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Anarchism and Education: A Philosophical Perspective by Judith Suissa. PM Press, 2010. Pp. 176. $19.95 (Paperback). ISBN: 9781604861143 Reviewer: Laini Szostkowski1 [Article copies available for a fee from The Transformative Studies Institute. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.transformativestudies.org ©2012 by The Transformative Studies Institute. All rights reserved.]
In 2010, PM Press published a new edition of Judith Suissa’s 2006 work Anarchism and Education, a philosophically informed genealogy of social anarchist educationalist theories. Suissa, Senior Lecturer in the Philosophy of Education at the Institute of Education, University of London, has written an extensively researched, and yet rather dry and procedural, “historical account of anarchist educational ideas and experiments” (PM Press, 2010). This book is useful to situate nineteenthcentury social anarchists in relationship to other (i.e. liberal) philosophies of education, as it seeks to recast them as relevant actors in educationalist debates on the future of schooling. It is a fine, and at times enjoyable, introduction for an intrepid reader interested in the relationship between anarchism and the philosophy of education. Suissa’s book raises several important questions: if anarchism seeks explicitly to abolish the state and all forms of coercive social institutions, what does “education” look like in anarchist society? How do you create a non-coercive “free” form of education without replicating free-market liberal logic of rational choice? Who should be educated, and how? For Suissa, the answers to these questions rest on the assumption that the purpose of education is to assist in the formation of a human being in the social world and to hold society together (37). However, Suissa’s socially integrative view of education, and her account of anarchist education itself, leaves much to be desired.
1 Laini Szostkowski teaches 9-12 year olds at Lexington Montessori School in Lexington, MA. She earned her B.A. in Anthropology from Reed College. Her research interests include the schools of Reggio Emilia, alternative urban schools, and girls’ education and school systems in transitioning democracies, particularly in Eastern Europe. She welcomes any comments on this review. Address correspondence to: Laini Szostkowski; e-mail: email@example.com.
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argues Suissa. “systematically promoted and emphasized cooperation. She also references contemporary anarchist scholars and theorists. could be contested by the experiences of poor students of color tracked into highschool vocational classes (see Rodriguez 1996:22). is grounded in their belief in an underlying common human nature (25). in my opinion. including Kropotkin. Kohl 1994). This human nature has both an altruistic or “benevolent potential” (from which arises Kropotkin’s theory of mutual aid) and a competitive. Suissa’s lack of critical engagement with anarchist definitions of “freedom. When she discusses historic and contemporary American experiments in anarchist education. notably Colin Ward and Noam Chomsky. liberal and far-left educationalists alike consider the challenges of multicultural/ pluralistic education to be central to a responsible and ethical educational praxis (See Delpit. while well-founded on an anarchistic theoretical basis. solidarity and mutual aid” would have the effects of both suppressing the selfish side of human nature that has so far taken root in capitalist society. Such an oversight may seem understandable given Suissa’s choice of theorists. linguistic and cultural homogeneity of Tolstoy’s Yasnaya Polyana that it seems anachronistic to omit a discussion of identity-based oppression and the particularity of individual communities. Suissa’s call for an increase in vocational and integral education in the public school system. Suissa’s advocacy of a moral education based on a concept of universal human nature often ends up reproducing the same neutral subject of the liberal state. This omission does have consequences. however. the contemporary landscape of American schools is so far removed from the relative ethnic. The social-anarchists’ conception of what education should be. These two points are what. Suissa claims that social-anarchists are drawn to education for two of its most vital characteristics: its potential for social transformation and its potential for cultural transmission. In fact. equality and justice” as they relate to human difference seems oddly reactionary. she neglects to mention the race. For example. and reinforcing the moral qualities and values of the revolutionary one to come (32). according to Suissa’s reading of these thinkers. give contemporary anarchism its political vitality. class. Unfortunately. Education which. and Proudhon. particularly when applied to today’s educational climate. 121 .Theory in Action Suissa focuses her study on the work of nineteenth century social anarchists. Her narrow study of “the anarchists” does not often leave the safe confines of an imagined commonality of experience in nineteenth-century Europe. Bakunin. egotistical one. and gender context in which these projects occurred.
