This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SOURCE: PDAM BOGOR CITY
Could you tell the history of ZAMP
We were appointed by Perpamsi (Asso-
ciation of Indonesian Drinking Water Com-
panies) to join a project with USAID. There
were three city PDAMs to join, Medan,
Malang and Bogor. We were supposed to
produce drinking water in the real sense of
the meaning, i.e. which is readily drinkable.
Thus we developed a zone which meet tech-
nical, managerial and social-communication
requirements. Perpamsi and USAID provi-
ded assistance with monitoring device
through CATNIP (Certification and Training
for Network Improvement Project).
Through this project it is expected to pro-
duce a PDAM development pattern for
application in Indonesia, so that in the long
run all PDAMs are able to serve their cus-
tomers with potable water.
Why PDAM of the City of Bogor was
This is up to Perpamsi to answer.
Actually, in terms of management we
meet the prescribed criteria. For your
information, we are one of the few
PDAMs with sufficiently good perform-
ance. And what is certain is that we are
ready because we have been producing
water that meets standard quality for
drinking. But we had never declared it.
What is the opinion of the consu-
mers' community opinion regar-
ding this project?
Positive. The community is pleased
about it. This is evidenced from a survey
we conducted. But as for water consump-
tion, the majority of the consumers still
reserve some doubt for drinking it right
away. Probably because of the image left
by PAM water up to this time. But we are
continuously trying to convince them. At
the launching event last August we in-
vited the mayor of Bogor to take a sip of
the water directly in front of the commu-
nity. Water was directly taken from the
tap. No specific engineering. We also
asked the public leaders who were also
present during the occasion to taste the
water. We hope that the
community would not
hesitate any more. We
guarantee, that the water
is safe for drinking.
No complain whatso-
There was one about
chlorine smell. We expla-
ined that chlorine is need-
ed to kill bacteria in water.
But it is safe for ingestion.
Therefore when the consumers feel that
their water smells chlorine this is a good
sign that the water is safeguarded against
dangerous germs and is good for drink-
ing. For those who feel unpleasant with
the smell, we explain to them how to
overcome it. That is through filling into a
clean and sterile tumbler. Let it stand for
a while and the chlorine smell will
become less as the gas escapes into the
atmosphere. So far our customers have
Up to this time is there any leakages
in the pipe network?
Up to this time there is no complaint.
For the city of Bogor as a whole the leaka-
ge level is at 30 percent. But repairs to
the pipe network of this zone were done
in 2003. This network is equipped with
wash out and gate valves. Also chlorine
monitoring device. In case of leaks we
can detect easily and take the necessary
action. The leaked spot is then isolated.
We hope the present condition can sus-
tain. But anyhow, we are ready around
the clock in case of leaks. We have SOP
for follow and a gang of workers ready for
24 hours every day. That is why we need
a support from the consumers' communi-
ty such as important information regar-
ding water and network condition to our
field worker of directly to our office.
How much was the investment for
Approximately Rp. 200 million.
USAID through Perpamsi provided an
assistance in the purchase of monitoring
equipment at a cost of more
or less Rp. 60 million. The
balance was from our own
From the amount, what
is the biggest cost item?
Monitoring. Of distribu-
tion pipes, and of water qua-
lity, through testing equip-
ment. Plus additionally the
training cost for our labora-
tory personnel to enable
them to properly issue a certification. We
also have to design an SOP. Monitoring is
a continuous activity even up to now. It
should never stop. Along with it we are
conducting socialization to the user com-
Do you think other PDAMs are capa-
ble of initiating a similar project?
I think it depends on the performance of
each of the PDAMs. I don't think everyone
is, considering there are only a few of the
PDAMs are really in a good condition.
Probably there are only a small number.
One of the problems is that it needs capital
investment, while most of the PDAMs are
heavily in debt. This is the constraint.
Do you have any intention to ex-
pand the present ZAMP zone?
Certainly. It is still under discussion.
The present ZAMP is located in the area
of elites where tariff is not a problem. The
Mayor's office is contemplating assuming
this zone is located in the lower middle
strata. Our expectation is, ZAMP can sur-
vive in such an area because it will help to
reduce family's expenditure from boiling
water. It is potential, isn't it?
