Table 5

Summary table of psychological dimensions of bilinguality
Type of Bilinguality (a) balanced bilinguality (b) dominant bilinguality (a) compound bilinguality (b) coordinate bilinguality Comments LA/1 competence = LB/2 competence LA/1 competence > or < LB/2 competence LA/1 unit equivalent to LB/2 unit = one conceptual unit LA/1 unit = one conceptual unit 1 LB/2 equivalent = one conceptual unit 2 LB/2 acquired before age of 10/11 LA and LB = mother tongues L1 = mother tongue; L2 acquired before 11 L2 = acquired between 11 and 17 L2 = acquired after 17 presence of L2 community absence of L2 community LA/1 and LB/2 socially valorized ® cognitive advantage L2 valorised at expense L1 ® cognitive disadvantage double membership and bicultural identity LA/1 membership and cultural identity LB/2 membership and cultural identity ambiguous membership and anomic identity

Dimension

1. according to competence in both languages

2. according to cognitive organization

3. according to age of acquisition

(a) childhood bilinguality (i) simultaneous (ii) consecutive (b) adolescent bilinguality (c) adult bilinguality (a) endogenous bilinguality (b) exogenous bilinguality (a) additive bilinguality (b) subtractive bilinguality (a) bicultural bilinguality (b) L1 monocultural bilinguality (c) L2 acculturated bilinguality (d) deculturated bilinguality

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4. according to presence of L2 community in environment

5. according to the relative status of the two languages

6. according to group membership and cultural identity

L1 - Denotes the mother tongue or first language L2 - Denotes a second language learned after the first LA/LB - Denotes the cooccurence of two mother tongues learned simultaneously SOURCE: Hamers & Blanc (2004)

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