I believe. Suissa’s case studies are comparatively brief. real social transformation ( 139). Suissa claims not only that anarchist education has much in common with liberal education. who shape and have been shaped by radical educational experiments. teachers. and draws important contrasts between. Unfortunately. Suissa compares. and alternative schools founded on anarchist values that are profoundly aware of the particular concerns of communities as well as the true “subjects” of education: students. 122 . It is in the rich ethnographic accounts of these people. but also have existed historically and continue to operate. social centres. but also (moreover) that anarchism and liberalism “need each other” to aspire to.Laini Szostkowski For the aforementioned reasons. Hern 2008). There are many other examples of free schools. historical anarchist thought and liberal theory. parents. I would recommend the book be read in conjunction with other accounts of the diversity of anarchist and libertarian educational experiments as well as the different backgrounds of anarchist educators (see. Anarchist aspirations. Suissa defends herself from accusations of “utopian” thinking. She situates neo-liberalism as a monstrous birth. For Suissa. but “realistic” and pragmatic. she restricts herself to the European nineteenth-century social anarchists in explaining “anarchist views on education.” Her core argument appears to be directed primarily at liberals. according to Suissa. are not “naïve” in their optimism. for example Avrich 2006. that anarchism truly becomes relevant to issues of the future of education. And it is in a diverse conception of what anarchist education is and can be. She introduces a number of case studies intended to show that such things as “anarchist schools” are not only possible. administrators—the different human beings who interact with one another in learning communities and educational spaces. with the potential for concrete applications in contemporary liberal democratic societies (148). the key to understanding ideas and concepts lies in tracing them to their theoretical roots: in the archival papers of nineteenth-century European social anarchists. With the goal of demonstrating the political and philosophical viability of anarchist education in contemporary contexts. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANARCHISM AND LIBERALISM In a new preface for this edition. Suissa herself seems to view the liberal state as an inevitable formation. and achieve. She claims that “ideas matter” in the “battle…to resist neo-liberal ideology” ( vii-viii). that the vibrancy and creativity of contemporary anarchist practices can be grasped.
Despite a commitment to freedom. perhaps surprisingly. Such an argument not only recasts many 123 .” Suissa claims that schools are chief institutions in (her conception of) anarchistic social change. is to imitate the tactics of the old: re-educate children in the practice of freedom. She also concludes. the educational theories of most of the anarchists Suissa analyzes end up being experiments in social engineering. such a viewpoint does not offer anarchism as a true alternative to liberalism. Ultimately. To educate for the coming revolution. In order to undo the damage of prescriptive instruction in capitalist culture. anti-authoritarian and anti-statist positions are indeed limiting the freedom of their pupils to think independently. important. She seems to ultimately retreat from the more radical theorists and concentrate her argument on the things that liberal and anarchist educators have in common: the “emancipatory power of education. and vital today. In other words. 128). While this is certainly true historically. and the belief that a strong moral and value system are necessary to achieve the common good (137-149). that schools—institutions that “systematically intervene in children’s lives”—are both central to anarchist educational theory and “necessary in order to sustain the moral fabric of society” (Suissa: 147).Theory in Action and claims (quoting Chomsky) that anarchism is “‘the true inheritor of the classical liberal tradition of the Enlightenment’” (in Guerin 1970:xii. it seems anarchist teachers must become standard-bearers for a new system of values and morals. It is this heterogeneity in anarchist thought—the lack of one true anarchistic canon and theory—that I believe makes anarchism relevant. The only way to create the new society. and the scientific-mindedness that are the progenitors of today’s technologysaturated and dangerously destructive world. Suissa’s project is to articulate the intersections between an anarchist politics of hope and a liberal one in order to reaffirm the value of idealism (and thereby philosophy) in educational theory (146). Suissa falls into this paradoxical position precisely because she has chosen to take on the core problem of anarchist education: it is at once “too normative and too open-ended” (128). Suissa is not satisfied with this practice.” for instance. it seems. some anarchist educations may become just as severe in their counter-indoctrination. And anarchists who insist that their school advocate anti-capitalist. however. By realigning herself with the liberal basis of anarchism. rationalism. while many people might associate “anarchist education” with a “deschooled society. Suissa ends up excluding from her discussion of anarchist schools several strands of thought that lend diversity to anarchist educational philosophy.