Does it mean this project can be
expanded into a larger scale service?
Affirmative. Why not. In reality there
are no major changes to the network.
Some modification, yes. And we can
always work in cooperation with private
sector. It is there already in Tangerang.
Raw water is supplied by PDAM, and let
the private sector take care of the network
and everything else. (MJ)
Helmi Soetikno, CEO, PDAM Tirta Pakuan
"It Can Be Expanded Wider"
Many are unaware that water is a
basic need of human being.
Because of its being basic,
drinking water is indispensable. It is no
surprise, therefore, that efforts and
money are spent in order to get water.
Even the price is no limiting factor when
the condition presses for it.
The community around the port of
Tanjung Priok for instance. They do not
hesitate to pay one thousand rupiahs for
one pikul (2 cans each of 35 l of water car-
ried on shoulder with a pole) of water. "If
you do not buy, where else can you get
water? Impossible to take it from a well.
Salty," says Onih, a mother of five chil-
dren who lives in the area of Rawa Cabe,
Cilincing, Jakarta Utara.
Onih is actually a PAM Jaya, public
drinking water company, customer. But
it has been a year not single drop of water
comes to her home, though she has to pay
regularly a monthly subscription fee of
Rp. 10.400. "But for the last four months
I purposely do not pay it. Let it be! What
good it'd be, if water does not flow at all,"
says the woman in her thick Betawi
Similar condition is with Kasmani. A
father of three children he admits that for
the last 4 months he does not have any
water from PAM. "Not a single drop,"
says he and immediately explained that
the same situation is also experienced by
most families within the neighbourhood.
"Strange is, several families in the neigh-
bourhood have their PAM water flows
nicely. This is quite strange, indeed. We
have reported this case, but nothing hap-
pens," he further says.
Both Onih and Kasmani have to push
a cart carrying water cans. Kasmani's
cart has 8 cans, Onih's six. Both of them
buy water from Mrs. Muamanah, their
neighbour. Onih consumes 7 pikuls of
water (14 cans = Rp. 7.000), while Kas-
mani 5 pikuls. Both say that this price is
more expensive than PAM subscription
Mrs. Muamanah, the water seller,
does not say anything about how much
money she earns every day including why
water keeps on flowing in her house while
in all her neighbours' stop. "I am here
just to help them, it is quite a pity if they
have no water at all," she says. But from
behind the wall of the house there is a
hissing sound of a jet pump. It is not
clear whether the pump is sucking water
from PAM network. What may be certain
is that it is impossible to pump up water
from underground because the water is
Within this are and its neighbour-
hood, purchasing water directly to a seller
is quite seldom. Mostly the sellers are
peddling their water directly to customers
at home. They are pushing a cart with
water cans. Sometimes 20 cans full of
Sugeng, water peddler in the neigh-
bourhood of Rawa Badakis able to sell on
average 200 cans (100 pikuls) of water a
day. One pikul costs one thousand rupi-
ahs. While he buys water from a 'public
hydrant' -that is what he calls it- one
thousand rupiahs for 5 pikuls. In one he
can collect Rp. 80 thousand. "But that is
when is in order. Sometimes the flow is
dead, then we cannot do anything," says
Sugeng in his thick Javanese dialect.
With such an income he can hold for 20
years selling water. "I have a number of
steady customers. All are not far from
here. The farthest is 200 metres. Mostly
households. Some are PAM subscribers
ASmall Portrait of Water Service in Thickly Populated Area
Between a Need and a Pity
but water does not flow into their homes,
he continues while inserting a hose into
Similar experience is expressed by
Zaenal Mubarok, a middle aged man has
been in this profession for the last 20
years. Everyday he pushes a cart with 12
cans which he rents from his employer.
"The rent is Rp. 2.000 a day, he explains.
Besides renting a cart for his employer he
together with 4 roommates stay at his
employer's dwelling. He says that he has
a number of steady customers. Most of
his customers, according to him, are not
PAM subscribers. Mostly they live in a
rented house. Water consumption varies,
some at 2 pikuls others up to 5 pikuls. "It
depends on the family," he adds, and fur-
ther he tells us that every 6 weeks he
returns to his hometown in Tasikmalaya
for 2 weeks. Similarly with Sugeng,
Zaenal does not have to go too far to ped-
dle his water.
