BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF COMPUTING & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

INTERNSHIP REPORT On Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center By Haimanot Tizazu Host Company: BDU

Duration: March- June 2012 Submission Date: July 05, 2012

BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF COMPUTING & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

INTERNSHIP REPORT On Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

By Haimanot Tizazu

ID No. 126/2000

Host Company: BDU

Duration: March-June 2012 Submission Date: July 05, 2012

Dedications
This internship report is dedicated to my parents, and all my friends for being with me and helping me in each and every difficulty I faced in this internship report completion and to my teachers and all those who taught me, trained me and polished my abilities at Bahir Dar University ,Institute of Technology.

Approval of the Internship Report
I, hereby declare that this Internship Report is submitted to the partial fulfillment of the internship program during the last four months. Any part of this report has not been reported or copied from any report of the university and others.

Approved by: ______________________ Academic Mentor _________________________ Company Supervisor

Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

Acknowledgment
The special thank goes to my helpful supervisor Mr. Ferede Wollie, Network Administrator of Bahir Dar University. The supervision and support that he gave truly help the progression and smoothness of the internship program. The co-operation is much indeed appreciated. I express my sincere thanks to my mentor Mr. Tinbit Admasu.

Haimanot T.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

Table of Contents
Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………………………..i List of figures……………………………………………………………………………………..iv List of Acronyms & Abbreviations………………………………………………………………..v Executive Summary………………………………………………………………………………vi 1 Background Information of Bahir Dar University…………………………………………….1 1.1 Mission…………………………………………………………………………………2 1.2 Vision…………………………………………………………………………………..2 1.3 Core Values…………………………………………………………………………….2 1.4 Main Products and Services............................................................................................3 1.5 Main Customers of Bahir Dar University.......................................................................3 1.6 The overall organizational structure and work flow of Bahir Dar University................4 1.7 ICT Development Office.................................................................................................6 2 The Overall Internship Experience…………………………………………………………..8 2.1 How I get in to the company………………………………………………………………8 2.2 The section of the Company I have been working on…………………………………….8 2.2.1 Hardware overview………………………………………………………………...8 2.2.2 Campus Hierarchical Network Design Overview………………………………...13 2.2.3 Security……………………………………………………………………………18 2.3 The Work Flow of Main Campus Data Center……………………………………….20 2.4 Work piece and work tasks I have been executing…………………………………...21 2.5 Procedures I have been following while performing my tasks……………………….27 2.6 How good I have been in performing my tasks……………………………………….27 2.7 Challenges I have faced while performing my tasks………………………………….27 3 The Overall Benefits I gained From the Internship………………………………………….28 3.1 Practical Skill…………………………………………………………………………28 3.2 Theoretical Knowledge……………………………………………………………….28 3.3 Interpersonal Communication Skills………………………………………………….29 3.4 Team Playing Skills…………………………………………………………………...29 3.5 Leadership Skills……………………………………………………………………...29
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 3.6 Work Ethics Related Issue……………………………………………………………30 3.7 Entrepreneurship Skills……………………………………………………………….30 4 Conclusion and Recommendations ………………………………………………………….31 4.1 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………31 4.2 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………32 5 6 References……………………………………………………………………………………33 Appendix……………………………………………………………………………………..34 6.1 Basic Cisco Catalyst Switch Configuration Command ………………………………..34 A .Distribution Switch Configuration …………………………………………………34 B. Access Switch Configuration……………………………………………………….36

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Main Customers of Bahir Dar University......................................................................3 Figure 1.2 Organizational Structure and work flow of Bahir Dar University.................................5 Figure 1.3 Structure of ICT Development Office of BDU............................................................6 Figure 2.1 Cisco twingig converter module……………………………………………………...10 Figure 2.2 Cisco Aironet1252 Access Point rear view…………………………………………..12 Figure 2.3 Hierarchical Campus Network Design……………………………………………….13 Figure 2.4 Core Layer……………………………………………………………………………14 Figure 2.5 Distribution Layer……………………………………………………………………16 Figure 2.6 Access Layer…………………………………………………………………………17 Figure 2.7 A typical secured network……………………………………………………………19 Figure 2.8 The work flow of main campus data center………………………………………….20

List of Tables
Table 2.1 Cisco Aironet1252 Access Point rear view…………………………………………...12 Table 2.2 Description of VTP mode……………………………………………………………..23

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

List of Acronyms & Abbreviations

ARP ASA BDU CRAC DHCP DMZ DNS FTP GLBP HA HSRP ICT IGMP IIS INSA IP IPS IT L2 L3 LAN LWAPP NAT POE QoS RU SSP UNDP UNESCO VLAN VPN VRRP VTP WCS

Address Resolution Protocol Adaptive Security Appliances Bahir Dar University Computer Room Air Conditioning Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Demilitarized Zone Domain Name System File Transfer Protocol Gateway Load Balancing Protocol High Availability Hot Standby Router Protocol Information Communication Technology Internet Group Membership Protocol Internet information Services Information Network Security Agency Internet Protocol Intrusion prevention systems Information Technology Layer 2 Layer 3 Local Area network Lightweight Access Point Protocol Network Address Translation Power Over Ethernet Quality of Service Rack Unit Security Services Processor United Nations Development Program United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Virtual Local Area Network Virtual Private Network Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol Virtual Trunking protocol Wireless Control System
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