Laini Szostkowski anarchist schools as norms. but fails to engage that branch of anarchist thought that has rejected schools for the very reason Suissa embraces them: because they are institutions that systematically intervene in children’s lives. She includes A. whereas the 124 . she claims that they “agree that schools. 1956). rather than proposing to do away with them altogether” (ibid. and anarchist schools on the other. informal teaching and anti-authoritarian organization where decision-making powers rest with the learning community. The Walden Center (Berkeley. on the one hand. Neill’s Summerhill as a “nonanarchist experiment” (53). Yet these other experiments have much to teach in school as well. and an emphasis on experiential education infused with arts and crafts and/or “vocational” learning as well as “intellectual” pursuits) to several well-known examples including the Modern School in New York (1911-1953). While Suissa’s argument might be quite attractive to liberals committed to upholding the reform of public education systems. Suissa draws an important distinction between “Summerhill and similar libertarian or ‘free’ schools. no compulsory attendance. the book should not be treated as a comprehensive view of anarchism and education.S. and that can thus be used to envision a prototypical anarchist school (77). Suissa herself admits that “one of the essential principles of anarchism…is [that there is] no single theory or doctrine as to the correct form of social organization.” claiming that the former advocate individual freedom and a non-political. and education in general.). the “unschooling” and “deschooling” movements are small. Now. and seemingly difficult options in complex urban societies that have been “schooled” so well for so long it seems almost more destructive to dismantle the system despite its profound failures. are a valuable aspect of the project for social change. THE UNSCHOOLING / DESCHOOLING TRADITION OF ANARCHIST EDUCATION Perhaps one of the most significant aspects of anarchist-influenced educational philosophy that Suissa excludes is what she calls the tradition of “libertarian education” (76). Suissa restricts her case studies of anarchist schools (ones with no structured curriculum. Yet because Suissa draws her definition of anarchism from the nineteenth century social anarchists. value-free concept of school. including education” but nevertheless argues that there are certain trends and ideas that anarchist educational “experiments” have in common with one another. in many ways impractical on a large scale.
Hern has written extensively about deschooling. Hern belongs to a group of scholars who have attacked the term “education” itself. In fact. Many twentieth and twenty-first century anarchist schools in the Americas have taken an oppositional stance to the majoritarian miseducation and “hidden 125 . in many cases they were not sufficiently articulated into the practice of teaching to create a sustainable anarchist school. copied problems in composition books. Michel Foucault and Peter Kropotkin (among others…John Holt. Matt Hern’s recent anthology Everywhere All the Time: A New Deschooling Reader (2008) collects comments form unschooled kids together with first-hand accounts of alternative learning centers around the world. The argument against schooling or education as the transmission of a certain type of knowledge is not exclusively anarchist. The most substantive difference was in the attitude of the teacher towards his or her pupils. and self-directed. the actual methods employed in Ferrer schools in the United States were far from revolutionary. who was especially influential in the unschooling and homeschooling movements alike. While I do not agree with such a blanket statement. the potential of cooperation and community self-governance. As Paul Avrich has exhaustively documented in his highly instructive volume on the Modern School Movement. had some anarchistic ideas. Gandhi. self-reliant. learning (Hern 1998:9). Despite their attempts to the contrary. however. John Dewey. Yet as unique as these ideas and motivations may have been. on the grounds that it is intrinsically oppressive and forces learning. many Modern School teachers were criticized by educational professionals and anarchists (such as Emma Goldman) alike for failing to understand the actual practice of running a school. not the knowledge transmitted. Many of his ideas are drawn from the work of John Holt.” It is interesting to note that Suissa also claims “anarchist educational experiments are unique in the world of ‘libertarian’ education not in terms of their pedagogical practice but in terms of the substantive ideas and motivations behind them” (96-97). I believe that Hern’s point about the authoritarian tendencies of schools is a valid one. and read from canonical texts.Theory in Action latter seek to create true “alternative forms of social organization and relationships. it draws from the same “positive core” of belief in human nature. It is truly an example of the diversity in radical education. and individually-defined. but was not a card-carrying member of the team in the same way Kropotkin has become). Children listened to lectures. one might say the Modern School anarchists were too “well-schooled” themselves to break away from what they already knew in teaching method and scope.
