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Garuda Purana

Garuda Purana

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The Garuda Purana

This is a translation of an abridged version of the Garuda Purana. The Garuda Purana is one of the Vishnu Puranas. It is in the form of a dialog between Vishnu and Garuda, the King of Birds. The second section of this Purana (given here) deals with issues connected with death, particularly funeral rites and the metaphysics of reincarnation. Portions of the Garuda Purana are used by some Hindus as funeral liturgy. Indeed, some consider it unlucky to read this text except during funerals. Of interest are the intermediate states between birth and rebirth, which roughly correspond to the western concepts of Hell and Heaven. Since this was written during the medieval era, it is possible that the writer of this text had contact with Christianity. Earlier Hindu texts do not elaborate about 'hell' and 'heaven,' at least not to this extent, and the subject is completely absent in the oldest texts. Here, the torments of Hell are described in terms that would not be out of place in a Baptist revival tent (or Dante, for that matter). In addition, the four-square city of Yama, the God of Death, is reminiscent of the heavenly city in Revelation. However, these are way stations between incarnations (or, as termed in the Tibetan Book of the Dead, Bardos), not a permanent destination. The Garuda Purana starts with the details of the afterlife. Following this is an account of funeral procedures, including rituals, the astrological timing of the post-death observances, and ritual gifts. Balancing the extended vision of Hell in the earlier part of the document is a shorter account of the City of Yama. After that is an enumeration of correspondences between the macrocosmos and the human body. The final part of this text is an appeal to self-knowledge as the key to liberation, going beyond austerities and study of the texts. "The fool, not knowing that the truth is seated in himself, is bewildered by the Shastras,--a foolish goatherd, with the young goat under his arm, peers into the well."

THE

GARUDA PURÂṆA
(SÂRODDHÂRA)
WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

ERNEST WOOD & S.V. SUBRAHMANYAM
AND AN INTRODUCTION FROM SRIS CHANDRA VASU

Allahabad: Pâṇiṇi Office [1911] E-book as PDF by Ganesh Rama Kumar
NOTICE OF ATTRIBUTION. Scanned at sacred-texts.com, June 2006. Proofed and formatted by John Bruno Hare. This text is in the public domain in the United States because it was published prior to January 1st, 1923. These files may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice of attribution is left intact in all copies.

CONTENTS
No. Chapter Name PAGE 1. The Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1 2. The Way of Yama 10 3. The Torments of Yama 21 4. The Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell 30 5. The Signs of Sins 38 6. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful 46 7. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One 52 8. The Gifts for the Dying 61 9. The Rites for the Dying 76 10. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire 83 11. The Ten-Days' Ceremonies 97 12. The Eleventh-Day Rite 103 13. The Ceremony for all the Ancestors 114 14. The City of the King of Justice 130 15 The Coming to Birth of People who have done Good 141 16. The Law for Liberation 154

INTRODUCTION.
This Garuḍa Purâṇa Sârodhhâra (Extracted essence of the Garuḍa Purâṇa) was compiled or written by one Navanidhirâma, son of Śrî Hari Nârâyaṇa, who lived in the city of Jhunjhuṇû, which was ruled by a King Śrî Sûkhalâlajî. It was done for the helping of those who cannot understand the difficult earlier works; but itself is not easy to understand, and required much labour, the author informs us. It is entirely originally written, he says, and comprises the results of very deep study of the sacred books, and is the extracted essence of them on the subjects with which it deals. It is used all over India at funeral ceremonies, but some are afraid to read it on other occasions, thinking it inauspicious. CHAPTERS I to VII deal with Hells. CHAPTERS VII to XIII deal with Ceremonies for the dead. CHAPTER XIV deals with Heaven. CHAPTERS XV & XVI deal with Yoga and liberation. The neo-theosophists, among the great good they have done to the world, have revived the idea that Hell is a living reality, and not a superstitious fiction, created by a designing priestcraft, to keep Humanity on its good behavior. Among the educated, with the vanishing of the belief in an after-life, has vanish0 Ted also the belief in Hell. But owing to the labors of the Psychical Research Society and similar other bodies, there are few educated persons now, who deny the existence of the afterlife, as they used to do some thirty years back. But though the belief in after-life has revived, yet the cognate belief in Heaven and Hell is still very vague. Our Hindu Puranas, however, among the great mass of rubbish that they contain, have always been very clear on this question of Heaven and Hell. Serious writers of law books also like Yâjñavalkya and Viṣṇu have described asseriously the existences of various Hells, as they have done the various joys of Heaven. No doubt, the subject of Hell is not a very savoury one Tc 0.0ervous persons have always fought shy of studying this unpleasant department of existence. But, pleasant or unpleasant, the science does not take into account the human feelings. No one is forced to study the subject, unless he feels strong enough to do so, as no one is bound to study Medicine Tunless he is prepared to fa e the scenes of the dissecting room. c The question then is, do these hells really exist? If so, where? This is a question of fa0 Tct, c 0.mu0 Tst be decided like all question0 Ts of fact evidence of reliable witnesses who , on the have, from personal experience, described this region. To a Hindu there is needed no greater testimony than that of Yogi Yâjñavalkya who, in the Prâyaśchitta Adhyâya of his law book, mentions 21 hells. The author of Viṣṇu Smṛiti also has fo0 Tllowed in his footsteps. Hell, then, according to Hindu seers, is a particular locality walled off from the surrounding regions of space by the messengers of Yama, the ruler of Hell. Within this particular space so specially guarded, no joy can enter. It is a region0 T of pain--sh0 Tarp. intenseTc 0.severe. Sinners clothed in their painful bodies (jâtana deha)--replica of their