Executive Summary
This report is about to explain what I did and learned during my internship period with Bahir Dar university ICT development office, main campus data center. As the main purpose of internship is to learn by working in practical environment and to apply the knowledge acquired during the studies in a real world scenario in order to tackle the problems using the knowledge and skill learned during the academic process. I have discussed about every major aspect of the campus network, which I observed and perceived during my internship program This report is divided in to four sections. Section one will discuss about the background of Bahir Dar University and ICT Development office. In section two will get the overall internship experience of campus network design overview and basic switch configuration. Section three the overall benefits I gained from during the internship program. The last section is conclusion and recommendations of the previous sections which about ICT development office, main campus data center. The most important in an internship program is that the student should spend their time in a true manner and with the spirit to learn practical orientation of theoretical study framework. This report is about my internship that I have undergone at Bahir Dar University ICT development office main campus data center from March – June 2012. During my internship I am able to learn practical aspect of network and get good working experience.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

1. Background Information of Bahir Dar University
Bahir Dar University was established by merging two former higher education institutions; namely the Bahir Dar Polytechnic and Bahir Dar Teachers’ College. The Bahir Dar Polytechnic Institute, which has transformed itself into Technology and Textile institutes, was established in 1963 under the technical cooperation between the Government of USSR and the Imperial Government of Ethiopia. The institute was a premier institute in producing technicians for the nation. The Bahir Dar Teachers’ College, by then known as the Academy of Pedagogy, was established in 1972 by the tripartite agreement of the Imperial Government of Ethiopia, UNESCO and UNDP and started actual work in the following year under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and Fine Arts. Its general objective was to train multipurpose primary education professionals capable of adopting primary education to rural life and rural development. Its specific objectives were to train primary school teacher trainers, supervisors, educational leaders, adult education organizers and community development agents. The two institutions of higher learning were integrated to form the Bahir Dar University following the Council of Ministers regulation no. 60/1999 GC. The University was inaugurated on May 6, 2000. Bahir Dar University is now among the largest universities in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, with more than 35,000 students in its 57 undergraduate and 39 graduate programs. Bahir Dar University has four colleges, three institutes, three faculties and one school. The academic units of the University include College of Science, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, College of Medical and Health Sciences, College of Business and Economics, Institute of Technology, Institute of Textile, Garment and Fashion Design, Institute of Land Administration, Blue Nile Water Institute, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Social Sciences, Faculty of Education and Behavioural Sciences and School of Law.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 1.1 Mission The mission of the Bahir Dar University is to contribute substantially for social, cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological development of the nation; through the provision of high quality education, active engagement in research and outreach activities for the betterment of life, while offering our employees a conducive and rewarding working environment that values, recognizes and appreciates their contributions. 1.2 Vision The vision of the Bahir Dar University is to become one of the ten premier research universities in Africa in 2025 recognized for its quality education, research and outreach activities. 1.3 Core Values In fulfilling its mission and achieving its vision the Bahir Dar University will uphold, promote and be guided by the following core values:  Quality: - University product should be of high quality and the University staffs continuously strive for excellence in their academic and administrative endeavors.  Integrity: - in all our activities we will act with the quality of being honest and with strong moral principles   Transparency- rules, regulations and decision makings at all levels to be transparent. Accountability- University staff performing duties in an accountable manner and taking full responsibility for actions and decisions they take thereof.   Rule of law-University community believe in rule of law and act accordingly. Equality – the University is an equal opportunity employer and teaching institution regardless of gender, status in society, ethnic background or religious affinity. The University management never discriminates among its employees and treats them on merit bases and respects their contributions.  Promote diversity-Advancement of human and intellectual diversity to enrich the academic community and to overcome the barriers separating individuals, populations, and cultures.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 1.4 Main Products and Services Universities, traditionally, have two main goals: to create and to disseminate knowledge. The creation of knowledge is done through the research and its dissemination, is done through the education.

1.5 Main Customers of Bahir Dar University The customers of Bahir Dar University are divided in different groups of actors, who are linked to the educational process being the main: current students, potential students, employees, employers, government and industry. Which have classified the customers in internal and external, emphasizing that the internal customer who are work to the satisfaction of external customers (Juran 1988). Besides, to the authors the customers can be classified in primary ones and secondary ones, based on their location being as internal customers or external ones and based on the frequency of interaction that the institution has with them too. While consider that the product of higher education is the education and then, depending on the role developed by them during the course, the students can be classified as internal or external1.

Figure1.1 Main Customers of Bahir Dar University

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To Kanji and Tambi (1999), A Key Question for Higher Education: Who are the customers? Marco Antonio ,Carvalho Pereira
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 1.6 The overall organizational structure and work flow of Bahir Dar University Bahir Dar University has to strive to emplace management system that is democratic, honest, inspiring, transparent, and highly participatory. The University has two core processes and five support processes. The University’s top management includes the president, four Vice presidents, and deans/directors for academic units and seven process owners. The major focus of the management in terms of governance and management includes improve efficiency on major administration areas such as budget utilization, business process (procurement, finance, registrar, etc.) efficiency and decision making system in a transparent manner. IT supported decision making is one of the areas under governance and management which BDU will give special attention to.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center
Board

Senate

President

Managing Council

University Council

Audit & Quality Assurance

Legal Affairs

Strategy Group

Vice President for Academic Affairs

Vice President for Information & Strategic Communication

Vice President for Business & Development

Vice President for Research & Community Services

Academic Affairs Executive Director Income Generation Process Owner

Student Services Process Owner

Human Resource Management Process Owner

Procurement & Property Administration Process Owner

Planning, Budget & Finance Process Owner

Figure 1.2 Organzitional Structure and work flow of Bahir Dar University

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 1.8 ICT Development Office

BDU knows that ICT is a means to advance the core academic processes, to facilitate Administrative functions and research needs of the University. Thus the university has reorganized the ICT development office as that of 2011 in a new fashion which comprises four directorate directors under the executive Director, Indeed the office directly accounted to the president of the University. Objective The overall objective of ICT Development office lies on addressing the key ICT needs in Bahir Dar University. These include:•

Build and Administrate Communication Infrastructure, Automation of business processes, develop digital Content and Advanced Research facilities.