Ultimately.Laini Szostkowski curriculum” of obedience to authority proffered by the state-sponsored public schools. disagrees with contemporary anarchist concerns with social justice. a picture of the anarchist school emerges that is far more complex. and also have the opportunity to participate in maintaining the School’s organic farm. class. However. By examining “unschools” in different communities. Peter Gelderloos also cites the example of the Albany Free School. And it is case studies of these free schools that incorporate an attention to the specificity of community concerns that is missing from Suissa’s abstraction of the “typical” anarchist school. Her insistence on this distinction is theoretically useful. these schools view education “as a tool of empowerment…liberation…and survival” for oppressed communities and marginalized members of society (Gelderloos 2010: 101) They may be indigenous community schools offering traditional cultural education as an alternative to racist textbooks. as well as the bulk of current liberal educational theory. Suissa’s argument that her conception of anarchist education is relevant and necessary in current educational debates is severely undermined if she does not engage with the issues of human difference that. Students are free to choose what they want to learn and when. many of these men did not address difference in their works because of the conventions of the time in which they wrote.” the Albany Free School has sliding-scale tuition and a diverse student body (Gelderloos 2010: 98). occupy a prominent place in contemporary educational theory and practice. the anarchist foundations of the deschooling movement are equally important. Whereas Suissa offers a universal picture of “our cherished human values. particularly as it applies to arguments for the reform of the public school system. particularly in the United States. and gender variance in her study of the subjects of education may certainly be understood within the context of the theorists she uses. for over thirty years.” Suissa claims that there are important distinctions between libertarian education and anarchist education (77).” many anarchists today are more concerned with addressing the particularity of community needs. active in inner city Albany. such neglect. However. While a “libertarian approach to education is…often suggested by certain anarchist writers. Suissa’s neglect of race. An “anti-authoritarian school is committed to social justice as well as education. as menttioned previously. as an example of contemporary anarchist schooling. Inspired by Ivan Illich and Paolo Freire. many of which were associated with anarchists and anarchist values. New York. or mobile classrooms that teach literacy to rural farmworkers in popular education workshops. 126 .
for instance. and an invitation to further reading. it depends on your goal. For anarchist educators in particular. That’s one of the tensions people in the profession of teaching in public schools struggle with…negotiating the human dimensions of real learning and real teaching and the institutional constraints of the school. what if we were to read the symbolic position of theory books on my shelf as evidence of a wider issue in education? The same gulf between thinking and doing exists between theorists of education and teachers. open to interpretation. And it also exists between the administrators of an institution and the students. GOING FORWARD So. To be more precise. Steve Seidel. Now. occupies far more of my brain space than the distinction between libertarian and classical liberal ideas of freedom. No surprise there. I often find myself struggling to bridge the chasm between theory and my day-to-day priorities: teaching fractions to unwilling fifth-graders. When I look at my own library. theory is great for informing actions. it should be inspirational. it even has the potential to become a kind of religion. On an individual level. bridging this gulf is a necessity. than as go-to references or sources for lesson plans. and a book is only one of those tools. we must make “theory into action” our personal mantra.” (Seidel 2006:11). and teaching and learning are profoundly human enterprises…. they’re institutions. my theory books seem to function more as fetishes. Accepted as part of an ideology. Even though that’s their purpose. this is an issue with high stakes. talismans of my ideological orientation used for inspirational quotations. In the quest to encourage our students to reject capitalist culture and the state by altering their behavior and mindsets. Director of Project Zero at Harvard. is this book a good tool? Yes and no. In my professional life as a first-year elementary school teacher. It is also a transformative ritual on the route to actual social change. Considering the state of constant crisis the United States’ educational system is in.Theory in Action GAP BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE A good set of tools is necessary to translate theory into action. By anchoring the believer in a 127 . For a theoretical book to help a reader bridge her own theory-action gap. and they’re very hard places to do that work. explains the gap from the humanistic perspective as follows: “One of the big ironies is that schools are the primary institutions set up for the explicit purpose of teaching and learning.