The water peddlers get their water
from a public hydrant. Some of the
hydrants are marked with: Pilot Public
Hydrant. But how the public hydrant
comes into being within the thickly popu-
lated area, the lurah (equal to village
headman for an urban area) admits that
he has no idea. According to him the
hydrant has been there since a long time
Many might fancy a hydrant as a
building with water taps around it. The
public hydrant of this place is entirely dif-
ferent. This is a close walled building.
Inside there is a reservoir constructed
below ground surface. The dimension va-
ries. At the top of cover there is an electric
pump to move the water up. Not to the
community, but to the peddlers. It is said
this hydran does not belong to the com-
munity any more. It belongs to an indi-
Karno, a watchman supervising a pub-
lic hydrant admits that besides supplying
the water peddlers his hydrant is also for
the good of the surrounding community.
There is an MCK built nearby. But he
admits further that the community contri-
bution is far smaller than that of the ped-
dlers. His daily average income ranges
between Rp. 60-70 thousand. "As the
amount is collected, it is directly handed
over to the boss," he says. He does not
know how much water is used per month
and how much money is paid to PAM.
"That is all for the boss to know," says the
man who has been supervising the
hydrant since the last four years. What he
knows for certain is that water for the
hydrant comes from PAM because a water
meter is there.
Based on a field observation by Percik,
not all of the hydrants are legitimate.
Percik found some hydrants are entirely
illegal. They punch a hole in a water pipe
passing at the roadside, and from there
water is made to continuously flow direct-
ly into a reservoir. As a deception, a piece
of a zinc plate is covered on top of a gutter
that was supposedly a water meter hous-
ing. The hose connecting the PAM pipe to
the reservoir passes through beneath the
zinc covered gutter. There is no meter or
something of that sort but even the water
peddlers say there is a meter under the
cover. The water flows excellently, but
less than 100 m from the hydrant the
PAM users' community have no water at
all. What is the portion of PAM water that
goes into this kind of hydrant business?
No one can tell and apparently needs a
Apart from the abovementioned fact
the demand for drinking water service in
the thickly populated areas such as
Tanjung Priok is real and cannot wait any
longer. They are willing to make a rela-
tively big contribution in order to get the
service. Unfortunately the contribution is
now only for the benefit of water peddlers
and hydrant owners. There is no inten-
tion to prohibit water peddling, though.
Water peddlers are needed by the mem-
bers of the community who have no home
connection from PAM. But one question
must be asked, whether all this time the
PAM users' community has been given the
proper service they deserve. It should be
considered to avoid any deviation of water
appropriation from the decent customers
to irresponsible individuals who care for
nothing except their own business taking
benefit from the existence of the peddlers.
If this is true, it is a big pity indeed. Water
belongs to all of us. (MJ)
Clean water, especially drin-
king water is a human being basic
need. However, the present ma-
nagement does not indicate a seri-
ous attention. There is no umbrel-
la institution especially responsi-
ble for clean water, especially
drinking water management. Cle-
an water management does not
single itself in the treatment of the
existing water but it also includes
conservation efforts for sustain-
able sources of raw water. And the
responsibility for these efforts can-
not be imposed solely upon
PDAMs. That is a part of the opin-
ion of Ir. Ridwan Syahputra
Musagani, CEO of Perpamsi in an
interview with Percik some time
ago in Jakarta. The excerpts are as
How far is PDAM service to the
At national average, our capacity to
serve the community is only up to 20 per-
cent. The remaining 80 percent is
beyond the reach of PDAM all over the
country. If we try to compare other pub-
lic services obviously we are lagging too
far behind. There are many factors
responsible for such a condition. A com-
prehensive knowledge of problems and
their solution. We have to handle these
problems seriously in the future.
What are the constraints?