President

Executive Director

System & Network Administrator

System Design & Development

E-learning training & Consultancy

Maintenance & Support

Figure 1.3 Structure of ICT Development Office of BDU

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center Major tasks going on

Student Information Management system has developed and implemented with two ICT staff SIMS has began its function at the beginning of 2011 and now more than 80 percents of students information are manipulated with this application system, Indeed it is expected to change drastically the BDU students record and course management.

Bahir Dar University has begun to build its network infrastructure in a new fashion with more than 60 million Birr. BDU has outsourced its Local area network infrastructure building. The project has started on June, 2011 and now most of the network devices are delivered at the university’s store. The project has already trunk and punch down the cables in the buildings.

Has began developed different information systems, Store management system, Human resource management systems and others.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

2. The Overall Internship Experience
Nothing is a waste of time if you use the experience wisely. — AUGSTE RODIN 2.1. How I get in to the company I have been IT technician of main campus before two years at Bhair Dar university ICT development office and in this time I have seen many changes and great growth in the section. Though the company which I can get, the existing network Bahir Dar University is expansion by Information Network Security Agency (INSA). While the expansion network of Bahir Dar University has understood that in today’s world of information communication technology implementing a reliable secure and scalable network infrastructure that automates different office activities is of great importance. And with this regard has shown readiness to re-deploy a secured and high performance ICT infrastructure. The BDU network includes LAN network redesign and deployment, data centre design and construction, SAN and server systems. 2.2 The section of the Company I have been working on I have been doing my internship in the Bhair Dar University ICT Development office specifically in the main campus data center. During the first month internship period from hardware overview study to campus three-layer Cisco hierarchy model. While in the second month I have spent in the configuration of distribution switch and access switch as well as Microsoft windows server 2008.

2.2.1 Hardware overview Cisco Catalyst 6500 E The 15U Rack, 9-slot Cisco Catalyst 6509-E Switch provides high port densities that are ideal for many wiring closet, distribution, and core network as well as data center deployments. The Cisco Catalyst 6509-E supports Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series end-to-end operational consistency benefits. The Catalyst 6509-E switch is an enhanced version of the Catalyst 6509 switch. The 9-slot horizontal chassis supports redundant power supplies, redundant supervisor engines, and slots for up to eight modules.
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center Supports all Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series modules, including:  Supervisor engines  Fast Ethernet modules (with IEEE 802.3af Power over Ethernet [PoE])  Gigabit Ethernet modules (with IEEE 802.3af PoE)  10 Gigabit Ethernet modules  Flex WAN modules  Shared Port Adaptors/SPA Interface Processors  Multi-Gigabit services modules (content services ,firewall, intrusion detection, IP Security [IPSec], VPN, network analysis, and Secure Sockets Layer [SSL] acceleration) Cisco Catalyst 4507 E switch The Cisco Catalyst 4500 Series Switches enable borderless networks, providing high performance, mobile, and secure user experience through Layer 2-4 switching investments. It enables security, mobility, application performance, video, and energy savings over an infrastructure that supports resiliency, virtualization, and automation. Cisco Catalyst 4500 Series Switches provide borderless performance, scalability, and services with reduced total cost of ownership and superior investment protection. Cisco Catalyst 4500 has a centralized forwarding architecture that enables collaboration, virtualization, and operational manageability through simplified operations. With forward and backward compatibility spanning multiple generations, the new Cisco Catalyst 4500E Series provides exceptional investment protection and deployment flexibility to meet the evolving needs of organizations of all sizes. The Cisco Catalyst 4500E Series platform has 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GE) uplinks and supports PoEP, enabling the customers to future proof their network. Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series The Cisco Catalyst3750 Series is an innovative line of multilayer Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet switches featuring Cisco Stack Wise technology that allows customers to build a unified, highly resilient switching system - one switch at a time. For midsized organizations and
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center enterprise branch offices, the Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series eases deployment of converged applications and adapts to changing business needs by providing configuration flexibility, support for converged network patterns, and automation of intelligent network services configurations. In addition, the Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series is optimized for high-density Gigabit Ethernet deployments and includes a diverse range of switches that meet access, aggregation, or small-network backbone-connectivity requirements. Cisco Catalyst 2960 Series The Cisco Catalyst 2960-S and 2960 Series Switches are the leading Layer 2 edge, providing improved ease of use, highly secure business operations, improved sustainability, and a borderless network experience. The Cisco Catalyst 2960-S Series switches include new Cisco Flex Stack switch stacking capability with 1 and 10 Gigabit connectivity, and Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+) with the Cisco Catalyst 2960 Switches offering fast Ethernet access connectivity and PoE capabilities. The Cisco Catalyst 2960-S and 2960 Series are fixedconfiguration access switches designed for enterprise, midmarket, and branch office networks to provide lower total cost of ownership. TwinGig Converter Module The Cisco TwinGig Converter Module converts a single 10 Gigabit Ethernet X2 interface into two Gigabit Ethernet port slots, which can be populated with appropriate Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) optics, providing a total of 12 wire-speed Gigabit Ethernet ports if used in all 6 X2 interface slots. The flexibility provided by the TwinGig Converter Module enables customers to aggregate Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet LAN access switches on a single line card.