I agree even more strongly with scholars such as Lisa Delpit. and Herbert Kohl that education must also be culturally-responsive. a more sensitive treatment of anarchist education would ideally take a more critical stance toward the oversights of previous anarchist thinkers. linguistic background. and freedom. theory becomes a vehicle for developing a personal praxis. Emma Goldman. and other writers I referenced in this piece that anarchist education should be experiential. Matt Hern. One may read this book as a tool for developing a strategy of anarchist education. William Ayers. however. can be theoretically informed. A strategy. The book is useful for its bibliography and introduction. I would like to conclude with a brief discussion of some of the thinking that my reading in this area has stimulated: I want to offer some ideas beyond the teaching of abstract or universal anarchist moral values. Scientific rationalism might not be the best way toward reason. requires a deep and nuanced understanding of community particularities (including differences in ethnicity. practical. but its philosophical perspectives don’t necessarily respond to an everyday reality of being in a pluralistic society. we are linking our theory of what is going on and how we want to change it with the practices that seek to make change (direct action). race. If our tactics agree with our strategy. To implement this strategy in the real-world environment of the contemporary United States. I certainly agree with Suissa. holistic. It is this specialized knowledge that can link our historical understanding of anarchist educationalist theory with the tactics we must develop in our own communities to change the way we educate each other and ourselves. etc. and as student-oriented and as non-coercive as possible.) as well as a well-developed familiarity with the structures of domination characteristic of life in a post-industrial late-capitalist culture.Laini Szostkowski worldview. the theory-practice transition is often articulated in debates about “strategies” and “tactics” during actions. In anarchist organizing. attuned to the myriad differences in 128 . meaningful. The “natural state” of humans remains thoroughly contested territory. class. although the belief in human freedom (that reciprocal awareness that grows into the genuine respect for each other that is the foundation of social justice) is nevertheless central to anarchism even today. as the overall framework for affecting change. In seeking to create an “anarchist curriculum” to address our current state of global crisis and stimulate social change on both macro and micro scales. gender. If anarchist education is about connecting learning with living (in order to transform society).
“education” in the form of “information giving about issues” is such a prevalent modality of learning in the contemporary United States that for the sake of remaining practical and relevant I have chosen to focus my ideal anarchist curriculum on six content areas. and what it is we fight against.Theory in Action makeup that make all humans unique. corrupted as it has become. However. and the structure of government. Unfortunately. and community resistance stories. The first three areas would consist of “big picture” subjects. or rural— that make the learning community unique. 129 . the founding of the town. and family life. students will be able to better conceive of what it might take to make the community self-sufficient. many people don’t know anything about where products come from. we have the responsibility as elder community members to inform them about what it is we fight for. The political process. but aware of the larger patterns of oppression and hierarchy that designate us as group members outside of our own communities. by understanding how laws are made. By learning about the features of the landscape—whether urban. if any. The other three would be in the realm of local particularities. of these are addressed in most schools today. Few. and political process education. community history. The United States is primarily a consumer society. students are better equipped to critically reflect on the changes that must be made if we are to survive the next century. “Family” can be defined broadly. suburban. how money. or advertising works. Social networks help confine power to particular groups of people generation after generation. the roles politicians play. Social networking is another way that late-capitalists operate in the world. similar to anthropology’s concept of Traditional Ecological Knowledge). credit. is also something that is useful to understand at any age. subjects that are designed to make students more aware of themselves and their community: these consist of knowledge of community resources (both “natural” and “cultural”. If we—as anarchist teachers—seek to accompany younger students in their own learning journeys rather than lead them along our predetermined paths. and allow students to become more aware of current conditions: these consist of consumer education. or why consumption is the dominant mode of capitalism in this country and at what cost that is made possible. social relations and networking education. successive waves of gentrification. as well as what resources the community would acquire by partnering with others. Community history could encompass the region’s native inhabitants. Media education could be intertwined with all three of these areas. and many technologies that shape all classes of people today are based on this model of social relations.
