Popular Struggles & Movements

Nepal…
• • • • Won democracy in 1990. Formal power was with the King. Real power with elected representatives. 2001 – Massacre of Royal Family, Gyanendra took charge. • 2005 – Dissolution of Parliament. • 2006 - Popular control over Govt. headed by the King. • 7 Party alliance called for a 4 day strike. Maoists & other organisations joined. • 21st April, King conceded to all demands leading to : 9)Restoration of Parliament. 10)Seizure of power from the Ruler. 11)To make Koirala Prime Minister. • Maoists & SPA came to an agreement about a

Bolivia…
Fight against Privatisation of Water 2)World Bank pressurised Government to give up control of Municipal Water supply. 3)Sale of rights to a MNC for the City of Cochabamba. 4)Company raised the price of water 4 times. 5)4 day general strike by Labour and Human Rights and Community leaders. 6)Government agreed to negotiate. 7)Power of the people forced MNC to flee & made Government to concede to all

Similarities…

Differences…

Two way roles of these organisations are …
• Direct participation in competitive politics • Creation of parties contesting elections and forming Governments

Formation of Organisations…

• Those organisations that undertake activities to promote their interest are called INTEREST GROUPS or PRESSURE GROUPS. PRESSURE GROUPS : • Influence Government policies • Do not aim at directly controlling or sharing political power. • Formed when people with common occupation, interests, aspirations or opinions come together to achieve a common objective.

Pressure Groups…
Movements : Narmada Bachao Andolan Women’s Movement • Influence politics rather than directly take part in electoral competition • They are loose organisations • Make informal decisions and are flexible • They depend on spontaneous mass participation

Interest Groups…organisations • Are united
• Do not care much for mass participation • Promote the interest of a particular section or group of society • Example : Trade Unions, Business Associations & Professional Bodies

Sectional • Groups… Represent a section of society

• Example : Workers, Employees, Business Groups, Industrialists, Followers of Religion & Caste Groups • Aims : Betterment of their members & not society in general

Groups…
FEDECOR (Feracion Departamental Cochabambina de Regantes) • Represents some common or general interest that needs to be defended. • Members may not benefit from the cause that the organisation represents.

Promotional Groups
• Promote collective good • Aim to help groups rather than their own members • Group fighting against bonded labour is an example • They are also called public interest groups

Groups…
BAMCEF(Backward & Minorities Community Employees Federation) • Made of Govt. employees that campaigns against caste discrimination • It addresses problems of its members who suffer discrimination • Its concern is with social justice and social equality for the entire society

Movement Groups
• Issue specific movements and seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame

Single Issue Movements…
Nepalese Movement • Specific objective of reviving the king’s orders that led to suspension of democracy Narmada Bachao Andolan • Specific issue of people displaced by creation of Sardar Sarovar Dam Objective • To stop the dam • Questioned all such big dams and requirement of such dams • Has a clear leadership and organisation • Active life is short

Long Term & More Than One Issue Movements…
• No single organisation controls /guides such movements. • All these have a separate organisation, independent leadership and different views on policy. Example : • Environmental movement • Women’s movement

• Movement groups struggling on specific issues are constituents of this loose organisation which co ordinates the activities of a large number of people`s movements

National Alliance for People’s Movements(NAPM)…

• • • • •

How do Pressure Groups & Movements exert influence on Politics ? They gain public support and sympathy

for their goals by carrying out information campaigns, meetings and petitions. They influence media by giving attention to these issues Protest activities like strikes are done to force the Government to take note of their demand Business groups employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements They participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the Government

• Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in politics but seek to influence on political parties • Movement groups take a political stance without being a party • They have political ideologies and position on major issues Is their influence healthy? • Pressure groups have deepened democracy. • Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small group of rich and powerful people • Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of countering this influence and reminding the Government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens • Sectional groups prevents the domination of one group over the rest • They bring about a rough balance of power and

Groups…

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