days." "Keep in mind that for the age this is a normal response to being in C) the hospital." "You might want to "sneak out" of the room once the child falls D) asleep." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Keep in mind that for the age this is a normal response to being in the hospital." The protest phase of separation anxiety is a normal response for a child this age. In toddlers, ages 1 to 3, separation anxiety is at its peak 105. When caring for a client receiving warfarin sodium (Coumadin), which lab test would the nurse monitor to determine therapeutic reponse to the drug? A) Bleeding time B) Coagulation time C) Prothrombin time D) Partial thromboplastin time Review Information: The correct answer is C: Prothrombin time Coumadin is ordered daily, based on the client''s prothrombin time (PT). This test evaluates the adequacy of the extrinsic system and common pathway in the clotting cascade; Coumadin affects the Vitamin K dependent clotting factors. 106. The nurse is caring for a 4 year-old 2 hours after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Which of the following assessments must be reported immediately? A) Vomiting of dark emesis B) Complaints of throat pain C) Apical heart rate of 110 D) Increased restlessness Review Information: The correct answer is D: Increased restlessness Restlessness and increased respiratory and heart rates are often early signs of hemorrhage. 107. The nurse admits a 7 year-old to the emergency room after a leg injury. The x-rays show a femur fracture near the epiphysis. The parents ask what will be the outcome of this injury. The appropriate response by the nurse should be which of these statements? "The injury is expected to heal quickly because of thin A) periosteum." * B) "In some instances the result is a retarded bone growth." C) "Bone growth is stimulated in the affected leg." D)

109. During the check up of a 2 month-old infant at a well baby clinic, the mother expresses concern to the nurse because a flat pink birthmark on the baby's forehead and eyelid has not gone away. What is an appropriate response by the nurse? A) "Mongolian spots are a normal finding in dark-skinned children." B) "Port wine stains are often associated with other malformations." "Telangiectatic nevi are normal and will disappear as the baby C) grows." "The child is too young for consideration of surgical removal of D) these at this time." Review Information: The correct answer is C: Telangiectatic nevi are normal and will disappear as the baby grows Telangiectatic nevi, salmon patch or stork bite birthmarks are a normal variation and the facial nevi will generally disappear by ages 1 to 2 years. 110. A client has returned to the unit following a renal biopsy. Which of the following nursing interventions is appropriate? A) Ambulate the client 4 hours after procedure B) Maintain client on NPO status for 24 hours C) Monitor vital signs D) Change dressing every 8 hours Review Information: The correct answer is C: Monitor vital signs The potential complication of this procedure is internal hemorrhage. Monitoring vital signs is critical to detect early indications of bleeding. 111. A client has been admitted with a fractured femur and has been placed in skeletal traction. Which of the following nursing interventions should receive priority? A) Maintaining proper body alignment B) Frequent neurovascular assessments of the affected leg C) Inspection of pin sites for evidence of drainage or inflammation Applying an over-bed trapeze to assist the client with movement in D) bed Review Information: The correct answer is B: Frequent neurovascular assessments of the affected leg The most important activity for the nurse is to assess neurovascular status. Compartment syndrome is a serious complication of fractures. Prompt recognition of this neurovascular problem and early intervention may prevent permanent limb damage. 112. The nurse is teaching a client newly diagnosed with asthma how to use the metered-dose inhaler (MDI). The client asks when they will know the canister is empty. The best response is A) Drop the canister in water to observe floating B) Estimate how many doses are usually in the canister C) Count the number of doses as the inhaler is used D) Shake the canister to detect any fluid movement Review Information: The correct answer is A: Drop the canister in water to observe floating Dropping the canister into a bowl of water assesses the amount of medications remaining in a metered-dose inhaler. The client should obtain a refill when the inhaler rises to the surface and begins to tip over. Some of the newer canisters have counters. 113. While teaching the family of a child who will take phenytoin (Dilantin) regularly for seizure control, it is most important for the nurse to teach them about which of the following actions? A) Maintain good oral hygiene and dental care B) Omit medication if the child is seizure free C) Administer acetaminophen to promote sleep D) Serve a diet that is high in iron Review Information: The correct answer is A: Maintain good oral hygiene and dental care Swollen and tender gums occur often with use of phenytoin. Oral hygiene and regular visits to the dentist should be emphasized. 114. A 7 month pregnant woman is admitted with complaints of painless vaginal bleeding over several hours. The nurse should prepare the client for an immediate A) Non stress test B) Abdominal ultrasound C) Pelvic exam D) X-ray of abdomen Review Information: The correct answer is B: Abdominal ultrasound The standard for diagnosis of placenta previa, which is suggested in the client''s history, is abdominal ultrasound. 115. The nurse is assessing a 17 year-old female client with bulimia. Which of the following laboratory reports would the nurse anticipate? A) Increased serum glucose B) Decreased albumin C) Decreased potassium D) Increased sodium retention Review Information: The correct answer is C: Decreased potassium In bulimia, loss of electrolytes can occur in addition to signs and symptoms of starvation and dehydration.

"This type of injury shows more rapid union than that of younger children."

Review Information: The correct answer is B: "In some instances the result is a retarded bone growth." An epiphyseal (growth) plate fracture in a 7 year-old often results in retarded bone growth. The leg often will be different in length. 108. A client receiving chlorpromazine HCL (Thorazine) is in psychiatric home care. During a home visit the nurse observes the client smacking her lips alternately with grinding her teeth. The nurse recognizes this assessement finding as what? A) Dystonia B) Akathesia C) Brady dysknesia D) Tardive dyskinesia Review Information: The correct answer is D: Tardive dyskinesia Signs of tardive dyskinesia include smacking lips, grinding of teeth and "fly catching" tongue movements.

116. An 80 year-old client on digitalis (Lanoxin) reports nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and halo vision. Which of the following laboratory results should the nurse analyze first? * A) Potassium levels B) Blood pH C) Magnesium levels D) Blood urea nitrogen Review Information: The correct answer is A: Potassium levels The most common cause of digitalis toxicity is a low potassium level. Clients must be taught that it is important to have adequate potassium intake especially if taking diuretics that enhance the loss of potassium while they are taking digitalis preparations. 117. The nurse caring for a 9 year-old child with a fractured femur is told that a medication error occurred. The child received twice the ordered dose of morphine an hour ago. Which nursing diagnosis is a priority at this time? A) Risk for fluid volume deficit related to morphine overdose B) Decreased gastrointestinal mobility related to mucosal irritation Ineffective breathing patterns related to central nervous system C) depression D) Altered nutrition related to inability to control nausea and vomiting Review Information: The correct answer is C: Ineffective breathing patterns related to central nervous system depression Respiratory depression is a life-threatening risk in this overdose. 118. The nurse notes that a 2 year-old child recovering from a tonsillectomy has an temperature of 98.2 degrees Fahrenheit at 8:00 AM. At 10:00 AM the child's mother reports that the child "feels very warm" to touch. The first action by the nurse should be to A) Reassure the mother that this is normal B) Offer the child cold oral fluids C) Reassess the child's temperature D) Administer the prescribed acetaminophen Review Information: The correct answer is C: Reassess the child''s temperature A child''s temperature may have rapid fluctuations. The nurse should listen to and show respect for what parents say. 119. The nurse is teaching a newly diagnosed asthma client on how to use a peak flow meter. The nurse explains that this should be used to A) Determine oxygen saturation B) Measure forced expiratory volume C) Monitor atmosphere for presence of allergens D) Provide metered doses for inhaled bronchodilator Review Information: The correct answer is B: Measure forced expiratory volume The peak flow meter is used to measure peak expiratory flow volume. It provides useful information about the presence and/or severity of airway obstruction. 120. The nurse is performing a pre-kindergarten physical on a 5 yearold. The last series of vaccines will be administered. What is the preferred site for injection by the nurse? A) Vastus intermedius B) Gluteus rainlinus C) Vastus lateralis D) DorsogluteaI Review Information: The correct answer is C: Vastus lateralis Vastus lateralis, a large and well developed muscle, is the preferred site, since it is removed from major nerves and blood vessels. 121. A couple experienced the loss of a 7 month-old fetus. In planning for discharge, what should the nurse emphasize? A) To discuss feelings with each other and use support persons B) To focus on the other healthy children and move through the loss To seek causes for the fetal death and come to some safe C) conclusion To plan for another pregnancy within 2 years and maintain physical D) health Review Information: The correct answer is A: To discuss feelings with each other and use support persons To communicate in a therapeutic manner, the nurse''s goal is to help the couple begin the grief process by suggesting they talk to each other, seek family 122. The parents of a 4 year-old hospitalized child tell the nurse, “We are leaving now and will be back at 6 PM.” A few hours later the child asks the nurse when the parents will come again. What is the best response by the nurse? A) "They will be back right after supper." B) "In about 2 hours, you will see them." C) "After you play awhile, they will be here." D) "When the clock hands are on 6 and 12." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "They will be back right after supper."

Time is not completely understood by a 4 year-old. Preschoolers interpret time with their own frame of reference. Thus, it is best to explain time in relationship to a known, common event. 123. The nurse is providing instructions for a client with asthma. Which of the following should the client monitor on a daily basis? A) Respiratory rate B) Peak air flow volumes C) Pulse oximetry D) Skin color Review Information: The correct answer is B: Peak air flow volumes The peak airflow volume decreases about 24 hours before clinical manifestations. 124. Therapeutic nurse-client interaction occurs when the nurse A) Assists the client to clarify the meaning of what the client has said B) Interprets the client’s covert communication C) Praises the client for appropriate feelings and behavior D) Advises the client on ways to resolve problems Review Information: The correct answer is A: Assists the client to clarify the meaning of what the client has said Clarification is a facilitating/therapeutic communication strategy. Intrepretation or changing the focus/subject, giving approval, and advising are nontherapeutic/barriers to communication. 125. A 14 month-old child ingested half a bottle of aspirin tablets. Which of the following would the nurse expect to see in the child? A) Hypothermia B) Edema C) Dyspnea D) Epistaxis Review Information: The correct answer is D: Epistaxis A large dose of aspirin inhibits prothrombin formation and lowers platelet levels. With an overdose, clotting time is prolonged. 126. The nurse is caring for a client with a distal tibia fracture. The client has had a closed reduction and application of a toe to groin cast. 36 hours after surgery, the client suddenly becomes confused, short of breath and spikes a temperature of 103 degrees Fahrenheit. The first assessment the nurse should perform is A) Orientation to time, place and person B) Pulse oximetry C) Circulation to casted extremity D) Blood pressure Review Information: The correct answer is B: Pulse oximetry Restlessness, confusion, irritability and disorientation may be the first signs of fat embolism syndrome followed by a very high temperature. The nurse needs to confirm hypoxia first. 127. Which nursing intervention will be most effective in helping a withdrawn client to develop relationship skills? A) Offer the client frequent opportunities to interact with 1 person Provide the client with frequent opportunities to interact with other B) clients C) Assist the client to analyze the meaning of the withdrawn behavior Discuss with the client the focus that other clients have similar D) problems Review Information: The correct answer is A: Offer the client frequent opportunities to interact with one person The withdrawn client is uncomfortable in social interaction. The nurse client relationship is a corrective relationship in which the client learns both tolerance and skills for relationships. 128. The nurse is assessing a client with a Stage 2 skin ulcer. Which of the following treatments is most effective to promote healing? A) Covering the wound with a dry dressing B) Using hydrogen peroxide soaks C) Leaving the area open to dry D) Applying a hydrocolloid or foam dressing Review Information: The correct answer is D: Applying a hydrocolloid or foam dressing While the previously accepted treatment was a transparent cover, evidence now indicates that the foam (DuoDerm) dressings work best.. 129. A female client is admitted for a breast biopsy. She says, tearfully to the nurse, "If this turns out to be cancer and I have to have my breast removed, my partner will never come near me." The nurse's best response would be which of these statements? A) "I hear you saying that you have a fear for the loss of love." B) "You sound concerned that your partner will reject you." C) "Are you wondering about the effects on your sexuality?" D) "Are you worried that the surgery will change you?" Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Are you worried that the surgery will change you?" This is a general lead in type of response that encourages further discussion without focusing on an area that the nurse, but possibly not the client, feels is a problem.

130. When teaching suicide prevention to the parents of a 15 year-old who recently attempted suicide, the nurse describes the following behavioral cue A) Angry outbursts at significant others B) Fear of being left alone C) Giving away valued personal items D) Experiencing the loss of a boyfriend Review Information: The correct answer is C: Giving away valued personal items 80% of all potential suicide victims give some type of clue. These clues might lead one to suspect that a client is holding suicidal thoughts or is developing a plan. 131. The nurse is caring for a 4 year-old admitted after receiving burns to more than 50% of his body. Which laboratory data should be reviewed by the nurse as a priority in the first 24 hours? A) Blood urea nitrogen B) Hematocrit C) Blood glucose D) White blood count Review Information: The correct answer is A: Blood urea nitrogen Glomerular filtration is decreased in the initial response to severe burns, with fluid shift. Kidney function must be monitored closely, or renal failure may follow in a few days. 132. The nurse is assigned to care for a client who had a myocardial infarction (MI) 2 days ago. The client has many questions about this condition. What area is a priority for the nurse to discuss at this time? A) Daily needs and concerns B) The overview cardiac rehabilitation C) Medication and diet guideline D) Activity and rest guidelines Review Information: The correct answer is A: Daily needs and concerns At the point of 2 days post-MI the client education should be focused on the immediate needs and concerns for the day. 133. The nurse is preparing a client with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) for a Venous Doppler evaluation. Which of the following would be necessary for preparing the client for this test? A) Client should be NPO after midnight B) Client should receive a sedative medication prior to the test C) Discontinue anti-coagulant therapy prior to the test D) No special preparation is necessary Review Information: The correct answer is D: No special preparation is necessary This is a non-invasive procedure and does not require preparation. 134. While interviewing a client, the nurse notices that the client is shifting positions, wringing her hands, and avoiding eye contact. It is important for the nurse to A) Ask the client what she is feeling B) Assess the client for auditory hallucinations C) Recognize the behavior as a side effect of medication D) Re-focus the discussion on a less anxiety provoking topic Review Information: The correct answer is A: Ask the client what she is feeling The initial step in anxiety intervention is observing, identifying, and assessing anxiety. 135. Which statement made by a client indicates to the nurse that he may have a thought disorder? A) "I'm so angry about this. Wait until my partner hears about this." B) "I'm a little confused. What time is it?" C) "I can't find my 'mesmer' shoes. Have you seen them?" D) "I'm fine. It's my daughter who has the problem." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I can''t find my ''mesmer'' shoes. Have you seen them?" A Neologism is a new word self invented by a person and not readily understood by another that is often associated with a thought disorder. 136. The nurse is observing a client with an obsessive-compulsive disorder in an inpatient setting. Which behavior is consistent with this diagnosis? A) Repeatedly checking that the door is locked B) Verbalized suspicions about thefts C) Preference for consistent care givers D) Repetitive, involuntary movements Review Information: The correct answer is A: Repeatedly checking that the door is locked Behaviors that are repeated are symptomatic of obsessive-compulsive disorders. These behaviors often interfere with normal function and employment.

137. A young adult seeks treatment in an outpatient mental health center. The client tells the nurse he is a government official being followed by spies. On further questioning, he reveals that his warnings must be heeded to prevent nuclear war. What is the most therapeutic approach by the nurse? A) Listen quietly without comment B) Ask for further information on the spies C) Confront the client on a delusion D) Contact the government agency Review Information: The correct answer is A: Listen quietly without comment The client''s comments demonstrate grandiose ideas. The most therapeutic response is to listen but avoid incorporation into the delusion. 138. A client is admitted to a psychiatric unit with delusions. What findings can the nurse expect? A) Flight of ideas and hyperactivity B) Suspiciousness and resistance to therapy C) Anorexia and hopelessness D) Panic and multiple physical complaints Review Information: The correct answer is B: Suspiciousness and resistance to therapy Clinical features of delusional disorder include extreme suspiciousness, jealousy, distrust, and belief that others intend to harm. 139. A client who is a former actress enters the day room wearing a sheer nightgown, high heels, numerous bracelets, bright red lipstick and heavily rouged cheeks. Which nursing action is the best in response to the client’s attire? A) Gently remind her that she is no longer on stage B) Directly assist client to her room for appropriate apparel C) Quietly point out to her the dress of other clients on the unit D) Tactfully explain appropriate clothing for the hospital Review Information: The correct answer is B: Directly assist client to her room for appropriate apparel Allows the client to maintain self-esteem while modifying behavior. 140. Handshaking is the preferred form of touch or contact used with clients in a psychiatric setting. The rationale behind this limited touch practice is that A) Some clients misconstrue hugs as an invitation to sexual advances B) Handshaking keeps the gesture on a professional level C) Refusal to touch a client denotes lack of concern D) Inappropriate touch often results in charges of assault and battery Review Information: The correct answer is A: Some clients misconstrue hugs as an invitation to sexual advances Touch denotes positive feelings for another person. The client may interpret hugging and holding hands as a sexual advance. 141. A client with paranoid delusions stares at the nurse over a period of several days. The client suddenly walks up to the nurse and shouts "You think you’re so perfect and pure and good." An appropriate response for the nurse is A) "Is that why you’ve been starring at me?" B) "You seem to be in a really bad mood." C) "Perfect? I don’t quite understand." D) "You are angry right now." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "You are angry right now." The nurse recognizes the underlying emotion with matter of fact attitude. 142. An important goal in the development of a therapeutic inpatient milieu is to Provide a businesslike atmosphere where clients can work on A) individual goals Provide a group forum in which clients decide on unit rules, B) regulations, and policies Provide a testing ground for new patterns of behavior while the C) client takes responsibility for his or her own actions Discourage expressions of anger because they can be disruptive to D) other clients Review Information: The correct answer is C: Provide a testing ground for new patterns of behavior while the client takes responsibility for his or her own actions A therapeutic milieu is purposeful and planned to provide safety and a testing ground for new patterns of behavior. 143. The nurse's primary intervention for a client who is experiencing a panic attack is to A) Develop a trusting relationship B) Assist the client to describe his experience in detail C) Maintain safety for the client D) Teach the client to control his or her own behavior Review Information: The correct answer is C: Maintain safety for the client Clients who display signs of severe anxiety need to be supervised closely until the anxiety is decreased because they may harm themselves or others. 144. Which intervention best demonstrates the nurse's sensitivity to a 16 yearold’s appropriate need for autonomy? A) Alertness for feelings regarding body image B) Allows young siblings to visit Provides opportunity to discuss concerns without presence of C) parents D) Explores his feelings of resentment to identify causes

Review Information: The correct answer is C: Provides opportunity to discuss concerns without presence of parents This intervention provides the teen with the opportunity to have control and encourages decision making. 145. A client with anorexia is hospitalized on a medical unit due to electrolyte imbalance and cardiac dysrhythmias. Additional assessment findings that the nurse would expect to observe are A) Brittle hair, lanugo, amenorrhea B) Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dental erosion C) Hyperthermia, tachycardia, increased metabolic rate D) Excessive anxiety about symptoms Review Information: The correct answer is A: Brittle hair, lanugo, amenorrhea Physical findings associated with anorexia are brittle hair, lanugo, and dehydration, lowered metabolic rate and vital signs. 146. A depressed client in an assisted living facility tells the nurse that "life isn't worth living anymore." What is the best response to this statement? A) "Come on, it is not that bad." B) "Have you thought about hurting yourself?" C) "Did you tell that to your family?" D) "Think of the many positive things in life." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Have you thought about hurting yourself?" It is appropriate and necessary to determine if someone who has voiced suicidal ideation is considering a suicidal act. This response is most therapeutic in the circumstances. 147. A client, recovering from alcoholism, asks the nurse, "What can I do when I start recognizing relapse triggers within myself?" How might the nurse best respond? "When you have the impulse to stop in a bar, contact a sober A) friend and talk with him." B) "Go to an AA meeting when you feel the urge to drink." "It is important to exercise daily and get involved in activities that C) will cause you not to think about drug use." * D) "Identify your relapse triggers as part of getting better." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Identify your relapse triggers as part of getting better." This option encourages the process of self evaluation and problem solving. 148. A client was admitted to the eating disorder unit with bulimia nervosa. The nurse assessing for a history of complications of this disorder expects A) Respiratory distress, dyspnea B) Bacterial gastrointestinal infections, overhydration C) Metabolic acidosis, constricted colon D) Dental erosion, parotid gland enlargement Review Information: The correct answer is D: Dental erosion, parotid gland enlargement Dental erosion related to purging and parotid gland enlargement due to purging are common complications. 149. A nurse entering the room of a postpartum mother observes the baby lying at the edge of the bed while the woman sits in a chair. The mother states," This is not my baby, and I do not want it." The nurse's best response is "This is a common occurrence after birth, but you will come to accept the baby." "Many women have postpartum blues and need some time to love the baby." "What a beautiful baby! Her eyes are just like yours." "You seem upset; tell me what the pregnancy and birth were like for you." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "You seem upset; tell me what the pregnancy and birth were like for you." A non-judgmental, open ended response facilitates dialogue between the client and nurse. 150. Which of the following times is a depressed client at highest risk for attempting suicide? A) Immediately after admission, during one-to-one observation 7 to 14 days after initiation of antidepressant medication and B) psychotherapy C) Following an angry outburst with family D) When the client is removed from the security room Review Information: The correct answer is B: Seven to 14 days after initiation of antidepressant medication and psychotherapy As the depression lessens, the depressed client acquires energy to follow the plan. Results for Physiological Adaptation

 Questions are numbered by the order in which they appeared in the test.  * Represents the correct answer. 1. A man diagnosed with epididymitis 2 days ago calls the nurse at a health clinic to discuss the problem. What information is most important for the nurse to ask about at this time? A) What are you taking for pain and does it provide total relief? * B) What does the skin on the testicles look and feel like? C) Do you have any questions about your care? D) Did you know a consequence of epididymitis is infertility? Review Information: The correct answer is B: What does the skin on the testicles look and feel like? All of the questions should be asked. However, the one about the problem is the most important to start with at this time. 2. A client has had heart failure. Which intervention is most important for the nurse to implement prior to the initial admininstration of Digoxin to this client? A) Assess the apical pulse, counting for a full 60 seconds B) Take a radial pulse, counting for a full 60 seconds C) Use the pulse reading from the electronic blood pressure device D) Check for a pulse deficit Review Information: The correct answer is A: Assess the apical pulse, counting for a full 60 seconds It is the nurse’s responsibility to take the client’s pulse before administering digoxin. The correct technique for taking an apical pulse is to use the stethoscope and listen for a full 60 seconds. Digoxin is held for a pulse below 60 beats per minute. Radial pulse or blood pressure are not part of the initial assessment before administering an initial dose of digoxin. 3. A client is admitted with a tentative diagnosis of congestive heart failure. Which of the following assessments would the nurse expect to be consistent with this problem? A) Chest pain B) Pallor C) Inspiratory crackles D) Heart murmur Review Information: The correct answer is C: Inspiratory crackles In congestive heart failure, fluid backs up into the lungs (creating crackles) as a result of inefficient cardiac pumping. 4. A nurse is providing care to a 17 year-old client in the post-operative care unit (PACU) after an emergency appendectomy. Which finding is an early indication that the client is experiencing poor oxygenation? A) Abnormal breath sounds B) Cyanosis of the lips C) Increasing pulse rate D) Pulse oximeter reading of 92% Review Information: The correct answer is C: Increasing pulse rate The earliest sign of poor oxygenation is an increasing pulse rate as a part of the body’s compensatory mechanism. Abnormal breath sounds and cyanosis are late signs of poor oxygenation. Pulse oximetry reading of 92% is normal. 5. Which order can be associated with the prevention of atelectasis and pneumonia in a client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Active and passive range of motion exercises twice a day Every 4 hours incentive spirometer Chest physiotherapy twice a day Repositioning every 2 hours around the clock Review Information: The correct answer is C: Chest physiotherapy twice a day These clients have a potential for an inability to have voluntary and involuntary muscle movement or activity. Thus, options 1 and 2 are inadequate with this problem in mind. Option 4 is not specific for prevention of complications associated with the lung. 6. A client who was medicated with meperidine hydrochloride (Demerol) 100 mg and hydroxyzine hydrochloride (Vistaril Intramuscular) 50 mg IM for pain related to a fractured lower right leg 1 hour ago reports that the pain is getting worse. The nurse should recognize that the client may be developing which complication? A) Acute compartment syndrome B) Thromboemolitic complications C) Fatty embolism D) Osteomyelitis Review Information: The correct answer is A: Acute compartment syndrome Increasing pain that is not relieved by narcotic analgesics is an indication of compartment syndrome after a bone fracture and requires immediate action by the nurse. Thromboembolic complications include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism which are not characterized by increasing pain at the site of injury. Both pulmonary embolism and fat embolism present with respiratory sudden findings. Osteomyelitis is a bone infection which could occur some time after the initial injury, usually at least 48 to 72 hours. 7. The nurse is assessing an 8 month-old child with atonic cerebral palsy. Which statement from the mother supports the prescence of this problem? When I put my finger in the left hand the baby doesn’t respond with a grasp. My baby doesn’t seem to follow when I shake toys in front of the face.

When it thundered loudly last night the baby didn’t even jump. When I put the baby in a back lying position that’s how I find the baby. Review Information: The correct answer is D: Unable to roll from back to stomach Cerebral Palsy is known as a condition whereby motor dysfunction occurs secondary to damage in the motor centers of the brain. Inability to roll over by 8 months of age would illustrate one delay in the infant''s attainment of developmental milestones. 8. Which statements by the client would indicate to the nurse an understanding of the issues with end stage renal disease? I have to go at intervals for epoetin (Procrit) injections at the health department. I know I have a high risk of clot formation since my blood is thick from too many red cells. I expect to have periods of little water with voiding and then sometimes to have a lot of water. My bones will be stronger with this disease since I will have higher calcium than normal. Review Information: The correct answer is A: I have to go at intervals for epoetin (Procrit) injections at the health department. Anemia caused by reduced endogenous erythropoietin production, primarily end-stage renal disease is treated with subcutaneous injections of Procrit or Epogen to stimulate the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. 9. The nurse is caring for a client with uncontrolled hypertension. Which findings require priority nursing action? A) Lower extremity pitting edema B) Rales C) Jugular vein distension D) Weakness in left arm Review Information: The correct answer is D: Weakness in left arm In a client with hypertension, weakness in the extremities is a sign of cerebral involvement with the potential for cerebral infarction or stroke. Cerebral infarctions account for about 80% of the strokes in clients with hypertension. The remaining 3 choices indicate mild fluid overload and are not medical emergencies. 10. A 2 year-old child is brought to the emergency department at 2:00 in the afternoon. The mother states: “My child has not had a wet diaper all day.” The nurse finds the child is pale with a heart rate of 132. What assessment data should the nurse obtain next? A) Status of the eyes and the tongue B) Description of play activity C) History of fluid intake D) Dietary patterns Review Information: The correct answer is A: Status of skin turgor Clinical findings of dehydration include sunken eyes, dry tongue, lethargy, irritability, dry skin, decreased play activity, and increased pulse. The normal pulse rate in this age child is 70-110. 11. Which information is a priority for the nurse to reinforce to an older client after intravenous pylegraphy? A) Eat a light diet for the rest of the day Rest for the next 24 hours since the preparation and the test is B) tiring. During waking hours drink at least 1 8-ounce glass of fluid every C) hour for the next 2 days Measure the urine output for the next day and immediately notify D) the health care provider if it should decrease. Review Information: The correct answer is D: Measure the urine output for the next day and immediately notify the health care provider if it should decrease. This information would alert to the complication of acute renal failure which may occur as a complication from the dye and the procedure. Renal failure occurs most often in elderly patients who are chronically dehydrated before the dye injection. 12. A client has altered renal function and is being treated at home. The nurse recognizes that the most accurate indicator of fluid balance during the weekly visits is A) difference in the intake and output B) changes in the mucous membranes C) skin turgor D) weekly weight Review Information: The correct answer is D: weekly weight The most accurate indicator of fluid balance in an acutely ill individual is the daily weight. A one-kilogram or 2.2 pounds of weight gain is equal to approximately 1,000 mls of retained fluid. Other options are considered as part of data collection, but they are not the most accurate indicator for ‘fluid balance. 13. A client has been diagnosed with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Which information is most important for the nurse to reinforce with the client? It is a condition in which one or more tumors called gastrinomas form

in the pancreas or in the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum) It is critical to report promptly to your health care provider any findings of peptic ulcers Treatment consists of medications to reduce acid and heal any peptic ulcers and, if possible, surgery to remove any tumors With the average age at diagnosis at 50 years the peptic ulcers may occur at unusual areas of the stomach or intestine Review Information: The correct answer is B: It is critical to report promptly to your health care provider any findings of peptic ulcers .Actions of option B will enhance early treatment of the problems. 14. A primigravida in the third trimester is hospitalized for preeclampsia. The nurse determines that the client’s blood pressure is increasing. Which action should the nurse take first? A) Check the protein level in urine B) Have the client turn to the left side C) Take the temperature D) Monitor the urine output Review Information: The correct answer is B: Have the client turn to the left side A priority action is to turn the client to the left side to decrease pressure on the vena cava and promote adequate circulation to the placenta and kidneys. Urine protein level and output should be checked with each voiding. Temperature should be monitored every 4 hours or more often if indicated and no data in the stem support a check of temperature. 15. The nurse is caring for a client in atrial fibrillation. The atrial heart rate is 250 and the ventricular rate is controlled at 75. Which of the following findings is cause for the most concern? A) Diminished bowel sounds B) Loss of appetite C) A cold, pale lower leg D) Tachypnea Review Information: The correct answer is C: A cold, pale lower leg This assessment suggests the presence of an embolus probably from the atrial fibrillation. Peripheral pulses should be checked immediately. 16. The client with infective endocarditis must be assessed frequently by the home health nurse. Which finding suggests that antibiotic therapy is not effective, and must be reported by the nurse immediately to the healthcare provider? A) Nausea and vomiting B) Fever of 103 degrees Fahrenheit (39.5 degrees Celsius) C) Diffuse macular rash D) Muscle tenderness Review Information: The correct answer is B: Fever of 103 degrees F (39.5 degrees C) Persistent, prolonged fever may be an indication that the antibiotics are not effective and may need to be changed. 17. A client who had a vasectomy is in the post recovery unit at an outpatient clinic. Which of these points is most important to be reinforced by the nurse? Until the health care provider has determined that your ejaculate doesn't contain sperm, continue to use another form of contraception. This procedure doesn't impede the production of male hormones or the production of sperm in the testicles. The sperm can no longer enter your semen and no sperm are in your ejaculate. After your vasectomy, strenuous activity needs to be avoided for at least 48 hours. If your work doesn't involve hard physical labor, you can return to your job as soon as you feel up to it. The stitches generally dissolve in seven to ten days. The health care provider at this clinic recommends rest, ice, an athletic supporter or over-the-counter pain medication to relieve any discomfort. Review Information: The correct answer is A: Until the health care provider has determined that your ejaculate doesn''t contain sperm, continue to use another form of contraception. All of these options are correct information. The most important point to reinforce is the need to take additional actions for birth control. 18. A client who is to have antineoplastic chemotherapy tells the nurses of a fear of being sick all the time and wishes to try accupuncture. Which of these beliefs stated by the client would be incorrect about accupuncture? Some needles go as deep as 3 inches, depending on where A) they're placed in the body and what the treatment is for. The needles usually are left in for 15 to 30 minutes. In traditional Chinese medicine, imbalances in the basic energetic B) flow of life — known as qi or chi — are thought to cause illness. The flow of life is believed to flow through major pathways or * C) nerve clusters in your body. By inserting extremely fine needles into some of the over 400 acupuncture points in various combinations it is believed that D) energy flow will rebalance to allow the body's natural healing mechanisms to take over. Review Information: The correct answer is C: The flow of life is believed to flow through major pathways or nerve clusters in your body. The major pathways are called meridians, not nerve clusters.

19. The nurse is discussing with a group of students the disease Kawasaki. What statement made by a student about Kawasaki disease is incorrect? It also called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome because it affects the mucous membranes (inside the mouth, throat and nose), skin and lymph nodes. In the second phase of the disease, findings include peeling of the skin on the hands and feet with joint and abdominal pain Kawasaki disease occurs most often in boys, children younger than age 5 and children of Hispanic descent Initially findings are a sudden high fever, usually above 104 degrees Fahrenheit, which lasts 1 to2 weeks Review Information: The correct answer is C: Kawasaki disease occurs most often in boys, children younger than age 5 and children of Hispanic descent Kawasaki disease occurs most often in boys, children younger than age 5 and children of Asian descent, particularly Japanese. Other findings in the initial phase are extremely red eyes (conjunctivitis), a rash on the main part of the body (trunk) and in the genital area, red, dry, cracked lips; a red, swollen tongue, resembling a strawberry; swollen, red skin on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet; swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In the third phase the findings slowly go away unless complications associated with the heart develop. The disease lasts from2 to 12 weeks without treatment. With treatment, the child usually improves within 24 hours. The cause of Kawasaki disease isn''t known. 20. A client has viral pneumonia affecting 2/3 of the right lung. What would be the best position to teach the client to lie in every other hour during first 12 hours after admission? Side-lying on the left with the head elevated 10 degrees Side-lying on the left with the head elevated 35 degrees Side-lying on the right wil the head elevated 10 degrees Side-lying on the right with the head elevated 35 degrees Review Information: The correct answer is A: Side-lying on the left with the head elevated 10 degrees Gravity will draw the most blood flow to the dependent portion of the lung. For unilateral chest disease, it is best to place the healthiest part of the lung in the dependent position to enhance blood flow to the area where gas exchange will be best. Ventilation would be minimally affected in the right dependent lung. This position also enhances the drainage of the infected part of the lung. An elevation of 35 degrees is counterproductive to therapeutic blood flow and the drainage of secretions. 21. A client has an indwelling catheter with continuous bladder irrigation after undergoing a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) 12 hours ago. Which finding at this time should be reported to the health care provider? A) Light, pink urine B) occasional suprapubic cramping C) minimal drainage into the urinary collection bag D) complaints of the feeling of pulling on the urinary catheter Review Information: The correct answer is C: minimal drainage into the urinary collection bag Options 1, 2, and 4 are expected complaints after this procedure. Option 3 needs to be reported immediately since with minimal urinary drainage put the client at risk for bladder rupture. The flow rate of the continuous irrigation would need to be slowed until the health care provider is notified. If an order to irrigate the system is written, sterile technique would be used. 22. A nurse is performing CPR on an adult who went into cardiopulmonary arrest. Another nurse enters the room in response to the call. After checking the client’s pulse and respirations, what should be the function of the second nurse? A) Relieve the nurse performing CPR B) Go get the code cart C) Participate with the compressions or breathing D) Validate the client's advanced directive Review Information: The correct answer is C: Participate with the compressions or breathing Once CPR is started, it is to be continued using the approved technique until such time as a provider pronounces the client dead or the client becomes stable. American Heart Association studies have shown that the 2 person technique is most effective in sustaining the client. It is not appropriate to relieve the first nurse or to leave the room for equipment. The client’s advanced directives should have been filed on admission and choices known prior to starting CPR. 23. The nurse assesses a 72 year-old client who was admitted for right sided congestive heart failure. Which of the following would the nurse anticipate finding? A) Decreased urinary output B) Jugular vein distention C) Pleural effusion D) Bibasilar crackles

Review Information: The correct answer is B: Jugular vein distention Signs of right sided heart failure include jugular vein distention, ascites, nausea and vomiting. 24. A client with heart failure has a prescription for digoxin. The nurse is aware that sufficient potassium should be included in the diet because hypokalemia in combination with this medication A) Can predispose to dysrhythmias B) May lead to oliguria C) May cause irritability and anxiety D) Sometimes alters conciousness Review Information: The correct answer is A: Can predispose to dysrhythmias The nurse should be aware of a decrease in the client’s potassium levels because low potassium can enhance the effects of digoxin and predispose the client to dysrhythmias. The other options are seen in hyperkalemia. Muscle weakness occurs in both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia. 25. A nurse assesses a young adult in the emergency room following a motor vehicle accident. Which of the following neurological signs is of most concern? A) Flaccid paralysis B) Pupils fixed and dilated C) Diminished spinal reflexes D) Reduced sensory responses Review Information: The correct answer is B: Pupils fixed and dilated Pupils that are fixed and dilated indicate overwhemling injury and intrinsic damage to upper brain stem and is a poor prognostic sign. 26. A 14 year-old with a history of sickle cell disease is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of vaso-occlusive crisis. Which statements by the client would be most indicative of the etiology of this crisis? "I knew this would happen. I've been eating too much red meat lately." "I really enjoyed my fishing trip yesterday. I caught 2 fish." "I have really been working hard practicing with the debate team at school." "I went to the health care provider last week for a cold and I have gotten worse." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "I went to the doctor last week for a cold and I have gotten worse." Any condition that increases the body''s need for oxygen or alters the transport of oxygen, such as infection, trauma or dehydration may result in a sickle cell crisis. 27. Which these findings would the nurse more closely associate with anemia in a 10 month-old infant? A) Hemoglobin level of 12 g/dI B) Pale mucosa of the eyelids and lips C) Hypoactivity D) A heart rate between 140 to 160 Review Information: The correct answer is B: Pale mucosa of the eyelids and lips In iron-deficiency anemia, the physical exam reveals a pale, tired-appearing infant with mild to severe tachycardia. 28. The nurse is caring for a client in hypertensive crisis in an intensive care unit. The priority assessment in the first hour of care is A) Heart rate B) Pedal pulses C) Lung sounds D) Pupil responses Review Information: The correct answer is D: Pupil responses The organ most susceptible to damage in hypertensive crisis is the brain due to rupture of the cerebral blood vessels. Neurologic status must be closely monitored. 29. Which of these clients who are all in the terminal stage of cancer is least appropriate to suggest the use of patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with a pump? A) A young adult with a history of Down's syndrome B) A teenager who reads at a 4th grade level C) An elderly client with numerous arthritic nodules on the hands D) A preschooler with intermittent episodes of alertness Review Information: The correct answer is D: A preschooler with intermittent episodes of alertness A preschooler is most likely of these clients to have difficulty with the use or understanding of a PCA pump. This child without a normal level of consciousness would not benefit from the use of a PCA pump. 30. The nurse is about to assess a 6 month-old child with nonorganic failure-tothrive (NOFTT). Upon entering the room, the nurse would expect the baby to be Irritable and "colicky" with no attempts to pull to standing Alert, laughing and playing with a rattle, sitting with support Skin color dusky with poor skin turgor over abdomen Pale, thin arms and legs, uninterested in surroundings Review Information: The correct answer is D: Pale, thin arms and legs, uninterested in surroundings Diagnosis of NOFTT is made on anthropomorphic findings documenting growth retardation which would lead the nurse to expect muscle-wasting and paleness. In cases of NOFTT, the cause may be a variety of psychosocial factors and these

children may be below normal in intellectual development, language and social interactions. 31. As the nurse is speaking with a group of teens which of these side effects of chemotherapy for cancer would the nurse expect this group to be more interested in during the discussion? A) Mouth sores B) Fatigue C) Diarrhea D) Hair loss Review Information: The correct answer is D: Hair loss The major concern for adolescence is body image so hair loss would be the most disturbing. 32. While caring for a client who was admitted with myocardial infarction (MI) 2 days ago, the nurse notes today's temperature is 101.1 degrees Fahrenheit (38.5 degrees Celsius). The appropriate nursing intervention is to A) Call the health care provider immediately B) Administer acetaminophen as ordered as this is normal at this time C) Send blood, urine and sputum for culture D) Increase the client's fluid intake Review Information: The correct answer is B: Administer acetaminophen as ordered as this is normal at this time Leukocytosis and fever are common starting on day 2 because of the inflammatory process associated with an acute MI. Nursing interventions should focus on promoting comfort. 33. A client is admitted for first and second degree burns on the face, neck, anterior chest and hands. The nurse's priority should be A) Cover the areas with dry sterile dressings B) Assess for dyspnea or stridor C) Initiate intravenous therapy D) Administer pain medication Review Information: The correct answer is B: Assess for dyspnea or stridor Due to the location of the burns, the client is at risk for developing upper airway edema and subsequent respiratory distress. 34. Which of these clients who call the community health clinic would the nurse ask to come in that day to be seen by the health care provider? A) I started my period and now my urine has turned bright red. I am an diabetic and today I have been going to the bathroom B) every hour. I was started on medicine yesterday for a urine infection. Now my C) lower belly hurts when I go to the bathroom. I went to the bathroom and my urine looked very red and it didn’t D) hurt when I went. Review Information: The correct answer is D: I went to the bathroom and my urine looked very red and it didn’t hurt when I went. With this history this client needs to be seen that day since painless gross hematuria is closely associated with bladder cancer. The other complaints can be handled over the phone. 35. A middle aged woman talks to the nurse in the health care provider’s office about uterine fibroids also called leiomyomas or myomas. What statement by the woman indicates more education is needed? I am one out of every 4 women that get fibroids, and of women my age – between the 30s or 40s, fibroids occure more frequently. My fibroids are noncancerous tumors that grow slowly. My associated problems I have had are pelvic pressure and pain, urinary incontinence, frequent urination or urine retention and constipation. Fibroids that cause no problems still need to be taken out. Review Information: The correct answer is D: Fibroids that cause no problems still need to be taken out. Fibroids that cause no findings may require only "watchful waiting" with no treatment. Only when the client’s complaints become disturbing to them would surgical interventions be considered 36. An elderly client admitted after a fall begins to seize and loses consciousness. What action by the nurse is appropriate to do next? * A) Stay with client and observe for airway obstruction B) Collect pillows and pad the siderails of the bed C) Place an oral airway in the mouth and suction D) Announce a cardiac arrest, and assist with intubation Review Information: The correct answer is A: Stay with client and observe for airway obstruction For the client’s safety, remain at the bedside and observe respirations and level of consciousness. Prepare to clear the airway if obstructed. Do not place anything in the client’s mouth. For safety, do not leave the client unattended. A cardiac arrest should only be announced if pulse or respirations are absent after the seizure

37. A nurse is providing care to a primigravida whose membranes spontaneously ruptured (ROM) 4 hours ago. Labor is to be induced. At the time of the ROM the vital signs were T-99.8 degrees F, P-84, R-20, BP-130/78, and fetal heart tones (FHT) 148 beats/min. Which assessment findings taken now may be an early indication that the client is developing a complication of labor? A) FHT 168 beats/min B) Temperature 100 degrees Fahrenheit. C) Cervical dilation of 4 D) BP 138/88 Review Information: The correct answer is A: FHT 168 beats/min An increase in FHT may indicate maternal infection. The other assessment findings are normal. The Bishop’s score of 6 indicates that induction of labor should be successful. 38. A client with pneumococcal pneumonia had been started on antibiotics 16 hours ago. During the nurse’s initial evening rounds the nurse notices a foul smell in the room. The client makes all of these statements during their conversation. Which statement would alert the nurse to a complication? A) "I have a sharp pain in my chest when I take a breath." B) "I have been coughing up foul-tasting, brown, thick sputum." C) "I have been sweating all day." D) "I feel hot off and on." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "I have been coughing up foultasting, brown, thick sputum." Foul smelling and tasting sputum signals a risk of a lung abscess. This puts the client is grave danger since abscesses are often caused by anaerobic organisms. This client most likely would need a change of antibiotics. Sharp chest pain on inspiration called pleuritic pain is an expected finding with this type of pneumonia. The other options are expected in the initial 24 to 48 hours of therapy for infections. 39. The nurse is performing an assessment on a client in congestive heart failure. Auscultation of the heart is most likely to reveal A) S3 ventricular gallop B) Apical click C) Systolic murmur D) Split S2 Review Information: The correct answer is A: S3 ventricular gallop An S3 ventricular gallop is caused by blood flowing rapidly into a distended noncompliant ventricle. Most common with congestive heart failure. 40. Which of these observations made by the nurse during an excretory urogram indicate a complicaton? The client complains of a salty taste in the mouth when the dye is injected The client’s entire body turns a bright red color The client states “I have a feeling of getting warm.” The client gags and complains “ I am getting sick.” Review Information: The correct answer is B: The client’s entire body turns a bright red color This observation suggest anaphalaxis which results in massive vasodilation. Other findings would be immediate wheezing and/or respiratory arrest. Results for Reduction of Risk Potential  Questions are numbered by the order in which they appeared in the test.  * Represents the correct answer. 1. A client is diagnosed with a spontaneous pneumothorax necessitating the insertion of a chest tube. What is the best explanation for the nurse to provide this client? A) "The tube will drain fluid from your chest." B) "The tube will remove excess air from your chest." C) "The tube controls the amount of air that enters your chest." D) "The tube will seal the hole in your lung." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "The tube will remove excess air from your chest." The purpose of the chest tube is to create negative pressure and remove the air that has accumulated in the pleural space. 2. The nurse is reviewing laboratory results on a client with acute renal failure. Which one of the following should be reported immediately? A) Blood urea nitrogen 50 mg/dl B) Hemoglobin of 10.3 mg/dl C) Venous blood pH 7.30 D) Serum potassium 6 mEq/L Review Information: The correct answer is D: Serum potassium 6 mEq/L Although all of these findings are abnormal, the elevated potassium is a life threatening finding and must be reported immediately. 3. The nurse is caring for a client undergoing the placement of a central venous catheter line. Which of the following would require the nurse’s immediate attention? A) Pallor B) Increased temperature C) Dyspnea

D) Involuntary muscle spasms Review Information: The correct answer is C: Dyspnea Client’s having the insertion of a central venous catheter are at risk for tension pneumothorax. Dyspnea, shortness of breath and chest pain are indications of this complication. 4. The nurse is performing a physical assessment on a client who just had an endotracheal tube inserted. Which finding would call for immediate action by the nurse? A) Breath sounds can be heard bilaterally B) Mist is visible in the T-Piece C) Pulse oximetery of 88 D) Client is unable to speak Review Information: The correct answer is C: Pulse oximetery of 88 Pulse oximetry should not be lower than 90. Placement will need to be checked, as well as ventilator settings. 5. A nurse checks a client who is on a volume-cycled ventilator. Which finding indicates that the client may need suctioning? A) drowsiness B) complaint of nausea C) pulse rate of 92 D) restlessness Review Information: The correct answer is D: restlessness Restlessness, increased heart and respiratory rates, and noisy expiration suggest hypoxia and are indications for suctioning. 6. The most effective nursing intervention to prevent atelectasis from developing in a post operative client is to A) Maintain adequate hydration B) Assist client to turn, deep breathe, and cough C) Ambulate client within 12 hours D) Splint incision Review Information: The correct answer is B: Assist client to turn, deep breathe, and cough Deep air excursion by turning, deep breathing, and coughing will expand the lungs and stimulate surfactant production. The nurse should instruct the client on how to splint the chest when coughing. Humidification, hydration and nutrition all play a part in preventing atelectasis following surgery. 7. When caring for a client with a post right thoracotomy who has undergone an upper lobectomy, the nurse focuses on pain management to promote A) Relaxation and sleep B) Deep breathing and coughing C) Incisional healing D) Range of motion exercises Review Information: The correct answer is B: Deep breathing and coughing The priority is postoperative respiratory toilet. This client will quickly develop profound atelectasis and eventually pneumonia without adequate gas exchange. This will only be achieved with the appropriate pain management. 8. A nurse is to collect a sputum specimen for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) from a client. Which action should the nurse take first? A) Ask client to cough sputum into container B) Have the client take several deep breaths C) Provide a appropriate specimen container D) Assist with oral hygiene Review Information: The correct answer is D: Assist with oral hygiene Obtain a specimen early in the morning after mouth care. The other responses follow this first action: the client should take several deep breaths then cough into the appropriate container which is sterile for the AFB specimen of the sputum. 9. The nurse is caring for a child immediately after surgical correction of a ventricular septal defect. Which of the following nursing assessments should be a priority? A) Blanch nail beds for color and refill B) Assess for post operative arrhythmias C) Auscultate for pulmonary congestion D) Monitor equality of peripheral pulses Review Information: The correct answer is B: Assess for post operative arrhythmias The atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His), a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, extends from the atrioventricular node along each side of the interventricular septum and then divides into right and left bundle branches. Surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect consists of a purse-string approach or a patch sewn over the opening. 10. A client has a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the nurse enters the client's room, his oxygen is running

at 6 liters per minute, his color is flushed and his respirations are 8 per minute. What should the nurse do first? A) Obtain a 12-lead EKG B) Place client in high Fowler's position C) Lower the oxygen rate D) Take baseline vital signs Review Information: The correct answer is C: Lower the oxygen rate A low oxygen level acts as a stimulus for respiration. A high concentration of supplemental oxygen removes the hypoxic drive to breathe, leading to increased hypoventilation, respiratory decompensation, and the development of or worsening of respiratory acidosis. Unless corrected, it can lead to the client''s death. 11. A 4 year-old has been hospitalized for 24 hours with skeletal traction for treatment of a fracture of the right femur. The nurse finds that the child is now crying and the right foot is pale with the absence of a pulse. What should the nurse do first? * A) Notify the health care provider B) Readjust the traction C) Administer the ordered prn medication D) Reassess the foot in fifteen minutes Review Information: The correct answer is A: Notify the health care provider The findings are indicative of circulatory impairment. The health care provider (or practitioner) must be notified immediately. 12. The nurse is assessing a client 2 hours postoperatively after a femoral popliteal bypass. The upper leg dressing becomes saturated with blood. The nurse's first action should be to A) Wrap the leg with elastic bandages B) Apply pressure at the bleeding site C) Reinforce the dressing and elevate the leg D) Remove the dressings and re-dress the incision Review Information: The correct answer is C: Reinforce the dressing and elevate the leg Reinforce the dressing, elevate the extremity to decrease blood flow into the extremity and thus decrease bleeding, and call the health care provider immediately. This is an emergency post surgical situation. 13. A client is receiving external beam radiation to the mediastinum for treatment of bronchial cancer. Which of the following should take priority in planning care? A) Esophagitis B) Leukopenia C) Fatigue D) Skin irritation Review Information: The correct answer is B: Leukopenia Clients develop leukopenia due to the depressant effect of radiation therapy on bone marrow function. Infection is the most frequent cause of morbidity and death in clients with cancer. 14. A client has a chest tube in place following a left lower lobectomy inserted after a stab wound to the chest. When repositioning the client, the nurse notices 200 cc of dark, red fluid flows into the collection chamber of the chest drain. What is the most appropriate nursing action? A) Clamp the chest tube B) Call the surgeon immediately C) Prepare for blood transfusion D) Continue to monitor the rate of drainage Review Information: The correct answer is D: Continue to monitor the rate of drainage Blood that comes in contact with the pleural space becomes defibrinogenated and usually will not clot. It is not unusual for blood to collect in the chest and be released into the chest drain when the client changes position. The dark color of the blood indicates it is not fresh bleeding inside the chest. 15. A client has returned from a cardiac catheterization. Which one of the following assessments would indicate the client is experiencing a complication from the procedure? A) Increased blood pressure B) Increased heart rate C) Loss of pulse in the extremity D) Decreased urine output Review Information: The correct answer is C: Loss of pulse in the extremity Loss of the pulse in the extremity would indicate impaired circulation. 16. A 60 year-old male client had a hernia repair in an outpatient surgery clinic. He is awake and alert, but has not been able to void since he returned from surgery 6 hours ago. He received 1000 mL of IV fluid. Which action would be most likely to help him void? A) Have him drink several glasses of water B) Crede’ the bladder from the bottom to the top C) Assist him to stand by the side of the bed to void D) Wait 2 hours and have him try to void again Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assist him to stand by the side of the bed to void When a male is not able to use a urinal unassisted, the client should stand by the side of the bed to void. This is the most desirable position for normal voiding for

male clients. Also given his age he most likely has some degree of prostate enlargement which may interfere with voiding. 17. The nurse is caring for a client who requires a mechanical ventilator for breathing. The high pressure alarm goes off on the ventilator. What is the first action the nurse should perform? Disconnect the client from the ventilator and use a manual resuscitation bag Perform a quick assessment of the client's condition Call the respiratory therapist for help Press the alarm re-set button on the ventilator Review Information: The correct answer is B: Perform a quick assessment of the client''s condition A number of situations can cause the high pressure alarm to sound. It can be as simple as the client coughing. A quick assessment of the client will alert the nurse to whether it is a more serious or complex situation that might then require using a manual resuscitation bag and calling the respiratory therapist. 18. The nurse is preparing a client who will undergo a myelogram. Which of the following statements by the client indicates a contraindication for this test? A) "I can't lie in 1 position for more than thirty minutes." B) "I am allergic to shrimp." C) "I suffer from claustrophobia." D) "I developed a severe headache after a spinal tap." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "I am allergic to shrimp." A client undergoing myelography should be questioned carefully about allergies to iodine and iodine-containing substances such as seafood. An allergy to iodine or seafood may indicate sensitivity to the radiopaque contrast agent used in the test. An allergy to iodine or seafood may indicate sensitivity to the radiopaque contrast agent used in the test. An allergic reaction could be as serious as seizures. 19. The health care provider order reads "aspirate nasogastric feeding (NG) tuber every 4 hours and check pH of aspirate." The pH of the aspirate is 10. Which action should the nurse take? A) Hold the tube feeding and notify the provider B) Administer the tube feeding as scheduled C) Irrigate the tube with diet cola soda D) Apply intermittent suction to the feeding tube Review Information: The correct answer is A: Hold the tube feeding and notify the provider A pH of less than 4 indicates that the tube is appropriately placed in the stomach, a highly acidic environment. A higher than 4 or more alkaline pH indicates intestinal placement, which is correct. 20. To prevent unnecessary hypoxia during suctioning of a tracheostomy, the nurse must A) Apply suction for no more than 10 seconds B) Maintain sterile technique C) Lubricate 3 to 4 inches of the catheter tip D) Withdraw catheter in a circular motion Review Information: Applying suction for more than 10 seconds may result in hypoxia. Although options 2, 3, and 4 are important in during suctioning a tracheostomy, hypoxia results from actions that decrease the oxygen supply.