The natural fear. Aśvathâman. † Is there any physical Hell also. who goes there on his mission of mercy and charity. though not known as Hells. 140-141. * But if the soul so favourably placed. What are these prison houses in every well-governed community but physical hells? What is this outcasting by the society. in modern times we ha . Viṣṇu Smṛiti. so Hell is a place of punishment and pain only to the sinners and not to those who go there on similar missions. Thus the fact of concrete existence of hell cannot be doubted. the soul is re-born with keener conscience and under circumstances where it can. but making one feel the torture of hell. by passing through the bitterness of the valley of Yama--the merciful ruler of Hell. so there are physical hells also. The readers of the Hindu Sacred literature will no doubt remember the beautiful episode of Nachiketas going to Hell. no more than it remembers the joys of heaven. as the Heaven is situate in the astral region of the physical North Pole. After being thus purified by Hell-fire. This is the permanent gain which the soul has acquired. as is mentioned in the next verse. in fact Gautama in his law book definitely calls this stage hell. if it so chooses.physical bodies. and leaves its senses unrestrained. pp. though made of subtler matter. Says Yâjñavalkya in verse 218 of the Third Adhyâya that the lords of mercy place such souls in very favourable circumstances afterwards. in the furnace of hell-fire. The punishment in Hell is not eternal. its locality is in the astral region of the physical South Pole. and which it will never lose through ages to come. verse 22. But there is one distinguishing mark between the Hindu idea of Hell and that of votaries of Semitic creeds. omits to do good action or commits evil deeds again. which certain souls feel at the sight of temptation to sin. but not to the visitor. is the result of the finer development of conscience. there is again a fall for that soul. Mârkaṇdeya and others are said to be still living in their physical bodies. But the permanent educative effect remains in that part of the sold--called the conscience. make better use of its faculties. The twenty-two hells are described in the Viṣṇu Smṛiti. and some say that Gautama did not believe. or is it in the astral plane only? As Heaven is both physical and astral. It is Reformatory and Educative. and as the Svarga is on the physical plane also. Lohachâraka). Leaving the testimony of Hindu seers aside. miscalled the secret of death. suffer the punishments deserved by their sins. Where is then this Hell situated? According to Hindu belief. where the great ṛiṣis like Vyâsa. in another form of hell. and learning from its Ruler the secret of cosmic evolution. (See Sacred Books of the East. As a prison house is a prison only to the criminal. The hell punishment is not remembered by the soul when it is re-born.

