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Power System Security

•Introduction •Major functions of power system security •Operating states of power system •FACTORS affecting on power system security •Security analysis •Contingency analysis •Sensitivity factor •AC Power flow method •Contingency relaxation

Introduction
• System security involves practices suitably designed to keep the system operating when components fail. • If the process of cascading failures continues, the system as a whole or its major parts may completely collapse. This is normally referred to as a System blackout. • A particular system state is said to be secure only with reference to one or more specific contingency cases, and a given set of quantities monitored for violation. • Most power systems are operated in such a way that any single contingency will not leave other components heavily overloaded, so that cascading failures are avoided.

Major Functions of Power System Security
I. System Monitoring II. Contingency Analysis III. Corrective Action Analysis

System Monitoring
• System monitoring supplies the power system operators or dispatchers with up to date information on the conditions of the power system on real time basis as load and generation change. • Telemetry systems measure, monitor and transmit the data, voltages, currents, line flows, status of circuit breakers, frequency, generator outputs and transformer tap positions in every substation in a transmission network. • Digital computers in a control center then process the telemeter data and place them in a data base form and inform the operators in case of an overload or out of limit voltage. • Alarm or warnings must be given if required.

Contingency Analysis
• Many of the problems that occur on a power system can cause serious trouble within such a quick time period that the operator could not take action fast enough. This is often the case with cascading failures. • Because of this aspect of systems operation, modern operations computers are equipped with contingency analysis programs that model possible system troubles before they arise. • These programs are based on a model of the power system and are used to study outage events and alarm the operators to any potential overloads or out of limit voltages.

Corrective Action Analysis
• Corrective action analysis permits the operator to change the operation of the power system if a contingency analysis program predicts a serious problem in the event of the occurrence of a certain outage. • Thus this provides preventive and post contingency control. • A simple example of corrective action is the shifting of generation from one station to another. • This may result in change in power flows and causing a change in loading on overloaded lines.

Operating state of power system
• Equality constraints:- Real and Reactive power balance at each node. • Inequality constraints:- Limitations of physical equipment such as currents and voltages must not exceed maximum limits. • Five operating states of power system I. Normal state II. Alert state III. Emergency state IV. Extremis state V. Restorative state.

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• Normal state:- All equality and inequality constraints are satisfied. Generation is adequate to supply the existing load demand and no equipment is overloaded. • Alert state:- The security level is below some threshold of adequacy. This implies that there is a danger of violating some of the inequality constraints when subjected to disturbances. • Emergency state:- Due to severe disturbance, the system can enter emergency state. Here inequality constraints are violated. The system would still be intact, and emergency control action could be initiated to restore the system to an alert state. • Extremis state:- Here, both equality and inequality constraints are violated. The violation of equality constraints implies that parts of the system load are lost. Emergency control action should be directed at avoiding total collapse.

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• Restorative state:- This is a transitional state in which inequality constraints are met from emergency control actions taken but the equality constraints are yet to be satisfied.  From this state the system can transmit to either the alert or the normal state depending on the circumstances.

FACTORS affecting on power system security
• As a consequence of many wide spread blackout in interconnected power systems, the priorities for operation of modern power system have evolved to the following: I. Operate the system in such a way that power is delivered reliably. II. Within the constraints placed on the system operation by reliability considerations, the system will be operated most economically. • Engineering groups who have designed the power system’s transmission and generation systems have done so with reliability in mind. • This means that adequate generation has been installed to meet the load and that adequate transmission has been installed to deliver the generated power to the load.

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• If the operation of the system went on without sudden failures or without experiencing unanticipated operating states, we would probably have no reliability problems. • However, any piece of equipment in the system can fail, either due to internal causes or due to external causes such as lightning strikes, object hitting transmission towers, or human errors in setting relays. • It is highly uneconomical to build a power system with so much redundancy (extra transmission line, reserve generation, etc..) that failures never cause load to be dropped on a system. • Rather, system are designed so that the probability of dropping load is small. • Thus, the power systems are designed to have sufficient redundancy to withstand all major failures events.

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• 1. 2. • There are two major types of failure events, Transmission line outages Generation unit failures Transmission line failures cause changes in the line flows and voltages on the transmission equipment remaining connected to the system. • Therefore, the analysis of transmission failures requires method to predict these flows and voltages so as to be sure they are within their respective limits. • Generation failures can also cause flows and voltages to change in the transmission system, with the addition of dynamic problems involving system frequency and generator output.