Skip Review Information: The correct answer is D: prevent the drug from tissue irritation Deep injection or Z-track is a special method of giving medications via the intramuscular route. Use of this technique prevents irritating or staining medications from being tracked through tissue. Use of Z-track does not affect dose, absorption, or distribution of the drug. 3. A client with heart failure has Lanoxin (digoxin) ordered. What would the nurse expect to find when evaluating for the therapeutic effectiveness of this drug? A) diaphoresis with decreased urinary output B) increased heart rate with increase respirations C) improved respiratory status and increased urinary output D) decreased chest pain and decreased blood pressure Review Information: The correct answer is C: improved respiratory status and increased urinary output Digoxin, a cardiac glycoside, is used in clients with heart failure to slow and strengthen the heartbeat. As cardiac output is improved, renal perfusion is improved and urinary output increases. Clients can become toxic on this drug, with the findings of this toxicity being bradycardia, dysrhythmia, visual and GI disturbances. Clients being treated with digoxin should have their apical pulse evaluated for 1 full minute prior to the administration of the drug. 4. While providing home care to a client with congestive heart failure, the nurse is asked how long diuretics must be taken. What is the nurse’s best response? "As you urinate more, you will need less medication to control fluid." "You will have to take this medication for about a year." "The medication must be continued so the fluid problem is controlled." "Please talk to your health care provider about medications and treatments." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "The medication must be continued so the fluid problem is controlled." This is the most therapeutic response and gives the client accurate information. 5. A client is being discharged with a prescription for chlorpromazine (Thorazine). Before leaving for home, which of these findings should the nurse teach the client to report? A) Change in libido, breast enlargement B) Sore throat, fever C) Abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea D) Dsypnea, nasal congestion Review Information: The correct answer is B: Sore throat, fever A sore throat and fever may be symptoms of agranulocytosis, a side effect of chlorpromazine (Thorazine). 6. A client is recovering from a hip replacement and is taking Tylenol #3 every 3 hours for pain. In checking the client, which finding suggests a side effect of the analgesic? A) Bruising at the operative site B) Elevated heart rate C) Decreased platelet count D) No bowel movement for 3 days Skip Review Information: The correct answer is D: No bowel movement for 3 days With opioid analgesics observe for respiratory depression, sedation, and constipation. Bruising is not related to the analgesic, but could be the result of corticosteroids or previously used anticoagulants. Elevated heart rate could be the result of bronchodilators. Some antibiotics can lower platelet count. 7. A client is being maintained on heparin therapy for deep vein thrombosis. The nurse must closely monitor which of the following laboratory values? A) Bleeding time B) Platelet count C) Activated PTT D) Clotting time Review Information: The correct answer is C: Activated PTT Heparin is used to prevent further clots from being formed and to prevent the present clot from enlarging. The Activated Prothromboplastin Time (APTT) test is a highly sensitive test to monitor the client on heparin. 8. A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube for the administration of feedings and medications. Which nursing action is appropriate? A) Pulverize all medications to a powdery condition B) Squeeze the tube before using it to break up stagnant liquids C) Cleanse the skin around the tube daily with hydrogen peroxide D) Flush adequately with water before and after using the tube Skip Review Information: The correct answer is D: Flush adequately with water before and after using the tube Flushing the tube before and after use not only provides for good flow and keeps the tube patent, it also provides water to maintain hydration. While medications should be crushed to pass through the tube, it is flushing that moves them through. Stagnant liquids are reduced by flushing after tube use. Cleansing is important, but soap and water are sufficient without the added irritation of hydrogen peroxide.

Results for Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies  Questions are numbered by the order in which they appeared in the test.  * Represents the correct answer. 1. An antibiotic IM injection for a 2 year-old child is ordered. The total volume of the injection equals 2.0 ml The correct action is to A) administer the medication in 2 separate injections B) give the medication in the dorsal gluteal site C) call to get a smaller volume ordered D) check with pharmacy for a liquid form of the medication skip Review Information: The correct answer is A: administer the medication in 2 separate injections Intramuscular injections should not exceed a volume of 1 ml for small children. Medication doses exceeding this volume should be split into 2 separate injections of 1.0 ml each. In adults the maximum intramuscular injection volume is 5 ml per site 2. The nurse receives an order to give a client iron by deep injection. The nurse know that the reason for this route is to A) enhance absorption of the medication B) ensure that the entire dose of medication is given C) provide more even distribution of the drug D) prevent the drug from tissue irritation

9. The nurse has given discharge instructions to parents of a child on phenytoin (Dilantin). Which of the following statements suggests that the teaching was effective? "We will call the health care provider if the child develops acne." "Our child should brush and floss carefully after every meal." "We will skip the next dose if vomiting or fever occur." "When our child is seizure-free for 6 months, we can stop the medication." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Our child should brush and floss carefully after every meal." Phenytoin causes lymphoid hyperplasia that is most noticeable in the gums. Frequent gum massage and careful attention to good oral hygiene may reduce the gingival hyperplasia. 10. Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin) are beneficial in managing arthritis pain, the nurse should caution clients about which of the following common side effects? A) Urinary incontinence B) Constipation C) Nystagmus D) Occult bleeding Review Information: The correct answer is D: Occult bleeding Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs taken for long periods of time may cause serious side effects, including bleeding in the gastrointestinal track. 11. The nurse is caring for a client with clinical depression who is receiving a MAO inhibitor. When providing instructions about precautions with this medication, which action should the nurse stress to the client as important? A) Avoid chocolate and cheese B) Take frequent naps C) Take the medication with milk D) Avoid walking without assistance Review Information: The correct answer is A: Avoid chocolate and cheese Foods high in tryptophan, tyramine and caffeine, such as chocolate and cheese may precipitate hypertensive crisis. 12. A parent asks the school nurse how to eliminate lice from their child. What is the most appropriate response by the nurse? A) Cut the child's hair short to remove the nits B) Apply warm soaks to the head twice daily C) Wash the child's linen and clothing in a bleach solution D) Application of pediculicides Review Information: The correct answer is D: Application of pediculicides Treatment of head lice consists of application of pediculicides. Pediculicides vary, and the directions must be followed carefully. 13. The nurse is teaching a client about precautions with Coumadin therapy. The client should be instructed to avoid which over-thecounter medication? A) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs B) Cough medicines with guaifenesin C) Histamine blockers D) Laxatives containing magnesium salts Review Information: The correct answer is A: Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs Medications with NSAIDS may increase the response to Coumadin (warfarin) and increase the risk of bleeding. 14. A client diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver and ascites is receiving Spironolactone (Aldactone). The nurse understands that this medication spares elimination of which element? A) Sodium B) Potassium C) Phosphate D) Albumin Review Information: The correct answer is B: Potassium If ascites is present in the client with cirrhosis of the liver, potassiumsparing diuretics such as Aldactone should be administered because it inhibits the action of aldosterone on the kidneys. 15. The nurse is caring for a client receiving a blood transfusion who develops urticaria one-half hour after the transfusion has begun. What is the first action the nurse should take? A) Stop the infusion B) Slow the rate of infusion C) Take vital signs and observe for further deterioration D) Administer Benadryl and continue the infusion Review Information: The correct answer is A: Stop the infusion This is an indication of an allergy to the plasma protein. The first action of the nurse is to stop the transfusion.

16. Discharge instructions for a client taking alprazolam (Xanax) should include which of the following? A) Sedative hypnotics are effective analgesics Sudden cessation of alprazolam (Xanax) can cause rebound B) insomnia and nightmares C) Caffeine beverages can increase the effect of sedative hypnotics Avoidance of excessive exercise and high temperature is D) recommended Review Information: The correct answer is B: Sudden cessation of alprazolam (Xanax) can cause rebound insomnia and nightmares Sudden cessation of alprazolam (Xanax) can cause rebound insomnia and nightmares. 17. A client has received 2 units of whole blood today following an episode of GI bleeding. Which of the following laboratory reports would the nurse monitor most closely? A) Bleeding time B) Hemoglobin and hematocrit C) White blood cells D) Platelets Review Information: The correct answer is B: Hemoglobin and hematocrit The post-transfusion hematocrit provides immediate information about red cell replacement and about continued blood loss. 18. A client is receiving intravenous heparin therapy. What medication should the nurse have available in the event of an overdose of heparin? A) Protamine B) Amicar C) Imferon D) Diltiazem Review Information: The correct answer is A: Protamine . Protamine binds heparin making it ineffective. 19. The nurse has been teaching a client with Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Which statement by the client indicates a need for further teaching? A) "I use a sliding scale to adjust regular insulin to my sugar level." "Since my eyesight is so bad, I ask the nurse to fill several B) syringes." C) "I keep my regular insulin bottle in the refrigerator." * D) "I always make sure to shake the NPH bottle hard to mix it well." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "I always make sure to shake the NPH bottle hard to mix it well." The bottle should by rolled gently, not shaken. 20. Why is it important for the nurse to monitor blood pressure in clients receiving antipsychotic drugs? A) Orthostatic hypotension is a common side effect B) Most antipsychotic drugs cause elevated blood pressure This provides information on the amount of sodium allowed in the C) diet D) It will indicate the need to institute antiparkinsonian drugs Review Information: The correct answer is A: Orthostatic hypotension is a common side effect Clients should be made aware of the possibility of dizziness and syncope from postural hypotension for about an hour after receiving medication. Results for Basic Care and Comfort 1. The nurse is teaching the client to select foods rich in potassium to help prevent digitalis toxicity. Which choice indicates the client understands dietary needs? A) Three apricots B) Medium banana C) Naval orange D) Baked potato Review Information: The correct answer is D: Baked potato. The baked potato contains 610 milligrams of potassium. 2. An 86 year-old nursing home resident who has decreased mental status is hospitalized with pneumonic infiltrates in the right lower lobe. When the nurse assists the client with a clear liquid diet, the client begins to cough. What should the nurse do next? Add a thickening agent to the fluids Check the client’s gag reflex Feed the client only solid foods Increase the rate of intravenous fluids Review Information: The correct answer is B: Check the client’s gag reflex When a new problem emerges, the nurse should perform appropriate assessment so that suitable nursing interventions can be planned. Aspiration pneumonia follows aspiration of material from the mouth into the trachea and finally the lung. A loss or an impairment of the protective cough reflex can result in aspiration. 3. The nurse is planning care for a client with a CVA. Which of the following measures planned by the nurse would be most effective in preventing skin breakdown? Place client in the wheelchair for four hours each day

Pad the bony prominence Reposition every two hours Massage reddened bony prominence Review Information: The correct answer is C: Reposition every two hours Clients who are at risk for skin breakdown develop fewer pressure ulcers when turned every two hours. By relieving the pressure over bony prominences at frequent scheduled intervals, blood flow is maintained to areas of potential injury. 4. A nurse is assessing several clients in a long term health care facility. Which client is at highest risk for development of decubitus ulcers? A 79 year-old malnourished client on bed rest An obese client who uses a wheelchair A client who had 3 incontinent diarrhea stools An 80 year-old ambulatory diabetic client Review Information: The correct answer is A: A 79 year-old malnourished client on bed rest Weighing significantly less than ideal body weight increases the number and surface area of bony prominences which are susceptible to pressure ulcers. Thus, malnutrition is a major risk factor for decubiti, due in part to poor hydration and inadequate protein intake. 5. Constipation is one of the most frequent complaints of elders. When assessing this problem, which action should be the nurse's priority? Obtain a complete blood count Obtain a health and dietary history Refer to a provider for a physical examination Measure height and weight Review Information: The correct answer is B: Obtain a health and dietary history Initially, the nurse should obtain information about the chronicity of and details about constipation, recent changes in bowel habits, physical and emotional health, medications, activity pattern, and food and fluid history. This information may suggest causes as well as an appropriate, safe treatment plan. 6. After a client has an enteral feeding tube inserted, the most accurate method for verification of placement is A) Abdominal x-ray B) Auscultation C) Flushing tube with saline D) Aspiration for gastric contents Review Information: The correct answer is A: Abdominal x-ray Placement should be verified by radiograph to determine that the tube is in the stomach or intestine rather than in the airways. 7. A client was just taken off the ventilator after surgery and has a nasogastric tube draining bile colored liquids. Which nursing measure will provide the most comfort to the client? Allow the client to melt ice chips in the mouth Provide mints to freshen the breath Perform frequent oral care with a toothsponge Swab the mouth with glycerin swabs Review Information: The correct answer is C: Perform frequent oral care with a toothsponge Frequent cleansing and stimulation of the mucous membrane is important for a client with a nasogastric tube to prevent development of lesions and to promote comfort. Ice chips or mints could be contraindicated, and do not stimulate the tissue. Glycerin swabs do not cleanse since they only moisturize 8. The nurse is instructing a 65 year-old female client diagnosed with osteoporosis. The most important instruction regarding exercise would be to Exercise doing weight bearing activities Exercise to reduce weight Avoid exercise activities that increase the risk of fracture Exercise to strengthen muscles and thereby protect bones Review Information: The correct answer is A: Exercise doing weight bearing activities Weight bearing exercises are beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis. Although loss of bone cannot be substantially reversed, further loss can be greatly reduced if the client includes weight bearing exercises along with estrogen replacement and calcium supplements in their treatment protocol. 9. The nurse has been teaching a client with congestive heart failure about proper nutrition. The selection of which lunch indicates the client has learned about sodium restriction? Cheese sandwich with a glass of 2% milk Sliced turkey sandwich and canned pineapple Cheeseburger and baked potato Mushroom pizza and ice cream

Review Information: The correct answer is B: Sliced turkey sandwich and canned pineapple Sliced turkey sandwich is appropriate since it is not a highly processed food and canned fruits are low in sodium. All other choices contain one or more high sodium foods. 10. Which bed position is preferred for use with a client in an extended care facility on falls risk prevention protocol? All 4 side rails up, wheels locked, bed closest to door Lower side rails up, bed facing doorway Knees bent, head slightly elevated, bed in lowest position Bed in lowest position, wheels locked, place bed against wall Review Information: The correct answer is D: Bed in lowest position, wheels locked, place bed against wall No longer is it advisable to use the lower side rails. With all 4 side rails used it reflects inappropriate use of protective restraints without an order. Placing the bed against the wall permits getting out of bed on only 1 side. Locking the wheels keeps the bed from sliding. Keeping the bed in the lowest position (without bending limbs to restrict movement) provides a shorter distance to the ground if the client chooses to get out of bed. If the side rails are used 3 pulled up are acceptable. If 4 are pulled up an order for protective restraints is needed and has to usually be renewed in 48 to 72 hours along with more frequent documentation. 11. When administering enteral feeding to a client via a jejunostomy tube, the nurse should administer the formula A) Every four to six hours B) Continuously C) In a bolus D) Every hour Review Information: The correct answer is B: Continuously Usually gastrostomy and jejunostomy feedings are given continuously to ensure proper absorption. However, initial feedings may be given by bolus to assess the client''s tolerance to formula. 12. The nurse is teaching an 87 year-old client methods for maintaining regular bowel movements. The nurse would caution the client to AVOID A) Glycerine suppositories B) Fiber supplements C) Laxatives D) Stool softeners Review Information: The correct answer is C: Laxatives Most elders are constipated because they have used over-the-counter laxatives for a long time. In addition, most do not eat enough fiber, drink enough water, or exercise adequately. Elders are rarely constipated because of organic or pathological reasons. 13. A client with diarrhea should avoid which of the following? A) Orange juice B) Tuna C) Eggs D) Macaroni Review Information: The correct answer is A: Orange juice Orange juice is contraindicated for a client with diarrhea because it increases the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. 14. Which statement best describes the effects of immobility in children? Immobility prevents the progression of language and fine motor development Immobility in children has similar physical effects to those found in adults Children are more susceptible to the effects of immobility than are adults Children are likely to have prolonged immobility with subsequent complications Review Information: The correct answer is B: Immobility in children has similar physical effects to those found in adults Care of the immobile child includes efforts to prevent complications of muscle atrophy, contractures, skin breakdown, decreased metabolism and bone demineralization. Secondary alterations also occur in the cardiovascular, respiratory and renal systems. Similar effects and alterations occur in adults. 15. A nurse is providing care to a 63 year-old client with pneumonia. Which intervention promotes the client’s comfort? A) Increase oral fluid intake B) Encourage visits from family and friends C) Keep conversations short D) Monitor vital signs frequently Review Information: The correct answer is C: Keep conversations short Keeping conversations short will promote the client’s comfort by decreasing demands on the client’s breathing and energy. Increased intake is not related to comfort. While the presence of family is supportive, demands on the client to interact with the visitors may interfere with the client’s rest. Monitoring vital signs is an important assessment but not related to promoting the client’s comfort. 16. After a myocardial infarction, a client is placed on a sodium restricted diet. When the nurse is teaching the client about the diet, which meal plan would be the most appropriate 3 oz. broiled fish, 1 baked potato, ½ cup canned beets, 1 orange, and

milk 3 oz. canned salmon, fresh broccoli, 1 biscuit, tea, and 1 apple A bologna sandwich, fresh eggplant, 2 oz fresh fruit, tea, and apple juice 3 oz. turkey, 1 fresh sweet potato, 1/2 cup fresh green beans, milk, and 1 orange Review Information: The correct answer is D: 3 oz. turkey, 1 fresh sweet potato, 1/2 cup fresh green beans, milk, and 1 orange Canned fish and vegetables and cured meats are high in sodium. This meal does not contain any canned fish and/or vegetables or cured meats. 17. The nurse is caring for a 7 year-old with acute glomerulonephritis (AGN). Findings include moderate edema and oliguria. Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine are elevated. What dietary modifications are most appropriate? A) Decreased carbohydrates and fat B) Decreased sodium and potassium C) Increased potassium and protein D) Increased sodium and fluids Review Information: The correct answer is B: Decreased sodium and potassium Children with AGN who have edema, hypertension oliguria, and azotemia have dietary restrictions limiting sodium, potassium, fluids, and protein. 18. What nursing assessment of a paralyzed client would indicate the probable presence of a fecal impaction? A) Presence of blood in stools B) Oozing liquid stool C) Continuous rumbling flatulence D) Absence of bowel movements Review Information: The correct answer is B: Oozing liquid stool The correct answer it B. When the bowel is impacted with hardened feces, there is often a seepage of liquid feces around the obstruction. This is often mistaken for uncontrolled diarrhea. 19. A client in a long term care facility complains of pain. The nurse collects data about the client’s pain. The first step in pain assessment is for the nurse to A) have the client identify coping methods B) get the description of the location and intensity of the pain * C) accept the client’s report of pain D) determine the client’s status of pain Review Information: The correct answer is C: Accept the client''s report of pain Although the information above is correct, the first and most important piece of information in this client’s pain assessment is what the client is telling you about the pain --“the client’s report”. 20. An 85 year-old client complains of generalized muscle aches and pains. The first action by the nurse should be A) Assess the severity and location of the pain B) Obtain an order for an analgesic C) Reassure him that this is not unusual for his age D) Encourage him to increase his activity Review Information: The correct answer is A: Assess the severity and location of the pain Most older adults have 1 or more chronic painful illnesses, and in fact, they often must be asked about discomfort (rather than "pain") to reveal the presence of pain. There is no real evidence that pain of older adults is less intense than younger adults. It is important for the nurse to assess the pain thoroughly before implementing pain relief measures.

2. A child is admitted to the pediatric unit with a diagnosis of suspected meningococcal meningitis. Which admission orders should the nurse do first? A) Institute seizure precautions B) Monitor neurologic status every hour C) Place in respiratory/secretion precautions D) Cefotaxime IV 50 mg/kg/day divided q6h Review Information: The correct answer is C: Place in respiratory/secretion precautions Meningococcal meningitis has the risk of being a bacterial infection. The initial therapeutic management of acute bacterial meningitis includes respiratory/secretions precautions, initiation of antimicrobial therapy, monitor neurological status along with vital signs, institute seizure precautions and lastly maintenance of optimum hydration. The first action is for nurses to take any necessary precautions to protect themselves and others from possible infection. Viral meningitis usually does not require protective measures of isolation. 3. Which of these nursing diagnoses of 4 elderly clients would place 1 client at the greatest risk for falls? Sensory perceptual alterations related to decreased vision Alteration in mobility related to fatigue Impaired gas exchange related to retained secretions Altered patterns of urinary elimination related to nocturia Review Information: The correct answer is D: Altered patterns of urinary elimination related to nocturia Nocturia is especially problematic because many elders fall when they rush to reach the bathroom at night. They may be confused or not fully alert. Inadequate lighting can increase their chances of stumbling and they may fall over furniture or carpets. 4. A nurse who is reassigned to the emergency department needs to understand that gastric lavage is a priority in which situation? An infant who has been identified to have botulism A toddler who ate a number of ibuprofen tablets A preschooler who swallowed powdered plant food A school aged child who took a handful of vitamins Review Information: The correct answer is A: An infant who has been identified to have botulism C. botulinum forms a toxin in improperly processed foods in anaerobic conditions. It is a neurotoxin that impairs autonomic and voluntary neurotransmission and causes muscular paralysis. Findings appear within 36 hours of ingestion. Be aware that all of the options may be candidates for gastric lavage or for activated charcoal administration. 5. A newly admitted adult client has a diagnosis of hepatitis A. The charge nurse should reinforce to the staff members that the most significant routine infection control strategy, in addition to handwashing, to be implemented is which of these? Apply appropriate signs outside and inside the room Apply a mask with a shield if there is a risk of fluid splash Wear a gown to change soiled linens from incontinence Have gloves on while handling bedpans with feces Review Information: The correct answer is D: Have gloves on while handling bedpans with feces The specific measure to prevent the spread of hepatitis A is careful handling and protection while handling fecal material. All of the other actions are correct but not the most significant. 6. Which of these clients with associated lab reports is a priority for the nurse to report to the public health department within the next 24 hours? A) An infant with a postive culture of stool for Shigella An elderly factory worker with a lab report that is positive for * B) acid-fast bacillus smear A young adult commercial pilot with a positive histopathological C) examination from an induced sputum for Pneumocystis carinii A middle-aged nurse with a history of varicella-zoster virus and D) with crops of vesicles on an erythematous base that appear on the skin Review Information: The correct answer is B: An elderly factory worker with a lab report that is positive for acid-fast bacillus smear Tuberculosis is a reportable disease because persons who had contact with the client must be traced and often must be treated with chemoprophylaxis for a designated time. Options a and d may need contact isolation precautions. Option c findings may indicate the initial stage of the autoimmune deficency syndrome (AIDS). 7. A client is diagnosed with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. What type of isolation is most appropriate for this client? A) Reverse B) Airbourne C) Standard precautions D) Contact Review Information: The correct answer is D: Contact Contact precautions or Body Substance Isolation (BSI) involves the use of barrier protection (e.g. gloves, mask, gown, or protective eyewear as appropriate) whenever direct contact with any body fluid is expected. When determining the type of isolation to use, one must consider the mode of transmission. The hands of personnel continue to be the principal mode of transmission for methicillin

Results for Safety and Infection Control 1. A 20 year-old client has an infected leg wound from a motorcycle accident, and the client has returned home from the hospital. The client is to keep the affected leg elevated and is on contact precautions. The client wants to know if visitors can come. The appropriate response from the home health nurse is that: A) Visitors must wear a mask and a gown There are no special requirements for visitors of clients on contact B) precautions Visitors should wash their hands before and after touching the C) client D) Visitors should wear gloves if they touch the client Review Information: The correct answer is C: Visitors should wash their hands before and after touching the client Gown and gloves are worn by persons coming in contact with the wounds or infected equipment. Visitors should wash their hands before and after touching the client.

resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Because the organism is limited to the sputum in this example, precautions are taken if contact with the patient''s sputum is expected. A private room and contact precautions , along with good hand washing techniques, are the best defenses against the spread of MRSA pneumonia. 8. The school nurse is teaching the faculty the most effective methods to prevent the spread of lice in the school. The information that would be most important to include would be which of these statements? "The treatment requires reapplication in 8 to 10 days." "Bedding and clothing can be boiled or steamed." Children are not to share hats, scarves and combs. Nit combs are necessary to comb out nits. Review Information: The correct answer is C: “Children are not to share hats, scarves and combs.” Head lice live only on human beings and can be spread easily by sharing hats, combs, scarves, coats and other items of clothing that touch the hair. All of the options are correct statements. However they do not best answer the question of how to prevent the spread of lice in a school setting. 9. During the care of a client with a salmonella infection, the primary nursing intervention to limit transmission is which of these approaches? Wash hands thoroughly before and after client contact Wear gloves when in contact with body secretions Double glove when in contact with feces or vomitus Wear gloves when disposing of contaminated linens Review Information: The correct answer is A: Wash hands thoroughly before and after client contact Gram-negative bacilli cause Salmonella infection. Two million new cases appear each year. Lack of sanitation is the primary means of contamination. Thorough handwashing can prevent the spread of salmonella. Note that all of the options are correct actions. However, the primary action is to wash the hands. 10. A nurse is reinforcing teaching with a client about compromised host precautions. The client is receiving filgrastim (Neupogen) for neutropenia. The selection of which lunch suggests the client has learned about necessary dietary changes? grilled chicken sandwich and skim milk roast beef, mashed potatoes, and green beans peanut butter sandwich, banana, and iced tea barbeque beef, baked beans, and cole slaw Review Information: The correct answer is B: roast beef, mashed potatoes, and green beans The client has correctly selected an appropriate lunch and appears to have knowledge of restrictions. Low granulocyte counts and susceptibility to infection are expected. Compromised host precautions require that foods are either cooked or canned. Options 1, 3 and 4 do not demonstrate learning, as raw fruits, vegetables, and milk are to be avoided. 11. After an explosion at a factory one of the workers approaches the nurse and says “I am an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) at the local hospital.” Which of these tasks should the nurse assign to this worker who wants to help during the care of the wounded workers? A) Get temperatures B) Take blood pressure C) Palpate pulses D) Check alertness Review Information: The correct answer is C: Palpate pulses The heart rates would indicate if the client is in shock or has potential for shock. If the pulses could not be palpated, those clients would need to be seen first. 12. Which of these clients would the nurse recommend to keep in the hospital during an internal disaster at the agency? An adolescent diagnosed with sepsis 7 days ago with vital signs A) maintained within low normal A middle-aged woman documented to have had an B) uncomplicated myocardial infarction 4 days ago An elderly man admitted 2 days ago with an acute exacerbation C) of ulcerative colitis A young adult in the second day of treatment for an overdose of * D) acetometaphen Review Information: The correct answer is D: A young adult in the second day of treatment for an overdose of acetometaphen zthe correct answer is D. An overdose of Tylenol requires close observation for 3 to 4 days as well as Mucomyst oral treatement for as long. A risk of liver failure exists within this time period. 13. The mother of a toddler who is being treated for pesticide poisoning asks: “Why is activated charcoal used? What does it do?” What is the nurse's best response? "Activated charcoal decreases the systemic absorption of the poison from the stomach."

"The charcoal absorbs the poison and forms a compound that doesn't hurt your child." "This substance helps to get the poison out of the body by the gastrointestinal system." "The action may bind or inactivate the toxins or irritants that are ingested by children or adults." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "The charcoal absorbs the poison and forms a compound that doesn''t hurt your child." All of the options are correct responses. However, option b is most accurate information to answer the mother’s question and about the effectiveness of activated charcoal. The language is appropriate for a parent''s understanding. 14. The nurse is to administer a new medication to a client. Which actions are in the best interest of the client? Verify the order for the medication. Prior to giving the medication the nurse should say "Please state your name?" Upon entering the room the nurse should ask: "What is your name? What allergies do you have?" then check the client's name band and allergy band As the room is entered say "What is your name?" then check the client's name band Verify the client's allergies on the admission sheet and order. Verify the client's name on the name plate outside the room then as the nurse enters the room ask the client "What is your first, middle and last name?" Review Information: The correct answer is B: Upon entering the room the nurse should ask: "What is your name? What allergies do you have?" then check the client''s name band and allergy band A dual check is consistently done for a client''s name. This would involve verbal and visual checks. Since this is a new medication an allergy check is appropriate. 15. Several clients are admitted to an adult medical unit. The nurse would ensure airborne precautions for a client with which medical condition? Autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with cytomegalovirus (CMV) A positive purified protein derivative with an abnormal chest x-ray A tentative diagnosis of viral pneumonia with productive brown sputum Advanced carcinoma of the lung with hemoptasis Review Information: The correct answer is B: A positive purified protein derivative with an abnormal chest x-ray The client who must be placed in airborne precautions is the client with a positive PPD (purified protein derivative) who has a positive x-ray for a suspicious tuberculin lesion. A sputum smear for acid fast bacillus would be done next. CMV usually causes no signs or symptoms in children and adults with healthy immune systems. When signs and symptoms do occur, they''re often similar to those of mononucleosis, including: sore throat, fever, muscle aches, fatigue. Good handwashing is recommended for CMV. 16. A client is scheduled to receive an oral solution of radioactive iodine (131I). In order to reduce hazards, the priority information for the nurse to include during the instructions to the client is which of these statements? In the initial 48 hours avoid contact with children and pregnant women, and after urination or defecation flush the commode twice. Use disposable utensils for 2 days and if vomiting occurs within 10 hours of the dose, do so in the toilet and flush it twice. Your family can use the same bathroom that you use without any special precautions. Drink plenty of water and empty your bladder often during the initial 3 days of therapy. Review Information: The correct answer is A: “In the initial 48 hours avoid contact with children and pregnant women, and after urination or defecation flush the commode twice.” The client''s urine and saliva are radioactive for 24 hours after ingestion, and vomitus is radioactive for 6 to 8 hours. The client should drink 3 to 4 liters a day for the initial 48 hours to help remove the agent from the body. Staff should limit contact with hospitalized clients to 30 minutes per day per person. 17. Which approach is the best way to prevent infections when providing care to clients in the home setting? Handwashing before and after examination of clients Wearing nonpowdered latex free gloves to examine the client Using a barrier between the client's furniture and the nurse's bag Wearing a mask with a shield during any eye/mouth/nose examination Review Information: The correct answer is A: Handwashing Handwashing remains the most effective way to avoid spreading infection. However, too often nurses do not practice good handwashing techniques and do not teach families to do so. Nurses need to wash their hands before and after touching the client and before entering the nursing bag. All of the options are correct. The sequence for priority actions would be options a, c, b, and d. 18. A 10 year-old child has a history of epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures. The school nurse should instruct the classroom teacher that if the child experiences a seizure in the classroom, the most important action during the seizure would be to Move any chairs or desks at least 3 feet away from the child Note the sequence of movements with the time lapse of the event Provide privacy as much as possible to minimize fightening the other children Place the hands or a folded blanket under the head of the child

Review Information: The correct answer is D: Place the hands or a folded blanket under the head of the child The priority during seizure activity is to protect the person from physical injury. Place a pillow, folded blanket or your hands under the child''s head to prevent harm to the head. The other body parts are of less risk of injury. The sequence of actions above would be options d, a, b, and c in order of priority. 19. A mother calls the hospital hot line and is connected to the triage nurse. The mother proclaims: “I found my child with odd stuff coming from the mouth and an unmarked bottle nearby.” Which of these comments would be the best for the nurse to ask the mother to determine if the child has swallowed a corrosive substance? Ask the child if the mouth is burning or throat pain is present Take the child’s pulse at the wrist and see if the child is has trouble breathing lying flat. What color is the child’s lips and nails and has the child voided today? Has the child had vomiting or diarrhea or stomach cramps yet? Review Information: The correct answer is A: “Ask the child if the mouth is burning or throat pain is present” Local irritation of tissues indicates a corrosive poisoning. The other comments may be helpful for the overall child’s condition. However, the question is about the concern for a caustic substance. 20. The nurse is assigned to a client newly diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Which of these protocols would be a priority for the nurse to implement? Have the client cough into a tissue and dispose in a separate bag Instruct the client to cover the mouth with a tissue when coughing Reinforce for all to wash their hands before and after entering the room Place client in a negative pressure private room and have all who enter the room use masks with shields Review Information: The correct answer is D: Place client in a negative pressure private room and have all who enter the room use masks with shields A client with active tuberculosis should be hospitalized in a negative pressure room to prevent respiratory droplets from leaving the room when the door is opened. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by sporeforming mycobacteria, more often Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In developed countries the infection is airborne and is spread by inhalation of infected droplets. In underdeveloped countries (Africa, Asia, South America), transmission also occurs by ingestion or by skin invasion, particularly when bovine TB is poorly controlled. Results for Management of Care 1. The charge nurse is planning assignments on a medical unit. Which client should be assigned to the PN? A) Test a stool specimen for occult blood B) Assist with the ambulation of a client with a chest tube C) Irrigate and redress a leg wound D) Admit a client from the emergency room Review Information: The correct answer is C: Irrigate and redress a leg wound The PN is a licensed provider and can perform this complex task. Options A and B could be delegated to a UAP and option D requires an RN. 2. When assessing a client, it is important for the nurse to be informed about cultural issues related to the client's background because Normal patterns of behavior may be labeled as deviant, immoral, or insane The meaning of the client's behavior can be derived from conventional wisdom Personal values will guide the interaction between persons from 2 cultures The nurse should rely on her knowledge of different developmental mental stages Review Information: The correct answer is A: Normal patterns of behavior may be labeled as deviant, immoral, or insane Culture is an important variable in the assessment of individuals. To work effectively with clients, the nurse must be aware of a cultural distinctive qualities. 3. The nurse is responsible for several elderly clients, including a client on bed rest with a skin tear and hematoma from a fall 2 days ago. What is the best care assignment for this client? Assign an RN to provide total care of the client Assign a nursing assistant to help the client with self-care activities Delegate complete care to an unlicensed assistive personnel Supervise a nursing assistant for skin care Review Information: The correct answer is D: Supervise a nursing assistant for skin care. The nursing assistant can inspect the skin while giving hygiene care, but the nurse should supervise skin care since assessment and analysis are needed.

4. The nursing student is discussing with a preceptor the delegation of tasks to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Which tasks, delegated to a UAP, indicates the student needs further teaching about the delegation process? Assist a client post cerebral vascular accident to ambulate Feed a 2 year-old in balanced skeletal traction Care for a client with discharge orders Collect a sputum specimen for acid fast bacillus Review Information: The correct answer is C: Care for a client with discharge orders The RN is the best person to do teaching or evaluation that is needed at time of discharge. 5. After working with a very demanding client, an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) tells the nurse, "I have had it with that client. I just can’t do anything that pleases him. I’m not going in there again." The nurse should respond by saying "He has a lot of problems. You need to have patience with him." "I will talk with him and try to figure out what to do." "He is scared and taking it out on you. Let's talk to figure out what to do." "Ignore him and get the rest of your work done. Someone else can take care of him for the rest of the day." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "He is scared and taking it out on you. Let''s talk to figure out what to do." This response explains the client''s behavior without belittling the UAP’s feelings. The UAP is encouraged to contribute to the plan of care to help solve the problem 6. A client with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder has been referred to a local boarding home for consideration for placement. The social worker telephoned the hospital unit for information about the client’s mental status and adjustment. The appropriate response of the nurse should be which of these statements? I am sorry. Referral information can only be provided by the client’s health care providers. “I can never give any information out by telephone. How do I know who you are?" Since this is a referral, I can give you the this information. I need to get the client’s written consent before I release any information to you. Review Information: The correct answer is D: I need to get the client’s written consent before I release any information to you. In order to release information about a client there must be a signed consent form with designation of to whom information can be given. 7. A client is admitted with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The client refuses to take medication and states “I don’t think I need those medications. They make me too sleepy and drowsy. I insist that you explain their use and side effects.” The nurse should understand that A referral is needed to the psychiatrist who is to provide the client A) with answers * B) The client has a right to know about the prescribed medications Such education is an independent decision of the individual nurse C) whether or not to teach clients about their medications Clients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk of psychosicial D) complications when they know about their medication side effects Review Information: The correct answer is B: The client has a right to know about the prescribed medications Clients have a right to informed consent which includes medications, treatments, or diagnositic studies 8. Which statement by the nurse is appropriate when asking an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) to assist a 69 year-old surgical client to ambulate for the first time? "Have the client sit on the side of the bed for at least 2 minutes before helping him stand." "If the client is dizzy on standing, ask him to take some deep breaths." "Assist the client to the bathroom at least twice on this shift." "After you assist him to the chair, let me know how he feels." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "Have the client sit on the side of the bed for at least 2 minutes before helping him stand." Give clear information to the UAP about what is expected for client safety. 9. The nurse receives a report on an older adult client with middle stage dementia. What information suggests the nurse should do immediate follow up rather than delegate care to the nursing assistant? The client Has had a change in respiratory rate by an increase of 2 breaths Has had a change in heart rate by an increase of 10 beats Was minimally responsive to voice and touch Has had a blood pressure change by a drop in 8 mmHg systolic Review Information: The correct answer is C: Was minimally responsive to voice and touch A change in level of consciousness indicates delirium related to acute illness. This would require the assessment of a nurse. 10. A client tells the nurse, "I have something very important to tell you if you promise not to tell." The best response by the nurse is "I must document and report any information."

"I can’t make such a promise." "That depends on what you tell me." "I must report everything to the treatment team." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "I can’t make such a promise." Secrets are inappropriate in therapeutic relationships and are counter productive to the therapeutic efforts of the interdisciplinary team. Secrets may be related to risk for harm to self or others. The nurse honors and helps clients to understand rights, limitations, and boundaries regarding confidentiality. 11. Which task could be safely delegated by the nurse to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? A) Be with a client who self-administers insulin B) Cleanse and dress a small decubitus ulcer C) Monitor a client's response to passive range of motion excercises D) Apply and care for a client's rectal pouch Review Information: The correct answer is D: Apply and care for a client''s rectal pouch The RN may delegate the application and care of rectal pouches to a UAP. This is an uncomplicated, routine type of task. 12. A client asks the nurse to call the police and states: “I need to report that I am being abused by a nurse.” The nurse should first Focus on reality orientation to place and person Assist with the report of the client’s complaint to the police Obtain more details of the client’s claim of abuse Document the statement on the client’s chart with a report to the manager Review Information: The correct answer is C: Obtain more details of the client’s claim of abuse The advocacy role of the professional nurse as well as the legal duty of the reasonable prudent nurse requires the investigation of claims of abuse or violation of rights. The nurse is legally accountable for actions delegated to others. The application of the nursing process requires that the nurse gather more information, further assessment, before documentation or the reporting of the complaint. 13. A nurse from the maternity unit is floated to the critical care unit because of staff shortage on the evening shift. Which client would be appropriate to assign to this nurse? A client with A Dopamine drip IV with vital signs monitored every 5 minutes A myocardial infarction that is free from pain and dysrhythmias A tracheotomy of 24 hours in some respiratory distress A pacemaker inserted this morning with intermittent capture Review Information: The correct answer is B: A myocardial infarction that is free from pain and dysrhythmias This client is the most stable with minimal risk of complications or instability. The nurse can transfer basic nursing skills to care for this client. 14. An unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), who usually works on a surgical unit is assigned to float to a pediatric unit. Which question by the charge nurse would be most appropriate when making delegation decisions? "How long have you been a UAP and what units you have worked on?" "What type of care do you give on the surgical unit and what ages of clients?" "What is your comfort level in caring for children and at what ages?" "Have you reviewed the list of expected skills you might need on this unit?" Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Have you reviewed the list of expected skills you might need on this unit?" The UAP must be competent to accept the delegated task. Review of skills needed versus level of performance is the most efficient and effective way to achieve this in the least amount of time. 15. A client frequently admitted to the locked psychiatric unit repeatedly compliments and invites one of the nurses to go out on a date. The nurse’s response should be to Ask to not be assigned to this client or to work on another unit Tell the client that such behavior is inappropriate Inform the client that hospital policy prohibits staff to date clients Discuss the boundaries of the therapeutic relationship with the client Review Information: The correct answer is D: Discuss the boundaries of the relationship with the client The nurse-client relationship is one with professional not social boundaries. Consistent adherence to the limits of the professional relationship builds trust. 16. A client has a nasogastric tube after colon surgery. Which one of these tasks can be safely delegated to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? To observe the type and amount of nasogastric tube drainage Monitor the client for nausea or other complications Irrigate the nasogastric tube with the ordered irrigant

Perform nostril and mouth care Review Information: The correct answer is D: Perform nostril and mouth care Skin care around a nasogastric tube is a routine task that is appropriate for UAPs. The other tasks would be appropriate for a PN or RN to do since they are advanced skills or require evaluation. 17. The nurse is caring for a 69 year-old client with a diagnosis of hyperglycemia. Which tasks could the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? A) Test blood sugar every 2 hours by accucheck B) Review with family and client signs of hyperglycemia C) Monitor for mental status changes D) Check skin condition of lower extremities Review Information: The correct answer is A: Test blood sugar every 2 hours by accucheck The UAP can do standard unchanging procedures 18. A nurse is working with one licensed practical nurse (PN), a student nurse and an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Which newly admitted clients would be most appropriate to assign to the UAP? A) A 76-year-old client with severe depression B) A middle-aged client with an obsessive compulsive disorder C) A adolescent with dehydration and anorexia A young adult who is a heroin addict in withdrawal with D) hallucinations Review Information: The correct answer is B: A middle-aged client with an obsessive compulsive disorder The UAP can be assigned to care for a client with a chronic condition after an initial assessment by the nurse. This client has no risk of instability of condition. 19. The unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) reports a sudden increase in temperature to 101 degrees F for a post surgical client. The nurse checks on the client’s condition and observes a cup of steaming coffee at the bedside. What instructions are appropriate to give to the UAP? Encourage oral fluids for the temperature elevation Check temperature 15 minutes after hot liquids are taken Ask the client to drink only cold water and juices Chart this temperature elevation on the flow sheet Review Information: The correct answer is B: Check temperature 15 minutes after hot liquids are taken Hot liquids, smoking, eating, chewing gum, and talking can all elevate temperature. Waiting to take the temperature for 15 minutes will help the temperature return to its normal, in order to get an accurate reading. The other options are incorrect. 20. A client continuously calls out to the nursing staff when anyone passes the client’s door and asks them to do something in the room. The best response by the charge nurse would be to Keep the client’s room door cracked to minimize the distractions Assign 1 of the nursing staff to visit the client regularly Reassure the client that 1 staff person will check frequently if the client needs anything Arrange for each staff member to go into the client’s room to check on needs every hour on the hour Review Information: The correct answer is B: Assign 1 of the nursing staff to visit the client regularly Regular, frequent, planned contact by 1 staff member provides continuity of care and reduces the client’s need for attention. Results for Psychosocial Integrity 1. A client with a new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is referred for home care. A family member present expresses concern that the client seems depressed. The nurse should initially focus assessment by using which approach? The results of a standardized tool that measures depression Observation of affect and behavior Inquiry about use of alcohol Family history of emotional problems or mental illness Review Information: The correct answer is B: Observation of affect and behavior Although it is important to begin an assessment for depression immediately, the assessment should not be aggressive unless the nurse has confirmed the observation of the family member or if there are concerns about the risk of suicide. 2. A mother with a Roman Catholic belief has given birth in an ambulance on the way to the hospital. The neonate is in very critical condition with little expectation of surviving the trip to the hospital. Which of these requests should the nurse in the ambulance anticipate and be prepared to do? The refusal of any treatment for self and the neonate until she talks to a reader The placement of a rosary necklace around the neonate's neck and not to remove it unless absolutely necessary Arrange for a church elder to be at the emergency department when the ambulance arrives so a "laying on hands" can be done Pour fluid over the forehead backwards towards the back of the head and say "I baptize you in the name of the father, the son and the holy

spirit. Amen." Review Information: The correct answer is D: Pour fluid over the forehead backwards towards the back of the head and say "I baptize you in the name of the father, the son and the holy spirit. Amen." Infant baptism is madatory in the Roman Catholic belief especially if a neonate is not expected to live. Anyone may perform this if an infant or child is gravely ill. Option A refers to the Christian Science belief. Option B is a belief of Russian Orthodoxy. Mormons believe of devine healing with the laying on of hands, as represented in option C. 3. An American Indian chief visits his newborn son and performs a traditional ceremony that involves feathers and chanting. The attending nurse tells a colleague "I wonder if he has any idea how ridiculous he looks -- he's a grown man!" The nurse's response is an example of A) Discrimination B) Stereotyping C) Ethnocentrism D) Prejudice Review Information: The correct answer is D: Prejudice Prejudice is a hostile attitude toward individuals simply because they belong to a particular group presumed to have objectionable qualities. Prejudice refers to preconceived ideas, beliefs, or opinions about an individual, group, or culture that limit a full and accurate understanding of the individual, culture, gender, race, event, or situation. 4. A client expresses anger when the call light is not answered within 5 minutes. The client demanded a blanket. The best response for the nurse to make is A) "I apologize for the delay. I was involved in an emergency." B) "Let's talk. Why are you upset about this?" "I am surprised that you are upset. The request could have waited C) a few more minutes." D) "I see this is frustrating for you. I have a few minutes so let's talk." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "I see this is frustrating for you. I have a few minutes so let''s talk." This is the best response because it gives credence to the client''s feelings and then concerns. Option B does not acknowledge or validate the client''s feelings. 5. An elderly client who lives in a retirement community is admitted with these behaviors as reported by the daughter: absence in the daily senior group activity, missing the weekly card games, a change in calling the daughter from daily to once a week, and the client's tomato garden is overgrown with weeds. The nurse should assign this client to a room with which one of these clients? An adolescent who was admitted the day before with acute situational depression A middle aged person who has been on the unit for 72 hours with a dysthymia An elderly person who was admitted 3 hours ago with cycothymia A young adult who was admitted 24 hours ago for detoxification Review Information: The correct answer is B: A middle aged person who has been on the unit for 72 hours with a dysthymia The findings suggest a client who is depressed. The most therapeutic mileu or environment for this client would be the client with a similar problem and a client that might be more stable. A secondary consideration is to match the age as close as possible. The client in option A has depression and would be more likely to be unstable since they have been in the agency for 24 hours. Dysthymia is defined as a mild depression with findings of trouble falling asleep or no difficulty falling asleep but then wakes up in the middle of the night and with difficulty is able to fall back asleep. Cycothymia is the occurance of periods for behaviors that do not meet the criteria for manic or major depressive episodes. 6. A client diagnosed with anorexia nervosa states after lunch, "I shouldn’t have eaten all of that sandwich, I don’t know why I ate it, I wasn’t hungry." The client’s comments indicate that the client is likely experiencing A) Guilt B) Bloating C) Anxiety D) Fear Review Information: The correct answer is A: Guilt If people with anorexia lose control and eat more than they believe to be appropriate, they experience guilt. 7. A 65-year-old Catholic Hispanic-Latino client with prostate cancer adamantly refuses pain medication because the client believes that suffering is part of life. The client states “everyone’s life is in God's hands.” The next action for the nurse to take is to Report the situation to the health care provider Discuss the situation with the client's family Ask the client if talking with a priest would be desired Document the situation on the notes

Review Information: The correct answer is C: Ask the client if talking with a priest would be desired Beliefs regarding pain are one of the oldest culturally related research areas in health care. Astute observations and careful assessments must be completed to determine the level of pain a person can tolerate. Health-care practitioners must investigate the meaning of pain to each person within a cultural explanatory framework. 8. A teenage female is admitted with the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Upon admission, the nurse finds a bottle of assorted pills in the client’s drawer. The client tells the nurse that they are antacids for stomach pains. The best response by the nurse would be A) "These pills aren’t antacids since they are all different." B) "Some teenagers use pills to lose weight." * C) "Tell me about your week prior to being admitted." D) "Are you taking pills to change your weight?" Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Tell me about your week prior to being admitted." This is an open-ended question which is nonjudgemental and allows for further discussion. The topic is also nonthreatening yet will give the nurse insight into the client''s view of events leading up to admission. It is the only option that is client centered. The other options focus on the pills. 9. A client who has a belief based in Hinduism is nearing death. The nurse should plan for which action? After death a Hindu priest will pour water into the mouth of the client and tie a thread around the client's wrist The elders may be with the client during the process of the client dying and no last rites are given The family must be with the client during the process of dying and be the only ones to wash the body after death The body is ritually cleansed and burial is to be as soon as possible after the death occurs Review Information: The correct answer is A: After death a Hindu priest will pour water into the mouth of the client and tie a thread around the client''s wirst This action indicates a blessing in the practice of Hinduism. The family of a client who has the belief of Hinduism is particular about who touches the dead body and cremation is preferred. Also last rites are carefully prescribed. The actions in option B are expected with persons from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (also known as Mormon). Also with this belief cremation is discouraged. Option C lists practices of the Islam religion. In addition only the family and friend may touch the body. Option D lists practices of Judaism. In addition autopsy is prohibited and organ donation or transplants are first approved by a rabbi. 10. An explosion has occurred at a high school for children with special needs and severe developmental delays. One of the students accompanied with a parent is seen at a community health center a day later. After the initial assessment the nurse concludes that the student appears to be in a crisis state. Which of these interventions based on crisis intervention principles is appropriate to do next? Help the student to identify a specific problem Ask the parent to identify the major problem Ask the student to think of different alternatives Examine with the parent a varitey of options Review Information: The correct answer is B: Ask the parent to identify the major problem If a client is unable to participate in problem solving because of developmental delays or altered mental status, then crisis intervention should not be attempted. However the family can be approached with the use of crisis intervention methods. The crisis intervention method includes 5 steps: identify the problem and then the alternatives, selection of an alternative, implementation, and evaluation. 11. Which statement made by a client to the admitting nurse suggests that the client is experiencing a manic episode? A) "I think all children should have their heads shaved." B) "I have been restricted in thought and harmed." "I have powers to get you whatever you wish, no matter the * C) cost." "I think all of my contacts last week have attempted to poison D) me." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I have powers to get you whatever you wish, no matter the cost." Grandiosity is characteristic of a manic episode. 12. A client says, "It's raining outside and it's raining in my heart. Did you know that St. Patrick drove the snakes out of Ireland? I've never been to Ireland." The nurse would document this behavior as A) Perseveration B) Circumstantiality C) Neologisms D) Flight of ideas Review Information: The correct answer is D: Flight of ideas Flight of ideas is characterized by over productivity of talk and verbal skipping from 1 idea to another. It is classic with clients diagnosed as bipolar disorder and occurs in the manic state of this disease.

13. During the change-of-shift report the assigned nurse notes a Catholic client is scheduled to be admitted for the delivery of a ninth child. Which comment stated angrily to a colleague by this nurse indicates an attitude of prejudice? A) "I wonder who is paying for this trip to the hospital?" B) "I think she needs to go to the city hospital." C) "All those people indulge in large families!" * D) "Doesn't she know there's such a thing as birth control?" Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Doesn''t she know there''s such a thing as birth control?" Prejudice is a hostile attitude toward individuals simply because they belong to a particular group presumed to have objectionable qualities. Prejudice refers to preconceived ideas, beliefs, or opinions about an individual, group, or culture that limit a full and accurate understanding of the individual, culture, gender, race, event, or situation. 14. Which of these statements by the nurse reflects the best use of therapeutic interaction techniques? "You look upset. Would you like to talk about it?" "I'd like to know more about your family. Tell me about them." "I understand that you lost your partner. I don't think I could go on if that happened to me." "You look very sad. How long have you been this way?" Review Information: The correct answer is A: "You look upset. Would you like to talk about it?" Giving broad opening statements and making observations are examples of therapeutic communication. The other options are too specific or focused to be therapeutic. 15. A nurse in the emergency department suspects domestic violence as the cause of a client's injuries. What action should the nurse take first? Ask client if there are any old injuries also present Interview the client without the persons who came with the client Gain client's trust by not being hurried during the intake process Photograph the specific injuries in question Review Information: The correct answer is B: Interview the client without the persons who came with the client It is critical to separate the client from their partner or significant other. With the use of the nursing process the nurse’s first action when a client is unstable or has potential problems is further assessment of the situation. 16. Which of these findings would indicate that the nurse-client relationship has passed from the orientation phase to the working phase? The client Has revitalized a relationship with her family to help cope with the death of a daughter Had recognized regressive behavior as a defense mechanism Expresses a desire to be cared for and pampered Recognizes feelings with appropriate expression of feelings Review Information: The correct answer is D: Recognizes feelings with appropriate expression of feelings During the working phase, the client is able to focus on pleasant or unpleasant feelings and express them appropriately. 17. A client who is thought to be homeless is brought to the emergency department by police. The client is unkempt, has difficulty concentrating, is unable to sit still and speaks in a loud tone of voice. Which of these actions is the appropriate nursing intervention for the client at this time? Allow the client to randomly move about the holding area until a hosptial room is available Engage the client in an activity that requires focus and individual effort Isolate the client in a secure room until control is regained by the client Locate a room that has minimal stimulation outside of it for admission process Review Information: The correct answer is D: Locate a room that has minimal stimulation outside of it for admission process This intervention allows the client with moderate anxiety to have human contact in an environment with minimal stimulation. It also facilitates efficiency in the initial screening and admission process to the emergency department. 18. A 2 day-old child with spina bifida and meningomyocele is in the intensive care unit after the initial surgery. As the nurse accompanies the grandparents for a first visit, which response should the nurse anticipate of the grandparents? A) Depression B) Anger C) Frustration * D) Disbelief Review Information: The correct answer is D: Disbelief The first phase of the grieving process is shock, denial or disbelief. Then follows anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Each

stage can take any amount of time to work through. Clients often go back and forth the stages before acceptance occurs. Some client get stuck in 1 or 2 of the stages. 19. Which statement by the client during the initial assessment in the the emergency department is most indicative for suspected domestic violence? "I am determined to leave my house in a week." "No one else in the family has been treated like this." "I have only been married for 2 months." "I have tried leaving, but have always gone back." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "I have tried leaving, but have always gone back." Victims develop a high tolerance for abuse. They blame themselves for being victimized. All members in the family suffer from the effects of abuse, even if they are not the actual victims. For these reasons, victims often have an extensive history of abuse and struggle for a long time before they can leave permanently. 20. A nurse states: "I dislike caring for African-American clients because they are all so hostile." The nurse's statement is an example of A) Prejudice B) Discrimination C) Stereotyping D) Racism Review Information: The correct answer is C: Stereotyping Stereotyping refers to placing people and institutions, mentally or by attitudes, into a narrow, fixed trait, rigid pattern, or within inflexible "boxlike" characteristics. Stereotyping is one of the most common concerns of nurses when they begin to study different cultures and learn about transcultural nursing. Results for Health Promotion and Maintenance 1. A 64 year-old client scheduled for surgery with a general anesthetic refuses to remove a set of dentures prior to leaving the unit for the operating room. What would be the most appropriate intervention by the nurse? Explain to the client that the dentures must come out as they may A) get lost or broken in the operating room Ask the client if there are second thoughts about having the B) procedure Notify the anesthesia department and the surgeon of the client's C) refusal Ask the client if the preference would be to remove the dentures in D) the operating room receiving area Review Information: The correct answer is D: Ask the client if the preference would be to remove the dentures in the operating room receiving area Clients anticipating surgery may experience a variety of fears. This choice allows the client control over the situation and fosters the client''s sense of self-esteem and self-concept. 2. The nurse has been teaching adult clients about cardiac risks when they visit the hypertension clinic. Which form of evaluation would best measure learning? A) Performance on written tests B) Responses to verbal questions C) Completion of a mailed survey D) Reported behavioral changes Review Information: The correct answer is D: Reported behavioral changes If the client alters behaviors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and stress management, these suggest that learning has occurred. Additionally, physical assessments and lab data may confirm risk reduction. 3. The nurse is planning care for an 18 month-old child. Which action should be included in the child's care? A) Hold and cuddle the child frequently * B) Encourage the child to feed himself finger food C) Allow the child to walk independently on the nursing unit D) Engage the child in games with other children Review Information: The correct answer is B: Encourage the child to feed himself finger food According to Erikson, the toddler is in the stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt. The nurse should encourage increasingly independent activities of daily living that allow the toddler to assert his budding sense of control. 4. A partner is concerned because the client frequently daydreams about moving to Arizona to get away from the pollution and crowding in southern California. The nurse explains that Such fantasies can gratify unconscious wishes or prepare for * A) anticipated future events B) Detaching or dissociating in this way postpones painful feelings This conversion or transferring of a mental conflict to a physical C) symptom can lead to marital conflict To isolate the feelings in this way reduces conflict within the D) client and with others Review Information: The correct answer is A: Such fantasies can gratify unconscious wishes or prepare for anticipated future events Fantasy is imagined events (daydreaming) to express unconscious conflicts or gratifying unconscious wishes.