Figure 2.1 Cisco twingig converter module
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center Cisco ASA 5520 and 5540 Security Appliance The Cisco ASA 5500 Series Adaptive Security Appliance integrates firewall, IPS, and VPN capabilities, providing an all-in-one solution for the enterprise network. Cisco ASA 5585-X Security Appliance The ASA 5585-X adaptive security appliance is a 2 RU, two-slot chassis accommodating up to two AC power supply modules, which also contain the necessary cooling components for operation, although you can install a fan module in the second bay. The Security Services Processor (SSP) resides in slot 0 (the bottom slot) and the optional Intrusion Prevention System Security Services Processor (IPS SSP) resides in slot 1 (the top slot). All port numbers are numbered from right to left beginning with 0. Cisco 5508 Wireless Controller The Cisco 5500 Series Wireless Controller is a highly scalable and flexible platform that enables system wide services for mission-critical wireless in medium to large-sized enterprises and campus environments. Designed for 802.11n performance and maximum scalability, the 5500 Series offers enhanced uptime with RF visibility and protection, the ability to simultaneously manage up to 500 access points; superior performance for reliable streaming video and toll quality voice; and improved fault recovery for a consistent mobility experience in the most demanding environments. The Cisco 5500 Series Wireless Controller, designed for 802.11n performance and maximum scalability, supports up to 250 lightweight access points and 7000 clients, making it ideal for large-sized enterprises and high-density applications. A core component of the Cisco unified wireless solution, these controllers deliver wireless security, intrusion detection, radio management, quality of service (QoS), and mobility across an entire enterprise. The controllers work in conjunction with other controllers, Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS), and access points to provide network managers with a robust wireless LAN solution. The Cisco 5500 Series Wireless Controller supports the Office Extend access point, which provides secure communications from a controller to an access point at a remote location, seamlessly extending the corporate WLAN over the Internet to an employee's residence.
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center Cisco Aironet 1250 Lightweight Access point The lightweight access point (model: AIR-LAP1252) is part of the Cisco Integrated Wireless Network Solution and requires no manual configuration before being mounted. The lightweight access point is automatically configured by a Cisco wireless LAN controller using the Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP). In the Cisco Centralized Wireless LAN architecture, access points operate in lightweight mode (as opposed to autonomous mode). The lightweight access points associate to a controller. The controller manages the configuration, firmware, and controls transactions such as 802.1x authentication. In addition, all wireless traffic is tunneled through the controller. Key hardware features of the access point include: • • • • • • Two radio module slots for single or dual-radio operation Ethernet port and console port LEDs, Multiple power sources UL 2043 compliance Anti-theft features

Figure 2.2 Cisco Aironet1252 Access Point rear view 2.4-GHz radio antenna 4 Module slot 0 (2.4-GHz 5 radio module shown) 3 LEDs 6 Table 2.1 Cisco Aironet1252 Access Point rear view 1 2
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5-GHz radio antenna Module slot 1 (5-GHz module shown) PC cable security slot

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 2.2.2 Campus Hierarchical Network Design Overview

Cisco introduced the hierarchical design model, which uses a layered approach to network design in 1999 (Figure 2.3). The building block components are the access layer, the distribution layer, and the core (backbone) layer. The principal advantages of this model are its hierarchical structure and its modularity.

Figure 2.3 Hierarchical Campus Network Design In a hierarchical design, the capacity, features, and functionality of a specific device are optimized for its position in the network and the role that it plays. This promotes scalability and stability. The number of flows and their associated bandwidth requirements increase as they traverse points of aggregation and move up the hierarchy from access to distribution to core.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center Functions are distributed at each layer. A hierarchical design avoids the need for a fully-meshed network in which all network nodes are interconnected. The building blocks of modular networks are easy to replicate, redesign, and expand. There should be no need to redesign the whole network each time a module is added or removed. Distinct building blocks can be put in-service and taken out-of-service without impacting the rest of the network. This capability facilitates troubleshooting, problem isolation, and network management.

Core Layer In a typical hierarchical model, the individual building blocks are interconnected using a core layer. The core serves as the backbone for the network, as shown in Figure 2.4. The core needs to be fast and extremely resilient because every building block depends on it for connectivity. Current hardware accelerated systems have the potential to deliver complex services at wire speed. However, in the core of the network a “less is more” approach should be taken. A minimal configuration in the core reduces configuration complexity limiting the possibility for operational error.

Figure 2.4 Core Layer
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center Although it is possible to achieve redundancy with a fully-meshed or highly-meshed topology, that type of design does not provide consistent convergence if a link or node fails. Also, peering and adjacency issues exist with a fully-meshed design, making routing complex to configure and difficult to scale. In addition, the high port count adds unnecessary cost and increases complexity as the network grows or changes. The following are some of the other key design issues to keep in mind: • Design the core layer as a high-speed, Layer3 (L3) switching environment utilizing only hardware-accelerated services. Layer3 core designs are superior to Layer2 and other alternatives because they provide: – Faster convergence around a link or node failure. – Increased scalability because neighbor relationships and meshing are reduced. – More efficient bandwidth utilization. Use redundant point-to-point L3 interconnections in the core (triangles, not squares) wherever possible, because this design yields the fastest and most deterministic convergence results. Avoid L2 loops and the complexity of L2 redundancy, such as Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and indirect failure detection for L3 building block peers.

Distribution Layer The distribution layer aggregates nodes from the access layer, protecting the core from highdensity peering (Figure 2.5). Additionally, the distribution layer creates a fault boundary providing a logical isolation point in the event of a failure originating in the access layer. Typically deployed as a pair of L3 switches, the distribution layer uses L3 switching for its connectivity to the core of the network and L2 services for its connectivity to the access layer. Load balancing, Quality of Service (QoS), and ease of provisioning are key considerations for the distribution layer.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

Figure 2.5 Distribution Layer High availability in the distribution layer is provided through dual equal-cost paths from the distribution layer to the core and from the access layer to the distribution layer. This results in fast, deterministic convergence in the event of a link or node failure. When redundant paths are present, failover depends primarily on hardware link failure detection instead of timer-based software failure detection. Convergence based on these functions, which are implemented in hardware, is the most deterministic.