The most responsible institution for
the provision water supply service to the
community is PDAM. But there are many
hindrances that make PDAM unable to
satisfactorily fulfill its mission in a way
such as Telkom (state owned telecommu-
nication company) and other public ser-
vice companies do. This is caused by se-
veral assumptions, first, from the external
side it is extremely difficult to apply cost
recovery principle, considering there are
so many intricacies involved. Take for
instance, a facility with a coverage capa-
city of 25-30 percent, it is quite difficult to
increase its capacity. For an increment of
1 litre/sec will need an investment up
Rp.50-75 million. To increase 100 li-
tres/sec we will need Rp. 5 billion,
excluding distribution network. Actually
there many aspects that have missed our
attention in view of our commitment that
clean water is a basic need for our daily
life. It is unfortunate indeed that this has
not been widely discussed among the
On the other side, without looking
back into the bitter past, many PDAMs
are being faced major loan problem. As
many as 168 PDAMs are facing this pro-
blem, and it is extremely difficult to pay
back the money. This matter calls for the
attention from many parties in order to
enable PDAMs pay back their loans.
What step does PDAM take to over-
come these issues?
Perpamsi and our colleagues from the
PDAMs have taken various efforts and
suggestions, but so far there has never
been any response from ministry of
Finance. The Directorate level has not
taken any action to process the loan to
PDAM, in spite of approval from the
Legislative Assembly (DPR) through
Commission IX. What seem very strange,
the ministry of Finance seems to have
such a big difficulty in finding a way out
for this case. At present we have a debt
amounted to Rp, 5,3 trillion, in all. Why
the BLBI that amounts to Rp. 144 trillion
was so easy to solve, why is it so difficult
with PDAM? We understand that all of
the national asset must be saved and safe-
guarded. But the government policy must
truly beneficial to the community, espe-
cially if it relates to basic need of the pop-
ulation. Clean water is a basic need for
our life. It seems there a handful of peo-
ple in Dept. of Finace who don't under-
stand this. We don't asked to be spoiled,
we don't ask for forgiveness, but under
the prevailing condition how can we pro-
vide services to the community.
With regard government budget,
what does it look like?
The government has not given an
appropriate budget allocation to drinking
water. This year it is only Rp. 300 billion.
If we want to achieve MDGs target we
need Rp. 50 trillion of investment. Since
it is 10 years from the deadline, we need a
budget of Rp 5 trillion a year. The reality
is Rp 300 billion, what can we do? But we
can understand. There is another source,
i.e. loan. This can be reviewed and dis-
cussed since it relates to drinking water.
But as I see it, the way ministry of finance
handles PDAM loans is quite rigid, con-
servative and traditional. They cannot
see that one day PDAM service of a cer-
tain region may collapse and unable to
provide any serve to the area. If it hap-
pens, who is to blame? We have proposed
a number of alternative solutions to
Directorate General level in ministry of
H. Ridwan Syahputra Musagani, CEO, Perpamsi
"We Need a Water Management Agency"
finance and it was acceptable. But as it
goes down to the subordinate level offi-
cials they were making it a problem again.
We are quite disappointed about it.
What about tariff?
This is our third constraint. Many
would say that PDAM is not professional-
ly managed so that it continuously in red
in spite of it is monopolistic. This is all
right. We are indeed monopolistic in the
sense that the public utility company is
responsible to provide sufficient drinking
water to the community. This represents
a social function, i.e. providing public
services equally and equitably. The ser-
vice is not limited to the rich only.
Suppose the basic tariff or break even
price is so much, we set a price lower than
that. That's what we call subsidized price.
While for business customers we apply a
progressive price. That where we get
some profit. The problem now is what
power does the PDAM have in applying
tariff in a professional manner? None, we
have none. As we try increase the tariff,
the community starts yelling. Stakehol-
ders all disagree. Fine. Then we ask what
about the subsidy? In area A for instance,
the cost of production of 1 litre/sec is Rp
2,5 or Rp. 3 but to a specific community
group we have only to charge Rp. 1 for the
same amount of water, this means a sub-
sidy is given. By whom? By PDAM.
Whereas PDAM is in short of capital,
investment and is burdened with loans,
etc. It seems that PDAM is like a poor but
pretends himself as being rich. It's queer
that everybody is closing his eyes. How
could we make any improvement? It is
obviously not fair. Fertilizers and many
others have specific government policy,
why not with PDAM? Regarding price,
why not make the same treatment as with
Pertamina (state-owned oil company)?