5. An appropriate goal for a client with anxiety would be to A) Ventilate anxious feelings to the nurse B) Establish contact with reality C) Learn self-help techniques D) Become desensitized to past trauma Review Information: The correct answer is C: Learn self-help techniques Exploring alternative coping mechanisms will decrease present anxiety to a manageable level. Assisting the client to learn self-help techniques will assist in learning to cope with anxiety. 6. While the nurse is administering medications to a client, the client states "I do not want to take that medicine today." Which of the following responses by the nurse would be best? A) "That's OK, its all right to skip your medication now and then." B) "I will have to call your doctor and report this." * C) "Is there a reason why you don't want to take your medicine?" "Do you understand the consequences of refusing your D) prescribed treatment?" Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Is there a reason why you don't want to take your medicine?" When a new problem is identified, it is important for the nurse to collect accurate assessment data. This is crucial to ensure that client needs are adequately identified in order to select the best nursing care approaches. The nurse should try to discover the reason for the refusal which may be that the client has developed untoward side effects. 7. While caring for a client, the nurse notes a pulsating mass in the client's periumbilical area. Which of the following assessments is appropriate for the nurse to perform? A) Measure the length of the mass B) Auscultate the mass C) Percuss the mass D) Palpate the mass Review Information: The correct answer is B: Auscultate the mass Auscultation of the abdomen and finding a bruit will confirm the presence of an abdominal aneurysm and will form the basis of information given to the health care provider. The mass should not be palpated because of the risk of rupture. 8. A client is admitted to the hospital with a history of confusion. The client has difficulty remembering recent events and becomes disoriented when away from home. Which statement would provide the bestreality orientation for this client? A) "Good morning. Do you remember where you are?" B) "Hello. My name is Elaine Jones and I am your nurse for today." C) "How are you today? Remember, you're in the hospital." "Good morning. You’re in the hospital. I am your nurse Elaine D) Jones." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Good morning. You’re in the hospital. I am your nurse Elaine Jones." As cognitive ability declines, the nurse provides a calm, predictable environment for the client. This response establishes time, location and the caregivers name. 9. The nurse is teaching the parents of a 3 month-old infant about nutrition. What is the main source of fluids for an infant until about 12 months of age? A) Formula or breast milk B) Dilute nonfat dry milk C) Warmed fruit juice D) Fluoridated tap water Review Information: The correct answer is A: Formula or breast milk Formula or breast milk are the perfect food and source of nutrients and liquids up until 1 year. 10. The family of a 6 year-old with a fractured femur asks the nurse if the child's height will be affected by the injury. Which statement is true concerning long bone fractures in children? A) Growth problems will occur if the fracture involves the periosteum B) Epiphyseal fractures often interrupt a child's normal growth pattern C) Children usually heal very quickly, so growth problems are rare Adequate blood supply to the bone prevents growth delay after D) fractures Review Information: The correct answer is B: Epiphyseal fractures often interrupt a child''s normal growth pattern The epiphyseal plate in children is where active bone growth occurs. Damage to this area may cause growth arrest in either longitudinal growth of the limb or in progressive deformity if the plate is involved. An epiphyseal fracture is serious because it can interrupt and alter growth. 11. The nurse is assessing a client who states her last menstrual period was March 16, and she has missed one period. She reports

episodes of nausea and vomiting. Pregancy is confirmed by a urine test. What will the nurse calculate as the estimated date of delivery (EDD)? A) April 8 B) January 15 C) February 11 D) December 23 Review Information: The correct answer is D: December 23 Naegele''s rule: add 7 days and subtract 3 months from the first day of the last regular menstrual period to calculate the estimated date of delivery. 12. When screening children for scoliosis, at what time of development would the nurse expect early signs to appear? A) Prenatally on ultrasound B) In early infancy C) When the child begins to bear weight D) During the preadolescent growth spurt Review Information: The correct answer is D: During the preadolescent growth spurt Idiopathic scoliosis is seldom apparent before 10 years of age and is most noticeable at the beginning of the preadolescent growth spurt. It is more common in females than in males. 13. A client with congestive heart failure is newly admitted to home health care. The nurse discovers that the client has not been following the prescribed diet. What would be the most appropriate nursing action? Discharge the client from home health care related to A) noncompliance Notify the health care provider of the client's failure to follow B) prescribed diet Discuss diet with the client to learn the reasons for not following * C) the diet D) Make a referral to Meals-on-Wheels Review Information: The correct answer is C: Discuss diet with client to learn the reasons for not following the diet When new problems are identified, it is important for the nurse to collect accurate assessment data. Before reporting findings to the health care provider, it is best to have a complete understanding of the client''s behavior and feelings as a basis for future teaching and intervention. 14. A client states, "People think I’m no good, you know what I mean?" Which of these responses would be most therapeutic? "Well people often take their own feelings of inadequacy out on A) others." "I think you’re good. So you see, there’s one person who likes B) you." * C) "I’m not sure what you mean. Tell me a bit more about that." "Let's discuss this to see the reasons to create this impression on D) people?" Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I’m not sure what you mean. Tell me a bit more about that." Therapeutic communication technique that elicits more information is delivered in an open non-judgmental fashion. 15. A client being treated for hypertension returns to the community clinic for follow up. The client says, "I know these pills are important, but I just can't take these water pills anymore. I drive a truck for a living, and I can't be stopping every 20 minutes to go to the bathroom." Which of these is the best nursing diagnosis? A) Noncompliance related to medication side effects B) Knowledge deficit related to misunderstanding of disease state C) Defensive coping related to chronic illness D) Altered health maintenance related to occupation Review Information: The correct answer is A: Noncompliance related to medication side effects The client kept his appointment, and stated he knew the pills were important. He is unable to comply with the regimen from side effects, not a lack of knowledge about the disease process. 16. When teaching effective stress management techniques to a client 1 hour before surgery, which of the following should the nurse recommend? A) Biofeedback B) Deep breathing C) Distraction D) Imagery Review Information: The correct answer is B: Deep breathing Deep breathing is a reliable and valid method for reducing stress, and can be taught and reinforced in a short period pre-operatively. 17. When observing 4 year-old children playing in the hospital playroom, what activity would the nurse expect to see the children participating in? A) Competitive board games with older children B) Playing with their own toys along side with other children C) Playing alone with hand held computer games * D) Playing cooperatively with other preschoolers Review Information: The correct answer is D: Playing cooperatively with other preschoolers

Cooperative play is typical of the preschool period. 18. The nurse is assessing a 4 month-old infant. Which motor skill would the nurse anticipate finding? A) Hold a rattle B) Bang two blocks C) Drink from a cup D) Wave "bye-bye" Review Information: The correct answer is A: Hold a rattle The age at which a baby will develop the skill of grasping a toy with help is 4 to 6 months. 19. When teaching a 10 year-old child about their impending heart surgery, which form of explaination meets the developmental needs of this age child? A) Provide a verbal explanation just prior to the surgery B) Provide the child with a booklet to read about the surgery Introduce the child to another child who had heart surgery 3 days C) ago * D) Explain the surgery using a model of the heart Review Information: The correct answer is D: Explain the surgery using a model of the heart According to Piaget, the school age child is in the concrete operations stage of cognitive development. Using something concrete, like a model will help the child understand the explanation of the heart surgery. 20. The parents of a child who has suddenly been hospitalized for an acute illness state that they should have taken the child to the pediatrician earlier. Which approach by the nurse is best when dealing with the parents' comments? A) Focus on the child's needs and recovery B) Explain the cause of the child's illness C) Acknowledge that early care would have been better D) Accept their feelings without judgment Review Information: The correct answer is D: Accept their feelings without judgment Parents often blame themselves for their child''s illness. Feeling helpless and angry is normal and these feelings must be accepted. Results for Q&A - Pharmacology 2 1. When caring for a client with total parenteral nutrition (TPN), what is the most important action on the part of the nurse? A) Record the number of stools per day B) Maintain strict intake and output records C) Sterile technique for dressing change at IV site D) Monitor for cardiac arrhythmias Review Information: The correct answer is C: Sterile technique for dressing change at IV site Clients receiving TPN are very susceptible to infection. The concentrated glucose solutions are a good medium for bacterial growth. Strict sterile technique is crucial in preventing infection at IV infusion site. 2. When caring for a client who is receiving a thrombolytic agent to open a clot occluded coronary artery after a myocardial infarction, which finding would be of greatest concern to the nurse? A) Sero sanginous drainage from gums B) Hematemesis C) Pink frothy sputum D) Slight red color at urine Review Information: The correct answer is B: Hematemesis Frank bleeding should be of the greatest concern to the nurse. 3. A 52 year-old client is being transfused with one unit of packed cells. A half hour after the transfusion was initiated, the client complains of chills and headache. Which action should the nurse implement first? A) Notify the health care provider B) Check the client's temperature C) Stop the transfusion D) Obtain a urine specimen Review Information: The correct answer is C: Stop the transfusion The first action when a client exhibits signs of a potential transfusion reaction is to discontinue the transfusion immediately. 4. An adolescent client is hospitalized with menarthrosis from a Hemophilia A bleeding episode. Which order should be questioned by the nurse? A) Passive range of motion B) Replacement of factor VIII * C) Aspirin for pain management D) Immobilization splint Review Information: The correct answer is C: Aspirin for pain management

Aspirin is contraindicated in any client who is actively bleeding. Ibuprofen is a more common pain medication. 5. The nurse is giving instructions to the mother of a newborn infant with oral candidiasis. Which statement by the mother would indicate the need for further teaching? A) "Nystatin should be given 4 times a day after my baby eats." B) "I will boil the nipples and pacifiers for twenty minutes." C) "I should be taking the medication prescribed for this infection." * D) "The therapy can be discontinued when the spots disappear." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "The therapy can be discontinued when the spots disappear." The therapy should be continued for a week, even if lesions have disappeared within a few days. 6. The nurse is preparing a client for discharge following in-patient treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. Which of these instructions should be given to the client? A) Continue medication until findings are relieved * B) Continue medication use as prescribed Avoid contact with children, pregnant women or immuno C) depressed persons D) Take medication with Amphogel if epigastric distress occurs Review Information: The correct answer is B: Continue medication use as prescribed Early cessation of treatment may lead to development of drug resistant bacteria. 7. The nurse is administering an intravenous piggyback infusion of penicillin. Which of the following client statements would require the nurse's immediate attention? A) "I have a burning sensation when I urinate." B) "I have soreness and aching in my muscles." C) "I am itching all over." D) "I have cramping in my stomach." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I am itching all over." Complaints of itching, feeling hot all over and/or the appearance of raised, red welts on the skin are symptoms of an allergic reaction to the penicillin infusion. Therefore, the drug administration should be stopped immediately. 8. A woman diagnosed with bipolar disorder is to take lithium (Lithane) as part of the treatment. What should the nurse discuss with the client as part of the teaching plan? A) Risks of oral contraceptives B) Reduction in exercise program C) Avoidance of alcohol D) Cessation of smoking Review Information: The correct answer is C: Avoidance of alcohol Alcohol potentiates the effects of lithium, and is to be avoided. 9. The nurse prepares to administer eye drops to a 6 year-old child. Which of these demonstrates the correct method for instillation of eye drops? A) Directly on the anterior surface of the eyeball B) In the corner where the lids meet C) Under the upper lid as it is pulled upward * D) In the conjunctival sac as the lower lid is pulled down Review Information: The correct answer is D: In the conjunctival sac as the lower lid is pulled down Eye drops should be placed in the sac between the eye and the lower lid. This sac is formed by pulling the lower lid down. 10. A depressed client is experiencing severe insomnia. The health care provider orders trazadone (Desyrel). The nurse tells the client to expect A) Improvement of acne * B) Relief of insomnia C) Reduced arthritic pain D) Less nasal stuffiness Review Information: The correct answer is B: Relief of insomnia The sedative effects of the antidepressant are expected to relieve insomnia. 11. A client with diabetes has a blood sugar is 306 this morning. After the nurse reports this lab result and the client's symptoms of excessive hunger and thirst, what would the nurse expect the health care provider to order? A) Orange juice B) Regular insulin C) NPH Insulin D) Repeat blood sugar level Review Information: The correct answer is B: Regular insulin Regular Insulin is a short-acting insulin which will help reduce the client''s glucose quickly. 12. The nurse is planning to administer otic drops to a 6 year-old child. Which of the following is the correct procedure? A) Hold the pinna up and back to instill the drops B) Place several drops in the outer ear C) Insert cotton in the outer ear after giving medication D) Assist the child to lie on the affected side afterwards

Review Information: The correct answer is A: Hold the pinna up and back to instill the drops The external auditory canal should be straightened by gently pulling the pinna up and back for otic drop administration. In children who are under 3 years of age, the pinna should be pulled down and back. 13. A 1 year-old child is receiving temporary total parental nutrition (TPN) through a central venous line. This is the first day of TPN therapy. Although all of the following nursing actions must be included in the plan of care of this child, which one would be a priority at this time? A) Use aseptic technique during dressing changes B) Maintain central line catheter integrity C) Monitor serum glucose levels D) Check results of liver function tests Review Information: The correct answer is C: Monitor serum glucose levels Hyperglycemia may occur during the first day or 2 as the child adapts to the high-glucose load of the TPN solution. Thus, a chief nursing responsibility is blood glucose testing. 14. Today's prothrombin time for a client receiving Coumadin is 20 (normal range listed by the lab is 10-14). What is the appropriate nursing action? A) Notify the health care provider immediately * B) Recognize that this is a therapeutic level C) Observe the client for hematoma development D) Assess for bleeding at gums or IV sites Review Information: The correct answer is B: Recognize that this is a therapeutic level For the client on Coumadin therapy, this prothrombin level is within the therapeutic range. 15. The nurse administered intravenous gamma globulin to an 18 month-old child with AIDS. The parent asks why this medication is being given. What is the nurse’s best response? A) "It will slow down the replication of the virus." B) "This medication will improve your child's overall health status." * C) "This medication is used to prevent bacterial infections." "It will increase the effectiveness of the other medications your D) child receives." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "This medication is used to prevent bacterial infections." Intravenous gamma globulin is given to help prevent as well as to fight bacterial infections in young children with AIDS. 16. The nurse is administering the initial total parenteral nutrition solution to a client. Which of the following assessments requires the nurse's immediate attention? A) Temperature of 37.5 degrees Celsius B) Urine output of 300 cc in 4 hours C) Poor skin turgor D) Blood glucose of 350 mg/dl Review Information: The correct answer is D: Blood glucose of 350 mg/dl Total parenteral nutrition formulas contain dextrose in concentrations of 10% or greater to supply 20% to 50% of the total calories. Blood glucose levels should be checked every 4 to 6 hours. A sliding scale dose of insulin may be ordered to maintain the blood glucose level below 200mg/dl. 17. The nurse is teaching a client with asthma about the correct use of the Azmacort (triamcinolone) inhaler. Which of the following statements, if made by the client, would indicate that the teaching was effective? A) "The inhaler can be used whenever I feel short of breath." * B) "I should rinse my mouth after using the inhaler." C) "If I forget a dose, I can double up on the next dose." D) I should not use a spacer with my Azmacort. Review Information: The correct answer is B: "I should rinse my mouth after using the inhaler." Azmacort (triamcinolone) is an inhaled corticosteroid, used to prevent asthma attacks. It is often used in conjunction with a bronchodilator. The client should be instructed to rinse his mouth after using the inhaler to wash away any steroid residue so as to reduce the risk of oral fungal infections.

A client taking a non-potassium sparing diuretic such as furosemide will likely need a potassium supplement to prevent hypokalemia. This client did not take supplemental potassium. Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia include weakness and muscle cramps. Hypokalemic clients are more sensitive to digoxin toxicity. 19. The nurse admits a client with hypertension who complains of dizziness after taking diltiazem (Cardizem). Which of the following is the most important information for the nurse to assess? A) Schedule for taking medicine B) Daily intake of potassium C) Activity and rest patterns D) Baseline heart rate Review Information: The correct answer is A: Schedule for taking medicine A critical assessment is compliance with the prescribed medication schedule and dose. 20. Which of the following classifications of medications would be most often used for clients with schizophrenia? A) Anti-depressants B) Mood stabilizers C) Anxiolytics D) Neuroleptics Review Information: The correct answer is D: Neuroleptics Neuroleptics are antipsychotic drugs which are most beneficial in treating the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia; any of the other meds might also be used, but neuroleptics are the most widely used. 21. A hospitalized 8 month-old infant is receiving digoxin for the treatment of Tetralogy of Fallot. Prior to administering the next dose of medication, the parent reports that the baby has vomited one time, just after breakfast. The heart rate is 72. What is the initial response of the nurse? A) Give the dose after lunch B) Reduce the next dose by half C) Double the next dose * D) Hold the medication Review Information: The correct answer is D: Hold the medication Toxic side effects of digoxin include bradycardia, dysrhythmia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dizziness, headache, weakness and fatigue. In infants and young children, only 1 episode of vomiting, associated with mealtime, does not usually warrant withholding the medication. However, bradycardia (normal rate in this age child is 80-100 in the awake stage) is sufficient reason to hold the medication and notify the appropriate practitioner. 22. A child is treated with edetate calcium disodium (Calcium EDTA) for lead poisoning. Which of these should the nurse assess first ? A) Serum potassium level B) Blood calcium level C) Urinary output D) Deep tendon reflexes Review Information: The correct answer is C: Urinary output Calcium EDTA is toxic to the kidneys. Urine output must be measured to monitor renal function. Calcium EDTA should not be given to a child that cannot maintain adequate intake of fluids and adequate kidney function. 23. The nurse is assessing a client who has taken haldol (Haloperidol) for several months. Which of the following is a side effect of this medication and must be reported immediately to the health care provider? A) Muscle flaccidity B) Dystonic reaction C) Mood swings D) Dry, harsh cough Review Information: The correct answer is B: Dystonic reaction Haldol is a neuroleptic antipsychotic drug that may cause distonic reaction. Dosage may have to be adjusted. 24. The nurse is caring for a client with renal calculi. Which health care provider order would be a priority? A) Morphine sulfate as client controlled analgesia B) Push oral fluids and keep vein open C) Continuous warm compresses to the flank area D) Intravenous antibiotics Review Information: The correct answer is A: Morphine sulfate as client controlled analgesia Administering narcotic analgesics provide prompt relief of the severe pain caused by kidney stones.

25. A client with angina has been instructed about the use of sublingual nitroglycerin. Which of the following statements made to the nurse indicates a 18. A client is admitted to the hospital because of heart failure and need for further teaching? digoxin toxicity. At home, the client was taking digoxin (Lanoxin) and A) "I will rest briefly right after taking 1 tablet." furosemide (Lasix). Which symptom would the nurse anticipate finding B) "I can take 2-3 tablets at once if I have severe pain." on the initial assessment? C) "I'll call the doctor if pain continues after 3 tablets 5 minutes apart." * A) Muscle weakness and cramping "I understand that the medication should be kept in the dark B) Confusion D) bottle." C) Blood in the urine Review Information: The correct answer is B: "I can take 2-3 tablets at once if I have D) Tinnitis severe pain." Review Information: The correct answer is A: Muscle weakness and cramping

Clients must understand that just 1 sublingual tablet should be taken at a time. After rest and a 5 minute interval, a second and then a third tablet may be necessary. 26. The nurse is teaching administration of albuterol inhalation to an adult with asthma. Which of the following demonstrates proper teaching? A) "Use this medication at bedtime to promote rest." B) "Discontinue the inhalation if you are dizzy." C) "Inhale this medication after other asthma sprays." D) "Notify the health care provider if you need the drug more often." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Notify the health care provider if you need the drug more often." If the client notices that the albuterol inhalation is used more frequently, the health care provider should be notified so that a change in dose or medication can be ordered. 27. A hospitalized 8 month-old is receiving gentamicin (Cidomycin). In monitoring the infant for drug toxicity, the nurse should review which laboratory results first? A) Blood urea nitrogen B) Thyroxin levels C) Growth hormone levels D) Platelet counts Review Information: The correct answer is A: Blood urea nitrogen Toxicity to the aminoglycoside antibiotic, gentamicin, is seen in increased BUN and serum creatinine levels. Kidney damage may be reversible if the drug is stopped at the first sign of toxicity. 28. A client who is receiving chemotherapy through a central line is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of sepsis. Which of the following nursing interventions should receive priority? A) Inspect all sites that may serve as entry ports for bacteria B) Place the client in reverse isolation C) Change the dressing over the site of the central line D) Restrict contact with persons having known, or recent, infections Review Information: The correct answer is A: Inspect all sites that may serve as entry ports for bacteria Prompt recognition of source of infection and subsequent initiation of therapy will reduce morbidity and mortality. 29. The nurse is caring for a client with Parkinson's disease who has developed hallucinations. Which of the following medications that the client is receiving may have been a contributing factor? A) L-Dopa B) Cogentin C) Baclofen D) Benadryl Review Information: The correct answer is A: L-Dopa While it is unclear whether some 1/3 of clients with Parkinson''s disease have a dementia, the nurse should ask about hallucinations because the Parkinson''s disease medications will cause hallucinations when they are at too high a dose. This should be asked at each client visit in home care or clinic visits. 30. The nurse is caring for a child receiving albuterol (Proventil) for asthma. The parents ask the nurse why their child is receiving this medication. Which explanation is correct? A) decrease the swelling in the airways." * B) relax the smooth muscles in the airways." C) reduce the secretions blocking the airways." stimulate the respiratory center in the brain that control D) respirations." Review Information: The correct answer is B: relax the smooth muscles in the airways." Albuterol (beta-adrenergic agonist) is the drug of choice in treating asthma because it allows the smooth muscle in the airway to relax. The airway can then dilate to increase airflow. 31. The nurse prepares to give a one year-old child an intramuscular injection. Where is the best site for this injection? A) Deltoid muscle B) Ventrogluteal muscle C) Dorsogluteal muscle D) Vastus lateralis muscle Review Information: The correct answer is D: Vastus lateralis muscle The preferred site for an injection for an infant is the vastus lateralis muscle which lies along the lateral aspect of the thigh. This site is able to tolerate larger volumes, and it is not located near any nerves or blood vessels. 32. The nurse is administering albuterol (Proventil) to a child with asthma. Which of the following assessments by the nurse indicate the need for an adjustment of the medication? A) Lethargy and fatigue

B) Edema is the lower extremities C) Apical Pulse of 112 D) Temperature of 101 degrees Fahrenheit Review Information: The correct answer is C: Apical Pulse of 112 One of the most common adverse effects of beta adrenergic medications is an increase in heart rate. 33. To which of the following nursing home residents could the nurse safely administer tricyclic antidepressants without questioning the health care provider's order? A) An 85 year-old male with narrow-angle glaucoma B) An African-American with benign prostatic hypertrophy C) A 65 year-old female with mild hypertension D) A Hispanic female with coronary artery disease Review Information: The correct answer is C: A 65 year-old female with mild hypertension Tricyclics can be safely administered to the hypertensive client. 34. The nurse is teaching a client about precautions with Coumadin. The nurse should instruct the client to avoid foods with excessive amounts of which nutrient A) Calcium B) Vitamin K C) Iron D) Vitamin E Review Information: The correct answer is B: Vitamin K Eating foods with excessive amounts of Vitamin K contained in green leafy vegetables may alter anticoagulant effects. 35. The nurse is caring for a 15 month-old child with a first episode of otitis media. Which of the following interventions should the nurse include in instructions to the child's parents? A) Explain that the child should complete the full 5 days of antibiotics B) Provide them with handout describing care of myringotomy tubes C) Describe the tympanocentesis to detect persistent infections Emphasize the importance of a return visit after completion of D) antibiotics Review Information: The correct answer is D: Emphasize the importance of a return visit after completion of antibiotics The usual treatment for otitis media is oral antibiotics for 10-14 days. The child should be examined again after completion of the full course of antibiotics to assess for persistent infection or middle ear effusion. 36. The nurse is caring for an 81 year-old client with colorectal cancer. The client's pain has been managed until now with acetaminophen with codeine. Because of increased pain, intravenous morphine is added. What should the nurse recognize about the validity of this order? A) Inappropriate because of potential respiratory depression B) Appropriate despite the expected effect of mental confusion C) Inappropriate and demonstrates poor knowledge of pain control D) Appropriate pain management around-the-clock Review Information: The correct answer is D: Appropriate pain management around-the-clock Elderly clients with cancer pain are frequently under medicated. This management is appropriate, and should be offered throughout the day and night. 37. Before administering digoxin (Lanoxin) to a client, which of the following nursing assessments is a priority? A) Auscultate breath sounds B) Check for bowel sounds C) Monitor the heart rate D) Measure the blood pressure Review Information: The correct answer is C: Monitor the heart rate Lanoxin, a cardiac glycoside used in congestive heart failure, helps the heart beat more effectively (+ inotrope), and decreases the heart rate (- chronotrope). Because digoxin slows the heart rate, the medication should be held if the heart rate is below 60. 38. When teaching a client about the use of sublingual nitroglycerin, the nurse should emphasize that which of these is the most common side effect? A) Headache B) Dry mouth C) Depression D) Anorexia Review Information: The correct answer is A: Headache The most common side effect is headache, related to the generalized vasodilatation. 39. What would the nurse expect to see in a client who is experiencing symptoms of tardive dyskinesia? A) Rapid tongue movements B) Uncontrolled hand tremors during meals C) Behavioral changes D) Repetitive slapping movements Review Information: The correct answer is A: Rapid tongue movements Tardive dyskinesia is a syndrome of involuntary movements of the face, mouth, tongue, trunk, and limbs that may occur after years of treatment with neuroleptic

agents. Predisposing factors include older age, many years of treatment cigarette smoking, and diabetes mellitus. 40. The nurse is teaching a client who has a new prescription for sublingual nitroglycerin. Which of the following must be emphasized? A) Rest in bed for an hour after taking medication B) Take the medication at the same time each day C) Keep the medication bottle in the refrigerator D) Carry the nitroglycerine with you at all times Review Information: The correct answer is D: Carry the nitroglycerine with you at all times Nitroglycerin should be carried with the client in and out of the home, so it can be used when angina pain occurs. Results for Q&A-Delegation 1. The home care nurse has been managing a client for 6 weeks. What is the best method to determine the quality of care provided by a home health care aide assigned to assist with the care of this client? A) Ask the client and family if they are satisfied with the care given Determine if the home health aide's care is consistent with the plan B) of care Investigate if the home health aide is prompt and stays an C) appropriate length of time for care Check the documentation of the aide for appropriateness and D) comprehensiveness Review Information: The correct answer is B: Determine if the home health aide is following the plan of care Although the nurse must complete all of the above responsibilities, evaluation of an adherence to the plan of care is the first priority. The plan of care is based on the reason for referral, health care providers’ orders, the initial nursing assessment, the client’s responses to the planned interventions, and the client''s and family''s feedback or inquires. 2. The nurse in the same day surgery unit assigns the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) to give a 1000 ml soap solution enema (SSE) to a client scheduled for an abdominal hysterectomy. Which statement by the nurse is most appropriate? A) "Administer enemas until the results are clear." B) "Give 3 enemas before surgery." C) "Let me know the results of the enema." D) "Slow the flow of the solution if cramping occurs." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Slow the flow of the solution if cramping occurs." The professional nurse can delegate tasks with an expected outcome. The UAP is given adequate information about the procedure. 3. An RN from the women’s health clinic is temporarily reassigned to a medical-surgical unit. Which of these client assignments would be most appropriate for this nurse? A newly diagnosed client with type 2 diabetes mellitus who is A) learning foot care A client from a motor vehicle accident with an external fixation * B) device on the leg A client admitted for a barium swallow after a transient ischemic C) attack D) A newly admitted client with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer Review Information: The correct answer is B: A motor vehicle accident (MVA) client with an external fixation device on the leg This client is the most stable, requires basic safety measures and has a predictable outcome. 4. Which client data should the nurse act upon when a home health aide calls the nurse from the client's home to report these items? A) The client has complaints of not sleeping well for the past week. The family wants to discontinue the home meal service, meals on B) wheels. The urine in the urinary catheter bag is of a deeper amber, almost C) brown color. D) The partner says the client has slower days every other day. Review Information: The correct answer is C: The urine in the urinary catheter bag is of a deeper amber almost brown color. Home health aides need to report diverse information to nurses through phone calls and documentation. The nurse who develops the plan of care for a specific client, and supervises the aide, must identify potential danger signs which require immediate action and follow-up. The color of the urine requires follow-up evaluation. 5. A client is receiving an intravenous (IV) infusion for pain control. When caring for this client, which one of these actions can the RN safely assign to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? Ask the client the degree of relief and document the client’s A) response B) Decrease the set rate on the pump by 2 ml/minute C) Check the IV site for drainage and loose tape * D) Assist the client with ambulation and a gown change

Review Information: The correct answer is D: Assist the client with ambulation and a gown change When directing the UAP, communicate clearly and specifically what the task is and what should be reported to the nurse. Implementation of routine tasks should be delegated since they do not require independent judgment. 6. A practical nurse (PN) from the pediatric unit is assigned to work in a critical care unit. Which client assignment would be appropriate? A client admitted with multiple trauma with a history of a newly A) implanted pacemaker A new admission with left-sided weakness from a stroke and mild B) confusion A 53 year-old client diagnosed with cardiac arrest from a C) suspected myocardial infarction A 35 year-old client in balanced traction admitted 6 days ago * D) after a motor vehicle accident Review Information: The correct answer is D: A 35 year-old client in balanced traction admitted 6 days ago after a motor vehicle accident This client is the most stable with a predictable outcome. 7. A 25 year-old client, unresponsive after a motor vehicle accident, is being transferred from the hospital to a long term care facility. To which o staff members should the charge nurse assign the client? A) Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) B) Senior nursing student C) PN D) RN Review Information: The correct answer is D: An RN The RN is responsible for teaching and assessment associated with discharge and these activities can not be delegated to the other listed persons. 8. Which statement by the nurse is appropriate when giving an assignment to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) to ambulate a client for the first time after a colon resection? "Have the client sit on the side of the bed before helping the client A) to walk." "If the client is dizzy ask the client to take some slow, deep B) breaths." C) "Help the client to walk in the room as often as the client wishes." D) "When you help the client to walk, ask if any pain occurs." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "Have the client sit on the side of the bed before helping him/her to walk." This statement gives clear directions to the UAP about the task and is most closely associated with the information in the stem that this is an initial getting out of bed after surgery. 9. A charge nurse working in a long term care facility is making out assignments. Which assignment to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), if made by the nurse, requires intervention by the supervisor? A) Provide decubitus ulcer care and apply a dry dressing B) Bathe and feed a client on bed rest C) Oral suctioning of an unresponsive elderly client Teaching a family intermittent (bolus) feedings via G-tube before * D) discharge Review Information: The correct answer is D: Teaching a family intermittent (bolus) feedings via G-tube before discharge Initial teaching can not be delegated to a UAP or a PN and must be done by RNs. 10. Which task for a client with anemia and confusion could the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? A) Document skin turgor and color changes B) Test stool for occult blood and urine for glucose C) Suggest foods high in iron and those easily consumed D) Report mental status changes and the degree of mental clarity Review Information: The correct answer is B: Test stool for occult blood and urine for glucose The UAP can do standard, unchanging procedures that require no decision making. 11. Which one of these tasks can be safely delegated to a PN? A) Assess the function of a newly created ileoostomy B) Care for a client with a recent complicated double barrel colostomy C) Provide stoma care for a client with a well functioning ostomy D) Teach ostomy care to a client and their family members Review Information: The correct answer is C: Provide stoma care for a client with a well functioning ostomy. The care of a mature stoma and the application of an ostomy appliance may be delegated to a PN. This client has minimal risk of instability of the situation. 12. The nurse assigns an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) to care for a client with a musculoskeletal disorder. The client ambulates with a leg splint. Which task requires supervision of the UAP? A) Report signs of redness overlying a joint * B) Monitor the client's response to ambulatory activity C) Encouragement for the independence in self-care D) Assist the client to transfer from a bed to a chair

Review Information: The correct answer is B: Monitor the client''s response to ambulatory activity Monitoring the client’s response to interventions requires assessment, a task to be performed by an RN. 13. Which of these clients would be most appropriate to assign to a PN? A trauma victim with quadriplegia and a client 1 day post-op radical A) neck dissection A client with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and a client B) with a history of AIDS admitted for pneumonia A client with hemiplegia is fed by a nasogastric tube and client with C) a left leg amputation in rehabilitation A client with a history of schizophrenia in alcohol withdrawal and a D) client with chronic renal failure Review Information: The correct answer is C: A client with hemiplegia is fed by a nasogastric tube and client with a left leg amputation in rehabilitation This client requires supportive care and interventions within the scope of practice of a PN. This client is stable with little risk of complications or instability. 14. A client has had a tracheostomy for 2 weeks after a motor vehicle accident. Which task could the RN safely delegate to unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? A) Teach the client how to cough up secretions B) Changes the tracheostomy trach ties C) Monitor if client has shortness of breath * D) Perform routine tracheostomy dressing care Review Information: The correct answer is D: Perform routine tracheostomy dressing care Unlicensed assistive personnel should be able to perform routine tracheostomy care. 15. Which of these clients would be appropriate to assign to a PN? A trauma victim with multiple lacerations and requires complex A) dressings. * B) An elderly client with cystitis and an indwelling urethral catheter. A confused client whose family complains about the nursing care C) 2 days after surgery. A client admitted for possible transient ischemic attack with D) unstable neuro signs. Review Information: The correct answer is B: An elderly client with cystitis and an indwelling urethral catheter. This is a stable client, with predictable outcome and care and minimal risk for complications. 16. Two people call in sick on the medical-surgical unit and no additional help is available. The team consists of an RN, an LPN and an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Which of these activities should the nurse assign to the UAP? A) Assist with plans for any clients discharged B) Provide basic hygiene care to all clients on the unit C) Assess a client after an acute myocardial infarction D) Gather the vital signs of all clients on the unit Review Information: The correct answer is B: Provide basic hygiene care to all clients on the unit Basic client care, which is routine, should be delegated to a UAP since the unit is short on help. The vital signs would be done by the RN and PN as they made rounds since this data is more critical to make decisions about the care of the clients. 17. During the interview of a prospective employee who just completed the agency orientation, which approach would be the best for the nurse manager to use to assess competence? A) What degree of supervision for basic care do you think you need? * B) Let’s review your skills check-list for type and level of skill. C) Are you comfortable working independently? D) What client care tasks or assignments do you prefer? Review Information: The correct answer is B: Let’s review your skills check-list for type and level of skill. The nurse needs to know that the employee has competence in certain tasks. One way to do this is to do mutual review of documented skills. 18. An unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), who usually works in pediatrics is assigned to work on a medical-surgical unit. Which one of the questions by the charge nurse would be most appropriate prior to making delegation decisions? A) "How long have you been a UAP?” B) "What type of care did you give in pediatrics?” C) "Do you have your competency checklist that we can review?” D) "How comfortable are you to care for adult clients?” Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Do you have your competency checklist that we can review?” The UAP must be competent to accept the delegated task. Further assessment of the qualifications of the UAP is important in order to assign the right task.

19. The measurement and documentation of vital signs is expected for clients in a long term facility. Which staff type would it be a priority to delegate these tasks to? A) Practical nurse (PN) B) Registered Nurse (RN) C) Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) D) Volunteer Review Information: The correct answer is C: Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) The measurement and recording of vital signs may be delegated to UAP. this falls under the umbrella of routine task with stable clients. Other considerations for delegation of care to UAP would be: who is capable and is the least expensive worker to do each task? 20. The RN delegates the task of taking vital signs of all the clients on the medical-surgical unit to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Specific written and verbal instructions are given to not take a post-mastectomy client’s blood pressure on the left arm. Later as the RN is making rounds, the nurse finds the blood pressure cuff on that client’s left arm. Which of these statements is most accurate? A) The RN is accountable for this situation. B) The RN did not delegate appropriately. C) The UAP is covered by the RN’s license. D) The UAP is responsible for following instructions. Review Information: The correct answer is D: The UAP is responsible for following instructions. The UAP is responsible for carrying out the activity correctly once directions have been clearly communicated especially if given verbally and in writing. 21. As the RN responsible for a client in isolation, which can be delegated to the PN? * A) Reinforcement of isolation precautions B) Assessment of the client's attitude about infection control C) Evaluation of staffs' compliance with control measures D) Observation of the client's total environment for risks Review Information: The correct answer is A: Reinforcement of isolation precautions PNs and UAPs can reinforce information that was originally given by the RN. 22. The care of which of the following clients can the nurse safely delegate to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? A client with peripheral vascular disease and an ulceration of the * A) lower leg. A pre-operative client awaiting adrenalectomy with a history of B) asthma An elderly client with hypertension and self-reported nonC) compliance A new admission with a history of transient ischemic attacks and D) dizziness Review Information: The correct answer is A: A client with peripheral vascular disease and an ulceration of the lower leg. This client is stable with no risk of instability as compared to the other clients. And this client has a chronic condition, with needs of supportive care. 23. The charge nurse on a cardiac step-down unit makes assignments for the team consisting of an RN, a PN, and an unlicensed assistive person. Which client should be assigned to the PN? A 49 year-old with new onset atrial fibrillation with a rapid A) ventricular response * B) A 58 year-old hypertensive with possible angina. C) A 35 year-old scheduled for cardiac catheterization. A 65 year-old for discharge after angioplasty and stent D) placement. Review Information: The correct answer is B: A 58 year-old hypertensive with possible angina. This is the most stable client. The clients in options C and D require initial teaching. The client in option A is considered unstable since the dysrhythmia is a new onset. 24. When walking past a client’s room, the nurse hears 1 unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) talking to another UAP. Which statement requires follow-up intervention? A) "If we work together we can get all of the client care completed." "Since I am late for lunch, would you do this one client's glucose * B) test?" C) "This client seems confused, we need to watch monitor closely." D) "I’ll come back and make the bed after I go to the lab." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Since I am late for lunch, would you do this one client''s glucose test?" Only the RN and PN can delegate to UAPs. One UAP can not delegate a task to another UAP. The RN or PN is legally accountable for the nursing care. 25. A staff nurse complains to the nurse manager that an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) consistently leaves the work area untidy and does not restock supplies. The best initial response by the nurse manager is which of these statements?

I will arrange for a conference with you and the UAP within the next week. B) I can assure you that I will look into the matter. I would like for you to approach the UAP about the problem the C) next time it occurs. D) I will add this concern to the agenda for the next unit meeting. Review Information: The correct answer is C: Suggest that the nurse approach the assistant about the problem Helping staff manage conflict is part of the manager''s role. It is appropriate to urge the nurse to confront the other staff member to work out problems without a manager''s intervention when possible. A)

notes that pulse oximetry has been ordered. Which statement by the nurse is appropriate? "In order to measure your oxygen level, please remove the polish A) from at least 2 nails." "If you do not remove all your polish, I will request a needlestick to B) test oxygen levels." C) "I am sorry. All your nail polish must go off." D) "I will ask your provider if we must ruin those beautiful nails." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "In order to measure your oxygen level, please remove the polish from at least 2 nails." In order to effectively measure pulse oximetry, there can be no nail polish on the finger with the reading device. The client should be approached using therapeutic communication skills. The other options are not appropriate. 6. The nurse is removing a fecal impaction on a 75 year-old client. It is most important that the nurse remember that A) the procedure be done prior to the bath B) family members should be taught the procedure * C) cardiac dysrhythmias can result during the process D) increased dietary fiber can minimize such problems Review Information: The correct answer is C: cardiac dysrhythmias can result during the process Cardiac dysrhythmias such as severe bradycardia can result from vagal nerve stimulation during fecal impaction removal in the elderly or in cardiac patients. Options 1, 2 and 4 are appropriate though are not the most important considerations. 7. When taking the client’s blood pressure (BP), the nurse cannot hear the sounds through the stethoscope. Which action should the nurse take first? A) take the BP again in 2 minutes in the same arm B) retake the BP again immediately in the same arm C) use an electronic BP cuff on the other arm D) check to see if the stethoscope is plugged Review Information: The correct answer is A: take the BP again in 2 minutes in the same arm It is best to wait 2 minutes between readings of a BP in the same arm to allow the vessels to recover from being squeezed. The electronic cuff would also require a 2 minute wait and may not read a very low pressure. 8. The client with multiple sclerosis has an order to change the nasogastric tube. To promote safety when removing the tube, the nurse should A) ask the client to hold a breath B) offer sips of water C) bring the code cart to the bedside D) empty the tube of all drainage Review Information: The correct answer is A: ask the client to hold a breath Holding the breath closes the epiglottis to help prevent aspiration. Occasionally passing a NG tube is easier if the client swallows during the process. Emptying the tube does not prevent aspiration. There should be no need for the code cart. 9. A client is being discharged home today, and will be taking K-dur 20mEq per day by mouth. The nurse should reinforce that potassium levels will be decreased by A) foods seasoned with salt substitute B) frequent daily snacks of black licorice C) prescribed potassium-sparing diuretics D) occasional use of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Review Information: The correct answer is B: frequent daily snacks of black licorice Excessive intake of black licorice can lead to decreased K+ levels due to the effect of glyceric acid (aldosterone effect). The excessive intake of salt substitutes, K+ sparing diuretics and NSAIDs all have the potential for raising the K+ level. 10. A client has just returned from the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) to the surgical unit after a cholecystectomy. When initial vital signs are taken the nurse notes a temperature of 94.8 degrees Fahrenheit. Which first nursing action is appropriate? A) Continue to monitor the vital signs as indicated * B) Apply a warm blanket and check the temperature in 10 minutes C) Ask the PACU nurse more details of what happened in PACU Call the health care provider and obtain further orders for D) warming Review Information: The correct answer is B: Apply a warm blanket and check the temperature in ten minutes A client’s post-operative temperature should be at least 95 degrees. If the temperature does not increase, the nurse should call the provider for orders for an electric warming blanket or other measures. It is not sufficient to continue monitoring without taking action. 11. The client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is scheduled for 160 ml of enteral feeding as a bolus every 4 hours. Before flushing with water the nurse aspirates the feeding tube contents and gets back 180 ml of feeding. What is the next appropriate nursing action? A) Administer the feeding as ordered B) Hold the next feeding C) Flush with sterile water

Results for Q&A-Random #17 1. A client experiences intense anxiety after the home was destroyed by a fire. The client escaped from the fire with only minor injuries. The nurse knows that the most important initial intervention would be to: A) Suggest the client rent an apartment with a sprinkler system B) Provide a brochure on methods to promote relaxation. * C) Determine available community and personal resources D) Explore the feelings of grief associated with the loss Review Information: The correct answer is C: Determine available community and personal resources The client has experienced a sudden event that has resulted in disequilibrium. The most important initial intervention focuses on identifying resources and obtaining assistance for housing and other immediate needs. Information on home safety, relaxation exercises, and grief counseling are of value after meeting initial needs for shelter. 2. An elderly client with tuberculosis has difficulty coughing up secretions for a sputum specimen. Which nursing action is appropriate? A) Spray the oropharynx with saline B) Ask the client to drink a warm liquid C) Force fluids for the next 8 hours * D) Raise the head of the bed to at least 45 degrees Review Information: The correct answer is D: Raise the head of the bed to at least 45 degrees Placing the client in semi or high fowler’s position will promote lung expansion and effective coughing. While drinking liquids helps to loosen secretions over time, they should not be given when collecting a specimen. Spraying the throat with saline may cause irritation and coughing and reduce oxygenation. 3. The nurse is caring for a 16 year-old client with femur fracture14 hours after surgery. Assessment findings include tachycardia, increased shortness of breath, a temperature of 100.2 degrees Fahrenheit, complaints of feeling anxious, and oxygen saturation level of 88%. In immediately notifying the provider of these findings, the nurse recognizes the client is at risk for A) compartment syndrome B) atelectasis C) myocardial infarction D) fatty embolism Review Information: The correct answer is D: fatty embolism The findings are cardinal signs of a fatty embolism. Compartment syndrome does not cause increased shortness of breath or feelings of anxiousness. Atelectasis occurs when ventilation is decreased and secretions accumulate. Myocardial infarction is characterized with chest pain and generally does not occur in 16 year olds unless there is a cardiac history. 4. The client referred for a mammography questions the nurses about the cancer risks from radiation exposure. What is the appropriate response by the nurse? The radiation from a mammography is equivalent to 1 hour of * A) sun exposure. You have nothing to worry about; it is less than tanning in the B) nude. C) A chest x-ray gives you more radiation exposure. D) Exposure to mammography every 2 years is not dangerous. Review Information: The correct answer is A: The radiation from a mammography is equivalent to one hour of sun exposure. The exposure of radiation from a mammography is equivalent to 1 hour of sun exposure; a client would have to have several in a year’s time to be at risk for cancer. This answer is concise and gives the client a point of reference. Option 2 is judgmental and nontherapeutic. Option 3 is not accurate and can cause further concern about radiation exposure. Option 4 does not clearly address the client’s question. 5. On admission to the ambulatory surgery unit, the nurse notices the client's painted finger nails. On reviewing the pre-op orders, the nurse

D) Discard the undigested feeding Review Information: The correct answer is B: Hold the next feeding If residual is greater than 150 ml, then the next feeding should be held. Administering water or the next feeding does not help with the digestion of this feeding. Discarding the feeding that was aspirated depletes the body of enzymes and electrolytes that have been mixed with the feeding. 12. The nurse is inserting a Foley catheter into the bladder of a female adult client. The nurse slips the catheter into an opening for four-5 inches and no urine is obtained. The most probable reason for this is that A) there is no urine present in the bladder B) the catheter is in the vagina C) the catheter is not inserted in far enough D) the bladder is over distended Review Information: The correct answer is B: the catheter is in the vagina The urinary catheter is inserted about 2 to 3 inches in the urinary meatus until the urine flow is visualized. If urine does not flow, the catheter is rotated gently and carefully inserted another inch farther. A catheter inserted 4 to 5 inches with no urine return is probably in the vagina. 13. After the death of a client, the family approaches the nurse and requests that a family member be allowed to perform a ritual bath on the deceased prior to moving the body. The appropriate response by the nurse is A) I will have to check on hospital regulations and policies. B) These procedures have to be carried out by our staff. C) Is there anything you need from me to perform the ritual bath? D) A ritual bath will have to wait until after post-mortem care Review Information: The correct answer is C: Is there anything you need from me to perform the ritual bath? Rationale: In some religious traditions, a ritual bath is performed by a family member or a ritual burial society. Nurses should inquire about rituals or observances following death and respect these. Options 1, 2 and 4 are inappropriate and insensitive. Results for Q&A-Random #15 1. The nurse detects blood-tinged fluid leaking from the nose and ears of a head trauma client. What is the appropriate nursing action? A) Pack the nose and ears with sterile gauze B) Apply pressure to the injury site * C) Apply bulky, loose dressing to nose and ears D) Apply an ice pack to the back of the neck Review Information: The correct answer is C: Apply bulky, loose dressing to nose and ears Applying a bulky, loose dressing to the nose and ears permits the fluid to drain and provides a visual reference for the amount of drainage. 2. A nurse manager considers changing staff assignments from 8 hour shifts to 12 hour shifts. A staff-selected planning committee has approved the change, yet the staff are complaining. As a change agent, the nurse manager should first A) Support the planning committee and post the new schedule B) Explore how the planning committee evaluated barriers to the plan C) Design a different approach to deliver care with fewer staff D) Retain the previous staffing pattern for another 6 months Review Information: The correct answer is B: Explore how the planning committee evaluated barriers to the plan The manager is ultimately responsible for delivery of care and yet has given a committee chosen by staff the right to approve or disapprove the change. Planned change involves exploring barriers and restraining forces before implementing change. To smooth acceptance of the change, restraining factors need to be evaluated. The manager wants to build the staff''s skills at implementing change. Helping the committee evaluate its decision-making is a useful step before rejecting or implementing the change. When possible all affected by the change should be involved in the planning. The question is whether staff input has been thoroughly taken into consideration. 3. The nurse is caring for a depressed client with a new prescription for an SSRI antidepressant. In reviewing the admission history and physical, which of the following should prompt questions about the safety of this medication? A) History of obesity * B) Prescribed use of an MAO inhibitor C) Diagnosis of vascular disease D) Takes antacids frequently Review Information: The correct answer is B: Prescribed use of an MAO inhibitor

SSRIs should not be taken concurrently with MAO inhibitors because serious, lifethreatening reactions may occur with this combination of drugs. 4. In preparing medications for a client with a gastrostomy tube, the nurse should contact the health care provider before administering which of the following drugs through the tube? A) Cardizem SR tablet (diltiazem) B) Lanoxin liquid C) Os-cal tablet (calcium carbonate) D) Tylenol liquid (acetaminophen Review Information: The correct answer is A: Cardizem SR tablet (diltiazem) Cardizem SR is a "sustained-release" drug form. Sustained release (controlledrelease; long-acting) drug formulations are designed to release the drug over an extended period of time. If crushed, as would be required for gastrostomy tube administration, sustained-release properties and blood levels of the drug will be altered. The health care provider must substitute another medication. 5. The most common reason for an Apgar score of 8 and 9 in a newborn is an abnormality of what parameter? A) Heart rate B) Muscle tone C) Cry * D) Color Review Information: The correct answer is D: Color Acrocyanosis (blue hands and feet) is the most common Apgar score deduction, and is a normal adaptation in the newborn. 6. A nurse has asked a second staff nurse to sign for a wasted narcotic, which was not witnessed by another person. This seems to be a recent pattern of behavior. What is the appropriate initial action? * A) Report this immediately to the nurse manager B) Confront the nurse about the suspected drug use Sign the narcotic sheet and document the event in an incident C) report D) Counsel the colleague about the risky behaviors Review Information: The correct answer is A: Report this immediately to the nurse manager The incident must be reported to the appropriate supervisor, for both ethical and legal reasons. This is not an incident that a co-worker can resolve without referral to a manager. 7. To obtain data for the nursing assessment, the nurse should: A) Observe carefully the client’s nonverbal behaviors B) Adhere to pre-planned interview goals and structure C) Allow clients to talk about whatever they want * D)

Elicit clients' description of their experiences, thoughts and behaviors

Review Information: The correct answer is D: Elicit clients'' description of their experiences, thoughts and behaviors The nurse’s understanding of the client rests the comprehensiveness of assessment data obtained by listening to the client’s self revelation. 8. The nurse will administer liquid medicine to a 9 month-old child. Which of the following methods is appropriate? A) Allow the infant to drink the liquid from a medicine cup * B) Administer the medication with a syringe next to the tongue C) Mix the medication with the infant's formula in the bottle D) Hold the child upright and administer the medicine by spoon Review Information: The correct answer is B: Administer the medication with a syringe next to the tongue Using a needle-less syringe to give liquid medicine to an infant is often the safest method. If the nurse directs the medicine toward the side or the back of the mouth, gagging will be reduced. 9. A client calls the nurse with a complaint of sudden deep throbbing leg pain. What is the appropriate first action by the nurse? A) Suggest isometric exercises B) Maintain the client on bed rest C) Ambulate for several minutes D) Apply ice to the extremity Review Information: The correct answer is B: Maintain the client on bed rest The finding suggests deep vein thrombosis. The client must be maintained on bed rest and the provider notified immediately. 10. The nurse is teaching diet restrictions for a client with Addison's disease. The client would indicate an understanding of the diet by stating * A) "I will increase sodium and fluids and restrict potassium." B) "I will increase potassium and sodium and restrict fluids." C) "I will increase sodium, potassium and fluids." D) "I will increase fluids and restrict sodium and potassium." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "I will increase sodium and fluids and restrict potassium." The manifestation of Addison''s disease due to mineralocorticoid deficiency resulting from renal sodium wasting and potassium retention include dehydration, hypotension, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and acidosis.