but a gift to a Brâhmiṇ. is that for the intentional mortal sins--kâma kṛitamahâpâtaka. Several kinds of death penances are described in our law books.Is there any means by which a man may save himself from the pains of hell? On this point. The result therefore. Similarly." iii:† Mandalik's Hindu Law. The after-life consequences can be warded off by appropriate penances. except the death penance.--there is no penance. . penances can be compounded by the payment of amounts ranging from a cowrie shell to thousands of rupees to Brâhmiṇs. but one must suffer the full consequences of his sins. and also a pilgrimage. there is a penance. Like the dispensations of the Popes of Rome. It is not that the gifts to a deserving man washes away sins. And here is a rich field which the Brâhmiṇ priestcraft of India. which can save the man from future troubles. every mortal sinner must pass through the period of purificatory process of hell. and in this age. if a sinner asks the paṇḍit for the appropriate penance of his sin. for modern Hinduism has done everything in its power to throw in 'the background that rational idea. Thus in certain cases of incest. p. the penance for drinking spirituous liquors is death by drinking boiling liquors or butter. by the rule of the present Iron age. Penances have become a farce in Modern India. the infliction of bodily pains is of secondary importance. One class of thinkers held the view that sin could not be expiated by any act of man. as the saying goes that no one feeds a docile donkey. the only operative penance is to embrace a red-hot iron image and die in that way. preying on the gullibility of its votaries. 265. our ancient authors held different opinions. a very salutary rule is laid down by the paṇḍits that no death penance should ever be described. they are born in high families. This presupposes that a kicking Brâhmiṇ has milk to give. is that according to the law. however bad he may be. with its concomitant result in the shape of so much fee (dakṣiṇâ) to be paid to the Brâhmiṇ. Repentance for sin is the highest prâyaśchitta. and become accomplished in arts and sciences. For minor sins. But no Paṇḍit is allowed. The practice of Prâyaśchittas or penances is based upon a more rational basis. for the sake of her milk. the rule is different. For every sin. where they enjoy pleasures. however meritorious it be in its nature. but a kicking cow. has exploited to its extreme extent. One who has performed such penance has exhausted the evil effects of his sins and for him there is no penance. The later view. and possessed of wealth. which has gained ascendency now. verse 219. to describe these death penances to any sinner. which is far from the truth. Footnotes iii:* "Afterwards freed from all sins.

GARUDA PURANA HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED GANEṢA CHAPTER I An Account of the Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1. having offered oblations to the sacrificial fire respectfully asked this of the revered Sûta sitting there:-The sages said: The happiness-giving path of the Shining Ones has been described by you. the son of Vinatâ.--whose firm root is Law. has been told the highest goal of the devotees. 8-9. 11. 2 and the means of destroying its pains. to the virtuously inclined. The tree Madhusûdana. to remove your difficulties. As it was declared to Vainateya 3 by the Blessed Viṣṇu. whose abundant branches are the Purâṇas. 3 having bowed reverently. Suta said: Listen then. I am willing to describe the way of Yama. Once. to what condition the sinful come. of those who turn away from devotion to Thee. The name of the Lord is easily pronounced. 3-5. 1 Also of the miseries of the World of Change. We now wish to hear about the fear-inspiring Way of Yama.. has been described to me by you. happiness-giving. Tell me. the Teacher. O Lord. 10. in the morning. it is revealed. 7. In Naimiṣa. then. and whose fruit is liberation. 2. the field of the sleepless Ones. and also. was sitting at ease in Vaikuṇṭḥa. along which is the travelling. Those sages once. whose trunk is the Vedas. fie upon the wretched men who nevertheless go to hell! 12. Now I wish to hear about the fearsome Way of Yama. . when asked. very difficult to tread. O Shining One. just so will I relate it. Fie.--excels. Saunaka and others. performed sacrifices for thousands of years to attain the Heaven-world. inquired:-Garuḍa said: The Path of Devotion. misery-giving to the sinful. 6. whose flowers are sacrifices. 1 the sages. and the tongue is under control. of many forms. when the Blessed Hari. Please tell us correctly about the afflictions of this world and the other. and in what way they obtain the miseries of the Way of Yama.

and pain like the stinging of hundred scorpions is experienced. with senses unconquered. O Târkṣya. When the breath is leaving its place. with mind busy with the support of his family. Lying encircled by his sorrowing relatives. 14-16. those who delight in sin. O Lord of Birds. 27. Bewildered by many thoughts. being cared for by his dependents. Then. 25. eating what is ungraciously placed before him. 21-24. with tubes obstructed by phlegm. revelling in the enjoyments of the desire-nature. lacking the divine attributes. averse from the true scriptures and the company of the good.13. with failing digestion.--fall into a foul hell. meet with torments. at the destruction of the decayed senses and the numbing of the intelligence. enveloped in the net of delusion. having passed through death. Those men who are intent upon wisdom go to the highest goal. destitute of compassion and righteousness. The Blessed Lord said: Listen.--then. eating little. With eyes turned up through loss of vitality. swooning with intense pain he dies amidst his weeping relatives. as the result of his 1 actions. 20. Powerful death. the sinfully-inclined go miserably to the torments of Yama. He remains. 26. exhausted by coughing and difficult breathing. terrible even to hear about. and I will describe the Way of Yama. moving little. 19. being caught in the noose of death. . nearing death. 28. by which those who are sinful go in hell.--all the worlds appear as one. like a house-dog. the messengers of Yama come near and life departs. a divine vision arises. in accordance with his former earning. Having experienced the good or the bad actions. intoxicated with the pride of wealth. then how they. attached to the wicked. In this last moment. In this condition. in the house. with his body deformed through old age. unbending. like a serpent. having the ungodly qualities. Self-satisfied. with the death rattle in his throat. Listen how the misery of this world accrues to the sinful. some disease arises. O Târkṣya. though being spoken to he does not answer. 17. Not yet tired of life. yet anxiously hoping to live. unexpectedly. diseased. the moment of dying seems an age.-and he does not attempt to say anything. approaches him stricken with bodily and mental pain. 18.