Voltairine De Cleyre. or common experience. as “to remain in a continually exalted moral condition is no human nature” (1932:11). However. having to do with the intellect and sprit of a people. claims that the Revolutionary leaders advocated public education “to inculcate [a] proud spirit of the supremacy of the people over their governors” (De Cleyre 1932:8). Students who share their family lives with one another gain a sense of human difference and similarity that is truly intimate. thus turning the school system into an engine of shallow patriotism and commercial worship and stripping it of its plebian power (De Cleyre 1932:14). the diversity of tactics that can bring success to an action can be translated from the streets to the classroom. one that is also the heart of Empire. and community projects…just to name a few possibilities. In this way. the spirit of the Revolution became overpowered by the expanding interests of Government and Commerce. these issues are grounded in the material conditions of life in an existing multicultural democracy. or other bonds of enduring and diffuse solidarity are all families. Education and its relationship to the state and capital has long been a topic of anarchist debate. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. in a brilliant essay on Anarchism and American Traditions. preying upon the people. for the nature of government is to become a thing apart. let them never entrust that instruction to any government. if the believers in liberty wish the principles of liberty taught. 130 . If we remove the veil of liberal neutrality and ahistorical universality from Suissa’s interpretation of anarchist educationalist philosophy and focus instead on the historical and locational specificity of America in 2012. real-life examples. is probably the most subtle and far-reaching engine for molding the course of a nation (De Cleyre 1932:10). and teaching whatever will tend to keep it secret in its seat…public education. De Cleyre laments that. or to the classroom in the street. through imaginative games. I believe that all of these content areas could be addressed in meaningful ways in classes of all ages and backgrounds.Laini Szostkowski those related by blood. she notes. role-playing. the high ideals of early American public education were corrupted by the interests of capital. an institution existing for its own sake. social design experiments.
not only to empower those who are subjects of the system. for that matter). Those who educate the materially privileged have just as much a responsibility to treat them as free beings. has not become the equalizing force that teachers and politicians alike so desperately wanted it to be (Hern 1998). does not take any predetermined form. why not try it? One might say that education in the US today could have multiple aims. as Suissa claims. as proven time and time again in studies of public school systems. Despite a drastic increase in funding for special services. to teach the children of power not to rebel against their families. If the anarchist revolution. but also to nurture the radical potential in children (and in all of us. If education should really mean anything at all. to dismantle the system from the top-down as well as the bottom up. however. many writers and politicians lament the decline of public education. and the establishment of a good many alternative schools. They should not hold them up as leaders to a brighter future. Universal compulsory education. but to contribute to the ideological diversity of their own communities. it may be just as constructive to deschool as to school. In this way alone can we hope for the free individual and eventually also for a free community. If anarchist thought could fix our failing schools. It is what makes them so dangerous to established order that they are compulsorily imprisoned for the majority of their young lives in buildings where they are expected to perform absurd tasks for an unclear end. it must insist upon the free growth and development of the innate forces and tendencies of the child. 131 . but to become non-subjects of dominant institutions by encouraging them to think for themselves. which shall make interference and coercion of human growth impossible [Goldman 1906]. Doling out the same curriculum (whether it is explicitly ideological or “fact-based”) to students with radically different life experiences does not level the playing field. it simply frustrates the majority of students whose experiences of America no longer are the echoes of the Revolutionary War.Theory in Action Indeed. numerous but significant attempts at educational reform. the same criticism has been leveled at the US public school system for the past century. nor convince them to superficially reject their privilege and their parents. then we need not reject her claim that schools are important to the movement.