11. A client refuses to take the medication prescribed because the client prefers to take self-prescribed herbal preparations. What is the initial action the nurse should take? A) Report the behavior to the charge nurse Talk with the client to find out about the preferred herbal B) preparation C) Contact the client's health care provider D) Explain the importance of the medication to the client Review Information: The correct answer is B: Talk with the client to find out about the preferred herbal preparation Respect for differences is demonstrated by incorporating traditional cultural practices for staying healthy into professional prescriptions and interventions. The challenge for the health-care provider is to understand the client''s perspective. "Culture care preservation or maintenance refers to those assistive, supporting, facilitative or enabling professional actions and decisions that help people of a particular culture to retain and/or preserve relevant care values to that they can maintain their well-being, recover from illness or face handicaps and/or death". 12. During the initial physical assessment on a client who is a Vietnamese immigrant, the nurse notices small, circular, ecchymotic areas on the client's knees. The best action for the nurse to take is to A) Ask the client for more information about the nature of the bruises B) Ask the client and then the family about the findings C) Report the bruising to social services to follow-up D) Document the findings on the admission sheet Review Information: The correct answer is A: Ask the client for more information about the nature of the bruises "Cupping" is practiced by Vietnamese. The principle is to create a vacuum inside a special cup by igniting alcohol-soaked cotton inside the cup. When the flame extinguishes, the cup is immediately applied to the skin of the painful site. The belief: the suction exudes the noxious element. The greater the bruise, the greater the seriousness of the illness. There is no need to ask the family members. 13. A client with considerable pain asks: “What is your opinion regarding acupuncture as a drug-free method for alleviating pain?” The nurse responds, "I'd forget about it as those weird non-Western treatments can be scary." The nurse's response is an example of A) Prejudice B) Discrimination C) Ethnocentrism D) Cultural insensitivity Review Information: The correct answer is C: Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism, the universal tendency of human beings to think that their ways of thinking, acting, and believing are the only right, proper, and natural ways, can be a major barrier to providing culturally conscious care. Ethnocentrism perpetuates an attitude that beliefs that differ greatly from one''s own are strange, bizarre, or unenlightened, and therefore wrong. Ethnocentrism refers to the unconscious tendency to look at others through the lens of one''s own cultural norms and customs and to take for granted that one''s own values are the only objective reality. At a more complex level, the ethnocentrist regards others as inferior or immoral and believes his or her own ideas are intrinsically good, right, necessary, and desirable, while remaining unaware of his or her own value judgments. 14. A 9 year-old is taken to the emergency room with right lower quadrant pain and vomiting. When preparing the child for an emergency appendectomy, what must the nurse expect to be the child's greatest fear? A) Change in body image B) An unfamiliar environment C) Perceived loss of control D) Guilt over being hospitalized Review Information: The correct answer is C: Perceived loss of control For school age children, major fears are loss of control and separation from friends/peers. 15. A nurse arranges for a interpreter to facilitate communication between the health care team and a non-English speaking client. To promote therapeutic communication, the appropriate action for the nurse to remember when working with an interpreter is to Promote verbal and nonverbal communication with both the client * A) and the interpreter Speak only a few sentences at a time and then pause for a few B) moments Plan that the encounter will take more time than if the client C) spoke English D) Ask the client to speak slowly and to look at the person spoken to Review Information: The correct answer is A: Promote verbal and nonverbal communication with both the client and the interpreter The nurse should communicate with the client and the family, not with the interpreter. Culturally appropriate eye contact, gestures, and body language toward the client and family are important factors to

enhance rapport and understanding. Maintain eye contact with both the client and interpreter to elicit feedback and read nonverbal cues. 16. The nurse is planning care for a 2 year-old hospitalized child. Which of the following will produces the most stress at this age? A) Separation anxiety B) Fear of pain C) Loss of control D) Bodily injury Review Information: The correct answer is A: Separation anxiety While a toddler will experience all of the stresses, separation from parents is the major stressor. 17. Which statement describes strategies that help build personal power in an organization? Longevity in an organization, social ties to people in power, and a A) history as someone who does not back down in conflict ends with success Goals are met with the use of networking, mentoring, and * B) coalition building High visibility and formal power are maintained with a C) confrontational style Credibility to one's position is enhanced when professional dress D) and demeanor are employed Review Information: The correct answer is B: Goals are meet with the use of networking, mentoring, and coalition building Networking, mentoring, and coalition building are positive uses of personal power to meet goals. 18. A 24 year-old male is admitted with a diagnosis of testicular cancer. The nurse would expect the client to have A) Scrotal discoloration B) Sustained painful erection C) Inability to achieve erection D) Heaviness in the affected testicle Review Information: The correct answer is D: Heaviness in the affected testicle The feeling of heaviness in the scrotum is related to testicular cancer and not epididymitis. Sexual performance and related issues are not affected at this time. 19. A mother telephones the clinic and says “I am worried because my breast-fed 1 month-old infant has soft, yellow stools after each feeding.” The nurse's best response would be which of these? This type of stool is normal for breast fed infants. Keep doing as A) you have. The stool should have turned to light brown by now. We need to B) test the stool Formula supplements might need to be added to increase the bulk C) of the stools. Water should be offered several times each day in addition to the D) breast feeding. Review Information: The correct answer is A:This type of stool is normal for breast fed infants. Keep doing as you have. In breast-fed infants, stools are frequent and yellow to golden and vary from soft to thick liquid in consistency. No change in feedings is indicated. 20. Hospital staff requests that the parents with a Greek heritage of a hospitalized infant remove the amulet from around the child's neck. The parents refuse. The nurse understands that the parents may be concerned about A) Mental development delays * B) Evil eye or envy of others C) Fright from spiritual beings D) Balance in body systems Review Information: The correct answer is B: Evil eye or envy of others Matiasma, "BAD eye or evil eye " results from the envy or admiration of others. While the eye is able to harm a wide variety of things including inanimate objects, children are particularly susceptible to attack. Persons of Greek heritage employ a variety of preventive mechanisms to thwart the effects of envy, including protective charms in the form of amulets consisting of blessed wood or incense. 21. Which statement describes the use of a decision grid for decision making? A) It is both a visual and a quantitative method of decision making B) It is the fastest way for group decision making C) It allows the data to be graphed for easy interpretation D) It is the only truly objective way to make a decision in a group Review Information: The correct answer is A: It is both a visual and a quantitative method of decision making A decision grid allows the group to visually examine alternatives and evaluate them quantitatively with weighting. 22. The nurse is caring for several 70 to 80 year-old clients on bed rest. What is the most important measure to prevent skin breakdown? A) Massage legs frequently B) Frequent turning C) Moisten skin with lotions D) Apply moist heat to reddened areas Review Information: The correct answer is B: Frequent turning

Frequent turning will prevent skin breakdown. 23. Dual diagnosis indicates that there is a substance abuse problem as well as a A) Cross addiction * B) Mental disorder C) Disorder of any type D) Medical problem Review Information: The correct answer is B: Mental disorder Dual diagnosis is the concurrent presence of a major psychiatric disorder and chemical dependence. 24. Which of the following should the nurse obtain from a client prior to having electroconvulsive therapy? A) Permission to videotape B) Salivary pH C) Mini-mental status exam D) Pre-anesthesia work-up Review Information: The correct answer is D: Pre-anesthesia workup ECT is delivered under general anesthesia and the client should be prepared as for any procedure involve anesthesia. 25. The nurse is caring for several hospitalized children with the following diagnoses. Which disorder is likely to result in metabolic acidosis? A) Severe diarrhea for 24 hours B) Nausea with anorexia C) Alternating constipation and diarrhea D) Vomiting for over 48 hours Review Information: The correct answer is A: Severe diarrhea Severe diarrhea is the only problem listed that can lead to metabolic acidosis if untreated. 26. The nurse is assigned to care for a client newly diagnosed with angina. As part of discharge teaching, it is important to remind the client to remove the nitroglycerine patch after 12 hours in order to prevent what condition? A) Skin irritation B) Drug tolerance C) Severe headaches D) Postural hypotension Review Information: The correct answer is B: Drug tolerance Removing a nitroglycerine patch for a period of 10-12 hours daily prevents tolerance to the drug, which can occur with continuous patch use. 27. What is the major developmental task that the mother must accomplish during the first trimester of pregnancy? A) Acceptance of the pregnancy B) Acceptance of the termination of the pregnancy C) Acceptance of the fetus as a separate and unique being D) Satisfactory resolution of fears related to giving birth Review Information: The correct answer is A: Acceptance of the pregnancy During the first trimester the maternal focus is directed toward acceptance of the pregnancy and adjustment to the minor discomforts. 28. During the two-month well-baby visit, the mother complains that formula seems to stick to her baby's mouth and tongue. Which of the following would provide the most valuable nursing assessment? A) Inspect the baby's mouth and throat B) Obtain cultures of the mucous membranes C) Flush both sides of the mouth with normal saline * D) Use a soft cloth to attempt to remove the patches Review Information: The correct answer is D: Use a soft cloth to attempt to remove the patches Candidiasis can be distinguished from coagulated milk when attempts to remove the patches with a soft cloth are unsuccessful. 29. After successful alcohol detoxification, a client remarked to a friend, "I’ve tried to stop drinking but I just can’t, I can’t even work without having a drink." The client’s belief that he needs alcohol indicates his dependence is primarily A) Psychological B) Physical C) Biological D) Social-cultural Review Information: The correct answer is A: Psychological With psychological dependence, it is the client ‘s thoughts and attitude toward alcohol that produces craving and compulsive use. 30. A nurse is caring for a client with peripheral arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities. Which intervention should be included in the plan of care to reduce leg pain?

A) Elevate the legs above the heart B) Increase ingestion of caffeine products C) Apply cold compresses D) Lower the legs to a dependent position Review Information: The correct answer is D: Lower the legs to a dependent position Ischemic pain is relieved by placing feet in a dependent position. This position improves peripheral perfusion. 31. A diabetic client asks the nurse why the health care provider ordered a glycolsylated hemoglobin (HbA) measurement, since a blood glucose reading was just performed. You will explain to the client that the HbA test: A) Provides a more precise blood glucose value than self-monitoring B) Is performed to detect complications of diabetes C) Measures circulating levels of insulin D) Reflects an average blood sugar for several months Review Information: The correct answer is D: Reflects an average blood sugar for several months Glycosolated hemoglobin values reflect the average blood glucose (hemoglobinbound) for the previous 3-4 months and is used to monitor client adherence to the therapeutic regimen 32. The nurse is speaking to a group of parents and school teachers of children about care for children with rheumatic fever. It is a priority to emphasize that A) Home schooling is preferred to classroom instruction B) Children may remain strep carriers for years C) Most play activities will be restricted indefinitely D) Clumsiness and behavior changes should be reported Review Information: The correct answer is D: Clumsiness and behavior changes should be reported A major manifestation of rheumatic fever that reflects central nervous system involvement is chorea. Early symptoms of chorea include behavior changes and clumsiness. Chorea is characterized by sudden, aimless, irregular movements of the extremities, involuntary facial grimaces, speech disturbances, emotional lability, and muscle weakness. Chorea is transitory and all manifestations eventually disappear. 33. A client admits to benzodiazepine dependence for several years. She is now in an outpatient detoxification program. The nurse must understand that a priority during withdrawal is A) Avoid alcohol use during this time B) Observe the client for hypotension C) Abrupt discontinuation of the drug D) Assess for mild physical symptoms Review Information: The correct answer is A: Avoid alcohol use during this time Central nervous system depressants interact with alcohol. The client will gradually reduce the dosage, under the health care provider''s direction. During this time, alcohol must be avoided. 34. A client with a history of heart disease takes prophylactic aspirin daily. The nurse should monitor which of the following to prevent aspirin toxicity? A) Serum potassium B) Protein intake C) Lactose tolerance * D) Serum albumin Review Information: The correct answer is D: Serum albumin When highly protein-bound drugs are administered to patients with low serum albumin (protein) levels, excess free (unbound) drug can cause exaggerated and dangerous effects. 35. A mother calls the clinic, concerned that her 5 week-old infant is "sleeping more than her brother did." What is the best initial response? A) "Do you remember his sleep patterns?" B) "How old is your other child?" * C) "Why do you think this a concern?" D) "Does the baby sleep after feeding?" Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Why do you think this a concern?" Open ended questions encourage further discussion and conversation, thereby eliciting further information. 36. The nurse is caring for a client with COPD who becomes dyspneic. The nurse should A) Instruct the client to breathe into a paper bag B) Place the client in a high Fowler's position C) Assist the client with pursed lip breathing D) Administer oxygen at 6L/minute via nasal cannula Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assist the client with pursed lip breathing Use pursed-lip breathing during periods of dyspnea to control rate and depth of respiration and improve respiratory muscle coordination. 37. The nurse is caring for a client with a deep vein thrombosis. Which finding would require the nurse's immediate attention? A) Temperature of 102 degrees Fahrenheit

B) Pulse rate of 98 beats per minute C) Respiratory rate of 32 D) Blood pressure of 90/50 Review Information: The correct answer is C: Respiratory rate of 32 Clients with deep vein thrombosis are at risk for the development of pulmonary embolism. The most common symptoms are tachypnea, dyspnea, and chest pain. 38. A 6 year-old child diagnosed with acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is experiencing anorexia, moderate edema and elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. The child requests a peanut butter sandwich for lunch. What would the nurse's best response to this request? "That's a good choice, and I know it is your favorite. You can have A) it today." B) "I'm sorry, that is not a good choice, but you could have pasta." "I know that is your favorite, but let me help you pick another C) lunch." D) "You cannot have the peanut butter until you are feeling better." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I know that is your favorite, but let me help you pick another lunch." Children with AGN who have edema, hypertension oliguria and azotemia may have dietary restrictions limiting sodium, fluids, protein and potassium. Giving the child a short explanation and offering to talk about an alternative is appropriate for this age. 39. Which type of traction can the nurse expect to be used on a 7 year-old with a fractured femur and extensive skin damage? A) Ninety-ninety B) Buck's C) Bryant D) Russell Review Information: The correct answer is A: Ninety-ninety Ninety degree-ninety degree traction is used for fractures of the femur or tibia. A skeletal pin or wire is surgically placed through the distal part of the femur, while the lower part of the extremity is in a boot cast. Traction ropes and pulleys are applied. 40. A nurse aide is taking care of a 2 year-old child with Wilm's tumor. The nurse aide asks the nurse why there is a sign above the bed that says DO NOT PALPATE THE ABDOMEN? The best response by the nurse would be which of these statements? * A) "Touching the abdomen could cause cancer cells to spread." B) "Examining the area would cause difficulty to the child." C) "Pushing on the stomach might lead to the spread of infection." "Placing any pressure on the abdomen may cause an abnormal D) experience." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "Touching the abdomen could cause cancer cells to spread." Manipulation of the abdomen can lead to dissemination of cancer cells to nearby and distant areas. Bathing and turning the child should be done carefully. The other options are similar but not the most specific. Results for Q&A-Random #14 1. A nurse admits a 3 week-old infant to the special care nursery with a diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. As the nurse reviews the birth history, which data would be most consistent with this diagnosis? A) Gestational age assessment suggested growth retardation B) Meconium was cleared from the airway at delivery C) Phototherapy was used to treat Rh incompatibility * D) The infant received mechanical ventilation for 2 weeks Review Information: The correct answer is D: The infant received mechanical ventilation for 2 weeks Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is an iatrogenic disease caused by therapies such as use of positive-pressure ventilation used to treat lung disease. 2. A client with bipolar disorder is reluctant to take lithium (Lithane) as prescribed. The most therapeutic response by the nurse to his refusal is A) "You need to take your medicine, this is how you get well." B) "If you refuse your medicine, we’ll just have to give you a shot." * C) "What is it about the medicine that you don’t like?" "I can see that you are uncomfortable right now, I’ll wait until D) tomorrow." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "What is it about the medicine that you don’t like?" Nursing interventions for clients with psychotic disorders are aimed at establishing a trusting relationship, establishing clear communications, presenting reality and reinforcing appropriate behavior. 3. The nurse sees a substance abusing client occasionally in the outpatient clinic. In evaluating the client's progress, the nurse recognizes that the most revealing resistant behavior is A) Recurring crises

* B) Continuing drug use C) Rationalizing comments D) Missing appointments Review Information: The correct answer is B: Continuing drug use Continuing to use the drug demonstrates lack of commitment to the treatment program. This fact must be understood by the nurse as part of the disease of addiction. 4. A new nurse manager is seeking a mentor in the administrative realm. Which of these characteristics is a priority for the outcome of a positive experience with a mentor? A) Information is clarified as needed * B) A teacher-coach role is taken by the mentor C) The mentee accepts feedback objectively D) The mentor is randomly assigned by administration Review Information: The correct answer is B: A teacher-coach role is taken by the mentor Both the mentor and mentee, the nurse manager, initially need to be open to a positive learning experience. The teacher-coach is the priority for the outcome of an ideal relationship. 5. Parents of a 6 month-old breast fed baby ask the nurse about increasing the baby's diet. Which of the following should be added first? * A) Cereal B) Eggs C) Meat D) Juice Review Information: The correct answer is A: Cereal The guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that one new food be introduced at a time, beginning with strained cereal. . 6. A nurse is eating in the hospital cafeteria when a toddler at a nearby table chokes on a piece of food and appears slightly blue. The appropriate initial action should be to A) Begin mouth to mouth resuscitation B) Give the child water to help in swallowing * C) Perform 5 abdominal thrusts D) Call for the emergency response team Review Information: The correct answer is C: Perform 5 abdominal thrusts At this age, the most effective way to clear the airway of food is to perform abdominal thrusts. 7 A victim of domestic violence states, "If I were better, I would not have been beat." Which feeling best describes what the victim may be experiencing? A) Fear B) Helplessness * C) Self-blame D) Rejection Review Information: The correct answer is C: Self-blame Domestic violence victims may be immobilized by a variety of affective responses, one being self-blame. The victim believes that a change in their behavior will cause the abuser to become nonviolent, which is a myth. 8. A client has been admitted with complaints of lower abdominal pain, difficulty swallowing, nausea, dizziness, headache and fatigue. The client is agitated, fearful, tachycardic and complains of being "too sick to return to work." The client is diagnosed as having somatoform disorder. In formulating a plan of care, the nurse must consider that the client's behavior * A) Is controlled by their subconscious mind B) Is manipulative to avoid work responsibilities C) Would respond to psychoeducational strategies D) Could be modified through reality therapy Review Information: The correct answer is A: Is controlled by their subconscious mind Persons with somatoform disorder do not intend to feign illness; their complaints are not under their conscious control. To intend so is called "malingering" or a factitious disorder. 9. Which statement by a parent would alert the nurse to assess for iron deficiency anemia in a 14 month-old child? A) "I know there is a problem since my baby is always constipated." "My child doesn't like many fruits and vegetables, but she really * B) loves her milk." "I can't understand why my child is not eating as much as she did C) 4 months ago." D) "My child doesn't drink a whole glass of juice or water at 1 time." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "My child doesn''t like many fruits and vegetables, but she really loves her milk." About 2 to 3 cups of milk a day are sufficient for the young child''s needs. Sometimes excess milk intake, a habit carried over from infancy, may exclude many solid foods from the diet. As a result, the child may lack iron and develop a so-called milk anemia. Although the majority of infants with iron deficiency are underweight, many are overweight because of excessive milk ingestion. 10. The nurse is planning care for a client during the acute phase of a sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis. Which of the following actions would be most appropriate?

A) Fluid restriction 1000cc per day B) Ambulate in hallway 4 times a day * C) Administer analgesic therapy as ordered D) Encourage increased caloric intake Review Information: The correct answer is C: Administer analgesic therapy as ordered The main general objectives in the treatment of a sickle cell crisis is bed rest, hydration, electrolyte replacement, analgesics for pain, blood replacement and antibiotics to treat any existing infection. 11. Following surgery for placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt as treatment for hydrocephalus, the parents question why the infant has a small abdominal incision. The best response by the nurse would be to explain that the incision was made in order to * A) Pass the catheter into the abdominal cavity B) Place the tubing into the urinary bladder C) Visualize abdominal organs for catheter placement D) Insert the catheter into the stomach Review Information: The correct answer is A: Pass the catheter into the abdominal cavity The preferred procedure in the surgical treatment of hydrocephalus is placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This shunt procedure provides primary drainage of the cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles to an extracranial compartment, usually the peritoneum. A small incision is made in the upper quadrant of the abdomen so the shunt can be guided into the peritoneal cavity. 12. The nurse is teaching a client with metastatic bone disease about measures to prevent hypercalcemia. It would be important for the nurse to emphasize A) The need for at least 5 servings of dairy products daily B) Restriction of fluid intake to less than 1 liter per day * C) The importance of walking as much as possible D)

16. An ambulatory client reports edema during the day in his feet and ankles that disappears while sleeping at night. What is the most appropriate follow-up question for the nurse to ask? A) "Have you had a recent heart attack?" "Do you become short of breath during your normal daily B) activities?" C) "How many pillows do you use at night to sleep comfortably?" D) "Do you smoke?" Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Do you become short of breath during your normal daily activities?" These are the symptoms of right-sided heart failure, which causes increased pressure in the systemic venous system. To equalize this pressure, the fluid shifts into the interstitial spaces causing edema. Because of gravity, the lower extremities are first affected in an ambulatory patient. This question would elicit information to confirm the nursing diagnosis of activity intolerance and fluid volume excess both associated with right-sided heart failure. 17. The nursing care plan for a toddler diagnosed with Kawasaki Disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome) should be based on the high risk for development of which problem? A) Chronic vessel plaque formation B) Pulmonary embolism C) Occlusions at the vessel bifurcations * D) Coronary artery aneurysms Review Information: The correct answer is D: Coronary artery aneurysms Kawasaki Disease involves all the small and medium-sized blood vessels. There is progressive inflammation of the small vessels which progresses to the mediumsized muscular arteries, potentially damaging the walls and leading to coronary artery aneurysms. 18. The nurse auscultates bibasilar inspiratory crackles in a newly admitted 68 year-old client with a diagnosis of congestive heart disease. Which finding is most likely to occur? A) Chest pain B) Peripheral edema C) Nail clubbing D) Lethargy Review Information: The correct answer is B: Peripheral edema When crackles are heard bibasilarly, congestive heart failure is suspected. This is often accompanied by peripheral edema secondary to fluid overload caused by ineffective cardiac pumping. 19. While working with an obese adolescent, it is important for the nurse to recognize that obesity in adolescents is most often associated with what other behavior? A) Sexual promiscuity B) Poor body image C) Dropping out of school D) Drug experimentation Review Information: The correct answer is B: Poor body image As the adolescent gains weight, there is a lessening sense of self esteem and poor body image. 20. The nurse should initiate discharge planning for a client When the client or family demonstrate readiness to learn self care A) modalities B) When informed that a date for discharge has been determined C) Upon admission to the emergency room D) When the client's condition is stabilized on the assigned unit Review Information: The correct answer is C: Upon admission to the emergency room With decreased lengths of stay, discharge plans must be incorporated into the initial plan of care upon admission to an emergency room or hospital unit. 21. The nurse is caring for a client with a pressure ulcer on the heel that is covered with black hard tissue. Which would be an appropriate goal in planning care for this client? A) Protection for the granulation tissue B) Heal infection C) Debride eschar D) Keep the tissue intact Review Information: The correct answer is D: Keep the tissue intact If the black tissue, (eschar) is dry and intact no treatment is necessary. If the area changes (cellulitis, pain) this is a sign of infection, requiring debridement. 22. When providing nursing measures to relieve a 102-degree Fahrenheit fever in a toddler with an infection, what is the most effective intervention? A) Use medications to lower the temperature set point B) Apply extra layers of clothing to prevent shivering C) Immerse the child in a tub containing cool water D) Give a tepid sponge bath prior to giving an antipyretic Review Information: The correct answer is A: Use medications to lower the temperature set point Conditions such as infection, malignancy, allergy, central nervous system lesion and radiation cause the temperature set-point to be raised. Because the

Early recognition of findings associated with tetany

Review Information: The correct answer is C: The importance of walking as much as possible Mobility must be emphasized to prevent demineralization and breakdown of bones. 13. A nurse and client are talking about the client’s progress toward understanding his behavior under stress. This is typical of which phase in the therapeutic relationship? A) Pre-interaction B) Orientation C) Working D) Termination Review Information: The correct answer is C: Working During the working phase alternative behaviors and techniques are explored. The nurse and the client discuss the meaning behind the behavior. 14. A child is sent to the school nurse by a teacher who has a written note that Fifth’s disease is suspected. Which characteristic would the nurse expect to find? A) Macule that rapidly progresses to papule and then vesicles Erythema on the face, primarily on cheeks giving a "slapped face" B) appearance Discrete rose pink macules will appear first on the trunk and fade C) when pressure is applied Koplick spots appear first followed by a rash that appears first on D) the face and spreads downward Review Information: The correct answer is B: Erythema on the face, primarily on cheeks giving a "slapped face" appearance Fifth disease is also refered to it as parvovirus infection or erythema infectiosum. Some people may call it slapped-cheek disease because of the face rash that develops resembling slap marks. It is also commonly called fifth disease because it was fifth of a group of oncecommon childhood diseases that all have similar rashes. The other 4 diseases are measles, rubella, scarlet fever and Dukes'' disease. Persons won’t know that a child has parvovirus infection until the rash appears, and by that time, the child is no longer contagious. 15. Delirium tremens could best be described as Disorganized thinking, feelings of terror and non-purposeful A) behavior A generalized shaking of the body accompanied by repetitive B) thoughts An excited state accompanied by disorientation, hallucination and C) tachycardia D) Single or multiple jerks caused by rapid contracting muscles Review Information: The correct answer is C: An excited state accompanied by disorientation, hallucination and tachycardia During DTS, the person experiences confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, tachycardia, hypertension, extreme tremors, agitation, diaphoresis and fever.

temperature set point is normal in hyperthermia and elevated in fever, different measures must be taken in order to be effective. The most effective intervention in the management of fever is the administration of antipyretics which lower the set point. 23. The nurse is caring for a pre-adolescent client in skeletal Dunlop traction. Which nursing intervention is appropriate for this child? * A) Make certain the child is maintained in correct body alignment. B) Be sure the traction weights touch the end of the bed. C) Adjust the head and foot of the bed for the child's comfort D) Release the traction for 15-20 minutes every 6 hours prn. Review Information: The correct answer is A: Make certain the child is maintained in correct body alignment. Observe for correct body alignment with emphasis on alignment of shoulders, hips and legs. 24. The nurse is assessing a healthy child at the 2 year check up. Which of the following should the nurse report immediately to the health care provider? A) Height and weight percentiles vary widely B) Growth pattern appears to have slowed C) Recumbent and standing height are different D) Short term weight changes are uneven Review Information: The correct answer is A: Height and weight percentiles vary widely On the growth curve, height and weight should be close in percentiles at this age. The wide difference may indicate a problem. 25. The parents of a 2 year-old child report that he has been holding his breath whenever he has temper tantrums. What is the best action by the nurse? A) Teach the parents how to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation Recommend that the parents give in when he holds his breath to B) prevent anoxia Advise the parents to ignore breath holding because breathing will C) begin as a reflex Instruct the parents on how to reason with the child about possible D) harmful effects Review Information: The correct answer is C: Advise the parents to ignore breath holding because breathing will begin as a reflex If temper tantrums are accompanied by breath holding, the parents need to know that this behavior will not result in harm to the child. Ignoring the breath holding is best, knowing that breathing will begin again by reflex. 26. The nurse is assessing a client in the emergency room. Which statement suggests that the problem is acute angina? A) "My pain is deep in my chest behind my sternum." B) "When I sit up the pain gets worse." C) "As I take a deep breath the pain gets worse." D) "The pain is right here in my stomach area." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "My pain is deep in my chest behind my sternum." The pain of angina is usually localized chest pain. 27. The nurse is assessing the mental status of a client admitted with possible organic brain disorder. Which of these questions will best assess the function of the client's recent memory? "Name the year." "What season is this?" (pause for answer after A) each question) "Subtract 7 from 100 and then subtract 7 from that." (pause for B) answer) "Now continue to subtract 7 from the new number." "I am going to say the names of three things and I want you to C) repeat them after me: blue, ball, pen." "What is this on my wrist?" (point to your watch) Then ask, "What D) is the purpose of it?" Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I am going to say the names of three things and I want you to repeat them after me: blue, ball, pen." Recent memory is the ability to recall events in the immediate past and up to 2 weeks previously. 28. In planning care for a 6 month-old infant, what must the nurse provide to assist in the development of trust? A) Food B) Warmth * C) Security D)

"Would you please clarify what you have written so I am sure I am reading it correctly?" "I am having difficulty reading your handwriting. It would save me C) time if you would be more careful." "Please print in the future so I do not have to spend extra time D) attempting to read your writing." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Would you please clarify what you have written so I am sure I am reading it correctly?" Assertive communication respects the rights and responsibilities of both parties. This statement is an honest expression of concern for safe practice and a request for clarification without self-depreciation. It reflects the right of the professional to give and receive information. B) 30. What is the most important consideration when teaching parents how to reduce risks in the home? A) Age and knowledge level of the parents B) Proximity to emergency services C) Number of children in the home D) Age of children in the home Review Information: The correct answer is D: Age of children in the home Age and developmental level of the child are most important in providing a framework for anticipatory guidance. 31. A 35 year-old client with sickle cell crisis is talking on the telephone but stops as the nurse enters the room to request something for pain. The nurse should A) Administer a placebo B) Encourage increased fluid intake C) Administer the prescribed analgesia D) Recommend relaxation exercises for pain control Review Information: The correct answer is C: Administer the prescribed analgesia Relief of pain is the expected outcome for treatment of sickle cell crisis. Pain may be present even without overt signs. 32. While caring for a toddler with croup, which initial sign of croup requires the nurse's immediate attention? A) Respiratory rate of 42 B) Lethargy for the past hour C) Apical pulse of 54 D) Coughing up copious secretions Review Information: The correct answer is A: Respiratory rate of 30 Signs of impending airway obstruction include increased respiratory rate and pulse; substernal, suprasternal and intercostal retractions; flaring nares; and increased restlessness or aggitation. 33. A client is admitted with low T3 and T4 levels and an elevated TSH level. On initial assessment, the nurse would anticipate which of the following assessment findings? A) Lethargy B) Heat intolerance C) Diarrhea D) Skin eruptions Review Information: The correct answer is A: Lethargy In hypothyroidism the metabolic activity of all cells of the body decreases, reducing oxygen consumption, decreasing oxidation of nutrients for energy, and producing less body heat. Therefore, the nurse can expect the client to complain of constipation, lethargy and inability to get warm. 34. The emergency room nurse admits a child who experienced a seizure at school. The father comments that this is the first occurrence, and denies any family history of epilepsy. What is the best response by the nurse? A) "Do not worry. Epilepsy can be treated with medications." B) "The seizure may or may not mean your child has epilepsy." C) "Since this was the first convulsion, it may not happen again." D) "Long term treatment will prevent future seizures." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "The seizure may or may not mean your child has epilepsy." There are many possible causes for a childhood seizure. These include fever, central nervous system conditions, trauma, metabolic alterations and idiopathic (unknown). 35. Alcohol and drug abuse impairs judgment and increases risk taking behavior. What nursing diagnosis best applies? A) Risk for injury B) Risk for knowledge deficit C) Altered thought process D) Disturbance in self-esteem Review Information: The correct answer is A: Risk for injury Accidents increase as a result of intoxication. Studies indicate alcohol as a factor in 50% of motor vehicle fatalities, 53% of all deaths from accidental falls, 64% of fatal fires, and 80% of suicides. 36. The nurse is caring for a 10 month-old infant who is has oxygen via mask. It is important for the nurse to maintain patency of which of these areas? A) Mouth B) Nasal passages

Comfort

Review Information: The correct answer is C: Security While the infant has many physical needs, it must be touched, loved, and stimulated to develop security and trust. 29. A nurse has just received a medication order which is not legible. Which statement best reflects assertive communication? "I cannot give this medication as it is written. I have no idea of A) what you mean."

C) Back of throat D) Bronchials Review Information: The correct answer is B: Nasal passages Infants, from birth to 1 year of age, are obligatory nose breathers. 37. The nurse is providing instructions for a client with pneumonia. What is the most important information to convey to the client? A) "Take at least 2 weeks off from work." B) "You will need another chest x-ray in 6 weeks." C) "Take your temperature every day." D) "Complete all of the antibiotic even if your findings decrease." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Complete all of the antibiotic even if your findings decrease." To avoid a recurrence of the pneumonia the client must complete the prescribed doses at the prescribed dosing intervals. 38. When counseling a 6 year old who is experiencing enuresis, what must the nurse understand about the pathophysiological basis of this disorder? * A) Has no clear etiology B) May be associated with sleep phobia C) Has a definite genetic link D) Is a sign of willful misbehavior Review Information: The correct answer is A: Has no clear etiology Although predictive factors associated with enuresis have been identified, no clear etiology has been determined. 39. The nurse is discussing negativism with the parents of a 30 month-old child. How should the nurse tell the parents to best respond to this behavior? A) Reprimand the child and give a 15 minute "time out" B) Maintain a permissive attitude for this behavior * C) Use patience and a sense of humor to deal with this behavior D) Assert authority over the child through limit setting Review Information: The correct answer is C: Use patience and a sense of humor to deal with this behavior The nurse should help the parents see the negativism as a normal growth of autonomy in the toddler. They can best handle the negative toddler by using patience and humor. 40. The nurse is talking by telephone with a parent of a 4 year-old child who has chickenpox. Which of the following demonstrates appropriate teaching by the nurse? A) Chewable aspirin is the preferred analgesic B) Topical cortisone ointment relieves itching * C) Papules, vesicles, and crusts will be present at one time D) The illness is only contagious prior to lesion eruption Review Information: The correct answer is C: Papules, vesicles, and crusts will be present at one time All 3 stages of the chicken pox lesions will be present on the child''s body at one time. Results for Q&A-Random #13 1. The nurse is assigned to a client who has heart failure . During the morning rounds the nurse sees the client develop sudden anxiety, diaphoresis and dyspnea. The nurse auscultates, crackles bilaterally. Which nursing intervention should be performed first? A) Take the client's vital signs B) Place the client in a sitting position with legs dangling C) Contact the health care provider D) Administer the PRN antianxiety agent Review Information: The correct answer is B: Place the client in a sitting position with legs dangling Place the client in a sitting position with legs dangling to pool the blood in the legs. This helps to diminish venous return to the heart and minimize the pulmonary edema. The result will enhance the client’s ability to breathe. The next actions would be to contact the heath care provider, then take the vital signs and then the administration of the antianxiety agent. 2. The nurse is caring for a toddler with atopic dermatitis. The nurse should instruct the parents to A) Dress the child warmly to avoid chilling B) Keep the child away from other children for the duration of the rash C) Clean the affected areas with tepid water and detergent D) Wrap the child's hand in mittens or socks to prevent scratching Review Information: The correct answer is D: Wrap the child''s hand in mittens or socks to prevent scratching A toddler with atopic dermatitis need to have fingernails cut short and covered so the child will not be able to scratch the skin lesions, thereby causing new lesions and possible a secondary infection. 3. A recovering alcoholic asked the nurse, "Will it be ok for me to just drink at special family gatherings?" Which initial response by the nurse would be best? A) "A recovering person has to be very careful not to lose control,

therefore, confine your drinking just at family gatherings." "At your next AA meeting discuss the possibility of limited B) drinking with your sponsor." "A recovering person needs to get in touch with their feelings. Do C) you want a drink?" "A recovering person cannot return to drinking without starting * D) the addiction process over." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "The recovering person cannot return to drinking without starting the addiction process over." Recovery is total abstinence from all drugs. 4. In taking the history of a pregnant woman, which of the following would the nurse recognize as the primary contraindication for breast feeding? A) Age 40 years B) Lactose intolerance C) Family history of breast cancer D) Uses cocaine on weekends Review Information: The correct answer is D: Uses cocaine on weekends Binge use of cocaine can be just as harmful to the breast fed newborn as regular use. 5. A client is receiving nitroprusside IV for the treatment of acute heart failure with pulmonary edema. What diagnostic lab value should the nurse monitor in relation to this medication? A) Potassium B) Arterial blood gasses C) Blood urea nitrogen D) Thiocyanate Review Information: The correct answer is D: Thiocyanate Thiocyanate levels rise with the metabolism if nitroprusside and can cause cyanide toxicity. 6. A victim of domestic violence tells the batterer she needs a little time away. How would the nurse expect that the batterer might respond? With acceptance and views the victim’s comment as an indication A) that their marriage is in trouble * B) With fear of rejection causing increased rage toward the victim With a new commitment to seek counseling to assist with their C) marital problems With relief, and welcomes the separation as a means to have D) some personal time Review Information: The correct answer is B: With fear of rejection causing increased rage toward the victim The fear of rejection and loss only serve to increase the batterer’s rage at his partner. 7. A postpartum mother is unwilling to allow the father to participate in the newborn's care, although he is interested in doing so. She states, "I am afraid the baby will be confused about who the mother is. Baby raising is for mothers, not fathers." The nurse's initial intervention should be what focus? A) Discuss with the mother sharing parenting responsibilities Set time aside to get the mother to express her feelings and B) concerns C) Arrange for the parents to attend infant care classes D) Talk with the father and help him accept the wife's decision Review Information: The correct answer is B: Set time aside to get the mother to express her feelings and concerns Non-judgmental support for expressed feelings may lead to resolution of competitive feelings in a new family. Cultural influences may also be revealed. 8. A client with emphysema visits the clinic. While teaching about proper nutrition, the nurse should emphasize that the client A) Eat foods high in sodium increases sputum liquefaction B) Use oxygen during meals improves gas exchange C) Perform exercise after respiratory therapy enhances appetite D) Cleanse the mouth of dried secretions reduces risk of infection Review Information: The correct answer is B: Use oxygen during meals improves gas exchange Clients with emphysema breathe easier when using oxygen while eating. 9. Which of these parents’ comment for a newborn would most likely reveal an initial finding of a suspected pyloric stenosis? A) I noticed a little lump a little above the belly button. B) The baby seems hungry all the time. Mild vomiting that progressed to vomiting shooting across the C) room. D) Irritation and spitting up immediately after feedings. Review Information: The correct answer is C: Mild emesis progressing to projectile vomiting Mild regurgitation or emesis that progresses to projectile vomiting is a pattern of vomiting associated with pyloric stenosis as an initial finding. The other findings are present, though not initial findings. 10. The nurse is assessing a child for clinical manifestations of iron deficiency anemia. Which factor would the nurse recognize as cause for the findings? A) Decreased cardiac output

B) Tissue hypoxia C) Cerebral edema D) Reduced oxygen saturation Review Information: The correct answer is B: Tissue hypoxia When the hemoglobin falls sufficiently to produce clinical manifestations, the findings are directly attributable to tissue hypoxia, a decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. 11. The nurse would expect the cystic fibrosis client to receive supplemental pancreatic enzymes along with a diet * A) High in carbohydrates and proteins B) Low in carbohydrates and proteins C) High in carbohydrates, low in proteins D) Low in carbohydrates, high in proteins Review Information: The correct answer is A: High in carbohydrates and proteins Provide a high-energy diet by increasing carbohydrates, protein and fat (possibly as high as 40%). A favorable response to the supplemental pancreatic enzymes is based on tolerance of fatty foods, decreased stool frequency, absence of steatorrhea, improved appetite and lack of abdominal pain. 12. In evaluating the growth of a 12 month-old child, which of these findings would the nurse expect to be present in the infant? A) Increased 10% in height B) 2 deciduous teeth C) Tripled the birth weight D) Head > chest circumference Review Information: The correct answer is C: Tripled the birth weight The infant usually triples his birth weight by the end of the first year of life. Height usually increases by 50% from birth length. A 12 month- old child should have approximately 6 teeth. ( estimate number of teeth by subtracting 6 from age in months, ie 12 – 6 = 6). By 12 months of age, head and chest circumferences are approximately equal. 13. A Hispanic client in the postpartum period refuses the hospital food because it is "cold." The best initial action by the nurse is to Have the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) reheat the food if A) the client wishes B) Ask the client what foods are acceptable or bad C) Encourage her to eat for healing and strength D) Schedule the dietitian to meet with the client as soon as possible Review Information: The correct answer is B: Ask the client what foods are acceptable Many Hispanic women subscribe to the balance of hot and cold foods in the post partum period. What defines "cold" can best be explained by the client or family. 14. The father of an 8 month-old infant asks the nurse if his infant's vocalizations are normal for his age. Which of the following would the nurse expect at this age? A) Cooing B) Imitation of sounds C) Throaty sounds D) Laughter Review Information: The correct answer is B: Imitation of Sounds Imitation of sounds such as "da-da" is expected at this time. 15. The nurse should recognize that physical dependence is accompanied by what findings when alcohol consumption is first reduced or ended? A) Seizures B) Withdrawal C) Craving D) Marked tolerance Review Information: The correct answer is B: Withdrawal The early signs of alcohol withdrawal develop within a few hours after cessation or reduction of alchohol intake. 16. Immediately following an acute battering incident in a violent relationship, the batterer may respond to the partner’s injuries by A) Seeking medical help for the victim's injuries B) Minimizing the episode and underestimating the victim’s injuries C) Contacting a close friend and asking for help D) Being very remorseful and assisting the victim with medical care Review Information: The correct answer is B: Minimizing the episode and underestimating the victim’s injuries Many abusers lack an understanding of the effect of their behavior on the victim and use excessive minimization and denial. 17. The nurse is planning to give a 3 year-old child oral digoxin. Which of the following is the best approach by the nurse? A) "Do you want to take this pretty red medicine?" B) "You will feel better if you take your medicine."

C) "This is your medicine, and you must take it all right now." D) "Would you like to take your medicine from a spoon or a cup?" Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Would you like to take your medicine from a spoon or a cup?" At 3 years of age, a child often feels a loss of control when hospitalized. Giving a choice about how to take the medicine will allow the child to express an opinion and have some control. 18. In planning care for a child diagnosed with minimal change nephrotic syndrome, the nurse should understand the relationship between edema formation and A) Increased retention of albumin in the vascular system * B) Decreased colloidal osmotic pressure in the capillaries C) Fluid shift from interstitial spaces into the vascular space D) Reduced tubular reabsorption of sodium and water Review Information: The correct answer is B: Decreased colloidal osmotic pressure in the capillaries The increased glomerular permeability to protein causes a decrease in serum albumin which results in decreased colloidal osmotic pressure. 19. An eighteen month-old has been brought to the emergency room with irritability, lethargy over 2 days, dry skin and increased pulse. Based upon the evaluation of these initial findings, the nurse would assess the child for additional findings of A) Septicemia B) Dehydration C) Hypokalemia D) Hypercalcemia Review Information: The correct answer is B: Dehydration Clinical findings dehydration include lethargy, irritability, dry skin, and increased pulse. 20. A client who has been drinking for five years states that he drinks when he gets upset about "things" such as being unemployed or feeling like life is not leading anywhere. The nurse understands that the client is using alcohol as a way to deal with A) Recreational and social needs B) Feelings of anger * C) Life’s stressors D) Issues of guilt and disappointment Review Information: The correct answer is C: Life’s stressors Alcohol is used by some people to manage anxiety and stress. The overall intent is to decrease negative feelings and increase positive feelings. 21. The nurse is monitoring the contractions of a woman in labor. A contraction is recorded as beginning at 10:00 A.M. and ending at 10:01 A.M. Another begins at 10:15 A.M. What is the frequency of the contractions? A) 14 minutes B) 10 minutes C) 15 minutes D) Nine minutes Review Information: The correct answer is C: 15 minutes Frequency is the time from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next contraction. 22. The nurse is performing an assessment on a child with severe airway obstruction. Which finding would the nurse anticipate finding? A) Retractions in the intercostal tissues of the thorax B) Chest pain aggravated by respiratory movement C) Cyanosis and mottling of the skin D) Rapid, shallow respirations Review Information: The correct answer is A: Retractions in the soft tissues of the thorax Slight intercostal retractions are normal. However in disease states, especially in severe airway obstruction, retractions becomes extreme. 23. During the evaluation phase for a client, the nurse should focus on All finding of physical and psychosocial stressors of the client and in A) the family The client's status, progress toward goal achievement, and ongoing B) re-evaluation Setting short and long-term goals to insure continuity of care from C) hospital to home Select interventions that are measurable and achievable within D) selected timeframes Review Information: The correct answer is B: The client''s status, progress toward goal achievement, and ongoing re-evaluation Evaluation process of the nursing process focuses on the client''s status, progress toward goal achievement and ongoing re-evaluation of the plan of care. 24. The school nurse suspects that a third grade child might have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Prior to referring the child for further evaluation, the nurse should A) Observe the child's behavior on at least 2 occasions B) Consult with the teacher about how to control impulsivity Compile a history of behavior patterns and developmental * C) accomplishments

D) Compare the child's behavior with classic signs and symptoms Review Information: The correct answer is C: Compile a history of behavior patterns and developmental accomplishments A complete behavioral, and developmental history plays an important role in determining the diagnosis. 25. Which of the actions suggested to the RN by the PN during a planning conference for a 10 month-old infant admitted 2 hours ago with bacterial meningitis would be acceptable to add to the plan of care? A) Measure head circumference B) Place in airborne isolation C) Provide passive range of motion D) Provide an over-the-crib protective top Review Information: The correct answer is A: Measure head circumference In meningitis, assessment of neurological signs should be done frequently. Head circumference is measured because subdural effusions and obstructive hydrocephalus can develop as a complication of meningitis. The client will have already been on airborne precautions and crib top applied to bed on admission to the unit. 26. A client is admitted with a diagnosis of hepatitis B. In reviewing the initial laboratory results, the nurse would expect to find elevation in which of the following values? A) Blood urea nitrogen B) Acid phosphatase * C) Bilirubin D) Sedimentation rate Review Information: The correct answer is C: Bilirubin In the laboratory data provided, the only elevated level expected is bilirubin. Additional liver function tests will confirm the diagnosis. 27. The nurse is discussing nutritional requirements with the parents of an 18 month-old child. Which of these statements about milk consumption is correct? A) May drink as much milk as desired B) Can have milk mixed with other foods C) Will benefit from fat-free cow's milk * D) Should be limited to 3-4 cups of milk daily Review Information: The correct answer is D: Should be limited to three to four cups of milk daily More than 32 ounces of milk a day considerably limits the intake of solid foods, resulting in a deficiency of dietary iron, as well as other nutrients. 28. The nurse is talking with a client. The client abruptly says to the nurse, "The moon is full. Astronauts walk on the moon. Walking is a good health habit." The client’s behavior most likely indicates A) Neologisms B) Dissociation * C) Flight of ideas D) Word salad Review Information: The correct answer is C: Flight of ideas Flight of ideas - defines nearly continuous flow of speech, jumping from 1 topic to another. 29. A mother asks about expected motor skills for a 3 year-old child. Which of the following would the nurse emphasize as normal at this age? A) Jumping rope B) Tying shoelaces * C) Riding a tricycle D) Playing hopscotch Review Information: The correct answer is C: Riding a tricycle Coordination is gained through large muscle use. A child of 3 has the ability to ride a tricycle. 30. A home health nurse is caring for a client with a pressure sore that is red, with serous drainage, is 2 inches in diameter with loss of subcutaneous tissue. The appropriate dressing for this wound is A) A transparent film dressing B) Wet dressing with debridement granules C) Wet to dry with hydrogen peroxide * D) Moist saline dressing Review Information: The correct answer is D: Moist saline dressing This wound is a stage III pressure ulcer. The wound is red (granulation tissue) and does not require debridement. The wound must be protected for granulation tissue to proliferate. A moist dressing allows epithelial tissues to migrate more rapidly. 31. The nurse enters a 2 year-old child's hospital room in order to administer an oral medication. When the child is asked if he is ready to take his medicine, he immediately says, "No!". What would be the most appropriate next action? * A) Leave the room and return five minutes later and give the

medicine B) Explain to the child that the medicine must be taken now C) Give the medication to the father and ask him to give it D) Mix the medication with ice cream or applesauce Review Information: The correct answer is A: Leave the room and return five minutes later and give the medicine Since the nurse gave the child a choice about taking the medication, the nurse must comply with the child''s response in order to build or maintain trust. Since toddlers do not have an accurate sense of time, leaving the room and coming back later is another episode to the toddler. 32. A nurse is doing preconceptual counseling with a woman who is planning a pregnancy. Which of the following statements suggests that the client understands the connection between alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome? A) "I understand that a glass of wine with dinner is healthy." B) "Beer is not really hard alcohol, so I guess I can drink some." "If I drink, my baby may be harmed before I know I am * C) pregnant." D) "Drinking with meals reduces the effects of alcohol." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "If I drink, my baby may be harmed before I know I am pregnant." Alcohol has the greatest teratogenic effect during organogenesis, in the first weeks of pregnancy. Therefore women considering a pregnancy should not drink. 33. The client who is receiving enteral nutrition through a gastrostomy tube has had 4 diarrhea stools in the past 24 hours. The nurse should * A) Review the medications the client is receiving B) Increase the formula infusion rate C) Increase the amount of water used to flush the tube D) Attach a rectal bag to protect the skin Review Information: The correct answer is A: Review the medications the client is receiving Antibiotics and medications containing sorbital may induce diarrhea. 34. A nurse is assigned to a client who is a new admission for the treatment of a frontal lobe brain tumor. Which history offered by the family members would be anticipated by the nurse as associated with the diagnosis and communicated? A) "My partner's breathing rate is usually below 12." "I find the mood swings and the change from a calm person to * B) being angry all the time hard to deal with." C) "It seems our sex life is nonexistant over the past 6 months." "In the morning and evening I hear complaints that reading is D) next to impossible from blurred print." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "I find the mood swings and the change from a calm person to being angry all the time hard to deal with." The frontal lobe of the brain controls affect, judgment and emotions. Dysfunction in this area results in findings such as emotional lability, changes in personality, inattentiveness, flat affect and inappropriate behavior. 35. The nurse prepares for a Denver Screening test with a 3 year-old child in the clinic. The mother asks the nurse to explain the purpose of the test. What is the nurse’s best response about the purpose of the Denver? A) It measures a child’s intelligence. * B) It assesses a child's development. C) It evaluates psychological responses. D) It helps to determine problems. Review Information: The correct answer is B: It assesses a child''s development. The Denver Developmental Test II is a screening test to assess children from birth through 6 years in personal/social, fine motor adaptive, language and gross motor development. A child experiences the fun of play during the test. 36. The nurse is preparing a 5 year-old for a scheduled tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. The parents are anxious and concerned about the child's reaction to impending surgery. Which nursing intervention would be best to prepare the child? A) Introduce the child to all staff the day before surgery * B) Explain the surgery 1 week prior to the procedure C) Arrange a tour of the operating and recovery rooms D) Encourage the child to bring a favorite toy to the hospital Review Information: The correct answer is B: Explain the surgery 1 week prior to the procedure A 5 year-old can understand the surgery, and should be prepared well before the procedure. Most of these procedures are "same day" surgeries and do not require an overnight stay. 37. The nurse, assisting in applying a cast to a client with a broken arm, knows that The cast material should be dipped several times into the warm A) water B) The cast should be covered until it dries * C) The wet cast should be handled with the palms of hands D) The casted extremity should be placed on a cloth-covered surface

Review Information: The correct answer is C: The wet cast should be handled with the palms of hands Handle cast with palms of the hands and lift at 2 points of the extremity. This will prevent stress at the injury site and pressure areas on the cast. 38. Based on principles of teaching and learning, what is the best initial approach to pre-op teaching for a client scheduled for coronary artery bypass? A) Touring the coronary intensive unit B) Mailing a video tape to the home * C) Assessing the client's learning style D) Administering a written pre-test Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assessing the client''s learning style As with any anticipatory teaching, assess the client''s level of knowledge and learning style first. 39. A 4 year-old child is recovering from chicken pox (varicella). The parents would like to have the child return to day care as soon as possible. In order to ensure that the illness is no longer communicable, what should the nurse assess for in this child? * A) All lesions crusted B) Elevated temperature C) Rhinorrhea and coryza D) Presence of vesicles Review Information: The correct answer is A: All lesions crusted The rash begins as a macule, with fever, and progresses to a vesicle that breaks open and then crusts over. When all lesions are crusted, the child is no longer in a communicable stage. 40. The nurse is providing instructions to a new mother on the proper techniques for breast feeding her infant. Which statement by the mother indicates the need for additional instruction? "I should position my baby completely facing me with my baby's A) mouth in front of my nipple." B) "The baby should latch onto the nipple and areola areas." C) "There may be times that I will need to manually express milk." I can switch to a bottle if I need to take a break from breast * D) feeding. Review Information: The correct answer is D: I can switch to a bottle if I need to take a break from breast feeding. Babies adapt more quickly to the breast when they aren''t confused about what is put into their mouths and its purpose. Artificial nipples do not lengthen and compress the way the human nipples (areola) do. The use of an artificial nipple weakens the baby''s suck as the baby decreases the sucking pressure to slow fluid flow. Babies should not be given a bottle during the learning stage of breast feeding. Results for Q&A-Random #12 1. The nurse assesses a client who has been re-admitted to the psychiatric in-patient unit for schizophrenia. His symptoms have been managed for several months with fluphenazine (Prolixin). Which should be a focus of the first assessment? A) Stressors in the home * B) Medication compliance C) Exposure to hot temperatures D) Alcohol use Review Information: The correct answer is B: Medication compliance Prolixin is an antipsychotic / neuroleptic medication useful in managing the symptoms of Schizophrenia. Compliance with daily doses is a critical assessment. 2. The nurse is caring for a client with an unstable spinal cord injury at the T7 level. Which intervention should take priority in planning care? A) Increase fluid intake to prevent dehydration * B) Place client on a pressure reducing support surface C) Use skin care products designed for use with incontinence D) Increase caloric intake to aid healing Review Information: The correct answer is B: Place client on a pressure reducing support surface This client is at greatest risk for skin breakdown because of immobility and decreased sensation. The first action should be to choose and then place the client on the best support surface to relieve pressure, shear and friction forces. 3. A nurse is conducting a community wide seminar on childhood safety issues. Which of these children is at the highest risk for poisoning? A) 9 month-old who stays with a sitter 5 days a week * B) 20 month-old who has just learned to climb stairs C) 10 year-old who occasionally stays at home unattended D) 15 year-old who likes to repair bicycles

Review Information: The correct answer is B: Twenty month-old who has just learned to climb stairs Toddlers are at most risk for poisoning because they are increasingly mobile, need to explore and engage in autonomous behavior. 4. During an examination of a 2 year-old child with a tentative diagnosis of Wilm's tumor, the nurse would be most concerned about which statement by the mother? A) My child has lost 3 pounds in the last month. B) Urinary output seemed to be less over the past 2 days. * C) All the pants have become tight around the waist. D) The child prefers some salty foods more than others. Review Information: The correct answer is C: Clothing has become tight around the waist Parents often recognize the increasing abdominal girth first. This is an early sign of Wilm''s tumor, a malignant tumor of the kidney. 5. What is the most important aspect to include when developing a home care plan for a client with severe arthritis? * A) Maintaining and preserving function B) Anticipating side effects of therapy C) Supporting coping with limitations D) Ensuring compliance with medications Review Information: The correct answer is A: Maintaining and preserving function To maintain quality of life, the plan for care must emphasize preserving function. Proper body positioning and posture and active and passive range of motion exercises important interventions for maintaining function of affected joints. 6. A mother asks the nurse if she should be concerned about the tendency of her child to stutter. What assessment data will be most useful in counseling the parent? * A) Age of the child B) Sibling position in family C) Stressful family events D) Parental discipline strategies Review Information: The correct answer is A: Age of the child During the preschool period children are using their rapidly growing vocabulary faster than they can produce their words. This failure to master sensorimotor integrations results in stuttering. This dysfluency in speech pattern is a normal characteristic of language development. Therefore, knowing the child''s age is most important in determining if any true dysfunction might be occurring. 7. A pre-term newborn is to be fed breast milk through nasogastric tube. Why is breast milk preferred over formula for premature infants? A) Contains less lactose B) Is higher in calories/ounce * C) Provides antibodies D) Has less fatty acid Review Information: The correct answer is C: Provides antibodies Breast milk is ideal for the preterm baby who needs additional protection against infection through maternal antibodies. It is also much easier to digest, therefore less residual is left in the infant''s stomach. 8. Which of the following nursing assessments in an infant is most valuable in identifying serious visual defects? * A) Red reflex test B) Visual acuity C) Pupil response to light D) Cover test Review Information: The correct answer is A: Red reflex test A brilliant, uniform red reflex is an important sign because it virtually rules out almost all serious defects of the cornea, aqueous chamber, lens, and vitreous chamber. 9. A client is admitted with a pressure ulcer in the sacral area. The partial thickness wound is 4cm by 7cm, the wound base is red and moist with no exudate and the surrounding skin is intact. Which of the following coverings is most appropriate for this wound? A) Transparent dressing B) Dry sterile dressing with antibiotic ointment C) Wet to dry dressing * D) Occlusive moist dressing Review Information: The correct answer is D: Occlusive moist dressing This wound has granulation tissue present and must be protected. The use of a moisture retentive dressing is the best choice because moisture supports wound healing. 10. A 30 month-old child is admitted to the hospital unit. Which of the following toys would be appropriate for the nurse to select from the toy room for this child? A) Cartoon stickers * B) Large wooden puzzle C) Blunt scissors and paper D) Beach ball Review Information: The correct answer is B: Large wooden puzzle

Appropriate toys for this child''s age include items such as push-pull toys, blocks, pounding board, toy telephone, puppets, wooden puzzles, finger paint, and thick crayons. 11. A nurse is to present information about Chinese folk medicine to a group of student nurses. Based on this cultural belief, the nurse would explain that illness is attributed to the Yang, the positive force that represents light, warmth, and A) fullness Yin, the negative force that represents darkness, cold, and * B) emptiness C) Use of improper hot foods, herbs and plants D) A failure to keep life in balance with nature and others Review Information: The correct answer is B: Yin, the negative force that represents darkness, cold, and emptiness Chinese folk medicine proposes that health is regulated by the opposing forces of yin and yang. Yin is the negative female force characterized by darkness, cold and emptiness. Excessive yin predisposes one to nervousness. 12. A 2 year-old child has just been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. The child's father asks the nurse "What is our major concern now, and what will we have to deal with in the future?" Which of the following is the best response? A) "There is a probability of life-long complications." "Cystic fibrosis results in nutritional concerns that can be dealt B) with." "Thin, tenacious secretions from the lungs are a constant struggle * C) in cystic fibrosis." "You will work with a team of experts and also have access to a D) support group that the family can attend." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Thin, tenacious secretions from the lungs are a constant struggle in cystic fibrosis." All of the options will be concerns with cystic fibrosis, however the respiratory threats are the major concern in these clients. Other information of interest is that cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease. There is a 25% chance that each of these parent''s pregnancies will result in a child with systic fibrosis. 13. Which type of accidental poisoning would the nurse expect to occur in children under age 6? * A) Oral ingestion B) Topical contact C) Inhalation D) Eye splashes Review Information: The correct answer is A: Oral ingestion The greatest risk for young children is from oral ingestion. While children under age 6 may come in contact with other poisons or inhale toxic fumes, these are not common. 14. A client was admitted to the psychiatric unit with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. He constantly bothers other clients, tries to help the housekeeping staff, demonstrates pressured speech and demands constant attention from the staff. Which activity would be best for the client? A) Reading B) Checkers C) Cards * D) Ping-pong Review Information: The correct answer is D: Ping-pong This provides an outlet for physical energy and requires limited attention. 15. The nurse is caring for a client who has developed cardiac tamponade. Which finding would the nurse anticipate? A) Widening pulse pressure B) Pleural friction rub * C) Distended neck veins D) Bradycardia Review Information: The correct answer is C: Distended neck veins In cardiac tamponade, intrapericardial pressures rise to a point at which venous blood cannot flow into the heart. As a result, venous pressure rises and the neck veins become distended. 16. Which nursing action is a priority as the plan of care is developed for a 7 year-old child hospitalized for acute glomerulonephritis? A) Assess for generalized edema B) Monitor for increased urinary output C) Encourage rest during hyperactive periods * D) Note patterns of increased blood pressure Review Information: The correct answer is D: Note patterns of increased blood pressure Hypertension is a key assessment in the course of the disease. 17. The nurse is caring for a child receiving chest physiotherapy (CPT). Which of the following actions by the nurse would be appropriate?