Why the money does not come from the
government? The subsidized money actu-
ally should come from the government,
just like in Thailand. This is obviously
there is a arrogance from those who do
not like improvement in water supply
service. I disagree if some says that the
present PDAM condition is due to lack of
professionalism within PDAM. We
should be thankful since PDAM still sur-
vive under such a condition.
Does it mean that PDAM need a spe-
cific government policy?
We need a serious and honest policy.
We have to be friendly and observe vera-
city and candor. We have to avoid state-
ments that might cause distortion and
erratic conclusion. We heard that 5 years
ago there was a six formula concept for
treating sickly PDAM. This could not be
applied unless the condition is made sta-
ble. Changing PDAM into PT (limited
company) does not touch the real issue.
The policy regarding PDAM should be
treatment equally as it is for any ordinary
business company. As an example, with
Pertamina there is a subsidized price.
What about PDAM?
Fourth issue, control over raw water.
The present raw water condition is entire-
ly different from it was 20 years ago. To
day many rivers are no more recommend-
able for source of raw water. Whose res-
ponsibility is this? In the condition when
the four factors are let loose, while service
capacity is like being choked, now source
of raw water is getting drier, who shall
take the blame? Whether this is solely
management inefficiency? That is not
always the case! We have to be fair in
cases like this. If we are unable to open
our mind and eyes about the national
clean water issues we shouldn't be sur-
prised if we become a nation that is inca-
pable of managing our natural resources
for the interest of the people.
Fifth factor, it might be that this coun-
try lacks an institution that takes care
clean water supply service. That is why
there is that Water Resources Law, which
in spite of some weaknesses it is generally
a good law. But something is more
advanced beyond the PDAM develop-
ment, the institution which has been
managing water supply service. In order
to prevent that someone or institution
says that one is capable of managing
water supply without PDAM. No way. If
one wants to change, just change the
name. The asset shall remain as PDAM's.
So far there is no one taking care of water
supply service. The only one is at central
government level, at ministry of public
work, the Sub-directorate of Clean Water.
What is going on now? With the stipula-
tion of the Law it has been mandated an
establishment of a water management
agency. With the establishment of the
new agency then clean water issue crops
up to surface and is becoming a topic at
the department and cabinet level discus-
sion. With the existence of such an agency
there will be sort of moral suggestion that
government interest to national water
service management is improving. It is
expected that this agency will cover all the
aspects which constitute the main prob-
lem in water supply service in Indonesia.
If we are unable
to open our mind
and eyes about the
water issues we
surprised if we
become a nation
that is incapable
of managing our
for the interest of
From loan, financing, raw water, and oth-
What makes PDAM survive?
Spirit. We optimize what we have as
we go. There are several regions with lim-
ited condition are capable to expand. But
there are also that sink. Therefore PDAM,
Perpamsi, and later Water Management
Agency shall have to work closely together
to enhance the national clean water devel-
opment in accordance with our MDGs tar-
Thus internally PDAM is difficult to
Internal factor is quite closely related
to external factor. This is a sort of pres-
sure, and even an intervention to internal
affairs. Therefore, 5-10 changes in ma-
nagement the situation remains the same.
If we say that PDAM belongs to the
region, whether the central government is
entirely free from any responsibility?
Whereas, speaking of water supply is
speaking about national interest.
What about target for 2015?
I am of the opinion that we have to
achieve that. In 2002 the president
together with other world leaders signed
the Johannesburg Convention about the
commitment of all the nations of the
world to reach 80 percent drinking water
coverage in 2015. If the target is reached
we might not need the water management
agency any more.
Can the target 2015 be achieved
under the present condition?
I think we can. Because we only need
up to Rp. 50 trillion investment to have
our facility complete by that year. Each
year we need Rp. 5 trillion. I think the
government is capable. As you see, if for
writing off the BLBI problematic loans the
government were willing to spend Rp. 15
trillion last year, why not for us.