forest-fires and hot winds.' is dragged from the body by the servants of Yama. along a road of burning sand. As black as crows. Then. looking the while at his own body. 33. Having returned. bearing nooses and rods. The man is brought there in a short time and the messengers show him the terrible torments of hell. seeing whom his heart palpitates and he releases excrements. oh. he weeps. and recount over and over again the awful terrors of the hells. and rising again. bitten by clogs upon the way. 41. his mouth becomes filled with saliva. of fierce aspect. like the king's officers a convict.' 36. 34-35. roasting in the sun. 42. with ugly faces. shelterless and waterless.29. naked. the man. two terrifying messengers of Yama are come. remembering his misdeeds. Having seen the fearful Yama. You shall go to the abode of Yama. The vital breaths of the sinful depart by the lower gateway. Here and there falling exhausted and insensible. and the weeping of his relatives. . crying loudly 'Oh. 32. afflicted. and bound the noose about his neck. While thus leading him the messengers menace him.-'Hurry up. Now he emits foam. without delay. With failing heart and shuddering at their threats. painfully he walks. they forcibly lead him a long way. 43. desiring the body but held back with a noose by the followers of Yama. 30-31. Hungry and thirsty. the sinful Denier does not obtain gratification. Then hearing these words. with the messengers. with hair erect. and the gifts made during the time of his illness. swiftly comes back through the air. He obtains the rice-balls given by his offspring.' he is beaten by the servants of Yama. crying out 'oh. Having put round him a body of torment. O Târkṣya. We will lead you now. with grinding teeth. by command of Yama. 37-38. The man of the size of a thumb. Nevertheless. you wicked man. after a time. with nails like weapons. struck upon the back with whips.--in this way. bound by his past tendencies. tortured by hunger and thirst. oh. almost powerless. very miserably led through the darkness to the abode of Yama. 30-40. to Kumbhîpâka and the other hells.

walks alone along the road like a captured monkey. with fully formed body. the size of a hand (cubit). The extent of the way of Yama measures eighty-six thousand Yojanas. and the handsful of water. bound by the servants of Yama. 10 Bahwâpada. the third goes to the messengers of Yama. 51-53. By the rice-ball of the first day the head is-formed. the being who has not experienced the torment certainly does not obtain the human form. O Best of Birds. the man. 46. 6 Shailâgama. the neck and shoulders by the second. 8 Vichitrabhavana. by this experiences good and evil on the way. 50. in an uninhabited forest. O Twice-born. 48. 7 Krauncha. by the third the heart forms: By the fourth the back forms. 45. through these sixteen cities on the way. Having passed successively. 56. 47. deprived of the rice-ball offering. On the thirteenth day the departed. 58-59.44. Karma not experienced does not die away even in thousands of millions of ages. 13 . Every day these are divided into four portions. on both the eleventh and twelfth days the departed eats. and by the fifth the navel. 1 the gifts. going by day and night. 9 4 Nâgendrabhavana. Dwelling in the body formed by the rice-balls. O Bird. 5 Gândharva. 1 for ten days the son should offer rice-balls. The Śrâddha. For nine days and nights the departed obtains rice-balls. Two portions give nourishment to the five elements of the body. o. by the seventh the thigh forms. Although they eat the rice-ball offering. by the sixth the hips and secren parts. a new one is formed by these offerings. Those who are in the departed condition. 11 12 Nânâkrandapura. 57. 40. still they are tortured with hunger. 54. 1 without Vaitaraṇî. Hence. Likewise next the knees and feen by tw on the tenth day hunger and thirst. the sinful man goes to the place of the King of Righteousness 2:-Saumya. 55. acquires strength. until the end of the age. very hungry and pained with thirst. do not uplift. wander about in great misery. O Bird. he lives upon the fourth. for the sinful. 3 Krûrapura. The old body being cremated. Two hundred and forty-seven Yojanas each day the departed travels. and on the tenth day the being.

