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Th.,e:[!e are three major challenges in. p e:[J501~n'1a:n.oe :n1.,eaS1IJ1!8in'l,e:nit namely: D efining p e:[J501~n'1a:n.oe eesnrements and :KP'ills,'V;e:[ifying messueement m

results, Explaining measurement results, illnthis article i provide an insight into BLOCK ERR·.O'R.FL~TE (BLERJ :M:E.\,S:UREM:EN"TS.
Blo ck '8i[~l'\OI~ (EtER] is an analysis l~a.t,e interface, Using of transmission ,e:[~'['\OI~iS the radio on



BLER. is a. :KP'ill,oBca.1IJSeit is a. formula .. It is based on.

analysis of cyclic redundancy cheek (CR'.C] results IDOl~ radio link control (R'LC) transp ort blocks and computed by ae:fining the relation bet\\i,ee:n the numbers of RLC transport blocks with eRe ,e:[~'['\OI~ indication and the total number of transmitted transport below; blocks as 'e:KlP'['1~ssJ®d in. Equation.


B:LER, is Ull81aJiSilJmOO ~sepaJ1~atleill.y the uplink and downlink on,

direction, which is

mandatory, because in 'D"R..~ frequency division duplex ("FDI:D] mode uplink and downlink data is transmitted using different frequency bands, There is no measuremeot report in lITR..~ that contains uplink B:LER,values although 'D,L B:LER, is an important criterion for the radio network controller (Rl"'f(:]to n~aJ.ikle andover dscisions based on uplink transmission quality, h :Du,le to the fact that 'D,L B:LER. is only OOnlpiiIJ.tIOO and used in the FJ\li,C internally it also is only available inside KN,C software and ,aJ;S a. rule is not shown in a:ny performance measurement statistics, Th,Ie:~!e.IDon!e., a typical it is example m01~ performance measurement bBliSOO P~~OtIO analysis, The 'D,L on col B:LER, is especially a. Vle:~1' critical parameter to :nl,1eaiSU1!8 user perceived quality of services using R'LC transparent mode, 'D,L B:LER, ean also be used to estimate the uplink transmission quality of a, call, lin this case it is not nl8;Cl~~~aJ:~11 differentiate between transp 011: ena:runl~s that carry user plane to and control plane information, :M:I~~!eill.y count transport blocks and their ,CR"C indicato1~8 according to the standard m01~n]U~aJ, given at the hegirunin.g of this chapter, no matter to which transport ena:runle]_~siU~IiB! transport blocks belong.


to uplink, block [eir,[~o:r rate :Downlink (,D:L]B:LER, does not need to measureenent equipment to compute based it
0:0. 0:0.


competed by any performance


block counters,

N[eilh,leil~ it is meaningful

lub, because

transmission ereors will appear o:n 'Uu ,_ after data. has been ~:;eintito the cell via Iub in downlink, The job to and report :DI:L B:LER, is assigned to IFE using the RR(~ rneasurernend control message,




reported periodically or if a, predefined threshold of transport channels is exceeded, From the
p-oint of view the disadvantage

(~R',C [eil~l-:'ro'rs on downlink
performance monitoring

of event-triggered

reporting is that 0:0.[81 can, no longer IDOUO'li;V' a, certain measurement over a long p:elind of nU},[8!. ill:nsL[81aJ.donly single psak values ([8iXoeptio:ns] a1-:'r8! reported while

all normal values are hidden,

'CaJ:!t1!, observed that th,e number of monitored eRC errors increases be especially a, short time before and short time a.f.t'8i[~adio [ink additions in. soft r handover situations, :M:ost errors,~ which cannot he oomeensated usin~ macro~ diversity filtering, also 0 ccur in these time frames, which a:l~e'Us1lJ!laJMy longer not than, 6 o o ms [maximum], and on ,a.VIe:l~,a.g}e approximately ame 2\5,'~ rns, Th,'eil~e.IDol~e"makes sensa to correlate RRC measurement rep orts as well as it :rn8;oSS~aJ~18;oS to leiKlBCtlt,e RRC Active S et Update pro cedure with BLER used the measurements, because it helps to optimize settings for measurements that trigger; radio link additions. Similar investigationcould he donie for triggering hard handover to diU8([~8(ntlrl'~tu""\f frequencies or to different radio access tlBchno[ogi8;os (~~1'8].
ill t

can he observed that the number of monitored eRC errors increases 18;oSP:BCiaJMy a, short time before and short time after radio [ink additions in soft handover situations, :M:osterrors, which cannot he compensated using macrodiversity filtering, a190 0 ccur in these time frames, which a:[~eusually not longer than, 16 o ms [maximum), and on a,VI8(ra~le approximately o are 2\;],0 ms, Therefore it makes :§8(nBeto correlate RRC measuremertt rep orts as well as messages USlBdto 18!.i'{IBCtl.t,e RRC Active Set Update procedure with the BLER measurements, because it hleill.p~s optimize settings for measm-ements to that trigger radio link additions, Similar investigation could he donie mOl~ triggering hard handover to different 'Ul'~~ frequencies 01~to different radio access technologies (~~1'~].
ill t

services the receiving R'LC [entity OI the SRN,C '~\IilTI. order cB], retransmission OI corrupted frames and ID01~ retransmissions the full bandwidth OI cB], [0'4.kbps radio bearer is available without limitation .. Hence, high 'D,L BLER. cannot be the root cause OI low transp 01~ channel throughput, ill must therefore be assumed that throughput is 1l0'~N because there is no Itl1.01!e t data ito be transmitted in the uplink direction, and due to radio transmission oo:nditio:ns 'D,L BLER, always rises if ,any data. is transmitted in the uplink direction .
illI'D,L BLER, is high

can be found when analyzing 'D,L BLER, and thmo1lJlghput OI :P'S, alls. 'D,L BLER. is always high if throughput e is low and vice

possible correlation