A) Schedule the therapy thirty minutes after meals B) Teach the child not to cough during the treatment * C) Confine the percussion to the rib cage area D) Place the child in a prone position for the therapy Review Information: The correct answer is C: Confine the percussion to the rib cage area Percussion (clapping) should be only done in the area of the rib cage. 18. A polydrug user has been in recovery for 8 months. The client has began skipping breakfast and not eating regular dinners. The client has also started frequenting bars to "see old buddies." The nurse understands that the client’s behavior is a warning sign to indicate that the client may be * A) headed for relapse B) feeling hopeless C) approaching recovery D) in need of increased socialization Review Information: The correct answer is A: headed for relapse It takes 9 to 15 months to adjust to a lifestyle free of chemical use, thus it is important for clients to acknowledge that relapse is a possibility and to identify early signs of relapse. 19. A client was admitted to the psychiatric unit with major depression after a suicide attempt. In addition to feeling sad and hopeless, the nurse would assess for A) Anxiety, unconscious anger, and hostility B) Guilt, indecisiveness, poor self-concept * C) Psychomotor retardation or agitation D) Meticulous attention to grooming and hygiene Review Information: The correct answer is C: Psychomotor retardation or agitation Somatic or physiologic symptoms of depression include: fatigue, psychomotor retardation or psychomotor agitation, chronic generalized or local pain, sleep disturbances, disturbances in appetite, gastrointestinal complaints and impaired libido. 20. A client is experiencing hallucinations that are markedly increased at night. The client is very frightened by the hallucinations. The client’s partner asked to stay a few hours beyond the visiting time, in the client’s private room. What would be the best response by the nurse demonstrating emotional support for the client? "No, it would be best if you brought the client some reading A) material that she could read at night." "No, your presence may cause the client to become more B) anxious." "Yes, staying with the client and orienting her to her surroundings * C) may decrease her anxiety." "Yes, would you like to spend the night when the client’s behavior D) indicates that she is frightened?" Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Yes, staying with the client and orienting her to her surroundings may decrease her anxiety." Encouraging the family or a close friend to stay with the client in a quiet surrounding can help increase orientation and minimize confusion and anxiety. 21. At a well baby clinic the nurse is assigned to assess an 8 month-old child. Which of these developmental achievements would the nurse anticipate that the child would be able to perform? A) Say 2 words B) Pull up to stand * C) Sit without support D) Drink from a cup Review Information: The correct answer is C: Sit without support The age at which the normal child develops the ability to sit steadily without support is 8 months. 22. The nurse is talking to parents about nutrition in school aged children. Which of the following is the most common nutritional disorder in this age group? A) Bulimia B) Anorexia * C) Obesity D) Malnutrition Review Information: The correct answer is C: Obesity Many factors contribute to the high rate of obesity in school aged children. These include heredity, sedentary lifestyle, social and cultural factors and poor knowledge of balanced nutrition. 23. At the geriatric day care program a client is crying and repeating "I want to go home. Call my daddy to come for me." The nurse should A) Invite the client to join the exercise group B) Tell the client you will call someone to come for her * C) Give the client simple information about what she will be doing D) Firmly direct the client to her assigned group activity Review Information: The correct answer is C: Give the client simple information about what she will be doing The distressed disoriented client should be gently oriented to reduce fear and increase the sense of safety and security. Environmental changes provoke stress and fear.

24. A victim of domestic violence states to the nurse, "If only I could change and be how my companion wants me to be, I know things would be different." Which would be the best response by the nurse? "The violence is temporarily caused by unusual circumstances, A) don’t stop hoping for a change." "Perhaps, if you understood the need to abuse, you could stop B) the violence." "No one deserves to be beaten. Are you doing anything to C) provoke your spouse into beating you?" "Batterers lose self-control because of their own internal reasons, * D) not because of what their partner did or did not do." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Batterers lose selfcontrol because of their own internal reasons, not because of what their partner did or did not do." Only the perpetrator has the ability to stop the violence. A change in the victim’s behavior will not cause the abuser to become nonviolent. 25. A 38 year-old female client is admitted to the hospital with an acute exacerbation of asthma. This is her third admission for asthma in 7 months. She describes how she doesn't really like having to use her medications all the time. Which explanation by the nurse best describes the long-term consequence of uncontrolled airway inflammation? A) Degeneration of the alveoli B) Chronic bronchoconstriction of the large airways * C) Lung remodeling and permanent changes in lung function D) Frequent pneumonia Review Information: The correct answer is C: Lung remodeling and permanent changes in lung function While an asthma attack is an acute event from which lung function essentially returns to normal, chronic under-treated asthma can lead to lung remodeling and permanent changes in lung function. Increased bronchial vascular permeability leads to chronic airway edema which leads to mucosal thickening and swelling of the airway. Increased mucous secretion and viscosity may plug airways, leading to airway obstruction. Changes in the extracellular matrix in the airway wall may also lead to airway obstruction. These long-term consequences should help you to reinforce the need for daily management of the disease whether or not the patient "feels better". 26. A mother wants to switch her 9 month-old infant from an ironfortified formula to whole milk because of the expense. Upon further assessment, the nurse finds that the baby eats table foods well, but drinks less milk than before. What is the best advice by the nurse? A) Change the baby to whole milk B) Add chocolate syrup to the bottle * C) Continue with the present formula D) Offer fruit juice frequently Review Information: The correct answer is C: Continue with the present formula The recommended age for switching from formula to whole milk is 12 months. Switching to cow''s milk before the age of 1 can predispose an infant to allergies and lactose intolerance. 27. Privacy and confidentiality of all client information is legally protected. In which of these situations would the nurse make an exception to this practice? A) When a family member offers information about their loved one * B) When the client threatens self-harm and harm to others When the health care provider decides the family has a right to C) know the client's diagnosis When a visitor insists that the visitor has been given permission D) by the client Review Information: The correct answer is B: When the client threatens self-harm and harm to others Privacy and confidentiality of all client information is protected with the exception of the client who threatens self harm or endangering the public. 28. The nurse is caring for a client who is in the late stage of multiple myeloma. Which of the following should be included in the plan of care? A) Monitor for hyperkalemia B) Place in protective isolation * C) Precautions with position changes D) Administer diuretics as ordered Review Information: The correct answer is C: Precautions with position changes Because multiple myeloma is a condition in which neoplastic plasma cells infiltrate the bone marrow resulting in osteoporosis, client’s are at high risk for pathological fractures. 29. The nurse is making a home visit to a client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The client tells the nurse that he used to be able to walk from the house to the mailbox without difficulty. Now, he has to pause to catch his breath halfway through

the trip. Which diagnosis would be most appropriate for this client based on this assessment? Activity intolerance caused by fatigue related to chronic tissue * A) hypoxia Impaired mobility related to chronic obstructive pulmonary B) disease C) Self care deficit caused by fatigue related to dyspnea Ineffective airway clearance related to increased bronchial D) secretions Review Information: The correct answer is A: Activity intolerance caused by fatigue related to chronic tissue hypoxia Activity intolerance describes a condition in which the client''s physiological capacity for activities is compromised. 30. The nurse admits a client newly diagnosed with hypertension. What is the best method for assessing the blood pressure? A) Standing and sitting * B) In both arms C) After exercising D) Supine position Review Information: The correct answer is B: In both arms Blood pressure should be taken in both arms due to the fact that one subclavian artery may be stenosed, causing a false high in that arm. 31. The nurse is caring for residents in a long term care setting for the elderly. Which of the following activities will be most effective in meeting the growth and development needs for persons in this age group? A) Aerobic exercise classes B) Transportation for shopping trips * C) Reminiscence groups D) Regularly scheduled social activities Review Information: The correct answer is C: Reminiscence groups According to Erikson''s theory, older adults need to find and accept the meaningfulness of their lives, or they may become depressed, angry, and fear death. Reminiscing contributes to successful adaptation by maintaining selfesteem, reaffirming identity, and working through loss. 32. Post-procedure nursing interventions for electroconvulsive therapy include A) Applying hard restraints if seizure occurs B) Expecting client to sleep for 4 to 6 hours * C) Remaining with client until oriented D) Expecting long-term memory loss Review Information: The correct answer is C: Remaining with client until oriented Client awakens post-procedure 20-30 minutes after treatment and appears groggy and confused. The nurse remains with the client until the client is oriented and able to engage in self care. 33. The nurse assesses delayed gross motor development in a 3 year-old child. The inability of the child to do which action confirms this finding? * A) Stand on 1 foot B) Catch a ball C) Skip on alternate feet D) Ride a bicycle Review Information: The correct answer is A: Stand on 1 foot At this age, gross motor development allows a child to balance on 1 foot. 34. The mother of a 15 month-old child asks the nurse to explain her child's lab results and how they show her child has iron deficiency anemia. The nurse's best response is "Although the results are here, your doctor will explain them A) later." * B) "Your child has less red blood cells that carry oxygen." C) "The blood cells that carry nutrients to the cells are too large." D) "There are not enough blood cells in your child's circulation." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Your child has less red blood cells that carry oxygen." The results of a complete blood count in clients with iron deficiency anemia will show decreased red blood cell levels, low hemoglobin levels and microcytic, hypochromic red blood cells. A simple but clear explanation is appropriate. 35. In a child with suspected coarctation of the aorta, the nurse would expect to find A) Strong pedal pulses B) Diminishing cartoid pulses C) Normal femoral pulses * D) Bounding pulses in the arms Review Information: The correct answer is D: Bounding pulses in the arms Coarctation of the aorta, a narrowing or constriction of the descending aorta, causes increased flow to the upper extremities (increased pressure and pulses). 36. At the day treatment center a client diagnosed with Schizophrenia - Paranoid Type sits alone alertly watching the activities of clients and staff. The client is hostile when approached and asserts that the doctor gives her medication to control her mind. The client's behavior most likely indicates A) Feelings of increasing anxiety related to paranoia

* B) Social isolation related to altered thought processes Sensory perceptual alteration related to withdrawal from C) environment D) Impaired verbal communication related to impaired judgment Review Information: The correct answer is B: Social isolation related to altered thought processes Hostility and absence of involvement are data supporting a diagnosis of social isolation. Her psychiatric diagnosis and her idea about the purpose of medication suggests altered thinking processes. 37. A 65-year-old Hispanic-Latino client with prostate cancer rates his pain as a 6 on a 0-to-10 scale. The client refuses all pain medication other than Motrin, which does not relieve his pain. The next action for the nurse to take is to * A) Ask the client about the refusal of certain pain medications B) Talk with the client's family about the situation C) Report the situation to the health care provider D) Document the situation in the notes Review Information: The correct answer is A: Ask the client about the refusal of certain pain medications Beliefs regarding pain are one of the oldest culturally related research areas in health care. Astute observations and careful assessments must be completed to determine the level of pain a person can tolerate. Health care practitioners must investigate the meaning of pain to each person within a cultural explanatory framework. 38. When teaching adolescents about sexually transmitted diseases, what should the nurse emphasize that is the most common infection? A) Gonorrhea * B) Chlamydia C) Herpes D) HIV Review Information: The correct answer is B: Chlamydia Chlamydia has the highest incidence of any sexually transmitted disease in this country. Prevention is similar to safe sex practices taught to prevent any STD: use of a condom and spermicide for protection during intercourse. 39. First-time parents bring their 5 day-old infant to the pediatrician's office because they are extremely concerned about its breathing pattern. The nurse assesses the baby and finds that the breath sounds are clear with equal chest expansion. The respiratory rate is 38-42 breaths per minute with occasional periods of apnea lasting 10 seconds in length. What is the correct analysis of these findings? A) The pediatrician must examine the baby B) Emergency equipment should be available * C) This breathing pattern is normal D) A future referral may be indicated Review Information: The correct answer is C: This breathing pattern is normal Respiratory rate in a newborn is 30-60 breaths/minute and periods of apnea often occur, lasting up to 15 seconds. The nurse should reassure the parents that this is normal to allay their anxiety. 40. A client is admitted with the diagnosis of meningitis. Which finding would the nurse expect in assessing this client? A) Hyperextension of the neck with passive shoulder flexion * B) Flexion of the hip and knees with passive flexion of the neck C) Flexion of the legs with rebound tenderness D) Hyperflexion of the neck with rebound flexion of the legs Review Information: The correct answer is B: Flexion of the hip and knees with passive flexion of the neck A positive Brudzinski’s sign—flexion of hip and knees with passive flexion of the neck; a positive Kernig’s sign—inability to extend the knee to more than 135 degrees, without pain behind the knee, while the hip is flexed usually establishes the diagnosis of meningitis. Results for Q&A-Random #11 1. Clients taking which of the following drugs are at risk for depression? * A) Steroids B) Diuretics C) Folic acid D) Aspirin Review Information: The correct answer is A: Steroids Adverse medication effects can cause a syndrome that may or may not remit when the medication is discontinued. Examples include: phenothiazines, steroids, and reserpine. 2. When a client is having a general tonic clonic seizure, the nurse should A) Hold the client's arms at their side * B) Place the client on their side

C) Insert a padded tongue blade in client's mouth D) Elevate the head of the bed Review Information: The correct answer is B: Place the client on their side The cprrect answer is B. This position keeps the airway patent and prevents aspiration 3. After talking with her partner, a client voluntarily admitted herself to the substance abuse unit. After the second day on the unit the client states to the nurse, "My husband told me to get treatment or he would divorce me. I don’t believe I really need treatment but I don’t want my husband to leave me." Which response by the nurse would assist the client? "In early recovery, it's quite common to have mixed feelings, but A) unmotivated people can’t get well." "In early recovery, it’s quite common to have mixed feelings, but B) I didn’t know you had been pressured to come." "In early recovery it’s quite common to have mixed feelings, C) perhaps it would be best to seek treatment on an outclient bases." "In early recovery, it’s quite common to have mixed feelings. * D) Let’s discuss the benefits of sobriety for you." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "In early recovery, it’s quite common to have mixed feelings. Let’s discuss the benefits of sobriety for you." This response gives the client the opportunity to decrease ambivalent feelings by focusing on the benefits of sobriety. Dependence issues are great for the client fostering ambivalence. 4. A neonate born 12 hours ago to a methadone maintained woman is exhibiting a hyperactive MORO reflex and slight tremors. The newborn passedone loose, watery stool. Which of these is a nursing priority? A) Hold the infant at frequent intervals. * B) Assess for neonatal withdrawl syndrome C) Offer fluids to prevent dehydration D) Administer paregoric to stop diarrhea Review Information: The correct answer is B: Assess for neonatal withdrawl syndrome Neonatal withdrawl syndrome is a cluster of findings that signal the withdrawal of the infant from the opiates. The findings seen in methadone withdrawal are often more severe than for other substances. Initial signs are central nervous system hyper irritability and gastro-intestinal symptoms. If withdrawal signs are severe, there is an increased mortality risk. Scoring the infant ensures proper treatment during the period of withdrawal. 5. The nurse is caring for a post myocardial infarction client in an intensive care unit. It is noted that urinary output has dropped from 60 -70 ml per hour to 30 ml per hour. This change is most likely due to A) Dehydration B) Diminished blood volume * C) Decreased cardiac output D) Renal failure Review Information: The correct answer is C: Decreased cardiac output Cardiac output and urinary output are directly correlated. The nurse should suspect a drop in cardiac output if the urinary output drops. 6. The primary nursing diagnosis for a client with congestive heart failure with pulmonary edema is A) Pain B) Impaired gas exchange * C) Cardiac output altered: decreased D) Fluid volume excess Review Information: The correct answer is C: Cardiac output altered: decreased All nursing interventions should be focused on improving cardiac output. Increasing cardiac output is the primary goal of therapy. Comfort will improve as the client improves and the respiratory status will improve as cardiac output increases. 7. The nurse is performing a developmental assessment on an 8 month-old. Which finding should be reported to the health care provider? A) Lifts head from the prone position B) Rolls from abdomen to back C) Responds to parents' voices * D) Falls forward when sitting Review Information: The correct answer is D: Falls forward when sitting Sitting without support is expected at this age. 8. A client has received her first dose of fluphenazine (Prolixin) 2 hours ago. She suddenly experiences torticollis and involuntary spastic muscle movement. In addition to administering the ordered anticholinergic drug, what other measure should the nurse implement? * A) Have respiratory support equipment available B) Immediately place her in the seclusion room C) Assess the client for anxiety and agitation D) Administer prn dose of IM antipsychotic medication Review Information: The correct answer is A: Have respiratory support equipment available

Persons receiving neuroleptic medication experiencing torticollis and involuntary muscle movement are demonstrating side effects that could lead to respiratory failure. 9. The nurse walks into a client's room and finds the client lying still and silent on the floor. The nurse should first A) Assess the client's airway B) Call for help * C) Establish that the client is unresponsive D) See if anyone saw the client fall Review Information: The correct answer is C: Establish that the client is unresponsive The first step in CPR is to establish unresponsiveness. Second is to call for help. Third is opening the airway. 10. The nurse is caring for a client 2 hours after a right lower lobectomy. During the evaluation of the water-seal chest drainage system, it is noted that the fluid level bubbles constantly in the water seal chamber. On inspection of the chest dressing and tubing, the nurse does not find any air leaks in the system. The next best action for the nurse is to * A) Check for subcutaneous emphysema in the upper torso B) Reposition the client to a position of comfort C) Call the health care provider as soon as possible D) Check for any increase in the amount of thoracic drainage Review Information: The correct answer is A: Check for subcutaneous emphysema in the upper torso Continuous bubbling in the water seal chamber is an abnormal finding 2 hours after a lobectomy. Further assessment of appropriate factors was done by the nurse to rule out an air leak in the sytem. Thus the conclusion is that the problem is one of an air leak in the lung. This client may need to be returned to surgery to deal with the sustained air leak. Action by the health care provider is required to prevent further complications. 11. The nurse is teaching a client with dysrhythmia about the electrical pathway of an impulse as it travels through the heart. Which of these demonstrates the normal pathway? A) AV node, SA node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers B) Purkinje fibers, SA node, AV node, Bundle of His C) Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers, SA node , AV node * D) SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers Review Information: The correct answer is D: SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers The pathway of a normal electrical impulse through the heart is: SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers. 12. When assessing a client who has just undergone a cardioversion, the nurse finds the respirations are 12. Which action should the nurse take first? A) Try to vigorously stimulate normal breathing B) Ask the RN to assess the vital signs C) Measure the pulse oximetry * D) Continue to monitor respirations Review Information: The correct answer is D: 4. Continue to monitor respirations 12 respirations per minute is tolerated post-operatively. A range from 8 to 10 gives cause for concern. At that point pulse oximetry is taken, as that rate could be tolerated. Vigorous stimulation is not indicated beyond deep breathing and coughing. It is not necessary to ask the RN to check findings. 13. A new nurse on the unit notes that the nurse manager seems to be highly respected by the nursing staff. The new nurse is surprised when one of the nurses states: "The manager makes all decisions and rarely asks for our input." The best description of the nurse manager's management style is A) Participative or democratic B) Ultraliberal or communicative * C) Autocratic or authoritarian D) Laissez faire or permissive Review Information: The correct answer is C: Autocratic or authoritarian Autocratic leadership style is suggested in this situation. It is appropriate for groups with little education and experience and who need strong direction, while participative or democratic style is usually more successful on nursing units. 14. A depressed client who has recently been acting suicidal is now more social and energetic than usual. Smilingly he tells the nurse "I’ve made some decisions about my life." What should be the nurse’s initial response? A) "You’ve made some decisions." * B) "Are you thinking about killing yourself?" C) "I’m so glad to hear that you’ve made some decisions." D) "You need to discuss your decisions with your therapist."

Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Are you thinking about killing yourself?" Sudden mood elevation and energy may signal increased risk of suicide. The nurse must validate suicide ideation as a beginning step in evaluating seriousness of risk. 15. The nurse caring for a 14 year-old boy with severe Hemophilia A, who was admitted after a fall while playing basketball. In understanding his behavior and in planning care for this client, what must the nurse understand about adolescents with hemophilia? A) Must have structured activities * B) Often take part in active sports C) Explain limitations to peer groups D) Avoid risks after bleeding episodes Review Information: The correct answer is B: Often take part in active sports Establish an age-appropriate safe environment. Adolescent hemophiliacs should be aware that contact sports may trigger bleeding. However, developmental characteristics of this age group such as impulsivity, inexperience and peer pressure, place adolescents in unsafe environments. 16. When an autistic client begins to eat with her hands, the nurse can best handle the problem by Placing the spoon in the client’s hand and stating, "Use the spoon * A) to eat your food." Commenting "I believe you know better than to eat with your B) hand." Jokingly stating, "Well I guess fingers sometimes work better C) than spoons." Removing the food and stating "You can’t have anymore food D) until you use the spoon." Review Information: The correct answer is A: Placing the spoon in the client’s hand and stating "Use the spoon to eat your food." This response identifies adaptive behavior with instruction and verbal expectation. 17. In assessing the healing of a client's wound during a home visit, which of the following is the best indicator of good healing? A) White patches B) Green drainage * C) Reddened tissue D) Eschar development Review Information: The correct answer is C: Reddened tissue As the wound granulates, redness indicates healing. 18. Which therapeutic communication skill is most likely to encourage a depressed client to vent feelings? A) Direct confrontation B) Reality orientation C) Projective identification * D) Active listening Review Information: The correct answer is D: Active listening Use of therapeutic communication skills such as silence and active listening encourages verbalization of feelings. 19. In order to enhance a client's response to medication for chest pain from acute angina, the nurse should emphasize * A) Learning relaxation techniques B) Limiting alcohol use C) Eating smaller meals D) Avoiding passive smoke Review Information: The correct answer is A: Learning relaxation techniques The only factor that can enhance the client''s response to pain medication for angina is reducing anxiety through relaxation methods. Anxiety can be great enough to make the pain medication totally ineffective. 20. The nurse is caring for 2 children who have had surgical repair of congenital heart defects. For which defect is it a priority to assess for findings of heart conduction disturbance? A) Artrial septal defect B) Patent ductus arteriosus C) Aortic stenosis * D) Ventricular septal defect Review Information: The correct answer is D: Ventricular septal defect While assessments for conduction disturbance should be included following repair of any defect, it is a priority for this condition. A ventricular septal defect is an abnormal opening between the right and left ventricles. The atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His), a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, extends from the atrioventricular node along each side of the interventricular septum and then divides into right and left bundle branches. Surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect consists of a purse-string approach or a patch sewn over the opening. Either method involves manipulation of the ventricular septum, thereby increasing risk of interrupting the conduction pathway. Consequently, postoperative complications include conduction disturbances. 21. Clients with mitral stenosis would likely manifest findings associated with congestion in the * A) Pulmonary circulation B) Descending aorta

C) Superior vena cava D) Bundle of His Review Information: The correct answer is A: Pulmonary circulation Congestion occurs in the pulmonary circulation due to the inefficient emptying of the left ventricle and the lack of a competent valve to prevent back flow into the pulmonary vein. 22. The nurse is teaching a smoking cessation class and notices there are 2 pregnant women in the group. Which information is a priority for these women? A) Low tar cigarettes are less harmful during pregnancy * B) There is a relationship between smoking and low birth weight C) The placenta serves as a barrier to nicotine D) Moderate smoking is effective in weight control Review Information: The correct answer is B: There is a relationship between smoking and low birth weight Nicotine reduces placental blood flow, and may contribute to fetal hypoxia or placenta previa, decreasing the growth potential of the fetus. 23. What is the best way for the nurse to accomplish a health history on a 14 year-old client? A) Have the mother present to verify information * B) Allow an opportunity for the teen to express feelings C) Use the same type of language as the adolescent D) Focus the discussion of risk factors in the peer group Review Information: The correct answer is B: Allow an opportunity for the teen to express feelings Adolescents need to express their feelings. Generally, they talk freely when given an opportunity and some privacy to do so. 24. What principle of HIV disease should the nurse keep in mind when planning care for a newborn who was infected in utero? The disease will incubate longer and progress more slowly in this A) infant * B) The infant is very susceptible to infections C) Growth and development patterns will proceed at a normal rate D) Careful monitoring of renal function is indicated Review Information: The correct answer is B: The infant is very susceptible to infections HIV infected children are susceptible to opportunistic infections due to a compromised immune system. 25. While planning care for a preschool aged child, the nurse understands developmental needs. Which of the following would be of the most concern to the nurse? A) Playing imaginatively * B) Expressing shame C) Identifying with family D) Exploring the playroom Review Information: The correct answer is B: Expressing shame Erikson describes the stage of the preschool child as being the time when there is normally an increase in initiative. The child should have resolved the sense of shame and doubt in the toddler stage. 26. A client has been receiving lithium (Lithane) for the past two weeks for the treatment of bipolar illness. When planning client teaching, what is most important to emphasize to the client? A) Maintain a low sodium diet B) Take a diuretic with lithium C) Come in for evaluation of serum lithium levels every 1-3 months * D) Have blood lithium levels drawn during the summer months Review Information: The correct answer is D: Have blood lithium levels drawn during the summer months Clients taking lithium therapy need to be aware that hot weather may cause excessive perspiration, a loss of sodium and consequently an increase in serum lithium concentration. 27. While teaching a client about their medications, the client asks how long it will take before the effects of lithium take place. What is the best response of the nurse? A) Immediately B) Several days * C) 2 weeks D) 1 month Review Information: The correct answer is C: 2 weeks Lithium is started immediately to treat bipolar disorder because it is quite effective in controlling mania. Lithium takes approximately 2 weeks to effect change in a client’s symptoms. 28. The nursing intervention that best describes treatment to deal with the behaviors of clients with personality disorders include Pointing out inconsistencies in speech patterns to correct thought A) disorders B) Accepting client and the client's behavior unconditionally

C) Encouraging dependency in order to develop ego controls * D) Consistent limit-setting enforced 24 hours per day Review Information: The correct answer is D: Consistent limit-setting enforced 24 hours per day Treatment approaches that include restructuring the personality, assisting the person with developmental level and setting limits for maladaptive behavior such as acting out. 29. Following a cocaine high, the user commonly experiences an extremely unpleasant feeling called A) Craving * B) Crashing C) Outward bound D) Nodding out Review Information: The correct answer is B: Crashing Following cocaine use, the intense pleasure is replaced by an equally unpleasant feeling referred to as crashing. 30. The nurse asks a client with a history of alcoholism about the client’s drinking behavior. The client states "I didn’t hurt anyone. I just like to have a good time, and drinking helps me to relax." The client is using which defense mechanism? A) Denial B) Projection C) Intellectualization * D) Rationalization Review Information: The correct answer is D: Rationalization Rationalization is justifying illogical or unreasonable ideas, actions, or feelings by developing acceptable explanations that satisfies the teller as well as the listener. 31. One reason that domestic violence remains extensively undetected is A) Few battered victims seek medical care * B) There is typically a series of minor, vague complaints C) Expenses due to police and court costs are prohibitive Very little knowledge is currently known about batterers and D) battering relationships Review Information: The correct answer is B: There is typically a series of minor, vague complaints Signs of abuse may not be clearly manifested and a series a minor complaints such as headache, abdominal pain, insomnia, back pain, and dizziness may be covert indications of abuse undetected. Complaints may be vague. 32. A client develops volume overload from an IV that has infused too rapidly. What assessment would the nurse expect to find? * A) S3 heart sound B) Thready pulse C) Flattened neck veins D) Hypoventilation Review Information: The correct answer is A: Auscultation of an Auscultation of an S3 heart sound. This is an early sign of volume overload (or CHF) because during the first phase of diastole, when blood enters the ventricles, an extra sound is produced due to the presence of fluid left in the ventricles. 33. The nurse is caring for a client with end stage renal disease. What action should the nurse take to assess for patency in a fistula used for hemodialysis? A) Observe for edema proximal to the site B) Irrigate with 5 mls of 0.9% Normal Saline * C) Palpate for a thrill over the fistula D) Check color and warmth in the extremity Review Information: The correct answer is C: Palpate for a thrill over the fistula To assess for patency in a fistula or graft, the nurse auscultates for a bruit and palpates for a thrill. Other options are not related to evaluation for patency. 34. A 2 year-old child is being treated with Amoxicillin suspension, 200 milligrams per dose, for acute otitis media. The child weighs 30 lb. (15 kg) and the daily dose range is 20-40 mg/kg of body weight, in three divided doses every 8 hours. Using principles of safe drug administration, what should the nurse do next? * A) Give the medication as ordered B) Call the health care provider to clarify the dose C) Recognize that antibiotics are over-prescribed D) Hold the medication as the dosage is too low Review Information: The correct answer is A: Give the medication as ordered Amoxicillin continues to be the drug of choice in the treatment of acute otitis media. The dose range is 20-40 mg/kg/day divided every 8 hours. 15kg x 40mg = 600mg, divided by 3 = 200 mg per dose. The prescribed dose is correct and should be given as ordered. 35. The nurse is participating in a community health fair. As part of the assessments, the nurse should conduct a mental status examination when A) An individual displays restlessness B) There are obvious signs of depression * C) Conducting any health assessment D) The resident reports memory lapses Review Information: The correct answer is C: Conducting any health assessment

A mental status assessment is a critical part of baseline information, and should be a part of every examination. 36. The nurse is caring for a 12 year-old with an acute illness. Which of the following indicates the nurse understands common sibling reactions to hospitalization? A) Younger siblings adapt very well * B) Visitation is helpful for both C) The siblings may enjoy privacy D) Those cared for at home cope better Review Information: The correct answer is B: Visitation is helpful for both Contact with the ill child helps siblings understand the reasons for hospitalization and maintains the relationship. 37. Parents of a 7 year-old child call the clinic nurse because their daughter was sent home from school because of a rash. The child had been seen the day before by the health care provider and diagnosed with Fifth Disease (erythema infectiosum). What is the most appropriate action by the nurse? Tell the parents to bring the child to the clinic for further A) evaluation Refer the school officials to printed materials about this viral B) illness Inform the teacher that the child is receiving antibiotics for the C) rash Explain that this rash is not contagious and does not require * D) isolation Review Information: The correct answer is D: Explain that this rash is not contagious and does not require isolation Fifth Disease is a viral illness with an uncertain period of communicability (perhaps 1 week prior to and 1 week after onset). Isolation of the child with Fifth Disease is not necessary except in cases of hospitalized children who are immunosuppressed or having aplastic crises. The parents may need written confirmation of this from the health care provider. 38. When making a home visit to a client with chronic pyelonephritis, which nursing action has the highest priority? A) Follow-up on lab values before the visit B) Observe client findings for the effectiveness of antibiotics * C) Ask for a log of urinary output D) As for the log of the oral intake Review Information: The correct answer is C: Ask for a log of urinary output The nurse must monitor the urine output as a priority because it is the best indictor of renal function. The other options would be done after an evaluation of the urine output. 39. The nurse is caring for a newborn who has just been diagnosed with hypospadias. After discussing the defect with the parents, the nurse should expect that A) Circumcision can be performed at any time B) Initial repair is delayed until ages 6-8 C) Post-operative appearance will be normal * D) Surgery will be performed in stages Review Information: The correct answer is D: Surgery will be performed in stages Hypospadias, a condition in which the urethral opening is located on the ventral surface or below the penis, is corrected in stages as soon as the infant can tolerate surgery. 40. The nurse is assessing a client on admission to a community mental health center. The client discloses that she has been thinking about ending her life. The nurse's best response would be A) "Do you want to discuss this with your pastor?" B) "We will help you deal with those thoughts." C) "Is your life so terrible that you want to end it?" * D) "Have you thought about how you would do it?" Review Information: The correct answer is D: "Have you thought about how you would do it?" This response provides an opening to discuss intent and means of committing suicide. Results for Q&A-Random #9 1. The nursing care plan for a client with decreased adrenal function should include A) Encouraging activity B) Placing client in reverse isolation * C) Limiting visitors D) Measures to prevent constipation Review Information: The correct answer is C: Limiting visitors Any exertion, either physical or emotional, places additional stress on the adrenal glands which could precipitate an addisonian crisis. The plan of care should protect this client from the physical and emotional exertion of visitors.

2. The nurse is caring for a client with acute pancreatitis. After pain management, which intervention should be included in the plan of care? * A) Cough and deep breathe every 2 hours B) Place the client in contact isolation C) Provide a diet high in protein D) Institute seizure precautions Review Information: The correct answer is A: Cough and deep breathe every 2 hours Respiratory infections are common because of fluid in the retro peritoneum pushing up against the diaphragm causing shallow respirations. Encouraging the client to cough and deep breathe every 2 hours will diminish the occurrence of this complication. 3. Which of the following conditions assessed by the nurse would contraindicate the use of benztropine (Cogentin)? A) Neuromalignant syndrome B) Acute extrapyramidal syndrome * C) Glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy D) Parkinson's disease, atypical tremors Review Information: The correct answer is C: Glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy Glaucoma and prostatic hypertrophy are contraindications to the use of benztropine (Cogentin) as the drug is an anticholinergic agent. 4. The nurse is caring for a client in the coronary care unit. The display on the cardiac monitor indicates ventricular fibrillation. What should the nurse do first? A) Perform defibrillation B) Administer epinephrine as ordered * C) Assess for presence of pulse D) Institute CPR Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assess for presence of pulse Artifact can mimic ventricular fibrillation on a cardiac monitor. If the client is truly in ventricular fibrillation, no pulse will be present. The standard of care is to verify the monitor display with an assessment of the client’s pulse. 5. During the use of an interpreter to teach a client about a procedure to do in the home the nurse should take which approach? Speak directly to the interpreter while presenting information and A) use pauses for questions Talk to the interpreter in advance and leave the client and B) interpreter alone Include a family member and direct communications to that C) person Face the client while presenting the information as the interpreter * D) talks in the native language Review Information: The correct answer is D: Face the client while presenting the information as the interpreter talks in the native language . Communication is the cornerstone of an effective teaching plan, especially when the nurse and client do not share the same cultural heritage. Even if the nurse uses an interpreter, it is critical that the nurse use conversational style and spacing, personal space, eye contact, touch, and orientation to time strategies that are acceptable to the client. Therefore, face the client and present the information to the client, allow the interpreter to translate the content. Facing the client allows non-verbal communication to take place between the client and nurse. 6. A client is in her third month of her first pregnancy. During the interview, she tells the nurse that she has several sex partners and is unsure of the identity of the baby's father. Which of the following nursing interventions is a priority? * A) Counsel the woman to consent to HIV screening B) Perform tests for sexually transmitted diseases C) Discuss her high risk for cervical cancer D) Refer the client to a family planning clinic Review Information: The correct answer is A: Counsel the woman to consent to HIV screening The client''s behavior places her at high risk for HIV. Testing is the first step. If the woman is HIV positive, the earlier treatment begins, the better the outcome. 7. A client is discharged following hospitalization for congestive heart failure. The nurse teaching the family suggests they encourage the client to rest frequently in which of the following positions? * A) High Fowler's B) Supine C) Left lateral D) Low Fowler's Review Information: The correct answer is A: High Fowler''s Sitting in a chair or resting in a bed in high Fowler''s position decreases the cardiac workload and facilitates breathing. 8. A nurse who is evaluating a mentally retarded 2 year-old in a clinic should stress which goal when talking to the child's mother? A) Teaching the child self care skills B) Preparing for independent toileting * C) Promoting the child's optimal development D) Helping the family decide on long term care

Review Information: The correct answer is C: Promoting the child''s optimal development The primary goal of nursing care for a mentally retarded child is to promote the child''s optimum development. 9. The nurse is caring for a client with trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureaux). To assist the client with nutrition needs, the nurse should * A) Offer small meals of high calorie soft food B) Assist the client to sit in a chair for meals C) Provide additional servings of fruits and raw vegetables D) Encourage the client to eat fish, liver and chicken Review Information: The correct answer is A: Offer small meals of high calorie soft food If the client is losing weight because of poor appetite due to the pain, assist in selecting foods that are high in calories and nutrients, to provide more nourishment with less chewing. Suggest that frequent, small meals be eaten instead of three large ones. To minimize jaw movements when eating, suggest that foods be pureed. 10. The nurse is assessing a 2 year-old client with a possible diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Which of these is most likely to be seen with this diagnosis? A) Several otitis media episodes in the last year B) Weight and height in 10th percentile since birth * C) Takes frequent rest periods while playing D) Changing food preferences and dislikes Review Information: The correct answer is C: Takes frequent rest periods while playing Children with heart disease tend to have exercise intolerance. The child self-limits activity, which is consistent with manifestations of congenital heart disease in children. 11. The nurse is caring for a 10 year-old on admission to the burn unit. One assessment parameter that will indicate that the child has adequate fluid replacement is * A) Urinary output of 30 ml per hour B) No complaints of thirst C) Increased hematocrit D) Good skin turgor around burn Review Information: The correct answer is A: Urinary output of 30 ml per hour For a child of this age, this is adequate output, yet does not suggest overload. 12. Upon examining the mouth of a 3 year-old child, the nurse discovers that the teeth have chalky white-to-yellowish staining with pitting of the enamel. Which of the following conditions would most likely explain these findings? A) Ingestion of tetracycline * B) Excessive fluoride intake C) Oral iron therapy D) Poor dental hygiene Review Information: The correct answer is B: Excessive fluoride intake The described findings are indicative of fluorosis, a condition characterized by an increase in the extent and degree of the enamel''s porosity. This problem can be associated with repeated swallowing of toothpaste with fluoride or drinking water with high levels of fluoride. 13. The nurse is reassigned to work at the Poison Control Center telephone hotline. In which of these cases of childhood poisoning would the nurse suggest that parents have the child drink orange juice? An 18 month-old who ate an undetermined amount of crystal * A) drain cleaner B) A 14 month-old who chewed 2 leaves of a philodendron plant A 20 month-old who is found sitting on the bathroom floor beside C) an empty bottle of diazepam (Valium) A 30 month-old who has swallowed a mouthful of charcoal lighter D) fluid Review Information: The correct answer is A: An 18 month-old who ate an undetermined amount of crystal drain cleaner Drain cleaner is very alkaline. The orange juice is acidic and will help to neutralize this substance. 14. Which of these is an example of a variation in the newborn resulting from the presence of maternal hormones? * A) Engorgement of the breasts B) Mongolian spots C) Edema of the scrotum D) Lanugo Review Information: The correct answer is A: Engorgement of the breasts Breast engorgement occurs in both sexes as a result of the withdrawal of maternal hormones.

15. A 2 month-old child has had a cleft lip repair. The selection of which restraint would require no further action by the charge nurse? * A) Elbow B) Mummy C) Jacket D) Clove hitch Review Information: The correct answer is A: Elbow The elbow restraint will prevent the child from touching the surgical site without hindering movement of other parts of the body. 16. A client treated for depression tells the nurse at the mental health clinic that he recently purchased a handgun because he is thinking about suicide. The first nursing action should be to * A) Notify the health care provider immediately B) Suggest in-patient psychiatric care C) Respect the client's confidential disclosure D) Phone the family to warn them of the risk Review Information: The correct answer is A: Notify the health care provider immediately The health care provider must be contacted immediately as the client is a danger to self and others. Hospitalization is indicated. 17. A client has just been admitted with portal hypertension. Which nursing diagnosis would be a priority in planning care? A) Altered nutrition: less than body requirements * B) Potential complication hemorrhage C) Ineffective individual coping D) Fluid volume excess Review Information: The correct answer is B: Potential complication hemorrhage Esophageal varices are dilated and tortuous vessels of the esophagus that are at high risk for rupture if portal circulation pressures rise. 18. While planning care for a 2 year-old hospitalized child, which situation would the nurse expect to most likely affect the behavior? A) Strange bed and surroundings * B) Separation from parents C) Presence of other toddlers D) Unfamiliar toys and games Review Information: The correct answer is B: Separation from parents Separation anxiety if most evident from 6 months to 30 months of age. It is the greatest stress imposed on a toddler by hospitalization. If separation is avoided, young children have a tremendous capacity to withstand other stress. 19. Which of the following should the nurse teach the client to avoid when taking chlorpromazine HCL (Thorazine)? * A) Direct sunlight B) Foods containing tyramine C) Foods fermented with yeast D) Canned citrus fruit drinks Review Information: The correct answer is A: Avoid direct sunlight Phenothiazine increases sensitivity to the sun, making clients especially susceptible to sunburn. 20. The initial response by the nurse to a delusional client who refuses to eat because of a belief that the food is poisoned is * A) "You think that someone wants to poison you?" B) "Why do you think the food is poisoned?" C) "These feelings are a symptom of your illness." D) "You’re safe here. I won’t let anyone poison you." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "You think that someone wants to poison you?" This response acknowledges perception through a reflective question which presents opportunity for discussion, clarification of meaning, and expressing doubt. 21. The nurse is caring for a client with cirrhosis of the liver with ascites. When instructing nursing assistants in the care of the client, the nurse should emphasize that A) The client should remain on bed rest in a semi-Fowler's position The client should alternate ambulation with bed rest with legs * B) elevated C) The client may ambulate and sit in chair as tolerated The client may ambulate as tolerated and remain in semi-Fowlers D) position in bed Review Information: The correct answer is B: The client should alternate ambulation with bed rest with legs elevated Encourage alternating periods ambulation and bed rest with legs elevated to mobilize edema and ascites. Encourage and assist the client with gradually increasing periods of ambulation. 22. The nurse is performing physical assessments on adolescents. When would the nurse anticipate that females experience growth spurts? * A) About 2 years earlier than males B) About the same time as males

C) Just prior to the onset of puberty D) That increase height by 4 inches each year Review Information: The correct answer is A: About 2 years earlier than males Normally, females in their teen age years experience a growth spurt about 2 years earlier than their male peers. 23. The nurse is has just admitted a client with severe depression. From which focus should the nurse identify a prioriy nursing diagnosis? A) Nutrition B) Elimination C) Activity * D) Safety Review Information: The correct answer is D: Safety Safety is a priority of care for the depressed client. Precautions to prevent suicide must be a part of the plan. 24. While explaining an illness to a 10 year-old, what should the nurse keep in mind about the cognitive development at this age? A) They are able to make simple association of ideas * B) They are able to think logically in organizing facts C) Interpretation of events originate from their own perspective D) Conclusions are based on previous experiences Review Information: The correct answer is B: Think logically in organizing facts The child in the concrete operations stage, according to Piaget, is capable of mature thought when allowed to manipulate and organize objects. 25. The nurse enters the room as a 3 year-old is having a generalized seizure. Which intervention should the nurse do first? A) Clear the area of any hazards * B) Place the child on the side C) Restrain the child D) Give the prescribed anticonvulsant Review Information: The correct answer is B: Place the child on the side Protecting the airway is the top priority in a seizure. If a child is actively convusing, a patent airway and oxygenation must be assured. 26. The nurse is reviewing a depressed client's history from an earlier admission. Documentation of anhedonia is noted. The nurse understands that this finding refers to A) Reports of difficulty falling and staying asleep B) Expression of persistent suicidal thoughts * C) Lack of enjoyment in usual pleasures D) Reduced senses of taste and smell Review Information: The correct answer is C: Lack of enjoyment in usual pleasures Lack of enjoyment in usual pleasures defines this term. 27. A client has just returned to the medical-surgical unit following a segmental lung resection. After assessing the client, the first nursing action would be to A) Administer pain medication * B) Suction excessive tracheobronchial secretions C) Assist client to turn, deep breathe and cought D) Monitor oxygen saturation Review Information: The correct answer is B: Suction excessive tracheobronchial secretions Suctioning the copious tracheobronchial secretions present in postthoracic surgery clients maintains an open airway which is always the priority nursing intervention. 28. While assessing a client in an outpatient facility with a panic disorder, the nurse completes a thorough health history and physical exam. Which finding is most significant for this client? A) Compulsive behavior * B) Sense of impending doom C) Fear of flying D) Predictable episodes Review Information: The correct answer is B: Sense of impending doom The feeling of overwhelming and uncontrollable doom is characteristic of a panic attack. 29. A 16 month-old child has just been admitted to the hospital. As the nurse assigned to this child enters the hospital room for the first time, the toddler runs to the mother, clings to her and begins to cry. What would be the initial action by the nurse? A) Arrange to change client care assignments * B) Explain that this behavior is expected C) Discuss the appropriate use of "time-out" D) Explain that the child needs extra attention

Review Information: The correct answer is B: Explain that this behavior is expected During normal development, fear of strangers becomes prominent beginning around age 6-8 months. Such behaviors include clinging to parent, crying, and turning away from the stranger. These fears/behaviors extend into the toddler period and may persist into preschool. 30. A 15 year-old client with a lengthy confining illness is at risk for altered growth and development of which task? A) Loss of control B) Insecurity * C) Dependence D) Lack of trust Review Information: The correct answer is C: Dependence The client role fosters dependency. Adolescents may react to dependency with rejection, uncooperativeness, or withdrawal. 31. Which playroom activities should the nurse organize for a small group of 7 year-old hospitalized children? * A) Sports and games with rules B) Finger paints and water play C) "Dress-up" clothes and props D) Chess and television programs Review Information: The correct answer is A: Sports and games with rules The purpose of play for the 7 year-old is cooperation. Rules are very important. Logical reasoning and social skills are developed through play. 32. The nurse is discussing dietary intake with an adolescent who has acne. The most appropriate statement for the nurse is * A) "Eat a balanced diet for your age." B) "Increase your intake of protein and Vitamin A." C) "Decrease fatty foods from your diet." D) "Do not use caffeine in any form, including chocolate." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "Eat a balanced diet for your age." A diet for a teenager with acne should be a well balanced diet for their age. There are no recommended additions and subtractions from the diet. 33. The nurse is assigned to a newly delivered woman with HIV/AIDS. The student asks the nurse about how it is determined that a person has AIDS other than a positive HIV test. The nurse responds A) "The complaints of at least 3 common findings." B) "The absence of any opportunistic infection." * C) "CD4 lymphocyte count is less than 200." D) "Developmental delays in children." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "CD4 lymphocyte count is less than 200." CD4 lymphocyte counts are normally 600 to 1000. In 1993 the Center for Disease Control defined AIDS as having a positive HIV plus one of these – the presence of an opportunistic infection or a CD4 lymphocyte count of less than 200. 34. The nurse is caring for a child who has just returned from surgery following a tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Which action by the nurse is appropriate? A) Offer ice cream every 2 hours B) Place the child in a supine position C) Allow the child to drink through a straw * D) Observe swallowing patterns Review Information: The correct answer is D: Observe swallowing patterns The nurse should observe for increased swallowing frequency to check for hemorrhage. 35. A 23 year-old single client is in the 33rd week of her first pregnancy. She tells the nurse that she has everything ready for the baby and has made plans for the first weeks together at home. Which normal emotional reaction does the nurse recognize? A) Acceptance of the pregnancy B) Focus on fetal development * C) Anticipation of the birth D) Ambivalence about pregnancy Review Information: The correct answer is C: Anticipation of the birth Directing activities toward preparation for the newborn''s needs and personal adjustment are indicators of appropriate emotional response in the third trimester. 36. The nurse is planning care for a client with pneumococcal pneumonia. Which of the following would be most effective in removing respiratory secretions? A) Administration of cough suppressants * B) Increasing oral fluid intake to 3000 cc per day C) Maintaining bed rest with bathroom privileges D) Performing chest physiotherapy twice a day Review Information: The correct answer is B: Increasing oral fluid intake to 3000 cc per day Secretion removal is enhanced with adequate hydration which thins and liquefies secretions. 37. The nurse in a well-child clinic examines many children on a daily basis. Which of the following toddlers requires further follow up?