Access Layer The access layer is the first point of entry into the network for edge devices, end stations, and IP phones (Figure 2.6). The switches in the access layer are connected to two separate distribution layer switches for redundancy. If the connection between the distribution layer switches is an L3 connection, then there are no loops and all uplinks actively forward traffic.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

Figure 2.6 Access Layer A robust access layer provides the following key features: • • • High availability (HA) supported by many hardware and software attributes. Inline power (POE) for IP telephony and wireless access points, allowing customers to converge voice onto their data network and providing roaming WLAN access for users. Foundation services.

The hardware and software attributes of the access layer that support high availability include the following: • • System-level redundancy using redundant supervisor engines and redundant power supplies. This provides high-availability for critical user groups. Default gateway redundancy using dual connections to redundant systems (distribution layer • • switches) that use GLBP, HSRP, or VRRP. This provides fast failover from one

switch to the backup switch at the distribution layer. Operating system high-availability features, such as Link Aggregation (EtherChannel or 802.3ad), which provide higher effective bandwidth while reducing complexity. Prioritization of mission-critical network traffic using QoS. This provides traffic classification and queuing as close to the ingress of the network as possible.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center • Security services for additional security against unauthorized access to the network through the use of tools such as 802.1x, port security, DHCP snooping, Dynamic ARP Inspection, and IP Source Guard. • Efficient network and bandwidth management using software features such as Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) snooping. IGMP snooping helps control multicast packet flooding for multicast applications.

2.2.3 Security The world is becoming more interconnected with the advent of the Internet and new networking technology. There is a large amount of personal, commercial, military, and government information on networking infrastructures worldwide. Network security is becoming of great importance because of intellectual property that can be easily acquired through the internet.

Perimeter Security A network /internetwork perimeter is a secure boundary of a network that may include some or all of the firewalls, routers, ids, VPN, mechanisms, DMZ and screened subnets.DMZ is outside the Firewall screened subnet is an isolated sub-network connected to a dedicated firewall interface. Cisco ASA Firewall A firewall is a network system or group of systems that manages access between two or more networks. Firewall operations are based on one of three technologies: • Packet filteringLimits information that is allowed into a network based on the

destination and source address • • Proxy server (Application layer)- Requests connections on behalf of a client Stateful packet filtering - Limits information that is allowed into a network based not only on the destination and source addresses, but also on the contents of the state table.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

Figure 2.7 A typical secured network The higher the security level of an interface the higher the trust level of the network connected to that interface and vice-versa. As a result the above figure assign a security level of 100 to an inside interface of a given LAN and the 0 security level to the outside interface which is connected to the Internet or to service provider.

Server Farm Security Deploying multilayer defense mechanisms is the first action that should be considered to secure server farms. To add aditional protection to each of the council’s server farm from internal and external attacks Cisco ASA 5500 firewalls and IPS modules will be deployed. The Cisco ASA 5500 firewalls and IPS modules will be configured to filter and inspect traffics that flow to/ from those critical application servers according to access policies set by the BDU. ASA Firewall Placement The ASA firewall will be placed between the core/distribution switches and the redundant server farm switches to secure any traffic flow between the server farms and the LAN users.

Network Device Security (Device Hardening) Physical security/controls help protect the data’s environment and prevent potential attackers from readily having physical access to the data. Examples of physical controls are – Security systems to monitor for intruders

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center – Physical security barriers (for example, locked doors) while entering to data centers and accessing network devices. – Climate protection systems, to maintain proper temperature and humidity, in addition to alerting personnel in the event of fire – Security personnel to guard the data

2.3 The Work Flow of Main Campus Data Center In the figure 11, main campus data center is under System & Network administrator. The work flow of main campus data center is from the president to network Administrator it is hierarchical steps.

President

Executive Director

System & Network Administrator Case Team

Network Administrator

Figure 2.8 The work flow of main campus data center School of Computing & Electrical Engineering IoT, BDU 20

Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 2.4 Work piece and work tasks I have been executing Work tasks which I have been executing during my internship period is basic switch configuration, VLAN, VTP, Trunking configuration and Microsoft window server 2008 DNS, DHCP, IIS, FTP and active Directory. VLAN configuration The hierarchical topology segments the network into physical building blocks, simplifying operation and increasing availability. Each layer within the hierarchical infrastructure has a specific role. By default, switches break up collision domains and routers break up broadcast domains. The supervisor said that by creating virtual local area network (VLAN) in the distribution layer, switches break up broadcast domains in a pure switched internetwork. A VLAN is a logical grouping of network users and resources connected to administratively defined ports on a switch. He said that when you create VLANs, you’re given the ability to create smaller broadcast domains within a layer 2 switched internetworks by assigning different ports on the switch to service different sub networks. A VLAN is treated like its own subnet or broadcast domain, meaning that frames broadcast onto the network are only switched between the ports logically grouped within the same VLAN.

VLANs consists of two basic goals 1. Creating the VLAN and 2. Assigning the proper port to that VLAN In actuality, I am very concerned with the work During the Configuring of VLANs .VLANs can be created on a VTP server switch or they can be created on each individual switches but in the BDU campus area network created all VLNs on VTP server switches which makes it more manageable and scalable. I have chosen the distribution layer switches to operate on a VTP server mode and I have made all the access switches to operate in VTP clients, Hence All the VLANs configured in distribution switch will be propagated to all the respected access switches. Note: By default, all VLANs are allowed on all trunks. You can explicitly control which VLANs are allowed on a trunk by using the switchport trunk allowed vlan vlan-id command on the interface at each end of the trunk. In addition, it can specify a native VLAN other than the
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center default VLAN 1, using the switchport trunk native vlan vlan-id command. These two measures can help reduce the possibility of VLAN attacks.

