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Sayandeep Khan Drakoon Aerospace

Invention Report Public Release March 13 2012

Containts

→The notion of Language ⬔ What is missing →A language with an inter-sentence relation ⬔ The notion of Sprache ⬔ The statement relations ⬔ Combinatorial Description →Application of Sprache: the Design of LDML ⬔ Basics ⬔ Translation : Description guided action ⬔ Application : Machine guided investigation

**The Notion of Language
**

Alphabet: A set of charachter (basic symbols that can not be decomposed), written ∑ String: Any finite length sequence of elements of ∑. The total sets of strings is written ∑* Grammar: A quadruple (V, T, G, S), where S is a set of start symbols, and T is a set of what is called terminal symbols. V is called total vocabulary. S,T ⊂ V. G is a set of rules, that maps σ → τ where both σ and τ ∊ (V∪T)*, and τ≠ϕ Language: The set {w ∊T : S generates w} is a language generated by the grammar

What is missing?

⬔ The language is basically a set of terminal symbols. ⬔ The generation of the terminal symbols are governed by the grammar ⬔ However no strict relation between each terminal statement is defined. ⬔ In science, every two statement is Strictly related: with help of the one, the other can be deduced.

Example

⬔ Statements in english language (Each terminal statement): » Iron is heavier than water » Iron sinks in water » Water is denser than air with zero assitance from physics (which defines terms like „sinking“ and „denser“, and assigns logical relations), these sentences can not be linked together. ⬔ Using knowledge of physics, the axiom of transitivity may be applied Iron sinks in water AND water is denser than air ⇒ Iron sinks in water AND water sinks in air (From definition) ⇒ Iron sinks in Air. (Transitivity)

Remarks

⬔ Notice that the English language alone can not deduce the two steps as shown in the example. ⬔ Hence the english language alone can not relate the statements in an order relation like {statement one, statement two} > {statement three} ⬔ Hence, we propose a language that has such an order relation defined onto it. Hence, we have {language, order relation}. We call this tuple a Sprache. Written as §(G,k) :={L(G), k} where k is the set of order relations.

Notion of Sprache

⬔ The sprache is built upon a Language, with an introduced order relation. ⬔ Asssume the following applies: ∀ α ,α ∊ L(G), ∃ ≻ | A ≻ β , α ∊ A, α ⊁ ϕ ⬔ Define: k : ⋃≻ ⬔ Then the sprache is defined as:

§(G) : {L(G), k}

**The statement relations
**

⬔ α and β are commutatively related: Written α,β ⬔ α and β are non commutatively related: Written α > β ⬔ α is defined as β : Written α : β ⬔ α is equivalent as β : Written α = β ⬔ α is nagetive to β : Written α ~ β ⬔ α maps to β : Written α # β

The statement relations

⬔ Immediately, it is clear: =∊, ~∊, :∊> #∊>

Application of Sprache

⬔ Imagine, we want to desccribe the properties of an object O . Imagine, properties A, and B are conjectured to be intrinsic to O, but not observed. We write: O > (A,B) ⬔ Imagine, of object O , properties C, and D are observed . We write: O > (C,D) ⬔ Imagine of an object O , properties E is measured to be F. We write: O>(E:F) ⬔ It is clear that the notion of Sprache, with a finite set of relations, can relate the properties of O, generating a complete scientific description.

Conclusion

⬔ Using the notion of Sprache, the description of data related to anything can be reduced to a strictly related set of statements. Missing relations indicate lack of knowledge, worth investigating. ⬔ The notion of sprache can highlight where knowledge is missing, so a scientist examining the object can immediately focus on missing knowledge ⬔ Next : the combinatorial model of application of sprache, a Sprache Prototype developed by BDA, the LDML, the LDML grammar, and applications of LDML

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