A) A 13 month-old unable to walk B) A 20 month-old only using 2 and 3 word sentences C) A 24 month-old who cries during examination * D) A 30 month-old only drinking from a sippy cup Review Information: The correct answer is D: A 30 month-old only drinking from a sippy cup A 30 month-old should be able to drink from a cup without a cover. 38. Which of the following would be the best strategy for the nurse to use when teaching insulin injection techniques to a newly diagnosed client with diabetes? A) Give written pre and post tests B) Ask questions during practice C) Allow another diabetic to assist * D) Observe a return demonstration Review Information: The correct answer is D: Observe a return demonstration Since this is a psychomotor skill, this is the best way to know if the client has learned the proper technique. 39. A client has developed thrombophlebitis of the left leg. Which nursing intervention should be given the highest priority? * A) Elevate leg on 2 pillows B) Apply support stockings C) Apply warm compresses D) Maintain complete bed rest Review Information: The correct answer is A: Elevate leg on 2 pillows The first goal of non-pharmacologic interventions is to minimize edema of the affected extremity by leg elevation. 40. A nurse from the surgical department is reassigned to the pediatric unit. The charge nurse should recognize that the child at highest risk for cardiac arrest and is the least likely to be assiged to this nurse is which child? A) Congenital cardiac defects B) An acute febrile illness * C) Prolonged hypoxemia D) Severe multiple trauma Review Information: The correct answer is C: Prolonged hypoxemia Most often, the cause of cardiac arrest in the pediatric population is prolonged hypoxemia. Children usually have both cardiac and respiratory arrest. Results for Q&A-Random #8 1. A home health nurse is at the home of a client with diabetes and arthritis. The client has difficulty drawing up insulin. It would be most appropriate for the nurse to refer the client to A) A social worker from the local hospital * B) An occupational therapist from the community center C) A physical therapist from the rehabilitation agency D) Another client with diabetes mellitus and takes insulin Review Information: The correct answer is B: An occupational therapist from the community center An occupational therapist can assist a client to improve the fine motor skills needed to prepare an insulin injection. 2. A priority goal of involuntary hospitalization of the severely mentally ill client is A) Re-orientation to reality B) Elimination of symptoms * C) Protection from harm to self or others D)

4. The nurse is teaching parents about the treatment plan for a 2 weeks-old infant with Tetralogy of Fallot. While awaiting future surgery, the nurse instructs the parents to immediately report * A) Loss of consciousness B) Feeding problems C) Poor weight gain D) Fatigue with crying Review Information: The correct answer is A: Loss of consciousness While parents should report any of the observations, they need to call the health care provider immediately if the level of alertness changes. This indicates anoxia, which may lead to death. The structural defects associated with Tetralogy of Fallot include pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy and overriding of the aorta. Surgery is often delayed, or may be performed in stages. 5. A client is scheduled for an Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP). In order to prepare the client for this test, the nurse would Instruct the client to maintain a regular diet the day prior to the A) examination B) Restrict the client's fluid intake 4 hours prior to the examination Administer a laxative to the client the evening before the * C) examination D) Inform the client that only 1 x-ray of his abdomen is necessary Review Information: The correct answer is C: Administer a laxative to the client the evening before the examination Bowel prep is important because it will allow greater visualization of the bladder and ureters. 6. The nurse is caring for a woman 2 hours after a vaginal delivery. Documentation indicates that the membranes were ruptured for 36 hours prior to delivery. What is the priority nursing diagnoses at this time? A) Altered tissue perfusion B) Risk for fluid volume deficit C) High risk for hemorrhage * D) Risk for infection Review Information: The correct answer is D: Risk for infection Membranes ruptured over 24 hours prior to birth greatly increases the risk of infection to both mother and the newborn. 7. The parents of a newborn male with hypospadias want their child circumcised. The best response by the nurse is to inform them that Circumcision is delayed so the foreskin can be used for the * A) surgical repair This procedure is contraindicated because of the permanent B) defect There is no medical indication for performing a circumcision on C) any child The procedure should be performed as soon as the infant is D) stable Review Information: The correct answer is A: Circumcision is delayed so the foreskin can be used for the surgical repair Even if mild hypospadias is suspected, circumcision is not done in order to save the foreskin for surgical repair, if needed. 8. The nurse is caring for a client in the late stages of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (A.L.S.). Which finding would the nurse expect? A) Confusion B) Loss of half of visual field * C) Shallow respirations D) Tonic-clonic seizures Review Information: The correct answer is C: Shallow respirations A.L.S. is a chronic progressive disease that involves degeneration of the anterior horn of the spinal cord as well as the corticospinal tracts. When the intercostal muscles and diaphragm become involved, the respirations become shallow and coughing is ineffective. 9. A client complained of nausea, a metallic taste in her mouth, and fine hand tremors 2 hours after her first dose of lithium carbonate (Lithane). What is the nurse’s best explanation of these findings? * A) These side effects are common and should subside in a few days The client is probably having an allergic reaction and should B) discontinue the drug Taking the lithium on an empty stomach should decrease these C) symptoms Decreasing dietary intake of sodium and fluids should minimize D) the side effects Review Information: The correct answer is A: These side effects are common and should subside in a few days Nausea, metallic taste and fine hand tremors are common side effects that usually subside within days. 10. A 57 year-old male client has a hemoglobin of 10 mg/dl and a hematocrit of 32%. What would be the most appropriate follow-up by the home care nurse? * A) Ask the client if he has noticed any bleeding or dark stools B) Tell the client to call 911 and go to the emergency department

Return to independent functioning

Review Information: The correct answer is C: Protection from selfharm and harm to others Involuntary hospitalization may be required for persons considered dangerous to self or others or for individuals who are considered gravely disabled. 3. The nurse is caring for a client with a long leg cast. During discharge teaching about appropriate exercises for the affected extremity, the nurse should recommend * A) Isometric B) Range of motion C) Aerobic D) Isotonic Review Information: The correct answer is A: Isometric The nurse should instruct the client on isometric exercises for the muscles of the casted extremity, i.e., instruct the client to alternately contract and relax muscles without moving the affected part. The client should also be instructed to do active range of motion exercises for every joint that is not immobilized at regular and frequent intervals.

immediately C) Schedule a repeat Hemoglobin and Hematocrit in 1 month D) Tell the client to schedule an appointment with a hematologist Review Information: The correct answer is A: Ask the client if he has noticed any bleeding or dark stools Normal hemoglobin for males is 13.0 - 18 g/100 ml. Normal hemotocrit for males is 42 - 52%. These values are below normal and indicate mild anemia. The first thing the nurse should do is ask the client if he''s noticed any bleeding or change in stools that could indicate bleeding from the GI tract. 11. A client is scheduled for a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). The nurse knows that a PTCA is the A) Surgical repair of a diseased coronary artery B) Placement of an automatic internal cardiac defibrillator Procedure that compresses plaque against the wall of the * C) diseased coronary artery to improve blood flow D) Non-invasive radiographic examination of the heart Review Information: The correct answer is C: Procedure that compresses plaque against the wall of the diseased coronary artery to improve blood flow PTCA is performed to improve coronary artery blood flow in a diseased artery. It is performed during a cardiac catheterization. Aorta coronary bypass Ggaft is the surgical procedure to repair a diseased coronary artery. 12. For a 6 year-old child hospitalized with moderate edema and mild hypertension associated with acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), which one of the following nursing interventions would be appropriate? * A) Institute seizure precautions B) Weigh the child twice per shift C) Encourage the child to eat protein-rich foods D) Relieve boredom through physical activity Review Information: The correct answer is A: Institute seizure precautions The severity of the acute phase of AGN is variable and unpredictable; therefore, a child with edema, hypertension, and gross hematuria may be subject to complications, and anticipatory preparation such as seizure precautions are needed. 13. Following mitral valve replacement surgery a client develops PVC’s. The health care provider orders a bolus of Lidocaine followed by a continuous Lidocaine infusion at a rate of 2 mgm/minute. The IV solution contains 2 grams of Lidocaine in 500 cc’s of D5W. The infusion pump delivers 60 microdrops/cc. What rate would deliver 4 mgm of Lidocaine/minute? * A) 60 microdrops/minute B) 20 microdrops/minute C) 30 microdrops/minute D) 40 microdrops/minute Review Information: The correct answer is A: 60 microdrops/minute 2 gm=2000 mgm 2000 mgm/500 cc = 4 mgm/x cc 2000x = 2000 x= 2000/2000 = 1 cc of IV solution/minute CC x 60 microdrops = 60 microdrops/minute 14. An adolescent client comes to the clinic 3 weeks after the birth of her first baby. She tells the nurse she is concerned because she has not returned to her pre-pregnant weight. Which action should the nurse perform first? A) Review the client's weight pattern over the year B) Ask the mother to record her diet for the last 24 hours * C) Encourage her to talk about her view of herself D) Give her several pamphlets on postpartum nutrition Review Information: The correct answer is C: Encourage her to talk about her view of herself To an adolescent, body image is very important. The nurse must acknowledge this before assessment and teaching. 15. To prevent a valsalva maneuver in a client recovering from an acute myocardial infarction, the nurse would A) Assist the client to use the bedside commode * B) Administer stool softeners every day as ordered C) Administer antidysrhythmics prn as ordered D) Maintain the client on strict bed rest Review Information: The correct answer is B: Administer stool softeners every day as ordered Administering stool softeners every day will prevent straining on defecation which causes the Valsalva maneuver. If constipation occurs then laxatives would be necessary to prevent straining. If straining on defecation produced the valsalva maneuver and rhythm disturbances resulted then antidysrhythmics would be appropriate. 16. A 3 year-old had a hip spica cast applied 2 hours ago. In order to facilitate drying, the nurse should

* A) Expose the cast to air and turn the child frequently B) Use a heat lamp to reduce the drying time C) Handle the cast with the abductor bar D) Turn the child as little as possible Review Information: The correct answer is A: Expose the cast to air and turn the child frequently The child should be turned every 2 hours, with surface exposed to the air. 17. The nurse is caring for a 13 year-old following spinal fusion for scoliosis. Which of the following interventions is appropriate in the immediate postoperative period? A) Raise the head of the bed at least 30 degrees B) Encourage ambulation within 24 hours * C) Maintain in a flat position, logrolling as needed D) Encourage leg contraction and relaxation after 48 hours Review Information: The correct answer is C: Maintain in a flat position, logrolling as needed The bed should remain flat for at least the first 24 hours to prevent injury. Logrolling is the best way to turn for the client while on bed rest. 18. A client was admitted to the psychiatric unit after complaining to her friends and family that neighbors have bugged her home in order to hear all of her business. She remains aloof from other clients, paces the floor and believes that the hospital is a house of torture. Nursing interventions for the client should appropriately focus on efforts to A) Convince the client that the hospital staff is trying to help B) Help the client to enter into group recreational activities * C) Provide interactions to help the client learn to trust staff Arrange the environment to limit the client’s contact with other D) clients Review Information: The correct answer is C: Provide interactions to help the client learn to trust staff This establishes trust, facilitates a therapeutic alliance between staff and client. 19. The nurse is assessing an infant with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Which finding would the nurse anticipate? * A) Unequal leg length B) Limited adduction C) Diminished femoral pulses D) Symmetrical gluteal folds Review Information: The correct answer is A: Unequal leg length Shortening of a leg is a sign of developmental dysplasia of the hip. 20. A nurse is caring for a 2 year-old child after corrective surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot. The mother reports that the child has suddenly begun seizing. The nurse recognizes this problem is probably due to * A) A cerebral vascular accident B) Postoperative meningitis C) Medication reaction D) Metabolic alkalosis Review Information: The correct answer is A: A cerebral vascular accident Polycythemia occurs as a physiological reaction to chronic hypoxemia which commonly occurs in clients with Tetralogy of Fallot. Polycythemia and the resultant increased viscosity of the blood increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Cerebrovascular accidents may occur. Signs and symptoms include sudden paralysis, altered speech, extreme irritability or fatigue, and seizures. 21. Following a diagnosis of acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) in their 6 year-old child, the parents remark: “We just don’t know how he caught the disease!” The nurse's response is based on an understanding that A) AGN is a streptococcal infection that involves the kidney tubules B) The disease is easily transmissible in schools and camps C) The illness is usually associated with chronic respiratory infections It is not "caught" but is a response to a previous B-hemolytic * D) strep infection Review Information: The correct answer is D: It is not "caught" but is a response to a previous B-hemolytic strep infection AGN is generally accepted as an immune-complex disease in relation to an antecedent streptococcal infection of 4 to 6t weeks prior, and is considered as a noninfectious renal disease. 22. A couple asks the nurse about risks of several birth control methods. What is the most appropriate response by the nurse? A) Norplant is safe and may be removed easily * B) Oral contraceptives should not be used by smokers C) Depo-Provera is convenient with few side effects D) The IUD gives protection from pregnancy and infection Review Information: The correct answer is B: Oral contraceptives should not be used by smokers The use of oral contraceptives in a pregnant woman who smokes increases her risk of cardiovascular problems, such as thromboembolic disorders. 23. A client experiences post partum hemorrhage eight hours after the birth of twins. Following administration of IV fluids and 500 ml of whole blood, her hemoglobin and hematocrit are within normal limits. She asks the nurse whether

she should continue to breast feed the infants. Which of the following is based on sound rationale? "Nursing will help contract the uterus and reduce your risk of * A) bleeding." "Breastfeeding twins will take too much energy after the B) hemorrhage." "The blood transfusion may increase the risks to you and the C) babies." D) "Lactation should be delayed until the "real milk" is secreted." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "Nursing will help contract the uterus and reduce your risk of bleeding." Stimulation of the breast during nursing releases oxytocin, which contracts the uterus. This contraction is especially important following hemorrhage. 24. The nurse is caring for a post-surgical client at risk for developing deep vein thrombosis. Which intervention is an effective preventive measure? A) Place pillows under the knees B) Use elastic stockings continuously * C) Encourage range of motion and ambulation D) Massage the legs twice daily Review Information: The correct answer is C: Encourage range of motion and ambulation Mobility reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis in the post-surgical client and the adult at risk. 25. The nurse is caring for a 20 lbs (9 kg) 6 month-old with a 3 day history of diarrhea, occasional vomiting and fever. Peripheral intravenous therapy has been initiated, with 5% dextrose in 0.33% normal saline with 20 mEq of potassium per liter infusing at 35 ml/hr. Which finding should be reported to the health care provider immediately? A) 3 episodes of vomiting in 1 hour B) Periodic crying and irritability C) Vigorous sucking on a pacifier * D) No measurable voiding in 4 hours Review Information: The correct answer is D: No measurable voiding in 4 hours The concern is possible hyperkalemia, which could occur with continued potassium administration and a decrease in urinary output since potassium is excreted via the kidneys. 26. Which response by the nurse would best assist the chemically impaired client to deal with issues of guilt? "Addiction usually causes people to feel guilty. Don’t worry, it is a A) typical response due to your drinking behavior." "What have you done that you feel most guilty about and what * B) steps can you begin to take to help you lessen this guilt?" "Don’t focus on your guilty feelings. These feelings will only lead C) you to drinking and taking drugs." "You’ve caused a great deal of pain to your family and close D) friends, so it will take time to undo all the things you’ve done." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "What have you done that you feel most guilty about and what steps can you begin to take to help you lessen this guilt?" This response encourages the client to get in touch with their feelings and utilize problem solving steps to reduce guilt feelings. 27. A client with schizophrenia is receiving Haloperidol (Haldol) 5 mg t.i.d.. The client’s family is alarmed and calls the clinic when "his eyes rolled upward." The nurse recognizes this as what type of side effect? * A) Oculogyric crisis B) Tardive dyskinesia C) Nystagmus D) Dysphagia Review Information: The correct answer is A: Oculogyric crisis This refers to involuntary muscles spasm of the eye. 28. Which of the following measures would be appropriate for the nurse to teach the parent of a nine month-old infant about diaper dermatitis? A) Use only cloth diapers that are rinsed in bleach B) Do not use occlusive ointments on the rash C) Use commercial baby wipes with each diaper change Discontinue a new food that was added to the infant's diet just * D) prior to the rash Review Information: The correct answer is D: Discontinue a new food that was added to the infant''s diet just prior to the rash The addition of new foods to the infant''s diet may be a cause of diaper dermatitis. 29. A mother brings her 26 month-old to the well-child clinic. She expresses frustration and anger due to her child's constantly saying "no" and his refusal to follow her directions. The nurse explains this is normal for his age, as negativism is attempting to meet which developmental need?

A) Trust B) Initiative * C) Independence D) Self-esteem Review Information: The correct answer is C: Independence In Erikson’s theory of development, toddlers struggle to assert independence. They often use the word “no” even when they mean yes. This stage is called autonomy versus shame and doubt 30. Which behavioral characteristic describes the domestic abuser? A) Alcoholic B) Over confident C) High tolerance for frustrations * D) Low self-esteem Review Information: The correct answer is D: Low self-esteem Batterers are usually physically or psychologically abused as children or have had experiences of parental violence. Batterers are also manipulative, have a low selfesteem, and have a great need to exercise control or power-over partner. 31. Which statement by the client with chronic obstructive lung disease indicates an understanding of the major reason for the use of occasional pursed-lip breathing A) "This action of my lips helps to keep my airway open." B) "I can expel more when I pucker up my lips to breathe out." C) "My mouth doesn't get as dry when I breathe with pursed lips." "By prolonging breathing out with pursed lips the little areas in * D) my lungs don't collapse." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "By prolonging breathing out with pursed lips my little areas in my lungs don''t collapse." Clients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have difficulty exhaling fully as a result of the weak alveolar walls from the disease process . Alveolar collapse can be avoided with the use of pursed-lip breathing. This is the major reason to use it. The other options are secondary effects of purse-lip breathing. 32. During the admission assessment on a client with chronic bilateral glaucoma, which statement by the client would the nurse anticipate since it is associated with this problem? A) "I have constant blurred vision." B) "I can't see on my left side." * C) "I have to turn my head to see my room." D) "I have specks floating in my eyes." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I have to turn my head to see my room." Intraocular pressure becomes elevated which slowly produces a progressive loss of the peripheral visual field in the affected eye along with rainbow halos around lights. Intraocular pressure becomes elevated from the microscopic obstruction of the trabeculae meshwork. If left untreated or undetected blindness results in the affected eye. 33. A 19 year-old client is paralyzed in a car accident. Which statement used by the client would indicate to the nurse that the client was using the mechanism of "suppression"? * A) "I don't remember anything about what happened to me." B) "I'd rather not talk about it right now." C) "It's all the other guy's fault! He was going too fast." D) "My mother is heartbroken about this." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "I don''t remember anything about what happened to me." Suppression is willfully putting an unacceptable thought or feeling out of one’s mind. A deliberate exclusion "voluntary forgetting" is generally used to protect one’s own self esteem. 34. While caring for the client during the first hour after delivery, the nurse determines that the uterus is boggy and there is vaginal bleeding. What should be the nurse's first action? A) Check vital signs * B) Massage the fundus C) Offer a bedpan D) Check for perineal lacerations Review Information: The correct answer is B: Massage the fundus The nurse’s first action should be to massage the fundus until it is firm as uterine atony is the primary cause of bleeding in the first hour after delivery. 35. An infant weighed 7 pounds 8 ounces at birth. If growth occurs at a normal rate, what would be the expected wieght at 6 months of age? * A) Double the birth weight B) Triple the birth weight C) Gain 6 ounces each week D) Add 2 pounds each month Review Information: The correct answer is A: Double the birth weight Although growth rates vary, infants normally double their birth weight by 6 months. 36. On admission to the psychiatric unit, the client is trembling and appears fearful. The nurse’s initial response should be to A) Give the client orientation materials and review the unit rules and

regulations Introduce him/herself and accompany the client to the client’s * B) room Take the client to the day room and introduce her to the other C) clients Ask the nursing assistant to get the client’s vital signs and D) complete the admission search Review Information: The correct answer is B: Introduce him/herself and accompany the client to the client’s room Anxiety is triggered by change that threatens the individual’s sense of security. In response to anxiety in clients, the nurse should remain calm, minimize stimuli, and move the client to a calmer, more secure/safe setting. 37. A client with asthma has low pitched wheezes present on the final half of exhalation. One hour later the client has high pitched wheezes extending throughout exhalation. This change in assessment indicates to the nurse that the client * A) Has increased airway obstruction B) Has improved airway obstruction C) Needs to be suctioned D) Exhibits hyperventilation Review Information: The correct answer is A: Has increased airway obstruction The higher pitched a sound is, the more narrow the airway. Therefore, the obstruction has increased or worsened. With no evidence of secretions no support exists to indicate the need for suctioning. 38. A client asks the nurse about including her 2 and 12 year-old sons in the care of their newborn sister. Which of the following is an appropriate initial statement by the nurse? * A) "Focus on your sons' needs during the first days at home." B) "Tell each child what he can do to help with the baby." C) "Suggest that your husband spend more time with the boys." D) "Ask the children what they would like to do for the newborn." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "Focus on your sons'' needs during the first days at home." In an expanded family, it is important for parents to reassure older children that they are loved and as important as the newborn. 39. A 16 year-old client is admitted to a psychiatric unit with a diagnosis of attempted suicide. The nurse is aware that the most frequent cause for suicide in adolescents is A) Progressive failure to adapt B) Feelings of anger or hostility C) Reunion wish or fantasy D) Feelings of alienation or isolation Review Information: The correct answer is D: Feelings of alienation or isolation The isolation may occur gradually resulting in a loss of all meaningful social contacts. Isolation can be self imposed or can occur as a result of the inability to express feelings. At this stage of development it is important to achieve a sense of identity and peer acceptance. 40. A newborn has been diagnosed with hypothyroidism. In discussing the condition and treatment with the family, the nurse should emphasize A) They can expect the child will be mentally retarded * B) Administration of thyroid hormone will prevent problems C) This rare problem is always hereditary D) Physical growth/development will be delayed Review Information: The correct answer is B: Administration of thyroid hormone will prevent problems Early identification and continued treatment with hormone replacement corrects this condition. Results for Q&A-Random #7 1. A Hispanic client refuses emergency room treatment until a curandero is called. The nurse understands that this person brings what to situations of illness? * A) Holistic healing B) Spiritual advising C) Herbal preparations D) Witchcraft potions Review Information: The correct answer is A: Holistic healing This traditional folk practitioner uses holistic methods for illnesses not related to witchcraft. Many times, the curandero works with traditional health care providers to restore health. 2. In addition to disturbances in mental awareness and orientation, a client with cognitive impairment is also likely to show loss of ability in A) Hearing, speech, and sight B) Endurance, strength, and mobility * C) Learning, creativity, and judgment

D) Balance, flexibility, and coordination Review Information: The correct answer is C: Learning, creativity and judgment Cognitive impairments are due to physiological processes that affect memory and other cognitive processes. 3. In a long term rehabilitation care unit a client with spinal cord injury complains of a pounding headache. The client is sitting in a wheelchair watching television in the assigned room. Further assessment by the nurse reveals excessive sweating, a splotchy rash, pilomotor erection, facial flushing, congested nasal passages and a heart rate of 50. The nurse should do which action next? Take the client's respirations, blood pressure (BP), temperature A) and then pupillary responses Place the client into the bed and administer the ordered PRN B) analgesic Check the client for bladder distention and the client's urinary * C) catheter for kinks Turn the television off and then assist client to use relaxation D) techniques Review Information: The correct answer is C: Check the client for bladder distention and the client''s urinary catheter for kinks These are findings of autonomic dysreflexia, also called hyperreflexia. This response occurs in clients with a spinal cord injury above the T-6 level. It is typically initiated by any noxious stimulus below the level of injury such as a full bladder, an enema or bowel movement, fecal impaction, uterine contractions, changing of the catheter, and vaginal or rectal examinations. The stimulus creates an exaggerated response of the sympathetic nervous system and can be a lifethreatening event. The BP is typically extremely high. The priority action of the nurse is to identify and relieve the cause of the stimulus. 4. The nurse is performing a physical assessment on a client with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Which client complaint calls for immediate nursing action? * A) Diaphoresis and shakiness B) Reduced lower leg sensation C) Intense thirst and hunger D) Painful hematoma on thigh Review Information: The correct answer is A: Diaphoresis and shakiness Diaphoresis is a sign of hypoglycemia which warrants immediate attention. 5. The nurse is teaching a client about the healthy use of ego defense mechanisms. An appropriate goal for this client would be * A) Reduce fear and protect self-esteem B) Minimize anxiety and delay apprehension C) Avoid conflict and leave unpleasant situations D) Increase independence and communicate more often Review Information: The correct answer is A: Reduce fear and protect selfesteem Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious proactive barriers that are used to manage instinct and affect the presence of stressful situations. Healthy reactions are those in which the client admits that they are feeling various emotions. 6. In reviewing the assessment data of a client suspected of having diabetes insipidus, the nurse expects which of the following after a water deprivation test? A) Increased edema and weight gain * B) Unchanged urine specific gravity C) Rapid protein excretion D) Decreased blood potassium Review Information: The correct answer is B: Unchanged urine specific gravity When fluids are restricted, the client continues to excrete large amounts of dilute urine. This finding supports the diagnosis. Normally, urine is more concentrated with reduced fluid intake. 7. The nurse is evaluating the growth and development of a toddler with AIDS. The nurse would anticipate finding that the child has A) Achieved developmental milestones at an erratic rate B) Delay in musculoskeletal development C) Displayed difficulty with speech development * D) Delay in achievement of most developmental milestones Review Information: The correct answer is D: Delayed in achieving all developmental milestones The majority of children with AIDS have neurological involvement. There is decreased brain growth as evidenced by microcephaly and abnormal neurologic findings. Developmental delays are common, or after achieving normal development, there may be loss of milestones. The other options are correct but are too specific to be the best response. 8. A client was admitted with a diagnosis of pneumonia. When auscultating the client's breath sounds, the nurse hears inspiratory crackles in the right base. Temperature is 102.3 degrees Farenheit orally. What finding would the nurse expect? A) Flushed skin B) Bradycardia * C) Mental confusion D) Hypotension Review Information: The correct answer is C: Mental confusion

Crackles suggest pneumonia, which is likely to be accompanied by mental confusion related to hypoxia. 9. Postoperative orders for a client undergoing a mitral valve replacement include monitoring pulmonary artery pressure together with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure with a pulmonary artery catheter. This action by the nurse will assess A) Right ventricular pressure * B) Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure C) Acid-Base balance D) Coronary artery stability Review Information: The correct answer is B: Left ventricular enddiastolic pressure The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is reflective of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Pulmonary artery pressures are an assessment tool used to determine the ability of the heart to receive and pump blood effectively. 10. The nurse is providing instructions for a client with asthma who is sensitive to house dust-mites. Which information about prevention of asthma episodes would be the most helpful to include during the teaching? A) Change the pillow covers every month B) Wash bed linens in warm water with a cold rinse * C) Wash and rinse the bed linens in hot water D) Use air filters in the furnace system Review Information: The correct answer is C: Wash and rinse the bed linens in hot water For asthma clients who are sensitive to house dust-mites it is essential the mattresses and pillows are encased in allergen-impermeable covers. All bed linens such as pillow cases, sheets and blankets should be washed and rinsed weekly in hot water at temperatures above 130 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature necessary to kill the dust-mites. 11. A client is receiving oxygen therapy via a nasal cannula. When providing nursing care, which of the following interventions would be appropriate? A) Determine that adequate mist is supplied * B) Inspect the nares and ears for skin breakdown C) Lubricate the tips of the cannula before insertion D) Maintain sterile technique when handling cannula Review Information: The correct answer is B: Inspect the nares and ears for skin breakdown Oxygen therapy can cause drying of the nasal mucosa. Pressure from the tubing can cause skin irritation. 12. The nurse is caring for a client with Parkinson's disease. The client spends over 1 hour to dress for scheduled therapies. What is the most appropriate action for the nurse to take in this situation? A) Ask family members to dress the client B) Encourage the client to dress more quickly * C) Allow the client the time needed to dress D) Demonstrate methods on how to dress more quickly Review Information: The correct answer is C: Allow the client the time needed to dress Clients with Parkinson''s disease often wish to take care of themselves but become very upset when hurried and then are unable to manage at all. Any form of hurrying the client will result in a very upset and nonfunctioning client. 13. The nurse is assessing a 12 year-old who has Hemophilia A. Which finding would the nurse anticipate? A) An excess of red blood cells B) An excess of white blood cells * C) A deficiency of clotting factor VIII D) A deficiency of clotting factors VIII and IX Review Information: The correct answer is C: A deficiency of clotting factor VIII Hemophilia A is characterized by an absence or deficiency of Factor VIII. 14. The nurse is assessing a newborn infant and observes low set ears, short palpebral fissures, flat nasal bridge and indistinct philtrum. A priority maternal assessment by the nurse should be to ask about * A) Alcohol use during pregnancy B) Usual nutritional intake C) Family genetic disorders D) Maternal and paternal ages Review Information: The correct answer is A: Alcohol use during pregnancy The identification of this cluster of facial characteristics is often linked to fetal alcohol syndrome. 15. A 2 month-old infant has both a cleft lip and palate which will be repaired in stages. In the immediate postoperative period for a cleft lip repair, which nursing approach should be the priority? * A) Remove protective arm devices one at a time for short periods

with supervision Initiate by mouth feedings when alert, with the return of the gag B) reflex Introduce to the parents how to cleanse the suture line with the C) prescribed protocol D) Position the infant on the back after feedings throughout the day Review Information: The correct answer is A: Remove protective arm devices one at a time for short periods with supervision The major efforts in the postoperative period are directed toward protecting the operative site. Elbow restraints should be used and only 1 arm released at a time with close supervision by the nurse and/or parents. 16. The new graduate nurse interviews for a position in a nursing department of a large health care agency, described by the interviewer as having shared governance. Which of these statements best illustrates the shared governance model? A) An appointed board oversees any administrative decisions * B) Nursing departments share responsibility for client outcomes Staff groups are appointed to discuss nursing practice and client C) education issues D) Non-nurse managers supervise nursing staff in groups of units Review Information: The correct answer is B: Nursing departments share responsibility for client outcomes Shared governance or self-governance is a method of organizational design that promotes empowerment of nurses to give them responsibility for client care issues. 17. The nurse is teaching childbirth preparation classes. One woman asks about her rights to develop a birthing plan. Which response made by the nurse would be best? A) "What is your reason for wanting such a plan?" B) "Have you talked with your health care provider about this?" * C) "Let us discuss your rights as a couple." D) "Write your ideal plan for the next class." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "Let us discuss your rights as a couple." Discussion of the health care provider''s role and the couple''s rights and limitations in selecting birth options must precede development of a plan. 18. A client is admitted with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). Which of the following lab values would be consistent with this diagnosis A) Low serum albumin B) High serum cholesterol C) Abnormally low white blood cell count * D) Elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK ) Review Information: The correct answer is D: Elevated CPK (creatinine phosphokinase) An elevated CPK is a common finding in the client with an MI. CK levels begin to rise approximately 3 to 12 hours after an acute MI, peak in 24 hours, and return to normal within 2 to 3 days. Troponin levels rise as well. 19. A client tells the nurse he is fearful of planned surgery because of evil thoughts about a family member. What is the best initial response by the nurse? A) Call a chaplain B) Deny the feelings C) Cite recovery statistics * D) Listen to the client Review Information: The correct answer is D: Listen to the client Therapeutic communications are based on attentive listening to expressed feelings. If the nurse is not familiar with the cultural beliefs of a client, acceptance of feelings is followed by questions about the beliefs. 20. A 14 month-old had cleft palate surgical repair several days ago. The parents ask the nurse about feedings after discharge. Which lunch is the best example of an appropriate meal? A) Hot dog, carrot sticks, gelatin, milk * B) Soup, blenderized soft foods, ice cream, milk C) Peanut butter and jelly sandwich, chips, pudding, milk D) Baked chicken, applesauce, cookie, milk Review Information: The correct answer is B: Soup, blenderized soft foods, ice cream, milk In a child with cleft palate repair, parents should prepare soft foods and avoid those foods with particles that might traumatize the surgical site. 21. The RN is planning care at a team meeting for a 2 month-old child in bilateral leg casts for congenital clubfoot. Which of these suggestions by the PN should be considered the priority nursing goal following cast application? A) Infant will experience minimal pain B) Muscle spasms will be relieved C) Mobility will be managed as tolerated * D) Tissue perfusion will be maintained Review Information: The correct answer is D: Tissue perfusion will be maintained Immediately following cast application, the chief goal is to maintain circulation and tissue perfusion around the cast. Permanent tissue damage can occur within a few hours if perfusion is not maintained.

22. The nurse would expect which eating disorder to have the greatest fluctuations in potassium? A) Binge eating disorder B) Anorexia nervosa * C) Bulemia D) Purge syndrome Review Information: The correct answer is C: Bulemia With bulemia the purging process tends to make your body dehydrated and to lower the level of potassium in your blood. Low potassium levels can cause weakness, abdominal cramping and irregular heart rhythms. 23. When planning the care for a young adult client diagnosed with anorexia nervosa which of these concerns should the nurse determine to be the priority for long term mobility? A) Digestive problems * B) Amenorrhea C) Electrolyte imbalance D) Blood disorders Review Information: The correct answer is B: Amenorrhea Changes in reproductive hormones and in thyroid hormones can cause absence of mestruation called amenorrhea which contributes to osteoporosis and bone fractures. 24. The nurse is planning care for a client with increased intracranial pressure. The best position for this client is A) Trendelenberg B) Prone * C) Semi-Fowlers D) Side-lying with head flat Review Information: The correct answer is C: Semi-Fowlers Maintaining the head of the bed at 15-30 degrees reduces cerebral venous congestion 25. While performing an initial assessment on a newborn following a breech delivery, the nurse suspects hip dislocation. Which of the following is most suggestive of the abnormality? A) Flexion of lower extremities B) Negative Ortlani response C) Lengthened leg of affected side * D) Irregular hip symmetry Review Information: The correct answer is D: Irregular hip symmetry Early assessment of irregular hip symmetry alerts the nurse and the health care provider to a correctable congenital hip dislocation. 26. The nurse is caring for a client admitted to the hospital with right lower lobe (RLL) pneumonia. On assessment, the nurse notes crackles over the RLL. The client has significant pleuritic pain and is unable to take in a deep breath in order to cough effectively. Which nursing diagnosis would be most appropriate for this client based on this assessment data? Impaired gas exchange related to acute infection and sputum A) production Ineffective airway clearance related to sputum production and * B) ineffective cough C) Ineffective breathing pattern related to acute infection D) Anxiety related to hospitalization and role conflict Review Information: The correct answer is B: Ineffective airway clearance related to sputum production and ineffective cough Ineffective airway clearance is defined as the inability to cough effectively. While the other diagnoses may be appropriate for this client, this is the only one supported directly by the assessment data given. 27. A young child is admitted for treatment of lead poisoning. The nurse recognizes that the most serious effect of chronic lead poisoning is * A) Central nervous system damage B) Moderate anemia C) Renal tubule damage D) Growth impairment Review Information: The correct answer is A: Central nervous system damage The most serious consequences of chronic lead poisoning occur in the central nervous system. Neural cells are destroyed by the toxic effects of the lead resulting in many problems with the intellect ranging from mild deficits to mental retardation and even death. 28. At a nursing staff meeting, there is discussion of perceived inequities in weekend staff assignments. As a follow-up, the nurse manager should initially A) Allow the staff to change assignments B) Clarify reasons for current assignments C) Help staff see the complexity of issues

* D) Facilitate creative thinking on staffing Review Information: The correct answer is D: Facilitate creative thinking on staffing The "moving phase" of change involves viewing the problem from a new perspective, incorporating new and different approaches to the problem. The manager can facilitate staff''s solving the problem. 29. A client is admitted with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). The client is complaining of chest pain. The nurse knows that pain related to an MI is due to * A) Insufficient oxygenation of the cardiac muscle B) Potential circulatory overload C) Left ventricular overload D) Electrolyte imbalance Review Information: The correct answer is A: Insufficient oxygenation of the cardiac muscle Due to ischemia to the heart muscle, the client experiences pain. This happens because an MI can block or interfere with the normal cardiac circulation. 30. A client was re-admitted to the hospital following a recent skull fracture. Which finding requires the nurse's immediate attention? * A) Lethargy B) Agitation C) Ataxia D) Hearing loss Review Information: The correct answer is A: Lethargy The level of consciousness or responsiveness is the most important measure of the client''s rising intracranial pressure. Look for lethargy, delay in response to verbal suggestions and slowing of speech. Assess for rising blood pressure or widening pulse pressure and for respiratory irregularities. There may be vomiting but it is usually projectile without the presence of nausea. 31. You are teaching a client about the patient controlled analgesia (PCA) planned for post-operative care. Which indicates further teaching may be needed by the client? A) "I will be receiving continuous doses of medication." * B) "I should call the nurse before I take additional doses." C) "I will call for assistance if my pain is not relieved." D) "The machine will prevent an overdose." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "I should call the nurse before I take additional doses." Patient controlled analgesia offers the client more control. The client should be instructed to initiate additional doses as needed without asking for assistance unless there is insufficient control of the pain. 32. When caring for a client with advanced cirrhosis of the liver, which nursing diagnosis should take priority? * A) Risk for injury: hemorrhage B) Risk for injury related to peripheral neuropathy C) Altered nutrition: less than body requirements D) Fluid volume excess: ascites Review Information: The correct answer is A: Risk for injury: hemorrhage Liver disease interferes with the production of prothrombin and other factors essential for blood clotting. Hemorrhage, especially from esophageal varices can be life threatening. This takes priority over the other nursing diagnosis. 33. The nurse is caring for a client with left ventricular heart failure. Which one of the following assessments is an early indication of inadequate oxygen transport? A) Crackles in the lungs * B) Confusion and restlessness C) Distended neck veins D) Use of accessory muscles Review Information: The correct answer is B: Confusion and restlessness Neurological changes are early signs of inadequate oxygenation. 34. On initial examination of a 15 month-old child with suspected otitis media, which group of findings would the RN anticipate finding? Periorbital edema, absent light reflex and translucent tympanic A) membrane * B) Irritability, rhinorrhea, and bulging tympanic membrane Diarrhea, retracted tympanic membrane and enlarged parotid C) gland D) Vomiting, pulling at ears and pearly white tympanic membrane Review Information: The correct answer is B: Irritability, rinorrhea, and bulging tympanic membrane Clinical manifestations of otitis media include irritability, rinorrhea, bulging tympanic membrane, and pulling at ears. 35. A child with Tetralogy of Fallot visits the clinic several weeks before planned surgery. The nurse should give priority attention to * A) Assessment of oxygenation B) Observation for developmental delays C) Prevention of infection D) Maintenance of adequate nutrition Review Information: The correct answer is A: Assessment of oxygenation All of the above would be important in a child diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot. However, persistent hypoxemia causes acidosis which further decreases

pulmonary blood flow. Additionally, low oxygenation leads to development of polycythemia and resultant neurologic complications. 36. When teaching new parents to prevent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) what is the most important practice the nurse should instruct them to do? * A) Place the infant in a supine or side lying position for sleep B) Do not allow anyone to smoke in the home C) Follow recommended immunization schedule D) Be sure to check infant every one hour Review Information: The correct answer is A: Place the infant in a supine or side lying position for sleep Current thinking is that infants become hypoxic when they sleep because of positional narrowing of the airway and respiratory inflammation. The most compelling data comes from studies that link sleep habits with an increased risk of SIDS. Sleeping in the prone position may cause oropharyngeal obstruction or affect the thermal balance or arousal state. Sleep apnea is not the cause of SIDS. Because of research findings and the "Back to Sleep" campaign, that number and the number of SIDS deaths has dropped dramatically. 37. A client is admitted with a distended bladder due to the inability to void. The nurse obtains an order to catheterize the client knowing that gradual emptying is preferred over complete emptying because it A) Reduces the potential for renal collapse * B) Reduces the potential for shock C) Reduces the intensity of bladder spasms D) Prevents bladder atrophy Review Information: The correct answer is B: Reduces the potential for shock Complete, rapid emptying can cause shock and hypotension due to sudden changes in the abdominal cavity. 38. The nurse is assessing a client with a deep vein thrombosis. Which of the following signs and/or symptoms would the nurse anticipate finding? A) Rapid respirations B) Diaphoresis * C) Swelling of lower extremity D) Positive Babinski's sign Review Information: The correct answer is C: Swelling of lower extremity The most common signs of deep vein thrombosis are pain in the region of the thrombus and unilateral swelling distal to the site. 39. A 6 year-old female is diagnosed with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). Which one of the following instructions would be best for the nurse to tell the caregiver? A) Increase bladder tone by delaying voiding B) When laundering clothing, rinse several times * C) Use plain water for the bath, shampooing hair last D) Have the child use antibacterial soaps while bathing Review Information: The correct answer is C: Use plain water for the bath, shampooing hair last Hair should be shampooed last with a rinsing of plain water over the genital area. The oils in soaps and bubble bath can cause irritation, which may lead to UTI''s in young girls. 40. A woman comes to the antepartum clinic for a routine prenatal examination. She is 12 weeks pregnant with her second child. Which of the following shows proper documentation of the client's obstetric history by the nurse? A) Para 2, Gravida 1 B) Nulligravida 2, Para 1 C) Primagravida 1, Para 1 * D) Gravida 2, Para 1 Review Information: The correct answer is D: Gravida 2, Para 1 Gravida describes a woman who is or has been pregnant, regardless of pregnancy outcome. Para describes the number of babies born past a point of viability. Therefore a woman pregnant with her second child would be described as Gravida 2, Para 1. Primipara refers to a woman who has completed one pregnancy to the period of viability. Multipara refers to a woman who has completed 2 or more pregnancies to the stage of viability. Results for Q&A-Random #6 1. On admission to the hospital a client with an acute asthma episode has intermittent nonproductive coughing and a pulse oximeter reading of 88%. The client states, “I feel like this is going to be a bad time this admission. I wish I would not have gone into that bar with all those people who smoke last night.” Which nursing diagnoses would be most important for this client? A) Anxiety related to hospitalization B) Ineffective airway clearance related to potential thick secretions C) Altered health maintenance related to preventative behaviors

associated with asthma Impaired gas exchange related to bronchoconstriction and * D) mucosal edema Review Information: The correct answer is D: Impaired gas exchange related to bronchoconstriction and mucosal edema Pulse oximetry reflects oxygenation of arterial blood. While the other diagnoses may be appropriate for this client they are not the most appropriate or priority. 2. A client returned from surgery for a perforated appendix with localized peritonitis. In view of this diagnosis, how would the nurse position the client? A) Prone B) Dorsal recumbent * C) Semi-Fowler D) Supine Review Information: The correct answer is C: Semi-Fowler The semi-Fowler position assists drainage and prevents spread of infection throughout the abdominal cavity. 3. While caring for a client with infective endocarditis, the nurse must be alert for signs of pulmonary embolism. Which of the following assessment findings suggests this complication? A) Positive Homan's sign B) Fever and chills * C) Dyspnea and cough D) Sensory impairment Review Information: The correct answer is C: Dyspnea and cough Vegetation from the infected heart valves often leads to pulmonary embolism in the client with infective endocarditis. Cough, pleuritic chest pain and dyspnea are early symptoms. 4. While assessing an Rh positive newborn whose mother is Rh negative, the nurse recognizes the risk for hyperbilirubinemia. Which of the following should be reported immediately? A) Jaundice evident at 26 hours B) Hematocrit of 55% * C) Serum bilirubin of 12mg D) Positive Coomb's test Review Information: The correct answer is C: Serum bilirubin of 12mg The elevated bilirubin is in the range that requires immediate intervention, such as phototherapy. At a serum bilirubin of 12 mg., the neonate is at risk for the development of kerniterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy. The health care provider determines the therapy appropriate after reviewing all laboratory findings. 5. The school nurse is called to the playground for an episode of mouth trauma. The nurse finds that the front tooth of a 9 year-old child has been avulsed ("knocked out"). After recovering the tooth, the initial response should be to * A) Rinse the tooth in water before placing it in the socket B) Place the tooth in a clean plastic bag for transport to the dentist C) Hold the tooth by the roots until reaching the emergency room D) Ask the child to replace the tooth even if the bleeding continues Review Information: The correct answer is A: Rinse the tooth in water before placing it in the socket Following avulsion of a permanent tooth, it is important to rinse the dirty tooth in water, saline solution or milk before re-implantation. If possible, replace the tooth in its socket within 30 minutes, avoiding contact with the root. The child should be taken to the dentist as soon as possible. 6. The nurse is caring for a 4 year-old child with a greenstick fracture. In explaining this type of fracture to the parents, the best response by the nurse should be that A child's bone is more flexible and can be bent 45 degrees before A) breaking Bones of children are more porous than adults and often have * B) incomplete breaks Compression of porous bones produces a buckle or torus type C) break D) Bone fragments often remain attached by a periosteal hinge Review Information: The correct answer is B: Bones of children are more porous than adults and often have incomplete breaks The pliable bones of growing children are more porous than those of the adult, which allows them to bend, buckle, and break in a "greenstick" manner. A greenstick fracture occurs when a bone is angulated beyond the limits of bending. The compressed side bends and the tension side fails, causing an incomplete fracture. 7. During the beginning shift assessment of a client with asthma and is receiving oxygen per nasal cannula at 2 liters per minute, the nurse would be most concerned about which unreported finding? A) Pulse oximetry reading of 89% B) Crackles at the base of the lungs on auscultation * C) Rapid shallow respirations with intermittent wheezes D) Excessive thirst with a dry cracked tongue Review Information: The correct answer is C: Rapid shallow respirations with intermittent wheezes Of the given findings this has the greatest risk for potential complications. Shallow and rapid respirations may indicate that the client is loosing muscle strength

required to breath. The intermittent wheezes could be an indication of more narrowed small airways and a worsening condition. 8. During the care of a client with Legionnaire's disease, which finding would require the nurse's immediate attention? A) Pleuritic pain on inspiration B) Dry mucus membranes in the mouth C) A decrease in respiratory rate from 34 to 24 * D) Decrease in chest wall expansion Review Information: The correct answer is D: Decrease in chest wall expansion The respiratory status of a client with this acute bacterial pneumonia known as Legionnaires'' disease is critical. Note that all of these findings would be of a concern. The task is to select the priority concern. Chest wall expansion reflects a possible decrease in the depth and effort of respirations. Further findings of restlessness may indicate hypoxemia. If these occurred the client may then need mechanical ventilation. Option A is expected with such infections of the lung. Option B indicates dehydration which may result in thick sputum which is most difficult to cough up. Option C is a desired effect of therapy. 9. A child and his family were exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis about 2 months ago, to confirm the presence or absence of an infection, it is most important for all family members to have a A) Chest x-ray B) Blood culture C) Sputum culture * D) PPD intradermal test Review Information: The correct answer is D: PPD intradermal test The administration of the PPD intradermal test determines the presence of the infection with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis organism. It is effective at 3 to 6 weeks after the initial infection. 10. The nurse is assigned to a client with Parkinson's disease. Which findings would the nurse anticipate? A) Nonintention tremors and urgency with voiding * B) Echolalia and a shuffling gait C) Muscle spasm and a bent over posture D) Intention tremor and jerky movement of the elbows Review Information: The correct answer is B: Echolalia and a shuffling gait Clients with Parkinson''s disease have a very distinctive gait with quick short steps (shuffling) which may increase in speed so that they are unable to stop. They also have echolalia which means the repeating of phrases or words that are directed to them during conversation. In the other options only part of the option is associated with Parkinson’s disease: nonintention tremors, bent over posture, and the cogwheel or jerky movement of the elbows. 11. Which of these statements by the nurse is incorrect to use to reinforce information about cancers to a group of young adults? You can reduce your risk of this serious type of stomach cancer * A) by eating lots of fruits and vegetables, limiting all meat, and avoiding nitrate-containing foods. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men B) with results to threaten sexuality and life. Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related C) deaths in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United D) States. Yet it's the most preventable of all cancers. Review Information: The correct answer is A. It is recommended that only red meat limited for the prevention of stomach cancer. All of the other statements are correct information. 12. A 67 year-old client is admitted with substernal chest pain with radiation to the jaw. His admitting diagnosis is Acute Myocardial Infraction (MI). The priority nursing diagnosis for this client during the immediate 24 hours is A) Constipation related to immobility B) High risk for infection * C) Impaired gas exchange D) Fluid volume deficit Review Information: The correct answer is C: Impaired gas exchange In the immediate post MI period impaired gas exchange related to oxygen supply and demand is a major problem. 13. With an alert of an internal disaster and the need for beds, the charge nurse is asked to list clients who are potential discharges within the next hour. Which client should the charge nurse select? An elderly client who has had type 2 diabetes for over 20 years, * A) admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis 24 hours ago B) An adolescent admitted the prior night with Tylenol intoxication A middle aged client with an internal automatic defibrilator and C) complaints of “passing out at unknown times” admitted yesterday

A school age child diagnosed with suspected bacterial mennigitis and was admitted at the change of shifts Review Information: The correct answer is A: An elderly client who has had type 2 diabetes for over 20 years, admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis 24 hours ago This client is the most stable and has a chronic condition. Tylenol intoxication requires at least 3 to 4 days of intensive observation for the risk of hepatic failure. The other clients are considered unstable. D) 14. The nurse is assessing a newborn the day after birth. A high pitched cry, irritability and lack of interest in feeding are noted. The mother signed her own discharge against medical advice. What intervention is appropriate nursing care? * A) Reduce the environmental stimuli B) Offer formula every 2 hours C) Talk to the newborn while feeding D) Rock the baby frequently Review Information: The correct answer is A: Reduce the environmental stimuli This newborn appears to be withdrawing from substances taken by the mother before its birth. Reducing noise and light will reduce the central nervous system responses to stimuli. 15. A hospitalized child suddenly has a seizure while his family is visiting. The nurse notes whole body rigidity followed by general jerking movements. The child vomits immediately after the seizure. A priority nursing diagnosis for the child is A) High risk for infection related to vomiting B) Altered family processes related to chronic illness C) Fluid volume deficit related to vomiting * D) Risk for aspiration related to loss of consciousness Review Information: The correct answer is D: Risk for aspiration related to loss of consciousness The tonic-clonic seizure appears suddenly and often leads to brief loss of consciousness. The greatest risk for the child is from airway blockage, as might follow aspiration. 16. A 4 month-old child taking digoxin (Lanoxin) has a blood pressure of 92/78; resting pulse of 78; respirations 28 and a potassium level of 4.8 mEq/L. The client is irritable and has vomited twice since the morning dose of digoxin. Which finding is most indicative of digoxin toxicity? * A) Bradycardia B) Lethargy C) Irritability D) Vomiting Review Information: The correct answer is A: Bradycardia The most common sign of digoxin toxicity in children is bradycardia (heart rate below 100 in an infant). 17. A Hispanic client confides in the nurse that she is concerned that staff may give her newborn the "evil eye." The nurse should communicate to other personnel that the appropriate approach is to * A) Touch the baby after looking at him B) Talk very slowly while speaking to him C) Avoid touching the child D) Look only at the parents Review Information: The correct answer is A: Touch the baby after looking at him In many cultures, an "evil eye" is cast when looking at a person without touching him. Thus, the spell is broken by touching while looking or assessing. 18. A client is admitted for COPD. Which findin would require the nurse's immediate attention? A) Nausea and vomiting * B) Restlessness and confusion C) Low-grade fever and cough D) Irritating cough and liquefied sputum Review Information: The correct answer is B: Restlessness and confusion Respiratory failure may be signaled by excessive somnolence, restless, aggressiveness, confusion, central cyanosis and shortness of breath. When these symptoms occur, ABGs should be obtained. 19. A young adult male has been diagnosed with testicular cancer. Which of these statements by this client would need to be explored by the nurse to clarify information? This surgical procedure involves removing one or both testicles A) through a cut in the groin. My lymph nodes in my lower belly also may be removed. I have a good chance to regain my fertility later. However if I am B) concerned, I can have my sperm frozen and preserved (cryopreserved) before chemotherapy. If I have cancer at stage 3 it means I have less involvement of * C) the cancer. After the surgical removal of a testicle, I can have an artificial D) testicle (prosthesis) placed inside my scrotum. This artificial implant has the weight and feel of a normal testicle. Review Information: The correct answer is C: If I have cancer at stage 3 it means I have less involvement of the cancer. Stage 3 is the most extensive involvement of cancer with any type.

20. A newly appointed nurse manager is having difficulties with time management. Which advice from an experienced manager should the new manager do initially? Set daily goals and establish priorities for each hour and each A) day. B) Ask for additional assistance when you feel overwhelmed. * C) Keep a time log of your day in hourly blocks for at least 1 week. Complete each task before beginning another activity in selected D) instances. Review Information: The correct answer is C: Keep a time log of your day in hourly blocks for at least 1 week. Apply the nursing process to time management in that assessment of the current activities is the initial step. A baseline is established for activities and time use so that needed changes can be pinpointed. 21. The nurse and a student nurse are discussing the specific points about infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Which of these comments by the student indicates a need for clarification of information? "The infant will get the hepititis B vaccine (HepB) and the A) hepatitis B immune globulin within 12 hours at birth at separate injection sites." B) "The second dose can be given at 1 to 2 months of age." "The third dose should be given at least 16 weeks from the * C) second dose." "The last dose in the series is not to be given before age 24 D) weeks." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "The third dose should be given at least 16 weeks from the second dose." The third dose is to be given 16 weeks from the first dose and 8 weeks from the second dose. All of the other options are correct information. These infants will also need to have the blood tested for hepatitis titers and antibodies between 9 and 15 months. 22. A 74 year-old male is admitted due to inability to void. He has a history of an enlarged prostate and has not voided in 14 hours. When assessing for bladder distention, the best method for the nurse to use is to assess for A) Rebound tenderness B) Left lower quadrant dullness * C) Rounded swelling above the pubis D) Urinary discharge Review Information: The correct answer is C: Rounded swelling above the pubis Swelling above the pubis is representative of a distended bladder in the male client. 23. Which one of the following statements, if made by the client, indicates teaching about Inderal (propranolol) has been effective? A) "I may experience seizures if I stop the medication apruptly." B) " I may experience an increase in my heart rate for a few weeks." C) ” I can expect to feel nervousness the first few weeks." * D) “ I can have a heart attack if I stop this medication suddenly." Review Information: The correct answer is D: “ I can have a heart attack if I stop this medication suddenly." Discontinuing beta blockers suddenly can cause angina, hypertension, dysrhythmias, or an MI. 24. A 6 month-old infant who is being treated for developmental dysplasia of the hip has been placed in a hip spica cast. The nurse should teach the parents to A) Gently rub the skin with a cotton swab to relieve itching B) Place the favorite books and push-pull toys in the crib To check every few hours for the next day or 2 for swelling in the * C) baby's feet D) Turn the baby with the abduction stabilizer bar every 2 hours Review Information: The correct answer is C: To check frequently for swelling in the baby''s feet A child in a hip spica cast must be checked for circulatory impairment. Observe extremities for swelling, discoloration, movement and sensation. For children beyond the neonatal period, traction and/or surgery followed by hip spica casting is usually needed. 25. The nurse is teaching a client with cardiac disease about the anatomy and physiology of the heart. Which is the correct pathway of blood flow through the heart? A) Right ventricle, left ventricle, right atrium, left atrium B) Left ventricle, right ventricle, left atrium, right atrium * C) Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle D) Right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle Review Information: The correct answer is C: Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle The pathway of blood flow through the heart is right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle.