Dutton & Co. Daniel. Celebration of Awareness: A Call for Institutional Revolution. Ivan.1. Goldman. Kohl. Oakland: AK Press. Pierre-Joseph.org/articles/SA/en/display/130 Holt. Instead of Education. 2011.” London: Children’s Legal Centre. 1998. Rodriguez. Matt. 2. Lisa. 2009. The Modern School Movement: Anarchism and Education in the United States. April 1906. NY: Doubleday Anchor Press. 2010. How Children Learn. 1994. They Make You Feel Small: SelfDetermination for Children.org/files/27118-h/27118h. Luis. “The Anarchists on Education. Doubleday Anchor. 2012. 2011.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/cleyre/amertrad.gutenberg.org/content/article. NY: Doubleday Anchor.P. Anarchy Works.” Mother Earth. Ivan. The Anarchist Library. Wendy. MA: The Sudbury Valley School Press. The Anarchist Library. Accessed 24 April. Illich. Garden City.” http://www. Peter. Holt. 132 . 1967. Paul.pmpress. 1969. “The Promise of Deschooling. ed. 1996. Everywhere All the Time: A New Deschooling Reader. 1995. 1970. I have had to rely on sources to which I had public library access. Ardent Press. 2008. Avrich. 2010. New York: Harper & Row. 1971. De Cleyre. New York: E. Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. “Anarchism and American Traditions. http://dwardmac. Oakland: AK Press. 1966. 1976. Framingham. “Always Running” in City Kids. New York: The New Press. hooks. eds. Selected Writings of P-J Proudhon.html Delpit. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. Herbert. Free at Last: The Sudbury Valley School. or widely-available articles. Gelderloos. New York: The New Press. 1986. New York: Routeledge. Vol. PM Press. “Authors: Judith Suissa. Proudhon. 1906. New York: The New Press. Leonard and Lewis Perry.” Patterns of Anarchy: A Collection of Writings on the Anarchist Tradition.nothingness. “As Soon As You’re Born. Emma.pitzer. Hern. As I am not currently affiliated with an academic institution. 2006. 1932. Ayotte. ed.” Chicago: Free Society Group. William Ayers and Patricia Ford. eds. The Anarchist Library. “The Child and Its Enemies. http://library. “I Won’t Learn From You!” And Other Thoughts on Creative Maladjustment. Matt. Illich.Laini Szostkowski SOURCES CITED AND CONSULTED I am indebted to James Herod. John. No. Krimerman. 1998. Stewart Edwards.htm#Page_7 Greenberg. who provided me with access to many out of print articles from his extensive library. Garden City. bell. Hern.” Social Anarchism 25. City Teachers. 2006. http://www. International Anarchies Publishing Committee of America. New York: Pitman Publishing Corporation. John.php?story=JudithSuissa . Deschooling Society. Voltairine.
Ellen Gordon. 1-19. Reeves. Ward. Colin. 133 .” in The New Press Education Reader: Leading Educators Speak Out. “To Be a Teacher: Experts Talk About What It Takes To Be a Great Educator. et al. New York: The New Press. 1995. Steven. London: Freedom Press. “The Anarchists and Schools” in Talking School: Ten Lectures. 2006. Pp.Theory in Action Seidel. ed.
