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3.EARTH MAT

3.EARTH MAT

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Published by: Prabhash Arvind Verma on Jul 04, 2012
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02/06/2014

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EARTH MAT DESIGN.

Estep50 Estep70 Etouch50 Etouch70 Em Es

Tolerable step voltage for human with 50Kg body weight-Volts Tolerable step voltage for human with 50Kg body weight-Volts Tolerable touch voltage for human with 50Kg body weight-Volts Tolerable touch voltage for human with 50Kg body weight-Volts Mesh voltage at the centre of the corner mesh for the simplified method. Step voltage between point above the outer corner of the grid and point 1m diagonally outside the grid of the simplified method,V

SYMBOL If ρ ρs A Tf θ

DESCRIPTION Fault current in Amps Resistivity of soil ohm-meter Resistivity of surface layer ohm-meter Total area encloused by ground grid-Sqmtr Duration of fault current for determination of decrement factor in Sec Temprature rise in Degree Celcius GRID DETAILS. Depth of ground grid conductor-meter surface layer thickness-meter Equally spaced conductors No of CI or GI Pipe Peripheral length of of the grid in meter Maximum length of grid conductor in X direction Maximum length of grid conductor in Y direction Total length of the grid conductor Total length of ground rod in meter length of ground rod at each location in meter Total effective length of grounding system conductor,Including grid and ground rods, in meter efective length of Lc+LR for mesh voltage Diameter of grid conductors-metre Spacing between parallel conductors. FACTORS REQUIRED FOR CALCULATION Surface layer derating factor Decreament factor for determining Ig Current division factor

16000 1000 1500 100 1 250

H Hs N Np Lp Lx Ly Lc LR Lr Lt

0.6 0.6 21 2 40 10 10 210 6 3

Lm d D

216 216 0.019543 0.2

Cs Df Sf

1.0 1 0.5

I Ig R n Ki Km

Maximum grid current that flows between groung grid and surrounding earth in Amps Symmetrical grid curent in Amps Measured resistance in Ohm Geomotric factor composed of factors na,nb,nc,nd Correction factor for grid geometry,simplified method spacing factor for mesh voltage,simplified method.

8000

STEP:1

Field data Area available in Sqmeter Fault Current If=(In/%Z) Earth strip size calculation. Refer sheet earthstrip size calculation. Select appropriate flat size Diameter of the strip Surface layer derating factor Cs=1-(0.09(1-ρ/ρs)/(2*Hs+.09)) PERMISSIBLE TOUCH AND STEP VOLTAGE.

100 Sqmeter

STEP:2

16000 Amps

STEP:3

265.0 Sqmm 50x6mm Al Flat 0.020 mm

STEP:4

0.977

STEP:4

Estep70 Estep70=(1000+6*Cs*ρs)*0.157/√Tf Etouch70 Etouch70=(1000+1.5*Cs*Ps)*0.157/Sqrt√Tf Estep50 Estep50=(1000+6*Cs*ρs)*0.116/√Tf Etouch50 Etouch50=(1000+1.5*Cs*Ps)*0.116/Sqrt√Tf

1537.1 Volts 502.0 Volts

1135.7 Volts 370.9 Volts

STEP:6

GROUND POTENTIAL RISE WITHOUT GROUND RODS Grid resistance in Ohm without pipe Rg=P(1/Lt+1/√(20*A)*(1+1/(1+H*√(20/A)))) Maximum Grid current Ig=Df*Sf*If Ground Potential rise GPR=Ig*Rg

44.6

STEP:7

8000

STEP:8

356962.8181

If GPR<Etouch 70 then design is OK If GPR>Etouch 70 then you need to calculate the mesh voltage . CALCULATION OF MESH VOLTAGE STEP:9 Em=Mesh Voltage

Em=P*Ig*Km*Ki/(Lc)

28340.73222

Where Km=1/2*3.142*(In((D*D/16*H*d)+((D+2*H)*(D+H*2)/(8*D*d))-(H/4*d))+Kii/Kh*In(8/3.142*(2*n-1))) 0.48366268 -0.145198521 Km= 0.338464159 Where Kii=1/(2*n)power2/n 0.5599493 1/(2*n)= 0.047619048 Kh=Sqrt(1+H/Ho) Where Ho=1meter Grid reference path n=na*nb*nc*nd nb=1,nc=1,nd=1 for squre grid na=2*Lc/Lp Ki=0.644+0.148*n 1.264911064