26. The nurse manager has a nurse employee who is suspected of a problem with chemical dependency. Which intervention would be the best approach by the nurse manager? A) Confront the nurse about the suspicions in a private meeting Schedule a staff conference, without the nurse present, to collect B) information Consult the human resources department about the issue and * C) needed actions D) Counsel the employee to resign to avoid investigation Review Information: The correct answer is C: Consult the human resources department about the issue and needed actions To avoid legal repercussions, the nurse needs to consult with the human resources department for proper procedure for documentation and counseling. The employee may be protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act. 27. The nurse would teach a client with Raynaud's phenomenon that it is most important to * A) Stop smoking B) Keep feet dry C) Reduce stress D) Avoid caffeine Review Information: The correct answer is A: Stop smoking The most important teaching for this client is to stop smoking. The question is asking what is the most important teaching. The others tend to be done less frequently than smoking and are less of a threat. 28. The nurse is caring for a client with status epilepticus. The most important nursing assessment of this client is A) Intravenous drip rate * B) Level of consciousness C) Pulse and respiration D) Injuries to the extremities Review Information: The correct answer is B: Level of consciousness Cerebral blood flow undergoes a 250% increase during seizure activity depleting oxygen at the neuronal level. Cerebral anoxia may result in progressive brain tissue injury and destruction. The nurse should monitor the client’s level of consciousness continuously. Even when seizures are controlled, the client may be unconscious for a while. 29. A client has been admitted for meningitis. In reviewing the laboratory analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the nurse would expect to note * A) High protein B) Clear color C) Elevated sed rate D) Increased glucose Review Information: The correct answer is A: High protein A positive CSF for meningitis would include presence of protein, a positive blood culture, decreased glucose, cloudy color with an increased opening pressure, and an elevated white blood cell count. 30. The hospital is planning to downsize and eliminate a number of staff positions as a cost-saving measure. To assist staff in this change process, the nurse manager is preparing for the "unfreezing" phase of change. With this approach and phase the nurse manager should A) Discuss with the staff how to deal with any defensive behavior * B) Explain to the unit staff why change is necessary C) Assist the staff during the acceptance of the new changes D) Clarify what the changes mean to the community and hospital Review Information: The correct answer is B: Explain to the unit staff why the change is necessary The first phase of change, unfreezing, begins with awareness of the need for change. This can be facilitated by the manager who clearly understands the need and stands behind it. The phase is completed when staff comprehend the need for change. 31. Which of these tests with frequency would the nurse expect to monitor for the evaluation of clients with poor glycemic control in persons aged 18 and older? A glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) should be performed during an * A) initial assessment and during follow-up assessments, which should occur at no longer than 3-month intervals B) A glycosylated hemoglobin is to be obtained at least twice a year A fasting glucose and a glycosylated hemoglobin is to be obtained C) at 3 months intervals after the initial assessment A glucose tolerance test, a fasting glucose and a glycosylated D) hemoglobin should be obtained at 6-month intervals after the initial assessment Review Information: The correct answer is A: A glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) should be performed during an initial assessment and during follow-up assessments, which should occur at no longer than three-month intervals American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends obtaining a glycosylated hemoglobin during an initial assessment and then routinely as part of continuing care. In the absence of well-controlled studies that suggest a definite testing protocol, expert opinion recommends glycosylated hemoglobin be obtained at least twice a year in patients who are meeting treatment goals and who have stable glycemic control and more frequently (quarterly assessment) in patients whose therapy was changed or who are not meeting glycemic goals. The goals for persons with diabetes define the target A1c level as less than or equal to 6.5% or

less than 7.0%. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology (AACE/ACE) recommends that a glycosylated hemoglobin be performed during an initial assessment and during follow-up assessments, which should occur at no longer than three-month intervals. Most would agree, however, that an A1c level greater than 9.0% is poor control for all patient types. 32. At a routine health assessment, a client tells the nurse that she is planning a pregnancy in the near future. She asks about preconception diet changes. Which of the statements made by the nurse is best? A) "Include fibers in your daily diet." * B) "Increase green leafy vegetable intake." C) "Drink a glass of milk with each meal." D) "Eat at least 1 serving of fish weekly." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Increase green leafy vegetable intake." Folic acid sources should be included in the diet and are critical in the pre-conceptual and early gestational periods to foster neural tube development and prevent birth defects such as spina bifida. 33. A client comes into the community health center upset and crying stating “I will die of cancer now that I have this disease.” And then the client hands the nurse a paper with one word written on it: "Pheochromocytoma." Which response should the nurse state initally? Pheochromocytomas usually aren't cancerous (malignant). But * A) they may be associated with cancerous tumors in other endocrine glands such as the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid). This problem is diagnosed by blood and urine tests that reveal B) elevated levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging C) (MRI) are used to detect an adrenal tumor. You probably have had episodes of sweating, heart pounding and D) headaches. Review Information: The correct answer is A: Pheochromocytomas usually aren''t cancerous (malignant). But they may be associated with cancerous tumors in other endocrine glands such as the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid). All of the options are correct information. The best response of the nurse is to address the issue presented by the client “fear of cancer.” Pheochromocytomas may release large amounts of adrenaline into the bloodstream after an injury or during surgery. For this reason, they can be life-threatening if unrecognized or untreated. 34. A client with chronic congestive heart failure should be instructed to contact the home health nurse if which finding occurs? * A) Weight gain of 2 pounds or more in a 48 hour period B) Urinating 4 to 5 times each day C) A significant decrease in appetite D) Appearance of non-pitting ankle edema Review Information: The correct answer is A: Weight gain of 2 pounds or more in a 48 hour period It is critical for clients to report and be treated for rapid weight gain, decreased urinary output, worsening nocturnal orthopnea, pitting ankle edema, and other symptoms of chronic heart failure to decrease their risk of hospitalization. 35. The nurse is caring for a client on mechanical ventilation. When performing endotrachial suctioning, the nurse will avoid hypoxia by A) Inserting a fenestrated catheter with a whistle tip without suction Completing suction pass in 30 seconds with pressure of 150 mm B) Hg Hyperoxygenating with 100% O2 for 1 to 2 minutes before and * C) after each suction pass Minimizing suction pass to 60 seconds while slowly rotating the D) lubricated catheter Review Information: The correct answer is C: Hyperoxygenating with 100% O2 for 1-2 minutes before and after each suction pass Administer supplemental 100% oxygen through the mechanical ventilator or manual resuscitation bag for 1 to 2 minutes before, after and between suctioning passes to prevent hypoxemia. 36. A female client diagnosed with genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV 2) complains of dysuria, dyspareunia, leukorrhea and lesions on the labia and perianal skin. A primary nursing action with the focus of comfort should be to * A) Suggest 3 to 4 warm sitz baths per day B) Cleanse the genitalia twice a day with soap and water C) Spray warm water over genitalia after urination D) Apply heat or cold to lesions as desired Review Information: The correct answer is A: Encourage 3 to 4 warm sitz baths per day Frequent sitz baths may sooth the area and reduce inflammation. The other actions are correct actions. However, they would not address the entire group of problems.

37. Which finding would be the most characteristic of an acute episode of reactive airway disease? A) Auditory gurgling B) Inspiratory laryngeal stridor * C) Auditory expiratory wheezing D) Frequent dry coughing Review Information: The correct answer is C: Wheezing on expiration In an acute episode of reactive airway disease, breathing is likely to be characterized by wheezing on expiration. This sound is made as air is forced through the narrowed passages and often is heard by the naked ear without a stethoscope. 38. Which tasks, if delegated by the new charge nurse to a unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), would require intervention by the nurse manager? A) To help an elderly client to the bathroom. B) To empty a foley catheter bag. * C) To bathe a woman with internal radon seeds. D) To feed a 2 year-old with a broken arm. Review Information: The correct answer is C: To bathe a woman with internal radon seeds. A client with internal radiation is complex care and not suitable to be assigned to a UAP. Additionally, the client would not receive a complete bath because of the radiation risks. 39. An 82 year-old client is prescribed eye drops for treatment of glaucoma. What assessment is needed before the nurse begins teaching proper administration of the medication? A) Determine third party payment plan for this treatment * B) The client’s manual dexterity C) Proximity to health care services D) Ability to use visual assistive devices Review Information: The correct answer is B: The client’s manual dexterity Inability to self administer eye drops is a common problem among the elderly due to decreased finger dexterity. 40. The nurse uses the DRG (Diagnosis Related Group) manual to A) Classify nursing diagnoses from the client's health history B) Identify findings related to a medical diagnosis * C) Determine reimbursement for a medical diagnosis D) Implement nursing care based on case management protocol Review Information: The correct answer is C: Determine reimbursement for a medical diagnosis DRG''s are the basis of prospective payment plan for reimbursement for Medicare clients. Results for Q&A-Random #5 1. The community health nurse has been following the care for an adolescent with a history of morbid obesity, asthma, hypertension and is 22 weeks in to a pregnancy. Which of these lab reports sent to the clinic need to be called to the teens health care provider within the next hour? A) Hemoblobin 11 g/L and calcium 6 mg/dl * B) Magnesium 0.8 mEq/L and creatinine 3 mg/dl C) Blood urea nitrogen 28 and glucose 225 mg/dl D) Hematocrit 33% and platelets 200,000 Review Information: The correct answer is B: Magnesium 0.8 mEq/L and creatinine 3 mg/dl The client’s lab values are all abnormal except for the platelets. The magnesium is low and the creatinine is high which indicates renal failure. With the history of hypertension the findings exhibit the risk of preeclampsia. The client needs to be referred for immediate follow up with a health care provider. 2. The nurse has identified what appears to be ventricular tachycardia on the cardiac monitor of a client being evaluated for possible myocardial infarction. The first action the nurse would perform is to A) Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation B) Prepare for immediate defibrillation C) Notify the "Code" team and health care provider * D) Assess airway breathing and circulation Review Information: The correct answer is D: Assess airway breathing and circulation The nurse must first assess the client to determine the appropriate next step. In this case the first step the nurse must take is to evaluate the A, B, C''s. 3. To prevent keratitis in an unconscious client, the nurse should apply moisturizing ointment to the A) Finger and toenail quicks * B) Eyes C) Perianal area D) External ear canals Review Information: The correct answer is B: Eyes Keratitis is a corneal ulcer or abrasion. Keratitis is caused by exposure and requires application of moisturizing ointment to the exposed cornea and a plastic bubble shield or eye patch. 4. The nurse is caring for a child with cystic fibrosis. The nurse would anticipate that the child would be deficient in which vitamins?

A) B, D, and K * B) A, D, and K C) A, C, and D D) A, B, and C Review Information: The correct answer is B: A, D, and K The uptake of fat soluble vitamins is decreased in children with Cystic Fibrosis. Vitamins A, D, and K are fat soluble and are likely to be deficient in clients with Cystic Fibrosis. 5. The nurse is teaching a 27 year-old client with asthma about management of their therapeutic regime. Which statement would indicate the need for additional instruction? A) "I should monitor my peak flow every day." "I should contact the clinic if I am using my medication more B) often." "I need to limit my exercise, especially activities such as walking * C) and running." D) "I should learn stress reduction and relaxation techniques." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I need to limit my exercise, especially activities such as walking and running." Limiting physical activity in an otherwise healthy, young client should not be necessary. If exercise intolerance exists, the asthma management plan should include specific medications to treat the problem such as using an inhaled beta-agonist 5 minutes before exercise. The goal is always to return to a normal lifestyle. 6. While caring for a child with Reye's Syndrome, the nurse should give which action the highest priority? A) Monitor intake and output B) Provid good skin care * C) Assess level of consciousness D) Assis with range of motion Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assess level of consciousness Altered level of consciousness suggests increasing intercranial pressure related to cerebral edema. 7. A newborn presents with a pronounced cephalhematoma following a birth in the posterior position. Which nursing diagnosis should guide the plan of care? A) Pain related to periosteal injury B) Impaired mobility related to bleeding * C) Parental anxiety related to knowledge deficit D) Injury related to intercranial hemorrhage Review Information: The correct answer is C: Parental anxiety related to knowledge deficit This hematoma is related to pressure at the time of labor and birth. The condition resolves over a period of weeks to months. Parental anxiety must be addressed by listening to their fears and explaining the nature of this alteration. Caput Succinidanium which is edema typically will go away within a few days. 8. A confused client has been placed in physical restraints by order of the health care provider. Which task could be assigned to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? * A) Assist the client with activities of daily living B) Monitor the clients physical safety C) Evaluate for basic comfort needs D) Document mental status and muscle strength Review Information: The correct answer is A: Assist with activities of daily living The person to whom the activity is delegated must be capable of performing it . The UAP is capable of assisting clients with basic needs. 9. A client is scheduled to have a blood test for cholesterol and triglycerides the next day. The nurse would tell the client A) "Be sure and eat a fat-free diet until the test." "Do not eat or drink anything but water for 12 hours before the * B) blood test." C) "Have the blood drawn within 2 hours of eating breakfast." "Stay at the laboratory so 2 blood samples can be drawn an hour D) apart." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Do not eat or drink anything but water for 12 hours before the blood test." Blood lipid levels should be measured on a fasting sample. 10. A client who is terminally ill has been receiving high doses of an opiod analgesic for the past month. As death approaches and the client becomes unresponsive to verbal stimuli,what orders would the nurse expect from the health care provider? A) Decrease the analgesic dosage by half B) Discontinue the analgesic * C) Continue the same analgesic dosage D) Prescribe a less potent drug

Review Information: The correct answer is C: Continue the same analgesic dosage Dying patients who have been in chronic pain will probably continue to experience pain even though unresponsive. Pain medication should be continued at the same dose, if effective 11. Which of these clients would the triage nurse request for the health care provider to examine immediately? * A) A 5 month-old infant who has audible wheezing and grunting B) An adolescent who has soot over the face and shirt C) A middle-aged man with second degree burns over the right hand D) A toddler with singed ends of long hair that extends to the waist Review Information: The correct answer is A: A 5 month-old infant who has audible wheezing and grunting The age and the findings puts this client at immediate risk for respiratory complications. 12. An infant has just returned from surgery for placement of a gastrostomy tube as an initial treatment for tracheoesophageal fistula. The mother asks:”When can the tube can be used for feeding?” The nurse's best response would be which of these comments? A) Feedings can begin in 5 to 7 days. B) The use of the feeding tube can begin immediately. * C) The stomach contents and air must be drained first. D) The incision healing must be complete before feeding. Review Information: The correct answer is C: Stomach contents and air must be drained first After surgery for gastrostomy tube placement, the catheter is left open and attached to gravity drainage for 24 hours or more. 13. A pre-term baby develops nasal flaring, cyanosis and diminished breath sounds on one side. The provider's diagnosis is spontaneous pneumothorax. Which procedure should the nurse prepare for first? A) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation * B) Insertion of a chest tube C) Oxygen therapy D) Assisted ventilation Review Information: The correct answer is B: Insertion of a chest tube Because a portion of the lung has collapsed, a chest tube will be inserted to restore negative pressure in the chest cavity. 14. The nurse is caring for a 75 year old client in congestive heart failure. Which finding suggests that digitalis levels should be reviewed? * A) Extreme fatigue B) Increased appetite C) Intense itching D) Constipation Review Information: The correct answer is A: Extreme fatigue Extreme fatigue and weakness are common, early signs of digitalis toxicity, which would be evident in lab data 15. The nurse is teaching a client with atrial fibrillation about the use of Coumadin (warfarin) at home. Which of these should be emphasized to the client to avoid? A) Large indoor gatherings B) Exposure to sunlight C) Active physical exercise * D) Foods rich in vitamin K Review Information: The correct answer is D: Foods rich in vitamin K Vitamin K acts as an antidote to the pharmacologic action of Coumadin therapy, decreasing Coumadin''s effectiveness. Foods high in vitamin K include dark greens, tomatoes, bananas, cheese, and fish. 16. A nurse caring for premature newborns in an intensive care setting carefully monitors oxygen concentration. What is the most common complication of this therapy? A) Intraventricular hemorrhage * B) Retinopathy of prematurity C) Bronchial pulmonary dysplasia D) Necrotizing enterocolitis Review Information: The correct answer is B: Retinopathy of prematurity While there are other causes for retinal damage in the premature infant, maintaining the oxygen concentration below 40% reduces one risk factor. 17. A nurse manager is using the technique of brainstorming to help solve a problem. One nurse criticizes another nurse’s contribution and begins to find objections to the suggestion. The nurse manager's best response is to A) Let’s move on to a new action that deals with the problem. I think you need to reserve judgment until after all suggestions B) are offered. Very well thought out. Your analytic skills and interest are C) incredible. Let’s move to the ‘what if…’ as related to these objections for an * D) exploration of spin off ideas. Review Information: The correct answer is D: Let’s move to the ‘what if…’ as related to these objections for an exploration of spin off ideas. The goal of brainstorming is to gather as many ideas as possible without judgment that slows

the creative process and may discourage innovative ideas. Exploration of the nurses objections would encourage the generation of new ideas. 18. The nurse is caring for an acutely ill 10 year-old client. Which of the following assessments would require the nurses immediate attention? A) Rapid bounding pulse B) Temperature of 38.5 degrees Celsius C) Profuse Diaphoresis * D) Slow, irregular respirations Review Information: The correct answer is D: Slow, irregular respirations A slow and irregular respiratory rate is a sign of fatigue in an acutely ill child. Fatigue can rapidly lead to respiratory arrest. 19. A child is diagnosed with poison ivy. The mother tells the nurse that she does not know how her child contracted the rash since he had not been playing in wooded areas. As the nurse asks questions about possible contact, which of the following would the nurse recognize as highest risk for exposure? A) Playing with toys in a back yard flower garden B) Eating small amounts of grass while playing "farm" * C) Playing with cars on the pavement near burning leaves D) Throwing a ball to a neighborhood child who has poison ivy Review Information: The correct answer is C: Playing with cars on the pavement near burning leaves Smoke from burning leaves or stems of the poison ivy plant can produce a reaction. Direct contact with the toxic oil, urushiol, is the most common cause for this dermatitis. 20. The nurse is teaching a group of adults about modifiable cardiac risk factors. Which of the following should the nurse focus on first? A) Weight reduction B) Stress management C) Physical exercise * D) Smoking cessation Review Information: The correct answer is D: Smoking cessation Stopping smoking is the priority for clients at risk for cardiac disease, because of the effect to reduce oxygenation and constrict blood vessels. 21. The nurse is caring for a 5 year-old child who has the left leg in skeletal traction. Which of the following activities would be an appropriate diversional activity? A) Kicking balloons with right leg B) Playing "Simon Says" * C) Playing hand held games D) Throw bean bags Review Information: The correct answer is C: Playing hand held games Immobilization with traction must be maintained until bone ends are in satisfactory alignment. Activities that increase mobility interfere with the goals of treatment. 22. The nurse is assessing a client with portal hypertension. Which of the following findings would the nurse expect? A) Expiratory wheezes B) Blurred vision C) Acites D) Dilated pupils Review Information: The correct answer is C: Acites Portal hypertension can occur in a client with right-sided heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver. Portal hypertension can lead to acites due to the increased protal pressure as well as a lowered osmotic pressure. 23. A parent tells the nurse that their 6 year-old child who normally enjoys school, has not been doing well since the grandmother died 2 months ago. Which statement most accurately describes thoughts on death and dying at this age? * A) Death is personified as the bogeyman or devil B) Death is perceived as being irreversible C) The child feels guilty for the grandmother's death D) The child is worried that he, too, might die Review Information: The correct answer is A: Death is personified as the bogeyman or devil Personification of death is typical of this developmental level. 24. A 67 year-old client with non-insulin dependent diabetes should be instructed to contact the out-patient clinic immediately if the following findings are present A) Temperature of 37.5 degrees Celsius with painful urination * B) An open wound on their heel C) Insomnia and daytime fatigue D) Nausea with 2 episodes of vomiting

Review Information: The correct answer is B: An open wound on their heel When signs of infection occur in their feet, elderly clients who have diabetes and/or vascular disease should seek health care quickly and continue treatment until the infection is resolved. Without treatment, serious infection, gangrene, limb loss, and death may result. 25. The nurse admits an elderly Mexican-American migrant worker after an accident that occurred during work. To facilitate communication the nurse should initially A) Request a Spanish interpreter B) Speak through the family or co-workers C) Use pictures, letter boards, or monitoring * D) Assess the client's ability to speak English Review Information: The correct answer is D: Assess the client''s ability to speak English Despite the cultural heritage, the nurse cannot make assumptions. Stereotyping is to be avoided. The nurse should assess the client''s comfort and ability in speaking English. 26. In assessing a post partum client, the nurse palpates a firm fundus and observes a constant trickle of bright red blood from the vagina. What is the most likely cause of these findings? A) Uterine atony * B) Genital lacerations C) Retained placenta D) Clotting disorder Review Information: The correct answer is B: Genital lacerations Continuous bleeding in the absence of a boggy fundus indicates undetected genital tract lacerations. 27. The nurse notes an abrupt onset of confusion in an elderly patient. Which of the following recently-ordered medications would most likely contribute to this change? A) Anticoagulant B) Liquid antacid * C) Antihistamine D) Cardiac glycoside Review Information: The correct answer is C: Antihistamine Elderly people are susceptible to the side effect of anticholinergic drugs, such as antihistamines. Especially at high doses, antihistamines often cause confusion in the elderly. 28. The nurse is caring for a client with active tuberculosis who has a history of noncompliance. Which of the following actions by the nurse would represent appropriate care for this client? Instruct the client to wear a high efficiency particulate air mask in A) public places. * B) Ask a family member to supervise daily compliance C) Schedule weekly clinic visits for the client Ask the health care provider to change the regimen to fewer D) medications Review Information: The correct answer is B: Ask a family member to supervise daily compliance Direct-observed therapy (DOT) is a recognized method for ensuring client compliance to the drug regimen. The program can be set up to directly observe the client taking the medication in the clinic, home, workplace or other convenient location. 29. The nurse manager identifies that time spent by staff in charting is excessive, requiring overtime for completion. The nurse manager states that "staff will form a task force to investigate and develop potential solutions to the problem, and report on this at the next staff meeting." The nurse manager's leadership style is best described as A) Laissez-faire B) Autocratic * C) Participative D) Group Review Information: The correct answer is C: Participative Participative style of management involves staff in decision-making processes. Staff/manager interactions are open and trusting. Most work efforts are joint. 30. A nursing student asks the nurse manager to explain the forces that drive health care reform. The appropriate response by the nurse manager should include The escalation of fees with a decreased reimbursement * A) percentage B) High costs of diagnostic and end-of-life treatment procedures C) Increased numbers of elderly and of the chronically ill of all ages A steep rise in health care provider fees and in insurance D) premiums Review Information: The correct answer is A: The escalation of fees with a decreased reimbursement percentage The percentage of the gross national product representing health care costs rose dramatically with reimbursement based on fee for service. Reimbursement for Medicare and Medicaid recipients based on fee for service also escalates health care costs.

31. A client with hepatitis A (HAV) is newly admitted to the unit. Which action would be the priority to include in the plan of care within the initial 24 hours for this client? A) Wear masks with shields if potential splash B) Use disposable utensils and plates for meals * C) Wear gown and gloves during client contact D) Provide soft easily digested food with frequent snacks Review Information: The correct answer is C: Wear gown and gloves during client contact HAV is usually transmitted via the fecal-oral route. That means that someone with the virus handles food without washing his or her hands after using the bathroom. The virus can also be contracted by drinking contaminated water, eating raw shellfish from water polluted with sewage or being in close contact with a person who''s infected — even if that person has no signs and symptoms. In fact, the disease is most contagious before signs and symptoms ever appear. The nurse should recognize the importance of isolation precautions from the initial contact with the client on admission until the noncontagious convalescence period. 32. A client has been taking alprazolam (Xanax) for 3 days. Nursing assessment should reveal which expected effect of the drug? * A) Tranquilization, numbing of emotions B) Sedation, analgesia C) Relief of insomnia and phobias D) Diminished tachycardia and tremors associated with anxiety Review Information: The correct answer is A: Tranquilization, numbing of emotions The anti-anxiety drugs produce tranquilizing effects and may numb the emotions. 33. The nurse observes a staff member caring for a client with a left unilateral mastectomy. The nurse would intervene if she notices the staff member is A) Advising client to restrict sodium intake * B) Taking the blood pressure in the left arm C) Elevating her left arm above heart level D) Compressing the drainage device Review Information: The correct answer is B: Taking the blood pressure in the left arm For those clients who have had a unilateral mastectomy, blood pressure should not be measured on the affected side to avoid the possibility of lymphedema. 34. A 70 year-old post-operative client has elevated serum BUN, Hct, Cl, and Na+. Creatinine and K+ are within normal limits. The nurse should perform additional assessments to confirm that an actual problem is: A) Impaired gas exchange B) Metabolic acidosis C) Renal insufficiency * D) Fluid volume deficit Review Information: The correct answer is D: Fluid volume deficit In fluid volume deficit, serum BUN, Na+ and hematocrit may be elevated secondary to hemoconcentration. 35. The nurse is providing foot care instructions to a client with arterial insufficiency. The nurse would identify the need for additional teaching if the client stated A) "I can only wear cotton socks." B) "I cannot go barefoot around my house." * C) "I will trim corns and calluses regularly." D) "I should ask a family member to inspect my feet daily." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I will trim corns and calluses regularly." Clients who are elderly, have diabetes, and/or have vascular disease often have decreased circulation and sensation in one or both feet. Their vision may also be impaired. Therefore, they need to be taught to examine their feet daily or have someone else do so. They should wear cotton socks which have not been mended, and always wear shoes when out of bed. They should not cut their nails, corns, and calluses, but should have them trimmed by their health care provider, nurse, or other provider who specializes in foot care. 36. A woman who delivered 5 days ago and had been diagnosed with preeclampsia calls the hospital triage nurse hotline to ask for advice. She states “ I have had the worst headache for the past 2 days. It pounds and by the middle of the afternoon everything I look at looks wavy. Nothing I have taken helps.” What should the nurse do next? Advise the client that the swings in her hormones may have that A) effect. However, suggest for her to call her health care provider within the next day. Advise the client to have someone bring her to the emergency B) room as soon as possible Ask the client to stay on the line, get the address and send an * C) ambulance to the home D) Ask what the client has taken? How often? Ask about other

specific complaints. Review Information: The correct answer is C: Ask the client to stay on the line, get the address and send an ambulance to the home The correct response is C. The woman is at risk for seizure activity. The ambulance needs to bring the woman to the hospital. For at risk clients, preeclampsia and eclampsia may occur prior to, during or after delivery. After delivery the window of time can be up to ten days. 37. The primary teaching for a client following an extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) procedure is * A) Drink 3000 to 4000 cc of fluid each day for one month B) Limit fluid intake to 1000 cc each day for one month C) Increase intake of citrus fruits to three servings per day D) Restrict milk and dairy products for one month Review Information: The correct answer is A: Drink 3000 to 4000 cc of fluid each day for 1 month Drinking three to four quarts (3000 to 4000 cc) of fluid each day will aid passage of fragments and help prevent formation of new calculi. 38. A client on warfarin therapy following coronary artery stent placement calls the clinic to ask if he can take Alka-Seltzer for an upset stomach. What is the best reponse by the nurse? * A) Avoid Alka-Seltzer because it contains aspirin B) Take Alka-Seltzer at a different time of day than the warfarin C) Select another antacid that does not inactivate warfarin D) Use on-half the recommended dose of Alka-Seltzer Review Information: The correct answer is A: Avoid Alka-Seltzer because it contains aspirin Alka-Seltzer is an over-the-counter aspirin-antacid combination. Aspirin, an antiplatelet drug, will potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and may result in excess bleeding 39. The nurse is working with parents to plan home care for a 2 year-old with a heart problem. A priority nursing intervention would be to Encourage the parents to enroll in cardiopulmonary resuscitation * A) class B) Assist the parents to plan quiet play activities at home C) Stress to the parents that they will need relief care givers D) Instruct the parents to avoid contact with persons with infection Review Information: The correct answer is A: Encourage the parents to enroll in cardiopulmonary resuscitation class While all suggestions are appropriate, the education of the parents/caregivers should include techniques of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in order to provide for emergency care of their child. 40. The nurse is caring for a client with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Which nursing diagnosis should receive priority in the plan of care? A) Risk for injury B) Self care deficit * C) Alteration in comfort D) Alteration in mobility Review Information: The correct answer is C: Alteration in comfort Relieving pain is the number one objective of this client''s plan of care. Results for Q&A-Random #4 1. An unlicensed assistive staff member asks the nurse manager to explain the beliefs of a Christian Scientist who refuses admission to the hospital after a motor vehicle accident. The best response of the nurse would be which of these statements? "Spiritual healing is emphasized and the mind contributes to the * A) cure." "The primary belief is that dietary practices result in health or B) illness." C) "Fasting and prayer are initial actions to take in physical injury." "Meditation is intensive in the initial 48 hours and daily D) thereafter." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "Spiritual healing is emphasized and the mind contributes to the cure." For the Christian Scientist, a mind cure uses spiritual healing methods. For the believer, medical treatments may interfere with drawing closer to God. 2. In order to be effective in administering cardiopulmonary resuscitation to a 5 year-old, the nurse must A) Assess the brachial pulses * B) Breathe once every 5 compressions C) Use both hands to apply chest pressure D) Compress 80-90 times per minute Review Information: The correct answer is B: Breathe once every 5 compressions For a 5 year-old, the nurse should give 1 breath for every 5 compressions. 3. The nurse is providing home care for a client with heart failure and pulmonary edema. Which nursing diagnosis should have priority in planning care? A) Impaired skin integrity related to dependent edema

* B)

Activity intolerance related to oxygen supply and demand imbalance C) Constipation related to immobility D) Risk for infection related to ineffective mobilization of secretions Review Information: The correct answer is B: Activity Intolerance related to oxygen supply and demand imbalance This is the primary problem due to decreased cardiac output related to heart failure. There is a reduction of oxygen and complaints of dyspnea and fatigue.

B) Hib C) IPV D) DtaP Review Information: The correct answer is A: MMR Medical management of Kawasaki involves administration of immunoglobulins. Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) is a live virus vaccine. Following administration of immunoglobulins, live vaccines should be held due to possible interference with the body''s ability to form antibodies. 10. The nurse is assessing a pregnant client in her third trimester. The parents are informed that the ultrasound suggests that the baby is small for gestational age (SGA). An earlier ultrasound indicated normal growth. The nurse understands that this change is most likely due to what factor? A) Sexually transmitted infection B) Exposure to teratogens * C) Maternal hypertension D) Chromosomal abnormalities Review Information: The correct answer is C: Maternal hypertension Pregnancy induced hypertension is a common cause of late pregnancy fetal growth retardation. Vasoconstriction reduces placental exchange of oxygen and nutrients. 11. After the shift report in a labor and delivery unit which of these clients would the nurse check first? A middle aged woman with asthma and diabetes mellitus Type 1 A) has a BP of 150/94 A middle aged woman with a history of two prior vaginal term B) births is 2 cm dilated A young woman wo is a grand multipara has cervical dilation of 4 C) cm and 50% effaced An adolescent who is 18 weeks pregnant has a report of no fetal * D) heart tones and coughing up frothy sputum Review Information: The correct answer is D: An adolescent who is 18 weeks pregnant has a report of no fetal heart tones and coughing up frothy sputum This client has an actual complication. The others present with findings of potential complications. 12. The nurse is caring for an 87 year-old client with urinary retention. Which finding should be reported immediately? * A) Fecal impaction B) Infrequent voiding C) Stress incontinence D) Burning with urination Review Information: The correct answer is A: Fecal impaction The nurse should report fecal impaction or constipation which can cause obstruction of the bladder outlet. Bladder outlet obstruction is a common cause of urine retention in the elderly. 13. The nasogastric tube of a post-op gastrectomy client has stopped draining greenish liquid. The nurse should A) Irrigate it as ordered with distilled water * B) Irrigate it as ordered with normal saline C) Place the end of the tube in water to see if the water bubbles D) Withdraw the tube several inches and reposition it Review Information: The correct answer is B: Irrigate it as ordered with normal saline Nasogastric tubes are only irrigated with normal saline to maintain patency. 14. The parents of a child who has recently been diagnosed with asthma ask the nurse to explain the condition to them. The best response is "Asthma causes… * A) the airway to become narrow and obstructs airflow." B) air to be trapped in the lungs because the airways are dilated." C) the nerves that control respiration to become hyperactive." a decrease in the stress hormones which prevents the airways D) from opening." Review Information: The correct answer is A: the airway to become narrow and obstructs airflow." Asthma is defined as airway obstruction or a narrowing that is characterized by bronchial irritability after exposure to various stimuli. 15. The nurse is assessing a child with suspected lead poisoning. Which of the following assessments is the nurse most likely to find? * A) Complaints of numbness and tingling in feet B) Wheezing noted when lung sound auscultated C) Excessive perspiration D) Difficulty sleeping Review Information: The correct answer is A: Complaints of numbness and tingling in feet A child who has unusual neurologic signs or symptoms, neuropathy, footdrop, or anemia that cannot be attributed to other causes may be suffering from lead poisoning. This most often occurs when a child ingests or inhales paint chips from lead-based paint or dust from remodeling in older buildings. 16. The nurse is caring for a client with end-stage heart failure. The family members are distressed about the client's impending death. What action should the nurse do first?

4. For which of the following mother-baby pairs should the nurse review the Coomb's test in preparation for administering RhO (D) immune globulin within 72 hours of birth? * A) Rh negative mother with Rh positive baby B) Rh negative mother with Rh negative baby C) Rh positive mother with Rh positive baby D) Rh positive mother with Rh negative baby Review Information: The correct answer is A: Rh negative mother with Rh positive baby An Rh- mother who delivers an Rh+ baby may develop antibodies to the fetal red cells to which she may be exposed during pregnancy or at placental separation. If the Coombs test is negative, no sensitization has occurred. The RhO(D) immune globulin is given to block antibody formation in the mother. 5. An 80 year-old nursing home resident has a temperature of 101.6 degrees Fahrenheit rectally. This is a sudden change in an otherwise healthy client. Which should the nurse assess first? A) Lung sounds B) Urine output * C) Level of alertness D) Appetite Review Information: The correct answer is C: Level of alertness Assessing level of consciousness (alert vs. lethargic vs. unresponsive) will help the health care provider determine the severity of the acute episode. If the client is alert, responses to questions about complaints can be followed-up quickly. 6. Which of these women in the labor and delivery unit would the nurse check first when the water breaks for all of them within a 2 minute period? A multigravida with station at +2, contractions at 15 minutes A) apart with duration of 30 seconds, cervix dilated at 7 cm, and 50% effacement A multigravida with station at -1, contractions at 15 minutes apart * B) with duration of 30 seconds, cervix dilated at 3 cm, and 10% effacement A primapara with station at 0, contractions at 20 minutes apart C) with duration of 20 seconds, cervix dilated at 2 cm and 10% effacement A primapara with station at 1, contractions at 15 minutes apart D) with duration of 35 seconds, cervix dilated at 5 cm and 50% effacement Review Information: The correct answer is B: A multigravida with station at -1, contractions at 15 minutes apart with duration of 30 seconds, cervix dilated at 3 cm, and 10% effacement When the station of -1 or -2 is present and the water breaks, the risk is greater for a prolapsed cord. 7. What is the major purpose of community health research? * A) Describe the health conditions of populations B) Evaluate illness in the community C) Explain the health conditions of families D) Identify the health conditions of the environment Review Information: The correct answer is A: Describe the health conditions of populations Community health focuses upon aggregate population care. 8. The recent increase in the reported cases of active tuberculosis (TB) in the United States is attributed to which factor? A) The increased homeless population in major cities * B) The rise in reported cases of positive HIV infections C) The migration patterns of people from foreign countries D) The aging of the population located in group homes Review Information: The correct answer is B: The rise in reported cases of positive HIV infections Between 1985 and 2002 there has been a significant increase in the reported cases of TB. The increase was most evident in cities with a high incidence of positive HIV infection. Positive HIV infection currently is the greatest known risk factor for reactivating latent TB infections as well. 9. A 15 month-old child comes to the clinic for a follow-up visit after hospitalization for treatment of Kawasaki Disease. The nurse recognizes that which of the following scheduled immunizations will be delayed? * A) MMR

A) Explain the stages of death and dying to the family B) Recommend an easy-to-read book on grief * C) Assess the family's patterns for dealing with death D) Ask about their religious affiliations Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assess the family''s patterns for dealing with death When a new problem is identified, it is important for the nurse to collect accurate assessment data. This is crucial to ensure that the client and their family''s needs are adequately identified in order to select the best nursing care approaches. 17. The nurse is caring for a client with Meniere's disease. When teaching the client about the disease, the nurse should explain that the client should avoid foods high in A) Calcium B) Fiber * C) Sodium D) Carbohydrate Review Information: The correct answer is C: Sodium The client with Meniere''s disease has an excess accumulation of fluid in the inner ear. A low sodium diet will aid in reducing the fluid. Sodium restriction is also ordered as adjunct to diuretic therapy. 18. The nurse is teaching a mother who will breast feed for the first time. Which of the following is a priority? A) Show her films on the physiology of lactation B) Give the client several illustrated pamphlets * C) Assist her to position the newborn at the breast D) Give her privacy for the initial feeding Review Information: The correct answer is C: Assist her to position the newborn at the breast While all of the responses are helpful in teaching, the priority is placing the infant to breast as soon after birth as possible to establish contact and allow the newborn to begin to suck. 19. The nurse is taking a health history from parents of a child admitted with possible Reye's Syndrome. Which recent illness would the nurse recognize as increasing the risk to develop Reye's Syndrome? A) Rubeola B) Meningitis * C) Varicella D) Hepatitis Review Information: The correct answer is C: Varicella Varicella (chicken pox) and influenza are viral illnesses that have been identified as increasing the risk for Reye''s Syndrome. Use of aspirin is contraindicated for children with these infections. 20. While giving care to a 2 year-old client, the nurse should remember that the toddler's tendency to say "no" to almost everything is an indication of what pyschosocial skill? A) Stubborn behavior B) Rejection of parents C) Frustration with adults * D) Assertion of control Review Information: The correct answer is D: Assertion of control Negativism is a normal behavior in toddlers. The nurse must be aware that this behavior is an important sign of the child''s progress from dependency to autonomy and independence. 21. A postpartum client admits to alcohol use throughout the pregnancy. Which of the following newborn assessments suggests to the nurse that the infant has fetal alcohol syndrome? A) Growth retardation is evident B) Multiple anomalies are identified * C) Cranial facial abnormalities are noted D) Prune belly syndrome is suspected Review Information: The correct answer is C: Cranial facial abnormalities are noted Characteristic facial abnormalities are seen in the newborn with fetal alcohol syndrome. 22. The nurse is attending a workshop about caring for persons infected with Hepatitis. Which statement is correct when referring to the incidence rate for Hepatitis? The number of persons in a population who develop Hepatitis B * A) during a specific period of time The total number of persons in a population who have Hepatitis B B) at a particular time The percentage of deaths resulting from Hepatitis B during a C) specific time The occurrence of Hepatitis B in the population at a particular D) time Review Information: The correct answer is A: The number of persons in a population who develop Hepatitis B during a specific period of time

This is the correct definition of incidence of the disease. 23. A 36 year-old female client has a hemoglobin level of 14 g/dl and a hematocrit of 42% following a D&C. Which of the following would the nurse expect to find when assessing this client? * A) Capillary refill less than 3 seconds B) Pale mucous membranes C) Respirations 36 breaths per minute D) Complaints of fatigue when ambulating Review Information: The correct answer is A: Capillary refill less than 3 seconds Since the hemoglobin and hematocrit are normal for an adult female, addition assessments should be normal. Capillary refill is "normal" assessment data. 24. The nurse is caring for a client suspected to have Tuberculosis (TB). Which of the following diagnostic tests is essential for determining the presence of active TB? The nurse is caring for a client suspected to have Tuberculosis (TB). Which of the following diagnostic tests is essential for determining the presence of active TB? A) Tuberculin skin testing * B) Sputum culture C) White blood cell count D) Chest x-ray Review Information: The correct answer is B: Sputum culture The sputum culture is the most accurate method for determining the presence of active TB. 25. The nurse has been teaching an apprehensive primipara who has difficulty in initial nursing of the newborn. What observation at the time of discharge suggests that initial breast feeding is effective? * A) The mother feels calmer and talks to the baby while nursing The mother awakens the newborn to feed whenever it falls B) asleep C) The newborn falls asleep after 3 minutes at the breast D) The newborn refuses the supplemental bottle of glucose water Review Information: The correct answer is A: The mother feels calmer and talks to the baby while nursing Early evaluation of successful breastfeeding can be measured by the client''s voiced confidence and satisfaction with the infant. 26. The mother of a burned child asks the nurse to clarify what is meant by a third degree burn. The best response by the nurse is A) "The top layer of the skin is destroyed." B) "The skin layers are swollen and reddened." * C) "All layers of the skin were destroyed in the burn." D) "Muscle, tissue and bone have been injured." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "All layers of the skin were destroyed in the burn." A third degree burn is a full thickness injury to dermis, epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. 27. The nurse is taking a health history from a Native American client. It is critical that the nurse must remember that eye contact with such clients is considered A) Expected * B) Rude C) Professional D) Enjoyable Review Information: The correct answer is B: Rude Native Americans consider direct eye contact to be impolite or aggressive among strangers. 28. A nurse is instructing a class for new parents at a local community center. The nurse would stress that which activity is most hazardous for an 8 month-old child? A) Riding in a car B) Falling off a bed C) Electrical outlets * D) Eating peanuts Review Information: The correct answer is D: Eating peanuts Asphyxiation by foreign materials in the respiratory tract is the leading cause of death in children less than 6 years of age. 29. When teaching parents about sickle cell disease, the nurse should tell them that their child's anemia is caused by A) Reduced oxygen capacity of cells due to lack of iron * B) An imbalance between red cell destruction and production C) Depression of red and white cells and platelets D) Inability of sickle shaped cells to regenerate Review Information: The correct answer is B: An imbalance between red cell destruction and production Anemia results when the rate of red cell destruction exceeds the rate of production through stimulated erythropoiesis in bone marrow (life span shortened from 120 days to 12-20 days). 30. The nurse is assessing a newborn delivered at home by an admitted heroin addict. Which of the following would the nurse expect to observe?

A) Hypertonic neuro reflex B) Immediate CNS depression C) Lethargy and sleepiness * D) Jitteriness at 24-48 hours Review Information: The correct answer is D: Jitteriness at 24-48 hours Withdrawal signs may not be evident for 1-2 days after birth. Irritability and poor feeding also are evident. 31. The nurse is caring for a client with congestive heart failure. Which finding requires the nurse's immediate attention? * A) Pulse oximetry of 85% B) Nocturia C) Crackles in lungs D) Diaphoresis Review Information: The correct answer is A: Pulse oximetry of 85% An oxygen saturation of 88% or less indicates hypoxemia and requires the nurse''s immediate attention. 32. The nurse is assessing a young child at a clinic visit for a mild respiratory infection. Koplik spots are noted on the oral mucous membranes. The nurse should then assess which area of the body? * A) Inspect the skin B) Auscultate breath sounds C) Evaluate muscle strength D) Investigate elimination patterns Review Information: The correct answer is A: Inspect the skin A characteristic sign of rubeola is Koplik spots (small red spots with a bluish white center). These are found on the buccal mucosa about 2 days before and after the onset of the measles rash. 33. Which action is most likely to ensure the safety of the nurse while making a home visit? Observation during the visit of no evidence of weapons in the A) home Prior to the visit, review client's record for any previous entries B) about violence Remain alert at all times and leave if cues suggest the home is * C) not safe Carry a cell phone, pager and/or hand held alarm for D) emergencies Review Information: The correct answer is C: Staying alert at all times and leaving if cues suggest the home is not safe No person or equipment can guarantee nurses'' safety, although the risk of violence can be minimized. Before making initial visits, review referral information carefully and have a plan to communicate with agency staff. Schedule appointments with clients. When driving into an area for the first time, note potential hazards and sources of assistance. Become acquainted with neighbors. Be alert and confident while parking the car, walking to the client''s door, making the visit, walking back to the car, and driving away. LISTEN to clients. If they tell you to leave, do so. 34. An adolescent client is admitted in respiratory alkalosis following aspirin overdose. The nurse recognizes that this imbalance was caused by * A) Tachypnea B) Acidic byproducts C) Vomiting and dehydration D) Hyperpyrexia Review Information: The correct answer is A: Tachypnea Stimulation of respiratory center leads to hyperventilation, thus decreasing CO2 levels which causes respiratory alkalosis. 35. The nurse discovers that the parents of a 2 year-old child continue to use an apnea monitor each night. The parents state: “We are concerned about the possible occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).” In order to take appropriate action, the nurse must understand that A) The child is within the age group most susceptible to SIDS B) The peak age for occurrence of SIDS is 8 to 12 months of age C) The apnea monitor is not effective on a child in this age group * D) 95% of SIDS cases occur before 6 months of age Review Information: The correct answer is D: 95% percent of all SIDS cases occur before 6 months Peak age of SIDS occurrence is 2 to 4 months and 95% of cases occur by 6 months of age. It is the leading cause of death in infants 1 month to 1 year of age. 36. As a client is being discharged following resolution of a spontaneous pneumothorax, he tells the nurse that he is now going to Hawaii for a vacation. The nurse would warn him to avoid A) Surfing * B) Scuba diving C) Parasailing

D) Swimming Review Information: The correct answer is B: Scuba diving The nurse would strongly emphasize the need for clients with history of spontaneous pneumothorax problems to avoid high altitudes, flying in unpressurized aircraft and scuba diving. The negative pressures could cause the lung to collapse again. 37. The nurse is providing diet instruction to the parents of a child with cystic fibrosis. The nurse would emphasize that the diet should be A) High calorie, low fat, low sodium B) High protein, low fat, low carbohydrate * C) High protein, high calorie, unrestricted fat D) High carbohydrate, low protein, moderate fat Review Information: The correct answer is C: High protein, high calorie, unrestricted fat The child with Cystic Fibrosis needs a well balanced diet that is high in protein and calories. Fat does not need to be restricted. 38. A client had arrived in the USA from a developing country 1 week prior. The client is to be admitted to the medical surgical unit with a diagnosis of AIDS with a history of unintended weight loss, drug abuse, night sweats, productive cough and a "feeling of being hot all the time." The nurse should assign the client to share a room with a client with the diagnosis of Acute tuberculosis with a productive cough of discolored sputum * A) for over three months Lupus and vesicles on one side of the middle trunk from the back B) to the abdomen C) Pseudomembranous colitis and C. difficile. D) Exacerbation of polyarthritis with severe pain Review Information: The correct answer is A: Acute tuberculosis with a productive cough of discolored sputum for over three months The client for admission has classic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis. Of the choices the client in option A has the similar diagnosis and it is acceptable to put these types of clients in the same room when no other alternative exists. Clients are considered contagious until the cough is eliminated with medications which initially is a combination of 4 drugs simultaneously. 39. A client's admission urinalysis shows the specific gravity value of 1.039. Which of the following assessment data would the nurse expect to find when assessing this client? A) Moist mucous membranes B) Urinary frequency * C) Poor skin turgor D) Increased blood pressure Review Information: The correct answer is C: Poor skin turgor The specific gravity value is high, indicating dehydration. Poor skin turgor (tenting of the skin) is consistent with this problem. 40. Parents are concerned that their 11 year-old child is a very picky eater. The nurse suggests which of the following as the best initial approach? A) Consider a liquid supplement to increase calories * B) Discuss consequences of an unbalanced diet with the child C) Provide fruit, vegetable and protein snacks D) Encourage the child to keep a daily log of foods eaten Review Information: The correct answer is B: Discuss consequences of an unbalanced diet with the child It is important to educate the preadolescent as to appropriate diet, and the problems that might arise if diet is not adequate. Results for Q&A-Random #3 1. At a community health fair the blood pressure of a 62 year-old client is 160/96. The client states “My blood pressure is usually much lower.” The nurse should tell the client to * A) go get a blood pressure check within the next 48 to 72 hours B) check blood pressure again in 2 months C) see the health care provider immediately D) visit the health care provider within 1 week for a BP check Review Information: The correct answer is A: go get a blood pressure check within the next 48 to 72 hours The blood pressure reading is moderately high with the need to have it rechecked in a few days. The client states it is ‘usually much lower.’ Thus a concern exists for complications such as stroke. However immediate check by the provider of care is not warranted. Waiting 2 months or a week for follow-up is too long. 2. A client is admitted to the emergency room with renal calculi and is complaining of moderate to severe flank pain and nausea. The client’s temperature is 100.8 degrees Fahrenheit. The priority nursing goal for this client is A) Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance B) Control nausea * C) Manage pain D) Prevent urinary tract infection Review Information: The correct answer is C: Manage pain The immediate goal of therapy is to alleviate the client’s pain.

3. An RN who usually works in a spinal rehabilitation unit is floated to the emergency department. Which of these clients should the charge nurse assign to this RN? A middle-aged client who says "I took too many diet pills" and A) "my heart feels like it is racing out of my chest." A young adult who says "I hear songs from heaven. I need B) money for beer. I quit drinking 2 days ago for my family. Why are my arms and legs jerking?" An adolescent who has been on pain medications for terminal * C) cancer with an initial assessment finding of pinpoint pupils and a relaxed respiratory rate of 10 An elderly client who reports having taken a "large crack hit" 10 D) minutes prior to walking into the emergency room Review Information: The correct answer is c: An adolescent who has been on pain medications for terminal cancer with an initial assessment finding of pinpoint pupils and a relaxed respiratory rate of 10 Nurses who are floated to other units should be assigned to a client who has minimal anticipated immediate complications of their problem. The client in option C exhibits opoid toxicity with the pinpoint pupils and has the least risk of complications to occur in the near future. 4. While planning care for a toddler, the nurse teaches the parents about the expected developmental changes for this age. Which statement by the mother shows that she understands the child's developmental needs? A) "I want to protect my child from any falls." B) "I will set limits on exploring the house." * C) "I understand the need to use those new skills." D) "I intend to keep control over our child." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I understand the need to use those new skills." Erikson describes the stage of the toddler as being the time when there is normally an increase in autonomy. The child needs to use motor skills to explore the environment. 5. A client who is pregnant comes to the clinic for a first visit. The nurse gathers data about her obstetric history, which includes 3 yearold twins at home and a miscarriage 10 years ago at 12 weeks gestation. How would the nurse accurately document this information? A) Gravida 4 para 2 B) Gravida 2 para 1 * C) Gravida 3 para 1 D) Gravida 3 para 2 Review Information: The correct answer is C: Gravida 3 para 1 Gravida is the number of pregnancies and Parity is the number of pregnancies that reach viability (not the number of fetuses). Thus, for this woman, she is now pregnant, had 2 prior pregnancies, and 1 viable birth (twins). 6. A child who ingested 15 maximum strength acetaminophen tablets 45 minutes ago is seen in the emergency department. Which of these orders should the nurse do first? * A) Gastric lavage PRN B) Acetylcysteine (mucomyst) for age per pharmacy Start an IV Dextrose 5% with 0.33% normal saline to keep vein C) open D) Activated charcoal per pharmacy Review Information: The correct answer is A: Gastric lavage PRN Removing as much of the drug as possible is the first step in treatment for this drug overdose. This is best done by gastric lavage. The next drug to give would be activated charcoal, then mucomyst and lastly the IV fluids. 7. The nurse is preparing to administer an enteral feeding to a client via a nasogastric feeding tube. The most important action of the nurse is * A) Verify correct placement of the tube B) Check that the feeding solution matches the dietary order Aspirate abdominal contents to determine the amount of last C) feeding remaining in stomach D) Ensure that feeding solution is at room temperature Review Information: The correct answer is A: Verify correct placement of the tube Proper placement of the tube prevents aspiration. 8. The nurse anticipates that for a family who practices Chinese medicine the priority goal would be to A) Achieve harmony B) Maintain a balance of energy C) Respect life * D) Restore yin and yang Review Information: The correct answer is D: Restore yin and yang For followers of Chinese medicine, health is maintained through balance between the forces of yin and yang.

9. Which complication of cardiac catheterization should the nurse monitor for in the initial 24 hours after the procedure? A) angina at rest * B) thrombus formation C) dizziness D) falling blood pressure Review Information: The correct answer is B: thrombus formation Thrombus formation in the coronary arteries is a potential problem in the initial 24 hours after a cardiac catheterization. A falling BP occurs along with hemorrhage of the insertion site which is associated with the first 12 hours after the procedure. 10. A nurse prepares to care for a 4 year-old newly admitted for rhabdomyosarcoma. The nurse should alert the staff to pay more attention to the function of which area of the body? * A) The muscles B) The cerebellum C) The kidneys D) The leg bones Review Information: The correct answer is A: All striated muscles Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common children''s soft tissue sarcoma. It originates in striated (skeletal) muscles and can be found anywhere in the body. The clue is in the middle of the word and is “myo” which typically means muscle. 11. A client comes to the clinic for treatment of recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease. The nurse recognizes that this condition most frequently follows which type of infection? A) Trichomoniasis * B) Chlamydia C) Staphylococcus D) Streptococcus Review Information: The correct answer is B: Chlamydia Chlamydial infections are one of the most frequent causes of salpingitis or pelvic inflammatory disease. 12. During the evaluation of the quality of home care for a client with Alzheimer's disease, the priority for the nurse is to reinforce which statement by a family member? A) At least 2 full meals a day is eaten. We go to a group discussion every week at our community B) center. We have safety bars installed in the bathroom and have 24 hour * C) alarms on the doors. D) The medication is not a problem to have it taken 3 times a day. Review Information: The correct answer is C: We have safety bars installed in the bathroom and have 24 hour alarms on the doors. Ensuring safety of the client with increasing memory loss is a priority of home care. Note all options are correct statements. However, safety is most important to reinforce. 13. The nurse is caring for a client with a venous stasis ulcer. Which nursing intervention would be most effective in promoting healing? A) Apply dressing using sterile technique * B) Improve the client's nutrition status C) Initiate limb compression therapy D) Begin proteolytic debridement Review Information: The correct answer is B: Improve the client''s nutrition status The goal of clinical management in a client with venous stasis ulcers is to promote healing. This only can be accomplished with proper nutrition. The other answers are correct, but without proper nutrition, the other interventions would be of little help. 14. During an assessment of a client with cardiomyopathy, the nurse finds that the systolic blood pressure has decreased from 145 to 110 mm Hg and the heart rate has risen from 72 to 96 beats per minute and the client complains of periodic dizzy spells. The nurse instructs the client to A) Increase fluids that are high in protein B) Restrict fluids * C) Force fluids and reassess blood pressure D) Limit fluids to non-caffeine beverages Review Information: The correct answer is C: Force fluids and reassess blood pressure Postural hypotension, a decrease in systolic blood pressure of more than 15 mm Hg and an increase in heart rate of more than 15 percent usually accompanied by dizziness indicates volume depletion, inadequate vasoconstrictor mechanisms, and autonomic insufficiency. 15. Which individual is at greatest risk for developing hypertension? * A) 45 year-old African American attorney B) 60 year-old Asian American shop owner C) 40 year-old Caucasian nurse D) 55 year-old Hispanic teacher Review Information: The correct answer is A: 45 year-old African American attorney

The incidence of hypertension is greater among African Americans than other groups in the US. The incidence among the Hispanic population is rising. 16. The nurse is caring for a client with a serum potassium level of 3.5 mEq/L. The client is placed on a cardiac monitor and receives 40 mEq KCL in 1000 ml of 5% dextrose in water IV. Which of the following EKG patterns indicates to the nurse that the infusions should be discontinued? A) Narrowed QRS complex B) Shortened "PR" interval * C) Tall peaked T waves D) Prominent "U" waves Review Information: The correct answer is C: Tall peaked T waves A tall peaked T wave is a sign of hyperkalemia. The health care provider should be notified regarding discontinuing the medication. 17. A client has been taking furosemide (Lasix) for the past week. The nurse recognizes which finding may indicate the client is experiencing a negative side effect from the medication? A) Weight gain of 5 pounds B) Edema of the ankles C) Gastric irritability * D) Decreased appetite Review Information: The correct answer is D: Decreased appetite Lasix causes a loss of potassium if a supplement is not taken. Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia include anorexia, fatigue, nausea, decreased GI motility, muscle weakness, dysrhythmias. 18. Which of these statements best describes the characteristic of an effective reward-feedback system? * A) Specific feedback is given as close to the event as possible B) Staff are given feedback in equal amounts over time C) Positive statements are to precede a negative statement D) Performance goals should be higher than what is attainable Review Information: The correct answer is A: Specific feedback is given as close to the event as possible Feedback is most useful when given immediately. Positive behavior is strengthened through immediate feedback, and it is easier to modify problem behaviors if the standards are clearly understood. 19. The nurse practicing in a maternity setting recognizes that the post mature fetus is at risk due to A) Excessive fetal weight B) Low blood sugar levels C) Depletion of subcutaneous fat * D) Progressive placental insufficiency Review Information: The correct answer is D: Progressive placental insufficiency The placenta functions less efficiently as pregnancy continues beyond 42 weeks. Immediate and long term effects may be related to hypoxia. 20. A child who has recently been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis is in a pediatric clinic where a nurse is performing an assessment. Which later finding of this disease would the nurse not expect to see at this time? A) Positive sweat test B) Bulky greasy stools * C) Moist, productive cough D) Meconium ileus Review Information: The correct answer is C:Moist, productive cough Option c is a later sign. Noisy respirations and a dry non-productive cough are commonly the first of the respiratory signs to appear in a newly diagnosed client with cystic fibrosis (CF). The other options are the earliest findings. CF is an inherited (genetic) condition affecting the cells that produce mucus, sweat, saliva and digestive juices. Normally, these secretions are thin and slippery, but in CF, a defective gene causes the secretions to become thick and sticky. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the pancreas and lungs. Respiratory failure is the most dangerous consequence of CF. 21. Which of the following should the nurse implement to prepare a client for a KUB (Kidney, Ureter, Bladder) radiograph test? A) Client must be NPO before the examination B) Enema to be administered prior to the examination Medicate client with Lasix 20 mg IV 30 minutes prior to the C) examination * D) No special orders are necessary for this examination Review Information: The correct answer is D: No special orders are necessary for this examination No special preparation is necessary for this examination.