ISBN: 9781604861143 Laini Szostkowski 134 Book Review: Making Cities Work: Prospects and Policies for Urban America by Robert Inman (ed. PM Press. Steven Best. Pp.95 (Paperback).95 (Hardcover). $31. 2010. Pp. ISBN: 9780691131054 Greg Beach Journal of the Transformative Studies Institute . Nocella. Jackson 120 Book Review: Anarchism and Education: A Philosophical Perspective by Judith Suissa. $19. Pp. Pumar and Adam Sitsis 73 Globalizing the social movements? Labour and the World Social Forum Timothy Kerswell 93 The Cartel Model and Motions for the Agenda: Israel as a Case Study (2003-2009) Akirav Osnat 117 Book Review: Academic Repression: Reflections from the Academic Industrial Complex edited by Anthony J. Transnational Marriages and Shifting Nationalist Discourse in South Korea Sohoon Lee 31 A Paradox of Street Survival: Street Masteries Influencing Runaways’ Motivations to Maintain Street Life Todd William Greene 58 Educational Attainment in a High Performing School District: The Relative Significance of Class Enrique S. AK Press. 590.Volume 5 Number 3 July 2012 Theory In Action IN THIS ISSUE 1 Those Who Can Become “Foreign Koreans”: Globalisation. Peter McLaren. 378. Princeton University Press. 176. $24.). 2009. ISBN: 9781904589987 Raphael D. 2010.95 (Paperback).
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Editor-in-Chief John Asimakopoulos. Villanova University Founding Editor John Asimakopoulos. University of California. Middlesex University. Los Angeles Deric Shannon. London Peter McLaren. University of Connecticut Book Review Editors Eric Buck. SUNY-Canton Associate Editors Corey Dolgon. CUNY-Bronx Editorial Board Mihaela Albu William Armaline John Asimakopoulos Steve Best Marc Bousquet Eric Buck Graham Cassano Vanny Chang Jay Corwin Abraham DeLeon Corey Dolgon Luis Fernandez Victoria Fontan Ben Frymer Carol Gigliotti Richard Gilman-Opalsky Rodica Grigore Richard Van Heertum Dave Hill Joy James Patrrice Jones Paul Jonker Nathan Jun Caroline Kaltefleiter Ruth Kinna Michael Loadenthal Elsa Karen Márquez-Aponte Peter McLaren Mechthild Nagel Jesus Lopez Pelaez Michael Parenti Emma Pérez Clayton Pierce Christian A. Sociatecture Eva-Maria Swidler. CUNY-Bronx Editor Ali Shehzad Zaidi.I. Schlaerth Deric Shannon Jeffrey Shantz Stephen Sheehi Kyung Ja (Sindy) Shin Stevphen Shukaitis Eva-Maria Swidler Caroline Tauxe Bill Templer Sviatoslav Voloshin Ali Shehzad Zaidi . Stonehill College Dave Hill.
$24.95 (Paperback). 176. Peter McLaren. Nocella. $19. Jackson Book Review: Anarchism and Education: A Philosophical Perspective by Judith Suissa. 5. Pp. 2010. 378. Pp. 2009. 3 1 July 2012 Those Who Can Become “Foreign Koreans”: Globalisation. Princeton University Press. 2010. $31. PM Press. AK Press. No. ISBN: 9781604861143 Laini Szostkowski Book Review: Making Cities Work: Prospects and Policies for Urban America by Robert Inman (ed.CONTENTS Vol. ISBN: 9780691131054 Greg Beach 31 58 73 93 117 120 134 . Pp. ISBN: 9781904589987 Raphael D. Steven Best. 590. Pumar and Adam Sitsis Globalizing the social movements? Labour and the World Social Forum Timothy Kerswell The Cartel Model and Motions for the Agenda: Israel as a Case Study (2003-2009) Akirav Osnat Book Review: Academic Repression: Reflections from the Academic Industrial Complex edited by Anthony J.95 (Hardcover). Transnational Marriages and Shifting Nationalist Discourse in South Korea Sohoon Lee A Paradox of Street Survival: Street Masteries Influencing Runaways’ Motivations to Maintain Street Life Todd William Greene Educational Attainment in a High Performing School District: The Relative Significance of Class Enrique S.95 (Paperback).).
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