The Fast Ethernet ports connected to the hosts on the network can be set up as static access because they are not to be used as trunk ports. Use the switchport mode access command to set the access mode

VTP
VTP stands for VLAN trunking protocol VTP is a Cisco proprietary Layer 2 messaging protocol

that manages the addition, deletion, and renaming of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN) on a network-wide basis. Cisco's VLAN Trunk Protocol reduces administration loads in a switched network. When a new VLAN is created on one VTP server, the VLAN is distributed through all switches in the domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN everywhere. VTP provides the following benefits:
• • • • •

VLAN configuration consistency across the network Mapping scheme that allows a VLAN to be trunked over mixed media Accurate tracking and monitoring of VLANs Dynamic reporting of added VLANs across the network Plug-and-play configuration when adding new VLANs

A VTP domain, also called a VLAN management domain, consists of trunked switches that are under the administrative responsibility of a switch or switches in server VTP mode. A switch can be in only one VTP domain with the same VTP domain name. The default VTP mode for the 2960 and 3560 switches is server mode. VLAN information is not propagated until a domain name is specified and trunks are set up between the devices.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center The following table describes the three VTP modes. VTP Mode Description

You can create, modify, and delete VLANs and specific other configuration parameters, such as VTP version and VTP pruning, for the entire VTP domain.VTP servers advertise their VLAN configuration to VTP server other switches in the same VTP domain and synchronize their VLAN configuration with other switches based on advertisements received over trunk links.

VTP server is the default mode.

VTP client

VTP clients behave the same way as VTP servers, but you cannot create, change, or delete VLANs on a VTP client.

VTP transparent switches do not participate in VTP. A VTP transparent VTP transparent switch does not advertise its VLAN configuration nor synchronize its VLAN configuration based on received advertisements. Transparent switches do forward VTP advertisements that they receive out their trunk ports in VTP Version 2.

Table 2.2 .Description of VTP mode Trunk Trunking is a process of connecting switches together so that they can send VLAN information between each other. A trunk port is a point to point connection between switches, a switch and a router, or even a switch and a server, and it carries the traffic of multiple VLANS.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center Configuration of trunk involves identifying trunk ports and selecting the encapsulation type. Identifying the trunk ports is a useful task in such a way that it eases VLAN configuration and administration. He remained that, all the uplink ports connecting access switches to distribution switches, distribution switches to core switches, edge switches to core switches and DMZ switches to core switches are set to be trunk ports. Ports on the 2960 and 3560 switches are set to dynamic auto by default. This means that they are willing to negotiate a trunk with the neighbor; however, if both sides are set to dynamic auto, the link will remain in access mode. This can be done by configuring one end of the trunk using the switchport mode trunk command. On the 3560 switches, I also need to configure the trunk encapsulation with the switchport trunk encapsulation command. The 3560 switch can use either Inter-Switch Link (ISL) or 802.1Q encapsulation, whereas the 2960 switch only supports 802.1Q.

DHCP I spend some more time working on Dynamic host configuration protocol DHCP is defined in RFC 2131 and is built around a client/server model—hosts requesting IP addresses use a DHCP client, whereas address assignment is handled by a DHCP server. Hosts can be manually configured to use a static IP address, subnet mask, default gateway address, and so on. That might be appropriate for some devices, such as servers, which would need stable and reserved addresses. For the majority of end user devices, static address assignment can become a huge administrative chore. Because DHCP is a dynamic mechanism, IP addresses are offered on a leased basis. Before the offered lease time expires, the client must try to renew its address; otherwise, that address may be offered up to a different client.

DHCP Design Considerations • DHCP servers which in BDU are the distribution switches. The distribution switches are configured as a DHCP server because DHCP is designed to work within a broadcast domain. They offer the client devices in the BDU network IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway address from the respective
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center • • DHCP excluded addresses within the IP subnet that should be reserved and not offered to clients DHCP pool uses a text string pool-name to define the pool or scope of addresses that will be offered. The network command identifies the IP subnet and subnet mask of the address range. The subnet should be identical to the one configured on the Layer 3 interface. • • • The DHCP leas time ……….. The DNS name of the university is The IP address for the DNS server is

Network Address Translation Furthermore, another lesson I have learned during my internship period at Main Campus Datacenter is that the internet is expanding at an exponential rate. As the amount of information and resources increases, it is becoming a requirement for even the smallest businesses and homes to connect to the Internet. Network Address Translation (NAT) is a method of connecting multiple computers to the internet (or any other IP network) using one IP address. This allows home users and small businesses to connect their network to the Internet cheaply and efficiently. The impetus towards increasing use of NAT comes from a number of factors:
  

A world shortage of IP addresses Security needs Ease and flexibility of network administration

The rest of the internship period was spend working on Microsoft server 2008 configuration like DNS, DHCP, IIS, Active directory and FTP server with my supervisor. In fact, it was a very important experience to me because it expanded my practical knowledge and helped me to develop new practical skills and abilities. Microsoft Window Server 2008 Active Directory Domain Services Active Directory domain services are used primarily to manage Users and Resource management across Enterprise infrastructures spanning the physical subnets across the globe. Active Directory domain provides distributed database to store and manage application data, user data and computer data respectively.
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center Active directory structure comprises of Single forest, with multiple domains and child domains. Administrator can configure active directory domain based on the physical subnets, it is advisable to install directory server on the physical site. Active directory provides different security boundaries in the form of a) Forest b) Domain c) Organizational Units AD plays two basic functions within a network: that of a directory service containing a hierarchical listing of all the objects within the network, and that of an authentication and security service that controls and provides access to network resources. These two roles are different in nature and focus, but they combine together to provide increased user capabilities while decreasing administrative overhead. The Active Directory itself is defined by a schema that indicates how each object is represented within the data store. For example, a user object has, among other things, a first name, last name, logon name, e-mail address, and password. If you’re familiar with databases, you should already be familiar with the term schema since a database schema refers to the structure of the database in the same way the Active Directory schema defines the Active Directory’s structure.