10.5 10.5 2.198

If Em<Etouch Design is OK If Em>Etouch Futher modification to be done. with additional ground rounds to be insetred GROUND POTENTIAL RISE WITH GROUND RODS Rg= GPR= For ground rod Kii=1.0 0.48366268 -0.259306551 0.224356129 44.6 356962.8181

STEP:10

Km= Em=Mesh Voltage Em=P*Ig*Km*Ki/Lc+(1.55+1.22(Lr/Sqrt((Lx*Lx)+(Ly*Ly))*LR Em=

17862.9298

STEP:10

Es=Step Voltage Es=P*Ig*Ks*Ki/(0.75*Lc+0.85*LR) Where Ks=1/3.142(1/2*H+1/D+H+1/D*(1-0.5powern-2)) 243321.8129

2.25000721

FIELD DATA A,ρ

CALCULATE CONDUCTOR SIZE

TOUCH AND STEP CRITERIA Etouch 50or 70,Estep 50 or 70

INITIAL DESIGN D.n.Lc.Lt.h

GRID RESISTANCE Rg.Lc.Lr

MODIFY DESIGN D.n.Lc.Lt

GRID CURRENT Ig.Tf

IgRg<Etouch NO MESH & STEP VOLTAGES Em.Es.Km.Ks Ki.Kii.Kh

YES

NO

Em<Etouch YES

NO

Es<Estep YES DETAIL DESIGN

AS PER IS 3043-1987 CALCULATION OF EARTH PITS FORMULAS Earth Resistivity ρ=2ΠSR ohm-m Where S=Distance betweem successive electrodes in m R=Earth megger reading in ohms Current density for 3sec Copper=118Amps/Sqmm Aluminium=73Amps/Sqmm Steel(GI)=46Amps/Sqmm Current Density permissible at an Earth Electrode is given by Id= (7.57*1000)/√(ρxt) Amps/Sqmeter Where ρ=resistivity of soil in ohms t=Duration of fault in sec Electrode Resistance (1)Plate RI= ρ/A*√Π/A Ohms 100ρ/2ΠLlog℮4L/d ohms (2)Pipe or Rod= (3) Stip or Conductor=100ρ/2ΠLlog℮2L²/wt ohms

NON EDITABLE DATA EDITABLE DATA

Where

ρ=earth Resistivity ion ohms A=Area of bothsides of plate in Sq.m. L=length in cm d=Dia of Pipe or rod in cm w=Depth of Burial of stripelectrode in cm. t=Width of strip or twice the diameter of circular conductor in cm.

Short Circuit Current(Isc) Soil resistivity( ρ) time(t) Current Density (Id)

65000 100 1 757

Amps Ohm-mtr Sec Amps/m²

Copper Plate Plate size a)Width b)Height Surface area No of Plates required Earth resistance 0.6 0.6 0.72 N=Isc/Id/S 119.2573022 290.1378214 mtr mtr Sqmtr No's Ohms

S=

Diameter of Pipe Radius of GI Pipe length of Pipe Surface area No of Pipes required Earth resistance

R= L=

Cast iron pipe 5 0.025 2 S=(2x3.142xRxL) 0.3142 N=Isc/Id/S 273.2821693 40.381714

cm mtr mtr Sqmtr

No's Ohms

NON EDITABLE DATA EDITABLE DATA

EARTH STRIP SIZE CALCULATION SIZE CALCULATION

The minimum cross-sectional area of Busbar required to withstand specified short-circuit current for specified time is given by NON EDITABLE DATA A= (I/8.5)x(t/√θ) A= (I/13)x(t/√θ) A= (I/4.5)x(t/√θ) A= (I/2.5)x(t/√θ) For Aluminium EDITABLE DATA For Copper For Iron For Lead

Where A=Cross sectional Area in Sqmm I=Short Circuit Current in Amps t=Withstand time in sec 8.5= Constant for Aluminium 13= Constant for Copper 4.5= Constant for Iron 2.5= Consatnt for Lead θ=Temprature rise in Degree Celcius 180 Degree Celcius upto 2 Sec for Uninsulated Conductors 120 Degree Celcius upto 2 Sec for insulated Conductors 215 Degree Celcius above 2 Sec for Uninsulated Conductors 145 Degree Celcius above 2 Sec for insulated Conductors I in kA 35 16 25 35 50 70 85 t in Sec 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Temp rise θ 215 180 180 180 180 215 180 A=in Sqmm Aluminium Iron 281 530 140 265 219 414 307 580 438 828 562 1061 745 1408

Copper 184 92 143 201 287 367 487

Lead 955 477 745 1043 1491 1910 2534

NON EDITABLE DATA EDITABLE DATA

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