What is your expectation with the
If the new cabinet is inaugurated, we
will ask the cabinet member in charge of
the office for water supply, whatever the
name might be, to as soon as possible
establish the previously mentioned
agency. Do not wait any longer. In its
establishment we would request that the
institutions presently active in dealing
with clean water be included in its formu-
lation. Because they are the ones who
know exactly the implementation of clean
water service. Let us do away with our
sector egoism. It is not possible that
PDAM be left out just like that. Let us be
together for the sake achieving MDGs
When do you think the service will
reach the whole population?
In 10 years we can do it, provided all
institutions are moving together to the
same direction. What we are expecting is
a positive thinking about clean water
Do you think PDAM would be ready
if the demand were fulfilled by the
Definitely. Because there many who
fail because they do not know what issue
they are dealing with. With PDAM, we
know exactly what we are up to.
What strategy does PDAM has after
MDG is only a new load. A load must
be adjusted with the existing vehicle.
Why should we prepare a big vehicle if
there is very little or no load at all. But we
know what we are going to do.
What support does PDAM expect
from the community?
The community is subject but at the
same time also object. They can deter-
mine PDAM service through tariff con-
tribution. But as it progresses the
capacity of PDAM to fulfill the demand
is decreasing. This makes the communi-
ty's confidence becomes lesser and less-
er. They can have a sufficiently good
quality water at any time if the quality,
quantity and continuity is well main-
tained. If the principle applies, the com-
munity will have no problem in paying
some amount. (mujiyanto)
Jakarta is definitely a host of annual
flooding. The flood scale may be
classified as ordinary, or large as it
was in the beginning of 2002. Many
efforts have been done, but the result is
always below expectation. This is because
flood involves a complexity of issues that
makes it very difficult to trace what mis-
takes have been done in the past and who
should bear the responsibilities.
The attention towards flood is never
constant. At the time of floods, all stake-
holders seem to try to solve the problem.
But the flood recede, the attention fades
out. This is apparently incomparable
with the sadness and sufferings of those
victimized by flood. On the other side,
there are many who make estimates that
sometimes are too far from the reality,
such as next year flood will not be as bad
as the present, and so on. Suddenly one
get startled when an unusually big flood is
coming in. Everyone is stunned.
This book tries to invite the readers to
broaden ones perspective and delve
deeper into the flood related issues which
is more appropriately called water system
issues of Jakarta and its surroundings, a
coverage area of over 6.000 sq. km.
According to the author, these problems
cannot be solved by one or two technical
agencies. Many agencies must be invol-
ved. Besides, the management is multi-
phased and must obtain active communi-
ty participation in order to be sustainable.
A number of historic data and policy
documents are presented in a very inte-
resting format. Including Jabotabek
water system maps from various different
times. There are also the opinions of
Dutch hydrology experts with regards
water management of Batavia. (MJ)
At the beginning of the 21st centu-
ry the world is in water manage-
ment crisis. According to the
report of World Water League for the 21st
century (2000s) the available renewable
raw water sources cannot fulfill the need
for industries, population consumption,
and agriculture in 2020. This is because
there are many water sources are pol-
luted, population growth, urbanization,
and mismanagement. Many countries
have been in water crisis, especially those
in arid and semi arid regions. New gener-
ation water management with a new con-
cept is in great demand these days. They
are expected to develop and apply inno-
vative policy and working method. In
short, water management in 21st century
Water management in the future--in
global, regional or local scale--calls for
common care and attention of the
professionals, policy makers, and the
general public. This is because of the ten-
dency that indicates water shortages will
continue and threaten 50 percent of the
world population including the following
generation. Besides, the prevailing water
mismanagement decreases water quality
locally as well as regionally.
Many government administrations,
national institutes, and experts are begin-
ning to concentrate their attention to
design a new agenda in water manage-
ment, since the care towards water crisis
is greatly weakening.
This book is a compilation of articles
from new generation experts from vari-
ous parts of the world who present many
new ideas on water management from
various view points. The discussions con-
sist of among other about rain water and
surface water, recycling and reusing of
water, water rights, cross boundary
access, and financing in water manage-
ment. The authors propose new perspec-
tives important for application; manage-
ment and conservation of fresh water,
qualitatively as well as quantitatively, for
the population, agricultural, and indus-
trial sector; and how to build a new para-
digm for application in water manage-
ment of the future. (MJ)
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?