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Physics 5013 Mathematical Methods of Physics

# Physics 5013 Mathematical Methods of Physics

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Chauchy’s theorem states that if f(z) is analytic at all points on and inside a

closed contour C, then the integral of the function around that contour vanishes,

C

f(z)dz = 0.

(5.16)

5.5. CAUCHY’S THEOREM

45 Version of October 1, 2011

C

ffw

Ci

Figure 5.3: The integral around the contour C may be replaced by the sum of

integrals around the subcontours Ci.

Proof: Subdivide the region inside the contour in the manner shown in

Fig. 5.3. Obviously

C

f(z)dz =

i

Ci

f(z)dz,

(5.17)

where Ci is the closed path around one of the mesh elements, since the con-
tribution from the side common to two adjacent subcontours evidently cancels,

leaving only the contribution from the exterior boundary. Now because f is

analytic throughout the region, we may write for small δz

f(z + δz) = f(z) + δz f′

(z) +O(δz2

),

(5.18)

where O(δz2

) means only that the remainder goes to zero faster that δz. We

apply this result by assuming that we have a ﬁne mesh subdividing C—we are
interested in the limit in which the largest mesh element goes to zero. Let zi be

a representative point within the ith mesh element (for example, the center).
Then

Ci

f(z)dz = f(zi)

Ci

dz + f′

(zi)

Ci

(zzi)dz +

Ci

O((zzi)2

)dz. (5.19)

Now it is easily seen that for an arbitrary contour Ci

Ci

dz =

Ci

(zzi)dz = 0,

(5.20)

so if the length of the cell is ε,

Ci

f(z)dz = O(ε3

) = AiO(ε),

(5.21)

which is to say that the integral around the ith cell goes to zero faster than the
area Ai of the ith cell. Thus the integral required is

C

f(z)dz =

i

AiO(ε) = AO(ε),

(5.22)

46 Version of October 1, 2011 CHAPTER 5. ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS

y

C

d

d

d

d

d

d

d

d

d

d

R

Figure 5.4: A multiply connected region R consisting of the area within a tri-

angle but outside of an circular region. The closed contour C cannot be contin-
uously deformed to a point without crossing into the disk, which is outside the

region R.

where A is the ﬁnite area contained within the contour C. As the subdivision
becomes ﬁner and ﬁner, ε 0 and so

C

f(z)dz = 0.

(5.23)

To state a more general form of Cauchy’s theorem, we need the concept of
a simply connected region. A simply connected region R is one in which any

closed contour C lying in R may be continuously shrunk to a point without

ever leaving R. Fig. 5.4 is an illustration of a multiply connected region. C lies
entirely within R, yet it cannot be shrunk to a point because of the excluded

region inside it.

We can now restate Cauchy’s theorem as follows: If f is analytic in a simply

connected region R then

C

f(z)dz = 0

(5.24)

for any closed contour C in R.

That simple connectivity is required here is seen by the example of the

function 1/z, which is analytic in any region excluding the origin.
Here is another proof of Cauchy’s theorem, as given in the book by Morse

and Feshbach. If the closed contour C lies in a simply-connected region where
f′

(z) exists then

C

f(z)dz = 0.

(5.25)

Proof: Let us choose the origin to lie in the region of analyticity (if it does

not, change variables so that z = 0 lies within C). Deﬁne

F(λ) = λ

C

f(λz)dz.

(5.26)

Then the derivative of this function of λ is

F′

(λ) =

C

f(λz)dz + λ

C

zf′

(λz)dz

5.6. CAUCHY’S INTEGRAL FORMULA

47 Version of October 1, 2011

'

&

\$

%

C

i

C′

C′′

γ

¡

z0

Figure 5.5: Distortion of a contour C to a small one γ encircling the singularity

at z0.

=

C

f(λz)dz + zf(λz)

z=endof C

z=beginningof C

C

f(λz)dz = 0, (5.27)

where we have integrated by parts, because the function f is single valued. Thus
F(λ) is constant. But

F(0) = lim

λ→0

λ

C

f(λz)dz = lim

λ→0

λC

f(z)dz = 0

(5.28)

because f(0) is bounded because f is analytic at the origin. (We have deformed

the contour to an inﬁnitesimal one about the origin.) Thus we conclude that

F(1) = 0. This proves the theorem.

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