Domain Name System (DNS) is a system for naming computers and network services that maps those names to network addresses and organizes them into a hierarchy of domains. DNS naming is used on TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet and most corporate networks, to locate computers and services by using user-friendly names. When a user enters the DNS name of a computer in an application, DNS can look up the name and provide other information that is associated with the computer, such as its IP address or services that it provides for the network. This process is called name resolution. Name systems, such as DNS, make it easier to use network resources by providing users with a way to refer to a computer or service by a name that is easy to remember. DNS looks up that name and provides the numeric address that operating systems and applications require to identify the computer on a network.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 2.5 Procedures I have been following while performing my tasks Procedures I have been using during my internship period in BDU, main campus data center performing my tasks are:1. Analyze each network hardware equipments in data center 2. Identified the three layer Campus hierarchical network model 3. Analyze Cisco switch command 4. Configuration of distribution layer switch 5. Configuration of access layer switch In the first month of my internship program, it was all about study technical details regarding the application of each network hardware infrastructure in the data center as well as identified the Identified the three layers Campus hierarchical network model. While the procedures which carried out during the second month is from analyzing Cisco switch command to the study of VLAN, VTP, Trunk and configuration of distribution and access layer switch. 2.6 How good I have been in performing my tasks During my internship program I work my tasks in enthusiasm, as well as my supervisor is such a sincere man when I ask a question he answered courteously. All in all I did my task effectively and efficiently, and I was punctual when I performed my tasks.

2.7 Challenges I have faced while performing my tasks I can truly say that during my internship with main campus data center that I was challenged, and through all those challenges I grew as a person as well as a student. Not only was the work that I was doing beneficial to get knowledge, but it also made me have to work hard to get it right knowledge. I learned how to configured distribution layer and access layer switch is new for me, how to multi-task and manage my time.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

3. The Overall Benefits I gained From the Internship

One thing I have learned in a long life: that all our science, measured against reality, is primitive and childlike—and yet is the most precious thing we have. —ALBERT EINSTEIN Introduction Internship is the beginning of the road that will take me to the point I want to be at after my graduation. Internship is a practice I need to perform, because it prepares me for the business life that I aim at.

3.1 Practical Skill The Internship will have the opportunity to connect classroom theory with current industry challenges, and have exposure to the latest technologies. Opportunities to converse and interact with a large pool of talented experienced department members will provide a deeper insight to the overall operation, as well as provide a valuable pool of resources to assist in completion of internship program. This internship program was exactly what I needed to nurture the lack of practical skills I had. I would acquire practical experience to complement the theoretical content of my studies.

3.2 Theoretical Knowledge During my internship period in the main campus datacenter, upgrade my theoretical knowledge, when I have been learned the course of Data Communication and Computer Networks in the classroom. What looks like campus enterprise network which the three Cisco hierarchy layers, the configuration of distribution and access switch and Microsoft window server 2008 DNS , DHCP ,IIS ,FTP and Active directory domain service.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 3.3 Interpersonal Communication Skills During my internship period the Interpersonal skills, which are the life skills I use every day to communicate and interact with other people, individually and in groups are good for me. Not only how I communicate with others, but also I got confidence and my ability to listen and understand. Problem solving, decision making and personal stress management are also considered interpersonal skills. Through this internship, I found that I matured and I gained many new perspectives, such as problem solving skill, diversity, effective communication, teamwork and service recovery, attention to detail, time management, personal empowerment, selfconfidence, responsibility and cultural sensitivity. My supervisor was so kind to answer with patience and teach me much that made this internship so enjoyable. I had gotten a wonderful internship that spent such a happy moment with all of them. Though, still have so much to learn, I think this challenge was what should include in my career. This helped much on my future planning

3.4 Team Playing Skills In the section of the company I had been working, most of the time I had work with my supervisor though gained in terms of improving my team playing skill during my internship period in main campus ICT development office, data center is most valuable .

3.5 Leadership Skills Leadership skills are the tool, behaviors, and capabilities that a person needs in order to be successful at motivating and directing others. Yet true leadership skills involve something more; the ability to help people grow in their own abilities. It can be said that the most successful leaders are those that drive other to active their own success. I gained leadership skills from my supervisor during the internship period which include managing time, motivating individuals, giving feedback and building teams

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center 3.6 Work Ethics Related Issue An internship is an opportunity to learn the skills and behaviors along with the work values that are required for success in the workplace. Workplace ethics are established codes of conduct that reflect the values of the organization or company where you are employed. I have seen possess a willingness to work hard from my supervisor during my internship period. In addition to working hard it is also important to work smart. This means I acquired the most efficient way to complete tasks and finding ways to save time while completing daily assignments. It’s also important to care about my job and complete all projects while maintaining a positive attitude. 3.7 Entrepreneurship Skills “Entrepreneurship is the ability to “create and build something from practically nothing. It is initiating, doing, achieving and building an enterprise or organization, rather than just watching, analyzing or describing one. It is the knack of sensing an opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction and confusion. It is the ability to build a founding team to complement your own skills and talents. It is the know-how to find, marshal and control resources and to make sure you don’t run out of money when you need it most. Finally, it is the willingness to take calculated risks, both personal and financial, and then to do everything possible to get the odds in your favour.” 1 An entrepreneurship education program consists of wide-ranging subjects, and in every entrepreneurship education program, learning something at outside classroom like internship in a company plays an important role, as well as normal lectures in classroom. Of course, in this respect, the good relationship between educational institutions and business society is very important for the purpose of implementing an internship program as a part of curriculum. Interns gain firsthand understanding of entrepreneurship along with enhanced technical, professional, and communication skills. In this internship I have gained self confidence, information seeking, problem seeking and sees and acts on opportunities of business in networking. Though helping me to clarify my vision and decided whether or not to forge ahead with the idea.