22. The hospital has sounded the call for a disaster drill on the evening shift. Which of these clients would the nurse put first on the list to be discharged in order to make a room available for a new admission? A middle aged client with a history of being ventilator dependent * A) for over 7 years and admitted with bacterial pneumonia five days ago A young adult with diabetes mellitus Type 2 for over 10 years and B) admitted with antibiotic induced diarrhea 24 hours ago An elderly client with a history of hypertension, C) hypercholesterolemia and lupus, and was admitted with StevensJohnson syndrome that morning An adolescent with a positive HIV test and admitted for acute D) cellulitus of the lower leg 48 hours ago Review Information: The correct answer is A: A middle aged client with a history of being ventilator dependent for over 7 years and admitted with bacterial pneumonia five days ago The best candidate for discharge is one who has had a chronic condition and is most familiar with their care. This client in option A is most likely stable and could continue medication therapy at home. 23. A triage nurse has these 4 clients arrive in the emergency department within 15 minutes. Which client should the triage nurse send back to be seen first? A 2 month old infant with a history of rolling off the bed and has A) buldging fontanels with crying * B) A teenager who got a singed beard while camping An elderly client with complaints of frequent liquid brown colored C) stools A middle aged client with intermittent pain behind the right D) scapula Review Information: The correct answer is B: A teenager who got singed a singed beard while camping This client is in the greatest danger with a potential of respiratory distress, Any client with singed facial hair has been exposed to heat or fire in close range that could have caused damage to the interior of the lung. Note that the interior lining of the lung has no nerve fibers so the client will not be aware of swelling. 24. A client is receiving digoxin (Lanoxin) 0.25 mg. Daily. The health care provider has written a new order to give metoprolol (Lopressor) 25 mg. B.I.D. In assessing the client prior to administering the medications, which of the following should the nurse report immediately to the health care provider? * A) Blood pressure 94/60 B) Heart rate 76 C) Urine output 50 ml/hour D) Respiratory rate 16 Review Information: The correct answer is A: Blood pressure 94/60 Both medications decrease the heart rate. Metoprolol affects blood pressure. Therefore, the heart rate and blood pressure must be within normal range (HR 60-100; systolic B/P over 100) in order to safely administer both medications. 25. A nurse enters a client's room to discover that the client has no pulse or respirations. After calling for help, the first action the nurse should take is A) Start a peripheral IV B) Initiate closed-chest massage * C) Establish an airway D) Obtain the crash cart Review Information: The correct answer is C: Establish an airway Establishing an airway is always the primary objective in a cardiopulmonary arrest. 26. A 3 year-old child comes to the pediatric clinic after the sudden onset of findings that include irritability, thick muffled voice, croaking on inspiration, hot to touch, sit leaning forward, tongue protruding, drooling and suprasternal retractions. What should the nurse do first? A) Prepare the child for x-ray of upper airways B) Examine the child's throat C) Collect a sputum specimen * D) Notify the healthcare provider of the child's status Review Information: The correct answer is D: Notify the health care provider of the child''s status These findings suggest a medical emergency and may be due to epiglottises. Any child with an acute onset of an inflammatory response in the mouth and throat should receive immediate attention in a facility equipped to perform intubation or a tracheostomy in the event of further or complete obstruction. 27. A nurse is to administer meperidine hydrochloride (Demerol) 100 mg, atropine sulfate (Atropisol) 0.4 mg, and promethizine hydrochloride (Phenergan) 50 mg IM to a pre-operative client. Which action should the nurse take first? A) Raise the side rails on the bed B) Place the call bell within reach C) Instruct the client to remain in bed * D) Have the client empty bladder Review Information: The correct answer is D: Have the client empty bladder The first step in the process is to have the client void prior to administering the pre-operative medication. The other actions follow this initial step in this sequence: 4 3 1 2

28. In children suspected to have a diagnosis of diabetes, which one of the following complaints would be most likely to prompt parents to take their school age child for evaluation? A) Polyphagia B) Dehydration * C) Bed wetting D) Weight loss Review Information: The correct answer is C: Bed wetting In children, fatigue and bed wetting are the chief complaints that prompt parents to take their child for evaluation. Bed wetting in a school age child is readily detected by the parents. 29. A client has been newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism and will take levothyroxine (Synthroid) 50 mcg/day by mouth. As part of the teaching plan, the nurse emphasizes that this medication: * A) Should be taken in the morning B) May decrease the client's energy level C) Must be stored in a dark container D) Will decrease the client's heart rate Review Information: The correct answer is A: Should be taken in the morning Thyroid supplement should be taken in the morning to minimize the side effects of insomnia 30. A client has a Swan-Ganz catheter in place. The nurse understands that this is intended to measure A) Right heart function * B) Left heart function C) Renal tubule function D) Carotid artery function Review Information: The correct answer is B: Left heart function The Swan-Ganz catheter is placed in the pulmonary artery to obtain information about the left side of the heart. The pressure readings are inferred from pressure measurements obtained on the right side of the circulation. Right-sided heart function is assessed through the evaluation of the central venous pressures (CVP). 31. Which of these findings indicate that a pump to deliver a basal rate of 10 ml per hour plus PRN for pain break through for morphine drip is not working? A) The client complains of discomfort at the IV insertion site B) The client states "I just can't get relief from my pain." * C) The level of drug is 100 ml at 8 AM and is 80 ml at noon D) The level of the drug is 100 ml at 8 AM and is 50 ml at noon Review Information: The correct answer is C: The level of drug is 100 ml at 8 AM and is 80 ml at noon The minimal dose of 10 ml per hour which would be 40 ml given in a 4 hour period. Only 60 ml should be left at noon. The pump is not functioning when more than expected medicine is left in the container. 32. The nurse is performing a neurological assessment on a client post right CVA. Which finding, if observed by the nurse, would warrant immediate attention? * A) Decrease in level of consciousness B) Loss of bladder control C) Altered sensation to stimuli D) Emotional lability Review Information: The correct answer is A: Decrease in level of consciousness A further decrease in the level of consciousness would be indicative of a further progression of the CVA. 33. When teaching a client with coronary artery disease about nutrition, the nurse should emphasize A) Eating 3 balanced meals a day B) Adding complex carbohydrates * C) Avoiding very heavy meals D) Limiting sodium to 7 gms per day Review Information: The correct answer is C: Avoiding very heavy meals Eating large, heavy meals can pull blood away from the heart for digestion and is dangerous for the client with coronary artery disease. 34. The nurse is speaking at a community meeting about personal responsibility for health promotion. A participant asks about chiropractic treatment for illnesses. What should be the focus of the nurse’s response? A) Electrical energy fields * B) Spinal column manipulation C) Mind-body balance D) Exercise of joints Review Information: The correct answer is B: Spinal column manipulation The theory underlying chiropractic is that interference with transmission of mental impulses between the brain and body organs

produces diseases. Such interference is caused by misalignment of the vertebrae. Manipulation reduces the subluxation. 35. The home health nurse visits a male client to provide wound care and finds the client lethargic and confused. His wife states he fell down the stairs 2 hours ago. The nurse should A) Place a call to the client's health care provider for instructions * B) Send him to the emergency room for evaluation C) Reassure the client's wife that the symptoms are transient Instruct the client's wife to call the doctor if his symptoms D) become worse Review Information: The correct answer is B: Send him to the emergency room for evaluation This client requires immediate evaluation. A delay in treatment could result in further deterioration and harm. Home care nurses must prioritize interventions based on assessment findings that are in the client''s best interest. 36. While assessing a 1 month-old infant, which finding should the nurse report immediately? A) Abdominal respirations B) Irregular breathing rate * C) Inspiratory grunt D) Increased heart rate with crying Review Information: The correct answer is C: Inspiratory grunt Inspiratory grunting is abnormal and may be a sign of respiratory distress in this infant. 37. A client with multiple sclerosis plans to begin an exercise program. In addition to discussing the benefits of regular exercise, the nurse should caution the client to avoid activities which A) Increase the heart rate * B) Lead to dehydration C) Are considered aerobic D) May be competitive Review Information: The correct answer is B: Lead to dehydration The client must take in adequate fluids before and during exercise periods. 38. The nurse is caring for a client who had a total hip replacement 4 days ago. Which assessment requires the nurse’s immediate attention? I have bad muscle spasms in my lower leg of the affected A) extremity. "I just can't 'catch my breath' over the past few minutes and I * B) think I am in grave danger." "I have to use the bedpan to pass my water at least every 1 to 2 C) hours." D) "It seems that the pain medication is not working as well today." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "I just can''t ''catch my breath'' over the past few minutes and I think I am in grave danger." The nurse would be concerned about all of these comments. However the most life threatening is option B. Clients who have had hip or knee surgery are at greatest risk for development of post operative pulmonary embolism. Sudden dyspnea and tachycardia are classic findings of pulmonary embolism. Muscle spasms do not require immediate attention. Option C may indicate a urinary tract infection. And option D requires further investigation and is not life threatening. 39. The nurse is giving discharge teaching to a client 7 days post myocardial infarction. He asks the nurse why he must wait 6 weeks before having sexual intercourse. What is the best response by the nurse to this question? "You need to regain your strength before attempting such A) exertion." "When you can climb 2 flights of stairs without problems, it is * B) generally safe." C) "Have a glass of wine to relax you, then you can try to have sex." "If you can maintain an active walking program, you will have D) less risk." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "When you can climb 2 flights of stairs without problems, it is generally safe." There is a risk of cardiac rupture at the point of the myocardial infarction for about 6 weeks. Scar tissue should form about that time. Waiting until the client can tolerate climbing stairs is the usual advice given by health care providers. 40. What would the nurse expect to see while assessing the growth of children during their school age years? A) Decreasing amounts of body fat and muscle mass B) Little change in body appearance from year to year C) Progressive height increase of 4 inches each year * D) Yearly weight gain of about 5.5 pounds per year Review Information: The correct answer is D: Yearly weight gain of about 5.5 pounds per year School age children gain about 5.5 pounds each year and increase about 2 inches in height. Results for Q&A-Random #2

1. The nurse is assigned to care for a client who has a leaking intracranial aneurysm. To minimize the risk of rebleeding, the nurse should plan to * A) Restrict visitors to immediate family B) Avoid arousal of the client except for family visits C) Keep client's hips flexed at no less than 90 degrees Apply a warming blanket for temperatures of 98 degrees D) Fahrenheit or less Review Information: The correct answer is A: Restrict visitors to immediate family Maintaining a quiet environment will assist in minimizing cerebral rebleeding. When family visit the client should not be distrubed. However if the client is awake topics of a general nature are better choices for discussion than topics that result in emotional or physiological stimulation. 2. The nurse is performing a gestational age assessment on a newborn delivered 2 hours ago. When comparing findings to the Ballard scale, which situation may affect the score? A) Birth weight B) Racial differences * C) Fetal distress in labor D) Birth trauma Review Information: The correct answer is C: Fetal distress in labor The effects of earlier distress may alter the findings of reflex responses as measured on the Ballard tool. Other physical characteristics that estimate gestational age, such as amount of lanugo, sole creases and ear cartilage, are unaffected. 3. A 4 year-old hospitalized child begins to have a seizure while playing with hard plastic toys in the hallway. Of the following nursing actions, which one should the nurse do first? A) Place the child in the nearest bed B) Administer IV medication to slow down the seizure C) Place a padded tongue blade in the child's mouth * D) Remove the child's toys from the immediate area Review Information: The correct answer is D: Remove the child''s toys from the immediate area Nursing care for a child having a seizure includes, maintaining airway patency, ensuring safety, administering medications, and providing emotional support. Since the seizure has already started, nothing should be forced into the child''s mouth and they should not be moved. Of the choices given, first priority would be for safety. 4. A client asks the nurse to explain the basic ideas of homeopathic medicine. The response that best explains this approach is that remedies A) Destroy organisms causing disease B) Maintain fluid balance * C) Boost the immune system D) Increase bodily energy Review Information: The correct answer is C: Boost the immune system The practitioner treats with minute doses of plant, mineral or animal substances which provide a gentle stimulus to the body''s own defenses. 5. The nurse is caring for a 2 year-old who is being treated with chelation therapy, calcium disodium edetate, for lead poisoning. The nurse should be alert for which of the following side effects? A) Neurotoxicity B) Hepatomegaly * C) Nephrotoxicity D) Ototoxicity Review Information: The correct answer is C: Nephrotoxicity Nephrotoxicity is a common side effect of calcium disodium edetate, in addition to lead poisoning in general. 6. The nurse is caring for a 1 year-old child who has 6 teeth. What is the best way for the nurse to give mouth care to this child? * A) Using a moist soft brush or cloth to clean teeth and gums B) Swabbing teeth and gums with flavored mouthwash C) Offering a bottle of water for the child to drink D) Brushing with toothpaste and flossing each tooth Review Information: The correct answer is A: Using a moist soft brush or cloth to clean teeth and gums The nurse should use a soft cloth or soft brush to do mouth care so that the child can adjust to the routine of cleaning the mouth and teeth. 7. At a senior citizens meeting a nurse talks with a client who has diabetes mellitus Type 1. Which statement by the client during the conversation is most predictive of a potential for impaired skin integrity? A) "I give my insulin to myself in my thighs."

* B)

"Sometimes when I put my shoes on I don't know where my toes are." "Here are my up and down glucose readings that I wrote on my C) calendar." D) "If I bathe more than once a week my skin feels too dry." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "Sometimes when I put my shoes on I don''t know where my toes are." Peripheral neuropathy can lead to lack of sensation in the lower extremities. Clients do not feel pressure and/or pain and are at high risk for skin impairment.

8. A couple trying to conceive asks the nurse when ovulation occurs. The woman reports a regular 32 day cycle. Which response by the nurse is correct? A) Days 7-10 B) Days 10-13 C) Days 14-16 * D) Days 17-19 Review Information: The correct answer is D: Days 17-19 Ovulation occurs 14 days prior to menses. Considering that the woman''s cycle is 32 days, subtracting 14 from 32 suggests ovulation is at about the 18th day. 9. Included in teaching the client with tuberculosis taking INH about follow-up home care, the nurse should emphasize that a laboratory appointment for which of the following lab tests is critical? * A) Liver function B) Kidney function C) Blood sugar D) Cardiac enzymes Review Information: The correct answer is A: Liver function INH can cause hepatocellular injury and hepatitis. This side effect is age-related and can be detected with regular assessment of liver enzymes, which are released into the blood from damaged liver cells. 10. A 78 year-old client with pneumonia has a productive cough but is confused. Safety protective devices (restraints) have been ordered for this client. How can the nurse prevent aspiration? A) Suction the client frequently while restrained B) Secure all 4 restraints to 1 side of bed * C) Obtain a sitter for the client while restrained D) Request an order for a cough suppressant Review Information: The correct answer is C: Obtain a sitter for the client while restrained The plan to use safety devices (restraints) should be rethought. Restraints are used to protect the client from harm caused by removing tubes or getting out of bed. In the event that this restricted movement could cause more harm, such as aspiration, then a sitter should be requested. These are to be provided by the facility in the event the family cannot do so. This client needs to cough and be watched rather than restricted. Suctioning will not prevent aspiration in this situation. Cough suppressants should be avoided for this client. 11. A client with a fractured femur has been in Russell’s traction for 24 hours. Which nursing action is associated with this therapy? A) Check the skin on the sacrum for breakdown B) Inspect the pin site for signs of infection C) Auscultate the lungs for atelectasis * D) Perform a neurovascular check for circulation Review Information: The correct answer is D: Perform a neurovascular check for circulation While each of these is an important assessment, the neurovascular integrity is most associated with this type of traction. Russell’s traction is Buck’s traction with a sling under the knee. 12. The nurse is caring for a client with extracellular fluid volume deficit. Which of the following assessments would the nurse anticipate finding? A) Bounding pulse B) Rapid respirations * C) Oliguria D) Neck veins are distended Review Information: The correct answer is C: Oliguria Kidneys maintain fluid volume through adjustments in urine volume. 13. When suctioning a client's tracheostomy, the nurse should instill saline in order to A) Decrease the client's discomfort B) Reduce viscosity of secretions C) Prevent client aspiration * D) Remove a mucus plug Review Information: The correct answer is D: Remove a mucus plug Saline will thin and loosen secretions, making it easier to suction. Altman, G. (2004). Delmar’s Fundamental and Advanced Nursing Skills, 2nd ed. Albany, NY: Delmar. Lewis, S.M., Heitkemper, M.M., & Dirksen, S. R. (2004). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Assessment & management of clinical problems. St. Louis: Mosby. 14. A woman in her third trimester complains of severe heartburn. What is appropriate teaching by the nurse to help the woman alleviate these symptoms? A) Drink small amounts of liquids frequently B) Eat the evening meal just before retiring

C) Take sodium bicarbonate after each meal * D) Sleep with head propped on several pillows Review Information: The correct answer is D: Sleep with head propped on several pillows Heartburn is a burning sensation caused by regurgitation of gastric contents that is best relieved by sleeping position, eating small meals, and not eating before bedtime. 15. A nurse is caring for a client who had a closed reduction of a fractured right wrist followed by the application of a fiberglass cast 12 hours ago. Which finding requires the nurse’s immediate attention? A) Capillary refill of fingers on right hand is 3 seconds B) Skin warm to touch and normally colored * C) Client reports prickling sensation in the right hand D) Slight swelling of fingers of right hand Review Information: The correct answer is C: Client reports prickling sensation in the right hand Prickling sensation is an indication of compartment syndrome and requires immediate action by the nurse. The other findings are normal for a client in this situation. 16. A newborn is having difficulty maintaining a temperature above 98 degrees Fahrenheit and has been placed in a warming isolette. Which action is a nursing priority? A) Protect the eyes of the neonate from the heat lamp * B) Monitor the neonate’s temperature C) Warm all medications and liquids before giving D) Avoid touching the neonate with cold hands Review Information: The correct answer is B: Monitor the neonate’s temperature When using a warming device the neonate’s temperature should be continuously monitored for undesired elevations. The use of heat lamps is not safe as there is no way to regulate their temperature. Warming medications and fluids is not indicated. While touching with cold hands can startle the infant it does not pose a safety risk. 17. The nurse is caring for a client with a myocardial infarction. Which finding requires the nurse's immediate action? A) Periorbital edema * B) Dizziness spells C) Lethargy D) Shortness of breath Review Information: The correct answer is B: Dizziness spells Cardiac dysrhythmias may cause a transient drop in cardiac output and decreased blood flow to the brain. Near syncope refers to lightheartedness, dizziness, temporary confusion. Such "spells" may indicate runs of ventricular tachycardia or periods of asystole and should be reported immediately. 18. A client is admitted with the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. While taking a history, the client tells the nurse he was admitted for the same thing twice before, the last time just 3 months ago. The nurse would anticipate the health care provider ordering A) Pulmonary embolectomy * B) Vena caval interruption C) Increasing the coumadin therapy to an INR of 3-4 D) Thrombolytic therapy Review Information: The correct answer is B: Vena caval interruption Clients with contraindications to heparin, recurrent PE or those with complications related to the medical therapy may require vena caval interruption by the placement of a filter device in the inferior vena cava. A filter can be placed transvenously to trap clots before they travel to the pulmonary circulation. 19. A 70 year-old woman is evaluated in the emergency department for a wrist fracture of unknown causes. During the process of taking client history, which of these items should the nurse identify as related to the client’s greatest risk factors for osteoporosis? A) Menopause at age 50 * B) Has taken high doses of steroids for arthritis for many years C) Maintains an inactive lifestyle for the past 10 years D) Drinks 2 glasses of red wine each day for the past 30 years Review Information: The correct answer is B: Takes steroids for arthritis The use of steroids especially high doses over time increases the risk for osteoporosis. Other risk factors are in each option, as well as low bone mass, poor calcium absorption and moderate to high alcohol ingestion. 20. Decentralized scheduling is used on a nursing unit. A cheif advantage of this management strategy is that it * A) Considers client and staff needs B) Conserves time for planning C) Frees the nurse manager to handle other priorities D) Allows for requests about special privileges

Review Information: The correct answer is A: Considers client and staff needs Decentralized staffing takes into consideration specific client needs and staff interests and abilities. 21. A newborn has hyperbilirubinemia and is undergoing phototherapy with a blanket. Which safety measure is most important during this process? A) Regulate the neonate’s temperature using a radiant heater B) Withhold feedings while under the phototherapy * C) Provide water feedings at least every 2 hours D) Protect the eyes of neonate from the phototherapy lights Review Information: The correct answer is C: Provide water feedings at least every 2 hours Since the blanket is used the protection of the eyes is inappropriate. Protecting the eyes of the neonates is very important to prevent damage when under the ultraviolet lights. It is recommended that the neonate remain under the lights for extended periods.The neonate’s skin is exposed to the light and the temperature is monitored, but a heater may not be necessary. There is no reason to withhold feedings. Frequent water or feedings are given to help with the excretion of the bilirubin through the bowel in the stool. 22. The nurse is at the community center speaking with retired people. To which comment by one of the retirees during a discussion about glaucoma would the nurse give a supportive comment to reinforce correct information? "I usually avoid driving at night since lights sometimes seem to A) make things blur." "I take half of the usual dose for my sinuses to maintain my B) blood pressure." "I have to sit at the side of the pool with the grandchildren since C) I can't swim with this eye problem." "I take extra fiber and drink lots of water to avoid getting * D) constipated." Review Information: The correct answer is D: "I take extra fiber and drink lots of water to avoid getting constipated." Any activity that involves straining should be avoided in clients with glaucoma. Such activities would increase intraocular pressure. 23. On daily cleaning of a tracheostomy, the client coughs and displaces the tracheostomy tube. The nurse could have avoided this by A) placing an obturator at the client’s bedside B) having another nurse assist with the procedure * C) fastening clean tracheostomy ties before removing old ties D) Withdraw catheter in a circular motion Review Information: The correct answer is C: fastening clean tracheostomy ties before removing old ties Fastening clean tracheostomy ties before removing old ones will ensure that the tracheostomy is secured during the entire cleaning procedure. The obturator is useful to keep the airway open only after the tracheostomy outer tube is coughed out. A second nurse is not needed. Changing the position may not prevent a dislodged tracheostomy. 24. Which contraindication should the nurse assess for prior to giving a child immunizations? A) Mild cold symptoms B) Chronic asthma * C) Depressed immune system D) Allergy to eggs Review Information: The correct answer is C: Depressed immune system Children who have a depressed immune system related to HIV or chemotherapy should not be given routine immunizations. 25. The nurse is teaching home care to the parents of a child with acute spasmodic croup. The most important aspect of this care is A) Sedation as needed to prevent exhaustion B) Antibiotic therapy for 10 to 14 days * C) Humidified air and increased oral fluids D) Antihistamines to decrease allergic response Review Information: The correct answer is C: Humidified air and increased oral fluids The most important aspect of home care for a child with acute spasmodic croup is to provide humidified air and increased oral fluids. Moisture soothes inflamed membranes. Adequate systemic hydration aids is mucocillary clearance and keeps secretions thin, white, watery, and easily removed with minimal coughing. 26. A newborn delivered at home without a birth attendant is admitted to the hospital for observation. The initial temperature is 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) axillary. The nurse recognizes that cold stress may lead to what complication? A) Lowered BMR * B) Reduced PaO2 C) Lethargy D) Metabolic alkalosis Review Information: The correct answer is B: Reduced PaO2 Cold stress causes increased risk for respiratory distress. The baby delivered in such circumstances needs careful monitoring. In this situation, the newborn must be warmed immediately to increase its temperature to at least 36 degrees Celsius (97 degrees Fahrenheit).

27. In addition to standard precautions, a nurse should implement contact precautions for which client? * A) 60 year-old with herpes simplex B) 6 year-old with mononucleosis C) 45 year-old with pneumonia D) 3 year-old with scarlet fever Review Information: The correct answer is A: 60 year-old with herpes simplex Clients who have herpes simplex infections must have contact precautions in addition to standard precautions because of skin lesions. Contact precautions are used for clients who are infected by microorganisms that are transmitted by direct contact with the client, including hand or skin-to-skin contact. 28. Which of the following situations is most likely to produce sepsis in the neonate? A) Maternal diabetes * B) Prolonged rupture of membranes C) Cesarean delivery D) Precipitous vaginal birth Review Information: The correct answer is B: Prolonged rupture of membranes Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) is a leading cause of newborn sepsis. After 12-24 hours of leaking fluid, measures are taken to reduce the risk to mother and the fetus/newborn. 29. Which client is at highest risk for developing a pressure ulcer? A) 23 year-old in traction for fractured femur 72 year-old with peripheral vascular disease, who is unable to B) walk without assistance 75 year-old with left sided paresthesia and is incontinent of urine * C) and stool D) 30 year-old who is comatose following a ruptured aneurysm Review Information: The correct answer is C: 75 year-old client with left sided paresthesia and is incontinent of urine and stool Risk factors for pressure ulcers include: immobility, absence of sensation, decreased LOC, poor nutrition and hydration, skin moisture, incontinence, increased age, decreased immune response. This client has the greatest number of risk factors. 30. A new nurse manager is responsible for interviewing applicants for a staff nurse position. Which interview strategy would be the best approach? Vary the interview style for each candidate to learn different A) techniques Use simple questions requiring "yes" and "no" answers to gain B) definitive information Obtain an interview guide from human resources for consistency * C) in interviewing each candidate Ask personal information of each applicant to assure meeting of D) job demands Review Information: The correct answer is C: Obtain an interview guide from human resources for consistency in interviewing each candidate An interview guide used for each candidate enables the nurse manager to be more objective in the decision making. The nurse should use resources available in the agency before attempts to develop one from scratch. 31. A client who is 12 hour post-op becomes confused and says: “Giant sharks are swimming across the ceiling.” Which assessment is necessary to adequately identify the source of this client's behavior? A) Cardiac rhythm strip B) Pupillary response * C) Pulse oximetry D) Peripheral glucose stick Review Information: The correct answer is C: Pulse oximetry A sudden change in mental status in any post-op client should trigger a nursing intervention directed toward further respiratory evaluation. Pulse oximetry would be the initial assessment. If available, arterial blood gases would be better. Acute respiratory failure is the sudden inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange which may result in hypercapnia and/or hypoxemia. Clinical findings of hypoxemia include these finding which are listed in order of initial to later findings: restlessness, irritability, agitation, dyspnea, disorientation, confusion, delirium, hallucinations, and loss of consciousness. While there may be other factors influencing the client''s findings, the first nursing action should be directed toward oxygenation issues. Once respiratory or oxygenation issues are ruled out then significant changes in glucose would be next to evaluate. 32. A client returns from surgery after an open reduction of a femur fracture. There is a small bloodstain on the cast. Four hours later, the nurse observes that the stain has doubled in size. What is the best action for the nurse to take? A) Call the health care provider B) Access the site by cutting a window in the cast

C) Record the findings in the nurse's notes only Outline the spot with a pencil and note the time and date on the * D) cast Review Information: The correct answer is D: Outline the spot with a pencil and note the time and date on the cast This is a good way to assess the amount of bleeding over a period of time. The bleeding does not appear to be excessive and some bleeding is expected with this type of surgery. The bleeding should also be documented in the nurse’s notes. 33. A nurse assessing the newborn of a mother with diabetes understands that hypoglycemia is related to what pathophysiological process? * A) Disruption of fetal glucose supply B) Pancreatic insufficiency C) Maternal insulin dependency D) Reduced glycogen reserves Review Information: The correct answer is A: Disruption of fetal glucose supply After delivery, the high glucose levels which crossed the placenta to the fetus are suddenly stopped. The newborn continues to secrete insulin in anticipation of glucose. When oral feedings begin, the newborn will adjust insulin production within a day or two. 34. The nurse is teaching a parent about side effects of routine immunizations. Which of the following must be reported immediately? A) Irritability B) Slight edema at site C) Local tenderness * D) Temperature of 102.5 F Review Information: The correct answer is D: Temperature of 102.5 F An adverse reaction of a fever should be reported immediately. Other reactions that should be reported include crying for > 3 hours, seizure activity, and tender, swollen, reddened areas. 35. The parents of a toddler ask the nurse how long their child will have to sit in a car seat while in the automobile. What is the nurse’s best response to the parents? “Your child must use a care seat until he weighs at least 40 * A) pounds." B) The child must be 5 years of age to use a regular seat belt. C) “Your child must reach a height of 50 inches to sit in a seat belt." D) “The child can use a regular seat belt when he can sit still." Review Information: The correct answer is A: “Your child must use a care seat until he weighs at least 40 pounds." A child should use a car seat until they weigh 40 pounds. 36. A 16 year-old boy is admitted for Ewing's sarcoma of the tibia. In discussing his care with the parents, the nurse understands that the initial treatment most often includes A) Amputation just above the tumor B) Surgical excision of the mass C) Bone marrow graft in the affected leg * D) Radiation and chemotherapy Review Information: The correct answer is D: Radiation and chemotherapy The initial treatment of choice for Ewing''s sarcoma is a combination of radiation and chemotherapy. 37. A client complains of some discomfort after a below the knee amputation. Which action by the nurse is appropriate to do initially? A) Conduct guided imagery or distraction * B) Ensure that the stump is elevated for the initial day C) Wrap the stump snugly in an elastic bandage D) Administer opioid narcotics as ordered Review Information: The correct answer is B: Ensure that the stump is elevated for the initial day The priority is to elevate the stump, preventing pressure caused by pooling of blood and thus minimizing the pain. Without this measure, a firm elastic bandage, opioid narcotics, or guided imagery will have little effect. The opioid would be given for severe pain. 38. What is the best way that parents of pre-schoolers can begin teaching their child about injury prevention? * A) Set good examples themselves B) Protect their child from outside influences C) Make sure their child understands all the safety rules D) Discuss the consequences of not wearing protective devices Review Information: The correct answer is A: Set good examples themselves Preschool years is the time for parents to begin emphasizing safety education as well as providing protection. Setting a good example themselves is crucial because of the imitative behaviors of pre-schoolers; they are quick to notice discrepancies between what they see and what they are told. 39. Which oxygen delivery system would the nurse apply that would provide the highest concentrations of oxygen to the client? A) Venturi mask B) Partial rebreather mask * C) Non-rebreather mask

D) Simple face mask Review Information: The correct answer is C: Non-rebreather mask The non-rebreather mask has a one-way valve that prevents exhales air from entering the reservoir bag and one or more valves covering the air holes on the face mask itself to prevent inhalation of room air but to allow exhalation of air. When a tight seal is achieved around the mask up to 100% of oxygen is available. 40. The nurse is teaching the mother of a 5 month-old about nutrition for her baby. Which statement by the mother indicates the need for further teaching? A) "I'm going to try feeding my baby some rice cereal." B) "When he wakes at night for a bottle, I feed him." * C) "I dip his pacifier in honey so he'll take it." D) "I keep formula in the refrigerator for 24 hours." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "I dip his pacifier in honey so he''ll take it." Honey has been associated with infant botulism and should be avoided. Older children and adults have digestive enzymes that kill the botulism spores. Results for Q&A-Random #1 1. The nurse is performing an assessment on a client who is cachectic and has developed an enterocutaneous fistula following surgery to relieve a small bowel obstruction. The client's total protein level is reported as 4.5. Which of the following would the nurse anticipate? . A) Additional potassium will be given IV B) Blood for coagulation studies will be drawn * C) Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will be started D) Serum lipase levels will be evaluated Review Information: The correct answer is C: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will be started The client is not absorbing nutrients adequately as evidenced by the cachexia and low protein levels. (A normal total serum protein level is 6.0-8.0.) TPN will maintain a positive nitrogen balance in the client who is unable to digest and absorb nutrients adequately. 2. The nurse is assigned to care for 4 clients. Which of the following should be assessed immediately after hearing the report? A) The client with asthma who is now ready for discharge * B) The client with a peptic ulcer who has been vomiting all night C) The client with chronic renal failure returning from dialysis D) The client with pancreatitis who was admitted yesterday Review Information: The correct answer is B: The client with a peptic ulcer who has been vomiting all night A perforated peptic ulcer could cause nausea, vomiting and abdominal distention, and may be a life threatening situation. The client should be assessed immediately and findings reported to the health care provider. 3. A newborn weighed 7 pounds 2 ounces at birth. The nurse assesses the newborn at home 2 days later and finds the weight to be 6 pounds 7 ounces. What should the nurse tell the parents about this weight loss? A) The newborn needs additional assessments B) The mother should breast feed more often C) A change to formula is indicated * D) The loss is within normal limits Review Information: The correct answer is D: The loss is within normal limits A newborn is expected to lose 5-10% of the birth weight in the first few days because of changes in elimination and feeding. 4. During a situation of pain management, which statement is a priority to consider for the ethical guidelines of the nurse? * A) The client's self-report is the most important consideration B) Cultural sensitivity is fundamental to pain management C) Clients have the right to have their pain relieved D) Nurses should not prejudge a client's pain using their own values Review Information: The correct answer is A: The client''s selfreport is the most important consideration Pain is a complex phenomenon that is perceived differently by each individual. Pain is whatever the client says it is. The other statements are correct but not the priority. 5. A 35-year-old client of Puerto Rican-American descent is diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The client states “I refuse both radiation and chemotherapy because they are 'hot.'” The next action for the nurse to take is to A) Document the situation in the notes B) Report the situation to the health care provider C) Talk with the client's family about the situation Ask the client to talk about the concerns about the "hot" * D) treatments

Review Information: The correct answer is D: Ask the client to talk about the concerns about the "hot" treatments The "hot-cold" system is found among Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanic-Latinos. Most foods, beverages, herbs, and medicines are categorized as hot or cold, which are symbolic designations and do not necessarily indicate temperature or spiciness. Care and treatment regimens can be negotiated with clients within this framework. 6. Which of the following drugs should the nurse anticipate administering to a client before they are to receive electroconvulsive therapy? A) Benzodiazephines B) Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) * C) Succinylcholine (Anectine) D) Thiopental sodium (Pentothal Sodium) Review Information: The correct answer is C: Succinylcholine (Anectine) Succinylcholine is given intravenously to promote skeletal relaxation. 7. A client is brought to the emergency room following a motor vehicle accident. When assessing the client one-half hour after admission, the nurse notes several physical changes. Which changes would require the nurse's immediate attention? A) Increased restlessness B) Tachycardia * C) Tracheal deviation D) Tachypnea Review Information: The correct answer is C: Tracheal deviation The deviated trachea is a sign that a mediastinal shift has occurred. This is a medical emergency. 8. Which approach is a priority for the nurse who works with clients from many different cultures? A) Speak at least 2 other languages of clients in the neighborhood Learn about the cultures of clients who are most often B) encountered Have a list of persons for referral when interaction with these C) clients occur Recognize personal attitudes about cultural differences and real * D) or expected biases Review Information: The correct answer is D: Recognize personal attitudes about cultural differences and real or expected biases The nurse must discover personal attitudes, prejudices and biases specific to different cultures. Sensitivity to these will affect interactions with clients and families across cultures. 9. A client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of coronary artery disease is receiving Aminophylline, 25mg/hour. Which one of the following findings by the nurse would require immediate intervention? A) Decreased blood pressure and respirations. B) Flushing and headache. * C) Restlessness and palpitations. D) Increased heart rate and blood pressure. Review Information: The correct answer is C: Restlessness and palpitations. Side effects of Aminophylline include restlessness and palpitations. 10. The nurse is planning care for an 8 year-old child. Which of the following should be included in the plan of care? * A) Encourage child to engage in activities in the playroom B) Promote independence in activities of daily living C) Talk with the child and allow him to express his opinions D) Provide frequent reassurance and cuddling Review Information: The correct answer is A: Encourage child to engage in activities in the playroom According to Erikson, the school age child is in the stage of industry versus inferiority. To help them achieve industry, the nurse should encourage them to carry out tasks and activities in their room or in the playroom. 11. A pregnant client who is at 34 weeks gestation is diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism (PE). Which of these mediations would the nurse anticipate the health care provider ordering? A) Oral Coumadin therapy B) Heparin 5000 units subcutaneously b.i.d. Heparin infusion to maintain the PTT at 1.5-2.5 times the control C) value Heparin by subcutaneous injection to maintain the PTT at 1.5 * D) times the control value Review Information: The correct answer is D: Heparin by subcutaneous injection to maintain the PTT at 1.5 times the control value Several studies have been conducted in pregnant women where oral anticoagulation agents are contraindicated. Warfarin (Coumadin) is known to cross the placenta and is therefore reported to be teratogenic. 12. The nurse is caring for a client with Hodgkin's disease who will be receiving radiation therapy. The nurse recognizes that, as a result of the radiation therapy, the client is most likely to experience A) High fever * B) Nausea

C) Face and neck edema D) Night sweats Review Information: The correct answer is B: Nausea Because the client with Hodgkin''s disease is usually healthy when therapy begins, the nausea is especially troubling. 13. While assessing the vital signs in children, the nurse should know that the apical heart rate is preferred until the radial pulse can be accurately assessed at about what age? A) 1 year of age * B) 2 years of age C) 3 years of age D) 4 years of age Review Information: The correct answer is B: 2 years of age A child should be at least 2 years of age to use the radial pulse to assess heart rate. 14. Which of these clients, who all have the findings of a board-like abdomen, would the nurse suggest that the health care provider examine first? An elderly client who stated that "My awful pain in my right side * A) suddenly stopped about 3 hours ago." A pregnant woman of 8 weeks newly diagnosed with an ectopic B) pregnancy A middle-aged client admitted with diverticulitis and has taken C) only clear liquids for the past week A teenager with a history of falling off a bicycle and did not hit D) the handle bars Review Information: The correct answer is A: An elderly client who stated that "My awful pain in my right side suddenly stopped about 3 hours ago." This client has the highest risk for hypovolemic and septic shock since the appendix has most likely ruptured as based on the history of the pain suddenly stopping over three hours ago. Being elderly there, is less reserve for the body to cope with shock and infection over long periods. The others are at risk for shock also. However, given that they fall in younger age groups, they would more likely be able to tolerate an inbalance in circulation. A common complication of falling off a bicycle is hitting the handle bars in the upper abdomen often on the left, resulting in a ruptured spleen. 15. A client with a panic disorder has a new prescription for Xanax (Alpazolam). In teaching the client about the drug's actions and side effects, which of the following should the nurse emphasize? * A) Short-term relief can be expected B) The medication acts as a stimulant C) Dosage will be increased as tolerated D) Initial side effects often continue Review Information: The correct answer is A: Short-term relief can be expected Xanax is a short-acting benzodiazepine useful in controlling panic symptoms quickly 16. Which of these questions is priority when assessing a client with hypertension? * A) "What over-the-counter medications do you take?" B) "Describe your usual exercise and activity patterns." C) "Tell me about your usual diet." D) "Describe your family's cardiovascular history." Review Information: The correct answer is A: "What over-thecounter medications do you take?" Over-the-counter medications, especially those that contain cold preparations can increase the blood pressure to the point of hypertension. 17. During a routine check-up, an insulin-dependent diabetic has his glycosylated hemoglobin checked. The results indicate a level of 11%. Based on this result, what teaching should the nurse emphasize? A) Rotation of injection sites B) Insulin mixing and preparation * C) Daily blood sugar monitoring D) Regular high protein diet Review Information: The correct answer is C: Daily blood sugar monitoring Normal hemoglobin A1C (glycosylated hemoglobin) level is 7 to 9%. Elevation indicates elevated glucose levels over time. 18. Which of these clients would the nurse monitor for the complication of C. difficile diarrhea? A) An adolescent taking medications for acne B) An elderly client living in a retirement center taking prednisone C) A young adult at home taking a prescribed aminoglycoside * D) A hospitalized middle aged client receiving clindamycin Review Information: The correct answer is D: A hospitalized middle aged client receiving clindamycin

Hospitalized patients, especially those receiving antibiotic therapy, are primary targets for C. difficile. Of patients receiving antibiotics, 5-38% experience antibiotic-associated diarrhea; C. difficile causes 15 to 20% of the cases. Several antibiotic agents have been associated with C. difficile. Broad-spectrum agents, such as clindamycin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalosporins, are the most frequent sources of C. difficile. Also, C. difficile infection has been caused by the administration of agents containing beta-lactamase inhibitors (ie, clavulanic acid, sulbactam, tazobactam) and intravenous agents that achieve substantial colonic intraluminal concentrations (ie, ceftriaxone, nafcillin, oxacillin). Fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, vancomycin, and trimethoprim are seldom associated with C. difficile infection or pseudomembranous colitis. 19. The nurse is assessing a comatose client receiving gastric tube feedings. Which of the following assessments requires an immediate response from the nurse? * A) Decreased breath sounds in right lower lobe B) Aspiration of a residual of 100cc of formula C) Decrease in bowel sounds D) Urine output of 250 cc in past 8 hours Review Information: The correct answer is A: Decreased breath sounds in right lower lobe The most common problem associated with enteral feedings is atelectasis. Maintain client at 30 degrees during feedings and monitor for signs of aspiration. Check for tube placement prior to each feeding or every 4 to 8 hours if continuous feeding. 20. The nurse is preparing to take a toddler's blood pressure for the first time. Which of the following actions should the nurse do first? A) Explain that the procedure will help him to get well B) Show a cartoon character with a blood pressure cuff C) Explain that the blood pressure checks the heart pump * D) Permit handling the equipment before putting the cuff in place Review Information: The correct answer is D: Permit handling the equipment before putting the cuff in place The best way to gain the toddler''s cooperation is to encourage handling the equipment. Detailed explanations are not helpful. 21. A 72 year-old client is scheduled to have a cardioversion. A nurse reviews the client’s medication administration record. The nurse should notify the health care provider if the client received which medication during the preceding 24 hours? * A) digoxin (Lanoxin) B) diltiazam (Cardizem) C) nitroglycerine ointment D) metoprolol (Toprol XL) Review Information: The correct answer is A: digoxin (Lanoxin) Digoxin increases ventricular irritability and increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation following cardioversion. The other medications do not increase ventricular irritability. 22. To prevent drug resistance common to tubercle bacilli, the nurse is aware that which of the following agents are usually added to drug therapy? A) Anti-inflammatory agent B) High doses of B complex vitamins C) Aminoglycoside antibiotic * D) Two anti-tuberculosis drugs Review Information: The correct answer is D: Two anti-tuberculosis drugs Resistance of the tubercle bacilli often occurs to a single antimicrobial agent. Therefore, therapy with multiple drugs over a long period of time helps to ensure eradication of the organism. 23. Which statement made by a nurse about the goal of total quality management or continuous quality improvement in a health care setting is correct? A) “It is to observe reactive service and product problem solving." Improvement of the processes in a proactive, preventive mode is * B) paramount. A chart audits to finds common errors in practice and outcomes C) associated with goals. D) A flow chart to organize daily tasks is critical to the initial stages. Review Information: The correct answer is B: Improvement of the processes in a proactive, preventive mode is paramount. Total quality management and continuous quality improvement have a major goal of identifying ways to do the right thing at the right time in the right way by proactive problem-solving. 24. The nurse manager informs the nursing staff at morning report that the clinical nurse specialist will be conducting a research study on staff attitudes toward client care. All staff are invited to participate in the study if they wish. This affirms the ethical principle of A) Anonymity B) Beneficence C) Justice * D) Autonomy Review Information: The correct answer is D: Autonomy Individuals must be free to make independent decisions about participation in research without coercion from others.

25. When teaching a client about the side effects of fluoxetine (Prozac), which of the following will be included? A) Tachycardia blurred vision, hypotension, anorexia B) Orthostatic hypotension, vertigo, reactions to tyramine rich foods * C) Diarrhea, dry mouth, weight loss, reduced libido D) Photosensitivity, seizures, edema, hyperglycemia Review Information: The correct answer is C: Diarrhea, dry mouth, weight loss, reduced libido Commonly reported side effects for fluoxetine (Prozac) are diarrhea, dry mouth, weight loss and reduced libido. 26. The nurse is performing an assessment of the motor function in a client with a head injury. The best technique is A) A firm touch to the trapezius muscle or arm B) Pinching any body part C) Sternal rub * D) Gentle pressure on eye orbit Review Information: The correct answer is D: Gentle pressure on eye orbit This is an acceptable stimuli only after progressing from lighter to stimuli to more obnoxious. 27. The nurse is teaching about nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to a group of arthritic clients. To minimize the side effects, the nurse should emphasize which of the following actions? A) Reporting joint stiffness in the morning * B) Taking the medication 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals C) Using alcohol in moderation unless driving D) Continuing to take aspirin for short term relief Review Information: The correct answer is B: Taking the medication 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals Taking the medication 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals will result in a more rapid effect. 28. A client taking isoniazide (INH) for tuberculosis asks the nurse about side effects of the medication. The client should be instructed to immediatley report which of these? A) Double vision and visual halos * B) Extremity tingling and numbness C) Confusion and lightheadedness D) Sensitivity of sunlight Review Information: The correct answer is B: Extremity tingling and numbness Peripheral neuropathy is the most common side effect of INH and should be reported to the health care provider; it can be reversed. 29. The nurse admits a 2 year-old child who has had a seizure. Which of the following statement by the child's parent would be important in determining the etiology of the seizure? A) "He has been taking long naps for a week." * B) "He has had an ear infection for the past 2 days." C) "He has been eating more red meat lately." D) "He seems to be going to the bathroom more frequently." Review Information: The correct answer is B: "He has had an ear infection for the past 2 days." Contributing factors to seizures in children include those such as age (more common in first 2 years), infections (late infancy and early childhood), fatigue, not eating properly and excessive fluid intake or fluid retention. 30. A client is receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) via Hickman catheter. The catheter accidentally becomes dislodged from the site. Which action by the nurse should take priority? A) Check that the catheter tip is intact * B) Apply a pressure dressing to the site C) Monitor respiratory status D) Assess for mental status changes Review Information: The correct answer is B: Apply a pressure dressing to the site The client is at risk of bleeding or the development of an air embolus if the catheter exit site is not covered immediately. 31. An 18 month-old child is on peritoneal dialysis in preparation for a renal transplant in the near future. When the nurse obtains the child's health history, the mother indicates that the child has not had the first measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) immunization. The nurse understands that which of the following is true in regards to giving immunizations to this child? A) Live vaccines are withheld in children with renal chronic illness * B) The MMR vaccine should be given now, prior to the transplant C) An inactivated form of the vaccine can be given at any time D) The risk of vaccine side effects precludes giving the vaccine Review Information: The correct answer is B: The MMR vaccine should be given now, prior to the transplant MMR is a live virus vaccine, and should be given at this time. Posttransplant, immunosuppressive drugs will be given and the

administration of the live vaccine at that time would be contraindicated because of the compromised immune system. 32. The nurse is preparing to administer a tube feeding to a post-operative client. To accurately assess for a gastostomy tube placement, the priority is to * A) Auscultate the abdomen while instilling 10 cc of air into the tube B) Place the end of the tube in water to check for air bubbles C) Retract the tube several inches to check for resistance D) Measure the length of tubing from nose to epigastrium Review Information: The correct answer is A: Auscultate the abdomen while instilling 10 cc of air into the tube If a swoosh of air is heard over the abdominal cavity while instilling air into the gastric tube, this indicates that it is accurately placed in the stomach. The feeding can begin after assessing the client for bowel sounds. 33. The nurse is teaching parents of a 7 month-old about adding table foods. Which of the following is an appropriate finger food? A) Hot dog pieces * B) Sliced bananas C) Whole grapes D) Popcorn Review Information: The correct answer is B: Sliced bananas Finger foods should be bite-size pieces of soft food such as bananas. Hot dogs and grapes can accidentally be swallowed whole and can occlude the airway. Popcorn is too difficult to chew at this age and can irritate the airway if swallowed. 34. The clinic nurse is counseling a substance-abusing post partum client on the risks of continued cocaine use. In order to provide continuity of care, which nursing diagnosis is a priority ? A) Social isolation B) Ineffective coping * C) Altered parenting D) Sexual dysfunction Review Information: The correct answer is C: Altered parenting The cocaine abusing mother puts her newborn and other children at risk for neglect and abuse. Continuing to use drugs has the potential to impact parenting behaviors. Social service referrals are indicated. 35. A client has gastroesophageal reflux. Which recommendation made by the nurse would be most helpful to the client? A) Avoid liquids unless a thickening agent is used B) Sit upright for at least 1 hour after eating C) Maintain a diet of soft foods and cooked vegetables * D) Avoid eating 2 hours before going to sleep Review Information: The correct answer is D: Avoid eating2 hours before going to sleep Eating before sleeping enhances the regurgitation of stomach contents which have increased acidity into the esophagus. Maintaining an upright posture should be for about 2 hours after eating to allow for the stomach emptying. The options A and C are interventions for clients with swallowing difficulties. 36. A nurse admits a client transferred from the emergency room. The client, diagnosed with a myocardial infarction, is complaining of substernal chest pain, diaphoresis and nausea. The first action by the nurse should be A) Order an EKG * B) Administer morphine sulphate C) Start an IV D) Measure vital signs Review Information: The correct answer is B: Administer pain medication as ordered Decreasing the clients pain is the most important priority at this time. As long as pain is present there is danger in extending the infarcted area. Morphine will decrease the oxygen demands of the heart and act as a mild diuretic as well. 37. The nurse is talking with the family of an 18 months-old newly diagnosed with retinoblastoma. A priority in communicating with the parents is * A) Discuss the need for genetic counseling B) Inform them that combined therapy is seldom effective C) Prepare for the child's permanent disfigurement D) Suggest that total blindness may follow surgery Review Information: The correct answer is A: Discussing the need for genetic counseling The hereditary aspects of this disease are well documented. While the parents focus on the needs of this child, they should be aware that the risk is high for future offspring. 38. A client is ordered warfarin sodium (Coumadin) to be continued at home. Which focus is critical to be included in the nurse’s discharge instruction? A) Maintain a consistent intake of green leafy foods * B) Report any nose or gum bleeds C) Take Tylenol for minor pains D) Use a soft toothbrush Review Information: The correct answer is B: Report any nose or gum bleeds The client should notify the health care provider if blood is noted in their stools or urine, or any other signs of bleeding occur.

39. A client being discharged from the cardiac step-down unit following a myocardial infarction ( MI), is given a prescription for a beta-blocking drug. A nursing student asks the charge nurse why this drug would be used by a client who is not hypertensive. What is the appropriate response by the charge nurse? A) "Most people develop hypertension following an MI." B) "A beta-Blocker will prevent orthostatic hypotension." * C) "This drug will decrease the workload on his heart." D) "Beta-blockers increase the strength of heart contractions." Review Information: The correct answer is C: "This drug will decrease the workload on his heart." One action of beta-blockers is to decrease systemic vascular resistance by dilating arterioles. This is useful for the client with coronary artery disease, and will reduce the risk of another MI or sudden death. 40. As a part of a 9 pound full-term newborn's assessment, the nurse performs a dextro-stick at 1 hour post birth. The serum glucose reading is 45 mg/dl. What action by the nurse is appropriate at this time? A) Give oral glucose water B) Notify the pediatrician * C) Repeat the test in 2 hours D) Check the pulse oximetry reading Review Information: The correct answer is C: Repeat the test in two hours This blood sugar is within the normal range for a full-term newborn. Normal values are: Premature infant: 20-60 mg/dl or 1.1-3.3 mmol/L, Neonate: 30-60 mg/dl or 1.7-3.3 mmol/L, Infant: 40-90 mg/dl or 2.25.0 mmol/L. Critical values are: Infant: <40 mg/dl and in a Newborn: <30 and >300 mg/dl. Because of the increased birth weight which can be associated with diabetes mellitus, repeated blood sugars will be drawn.

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