Security analysis
• 1. 2. • • • • 1. 2. System security can be broken down into two major functions: Security assessment Security control The former gives the security level of the operating state. The later determines the appropriate security constrained scheduling required to optimally attain the target security level. System security assessment is the process by which any violations are detected. System assessment involves two functions: System monitoring Contingency analysis

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• System monitoring provides the operator of the power system with up to date information on the current conditions of the P.S. • Contingency analysis is much more demanding and normally performed in three states, i.e. Contingency definition, selection and evaluation. • Contingency definition gives the list of contingencies to be processed whose probability of occurrence is high. This list is in terms of network changes, i.e. branch and/or injection outages. • These contingencies are ranked in rough order of severity employing contingency selection algorithm to shorten the list. • Contingency evaluation is then performed (using AC power flow) on the successive individual cases in decreasing order of severity. • The evaluation process is continue up to the point where no post contingency violations are encountered.

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• The second major function, security control, allows operating personnel to change the power system operation in the event that a contingency analysis program predicts a serious problem, should a certain outage occur. • Normally it is achieved through Security Constrained Optimization(SCO) program.

Contingency Analysis
• The purpose of contingency analysis is to identify the list of contingencies that if occur would create violations in the system operating states. They are ranked in order of severity.

Contingency analysis

Base case AC line flow

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Post Outage AC load flow

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Post outage AC load flow

Contingency analysis

Sensitivity Factors
• The problem of studying thousands of possible outages becomes very difficult to solve if it is desired to present the results quickly. • It is easy to solve it with linear sensitivity factors. • These factors show the approximate change in line flows for changes in generation on the network configuration. • There are two types; 1. Generation Shift Factors 2. Line Outage Distribution Factors.

Generation Shift Factors
• Where , l= line index, i= bus index • = change in megawatt power flow on line l when a change in generation, ∆Pi occurs at bus i. • ∆Pi= change in generation at bus i. • It is assumed that the change in generation , ∆Pi , is exactly compensated by an opposite change in generation at the reference bus, and that all other generation remain fixed. • The factors then represents the sensitivity of the flow on line l to a change in generation at bus i.

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• If the generator was generating MW and it was lost, then new power flow on each line in the network is given by, Where, = flow on line l after the generator on bus i fails. = flow before the failure. • The outage flow on each line can be compared to its limit and those exceeding their limit flagged for alarming. • This would tell the operations personnel that the loss of the generator on bus i would result in an overload on line.

Line outage distribution factor
• It is apply to the testing for overloads when transmission circuits are lost.

• Where , = line outage distribution factor when monitoring line l after an outage on line k. = Change in MW flow on line l. = Original flow on line k before it was outage. The flow on line l with k out can be given by,

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• Where, , = Preoutage flows on lines l and k, respectively. = Flow on line l with line k out. • By precalculating the line outage distribution factor a very fast procedure can be set up to test all lines in the network for overload for the outage of a particular line.

AC Power flow method

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• This procedure will determine the overloads and voltage limit violations accurately. • Drawback:- Its take more time to execute. • If the list of outages has several thousands entries then total time to test for all of the outages can be too long. • Solution:-Select contingencies in such a way that only those that are likely to result in an overload or voltage limit violation will study. The other cases will go unanalyzed.

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• There are two sources of error can arise during selecting the bad cases from full outage case list. 1. Placing too many cases on the short list. 2. Skipping cases.:-A case that would have shown a problem is not placed on the short list and results in possibly having that outage take place and cause trouble without the operators being warned.

Contingency selection(1P1Q)
• To measure how much a particular outage might affect the power system, performance index (PI) is used.

• The PI will be small value if all flows are within limit, and it will be large if one or more lines are overloaded. 1. Calculate PI value for each line and order them fro largest value to least. The lines corresponding to the top of the list are then the candidates for the short list. 2. Simply ordered the PI table and then picked the top Nc entries from the list and placed them on the short list.

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• • • • 1. 1P1Q method is used to perform an outage case selection. Decoupled power flow is used. The solution procedure is interrupted after one iteration. Advantage:Give sufficient information in the solution at the end of the first iteration of the decoupled power flow to give a reasonable PI. 2. The voltages can also be included in the PI.