1

Jeffrey Timmons, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Babson College, 1989
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4. Conclusion and Recommendations

4.1. Conclusion
After going through the whole period of internship as an intern I’ve observed so many professional activities and learnt as well. This internship was very fruitful to me because I had to cover many different fields. I also learnt new concepts and new ways of working. During this internship period I acquired practical experience to complement the theoretical content of my study for campus Cisco three-layer hierarchical model tasks and detailed configuration of each layers, wireless local area network (WLAN) and network security of main campus data center. To conclude, I think that this internship was very beneficial to me as I learnt a lot, and it made me discover work's in a real world.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

4.2. Recommendations

The Data Center is the hub of the University’s computing resources, which are shared by the academic, research, and administrative communities. These facilities provide a secure, enterprise-wide, reliable, and redundant infrastructure for the delivery of mission-critical University systems. As per earns observation some suggestion for the improvement of the situation are given below: • Access floors: One of the key predesigned considerations that affect almost every aspect of success within a data center environment is the access floor, or “raised floor” as it is often referred to. This infrastructure is every bit as important to cooling, equipment support, grounding, and electrical and communications connectivity as the building structure supporting it. Main campus data center uses class room building, the building should be maintained in standard data center designed way. Optimizes airflow and heat dissipation allowing the computing equipment to run more efficiently, so the data center should be installed raised floor in standard way. • • Cable Management: All data cabling should be under the floor, both ends of the cable should be labeled and tagged for proper identification. The data center hardware identification should be with the appropriate, fully qualified server names, and all equipments within the cabinets. If implement in this way the hardware is easily identifiable. • • • • The data center should be protected in building grounding and lightning protection system. ICT Development Office must configure FTP protocol for the retrieve of files based on FTP protocol.

I strongly recommend that the university should use licensed antivirus. Training program should be started for both academic and administrator staff.

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

5. References

1. Sean Odom, Hanson Nottingham, Cisco Switching Black Book, The Coriolis Group, 2001 2. Todd Lammel, CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide 6th edition, Wiley publishing, Inc.2007. 3. Bahir Dar University Network Infrastructure Low Level Design (LLD) document, INSA, 2011. 4. The five years strategic plan (2011-2016) of Bahir Dar University፡ devised with balanced score card (BSC), 2011. http://www.bdu.edu.et/attachments/article/54/Finalized%20Strategic%20Plan.pdf 5. Campus Network for High Availability Design Guide, Cisco Systems, Inc., 2008. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/solutions/Enterprise/Campus/HA_recovery_DG/camp usRecovery.html 6. ICT Development Office ,http://www.bdu.edu.et/index.php/services/ict/65administration/ict-office/135 7. Cisco Aironet 1250 Series Access Point, http://www.hardware.com/store/cisco/AIRLAP1252AG-E-K9 8. Cisco Networking Academy, CCNA SWITCH Lab Manual Cisco Press, 2011

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center

6. Appendix
6.1 Basic Cisco Catalyst Switch Configuration Command A .Distribution Switch Configuration Switch>enable Switch#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Switch(config)#hostname DLS DLS (config)#enable password cisco DLS (config)#enable secret Cisco DLS (config)#service password-encryption DLS (config)#line con DLS (config)#line console 0 DLS (config-line)#password cisco DLS (config-line)#login DLS (config-line)#exit DLS (config)#line vty 0 4 DLS (config-line)#password cisco DLS (config-line)#login DLS (config-line)#exit DLS (config)#banner motd #****************************** ELCTRICAL&COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DISTRUBUTIONSWITCH *************************************************************# DLS (config)#vlan 10 DLS (config-vlan)#name electronicslab DLS (config-vlan)#vlan 20 DLS (config-vlan)#name controllab DLS (config)#interface fastEthernet 0/23 DLS (config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center DLS (config-if)#switchport mode trunk DLS (config)#vtp domain SWLAB DLS (config)#vtp version 2 DLS (config)#vtp mode server DLS(config)# interface vlan 1 DLS(config-if)# ip address 10.1.1.101 255.255.255.0 DLS (config)#ip dhcp pool Mother DLS (dhcp-config)#network 10.133.0.0 255.255.255.0 DLS (dhcp-config)#default-router 10.133.1.254 DLS (dhcp-config)#ip dhcp pool vlan10 DLS (dhcp-config)#network 10.133.10.1 255.255.255.0 DLS (dhcp-config)#default-router 10.133.10.1 DLS (dhcp-config)#lease 5 DLS (dhcp-config)#ip dhcp pool vlan20 DLS (dhcp-config)#network 10.133.20.1 255.255.255.0 DLS (dhcp-config)#default-router 10.133.20.1 DLS (dhcp-config)#lease 5

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Internship Report on Bahir Dar University ICT Development Office Main Campus Data Center B. Access Switch Configuration Switch>enable Switch#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Switch(config)#hostname ASL ASL(config)#enable password cisco ASL(config)#enable secret Cisco ASL(config)#service password-encryption ASL(config)#line con ASL(config)#line console 0 ASL(config-line)#password cisco ASL(config-line)#login ASL(config-line)#exit ASL(config)#line vty 0 4 ASL(config-line)#password cisco ASL(config-line)#login ASL(config-line)#exit ASL(config)#banner motd #****************************** ELCTRICAL&COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ACCESS SWITCH***# ASL(config)#interface ranage fastEthernet 0/1-12 ASL(config-if)#switchport access vlan 10 ASL(config-if)#switchport mode access ASL(config)#interface ranage fastEthernet 0/13-23 ASL(config-if)#switchport access vlan 20 ASL(config-if)#switchport mode access ASL(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/24 ASL(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q ASL(config-if)#switchport mode trunk ASL(config)#vtp domain SWLAB ASL(config)#vtp version 2 ASL(config)#vtp mode clinet
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