the abode of righteousness 60. A wonderful the three pronouns Members for the The calamities. dead. when work Ceremonyis between thehigher castes thisa is unavoidable. 17 Bahubhîti 18:--before the city of Yama. the "second birth" . crying out "Oh. 8:4 Name of a mountain.Sutaptabhawana. who do not sleep. intake invested with the They may be interpreted Residence of place. 2:1 Yama is the Lord of death. 3:1 Another form of Yama.. Town ambiguity of 8 and 9 miles.e. 16 Shîtâdhya. 2:3 A name of Garuḍa. the sinful. 14 Raudra. Lord of Serpents. 2:2 Saṁsâra: The three worlds in which men circle through births and deaths. Held by the nooses of Yama. Bnaccessible mountain. Many of Saturn. Footnotes 1:1 I. 8:9 Place of Singers. The superphysical beings. 8:3 Calm place." having left his own house. Vinatâ was the mother of Garuḍa. goes on the way to the city of Yama. oh. Yojanacruelty. 15 Payovarshana.

8:14 Very hot place. . 8:16 Rains 8:17 Very cold. 8:13 Town of varied cries. 8:15 Savage.8:12 Misery-giving. 8:18 Many horrors.

in others bills to climb and valleys to descend. 6. in one place torn by thorns. In one place he falls into a hidden well. O Bird. showers of stones and thunderbolts. and with excrement. bestowing great misery. in others lakes filled with pus and blood. and having forest-fires. and on this road there is none of the foods by which he may support life. way the sinful go there. And showers of caustic mud. An Account of The Way of Yama. made of smelted. tigers. which is recorded as two thousand yojanas in length and breadth. of which even an account arouses fear. In the midst of the way flows the terribly horrible Vaitaraṇî River. In one place is a plain of hot sand. 10. 11. when you have heard it you will become agitated. showers of boiling water. in another rocks difficult to climb over. in another he treads on razor-edges and on spear-points. showers of blood. Twelve suns blaze. extremely thirsty. There the sinful soul goes along pierced by cold winds. in another stung by scorpions. In one place are deep chasms. as though at the end of a pralaya. vultures. In one place he stumbles in the awful black darkness and falls into water. In one place there is a very terrible forest of sword-like leaves. in another in hot slime.Infested with crows. in another from a lofty mountain. in another a mound of embers. in what. No water is to be seen anywhere that he. in another in mud abounding in leeches. owls. 15-17. 2. 7-8. in which a man may take rest. 4. 14. may drink. in another burnt by fire. and dogs. showers of weapons. In one place there is pitch darkness. in another a great cloud of smoke. which when seen inspires misery. O Keśava. There is no shade of trees there.--by whose leaves he is pierced and torn. 9. The Blessed Lord said: I will tell you about the Way of Yama. bees. copper. Garuḍa said: What is the path of misery in the world of Yama like? Tell me. 5. .CHAPTER II. mosquitoes. In some places are showers of charcoal. Although you are my devotee. The sinful in one place is bitten by ferocious lions. 12-13. hawks. in another stung by very venomous serpents. 3. 1.

vomiting blood from the mouth. of many kinds of pain. infested with huge vultures and crows with adamantine beaks. this river was created only that the sinful should fall into it. by the nooses of death being dragged along. difficult to see into. overspread with flames and smoke. Thus along the Way of Yama. and crowded with hundreds of dreadful birds. fallen into the flood. fishes and turtles. and with other flesh-eating water-animals. 30-32. crying and weeping and laden with misery. this river. By hundreds of thousands of whirlpools the sinful descend to the lower region.Extending a hundred yojanas. O Brother. 29. arms. there is no rescuer whatever. obstructed with hairy moss. 24. Covered with many scorpions. 22-23.--of those who have fallen into the midst of this. Others are drawn along by a noose through the end of the nose. Hungry and thirsty the sinful drink the blood. It is difficult to cross and gives great misery. Some go on the way neck. it is said. after the moment rising again.--at the very sight of it the sinful swoon away. bearing many loads of iron. are pecked by crows. Very dreadful. fear-inspiring. some of them being dragged by hooks. Unfordable. 28. And being beaten with hammers by the awful messengers of Yama. feet and back bound with chains. others. and with black snakes. Filled with porpoises. 18-20. with mud of flesh and blood. 26. which then they eat again. 25. flowing with blood. Bound by the noose. When it sees the sinful approaching. and pierced from behind with points of weapons. and also by nooses through the ears. with crocodiles. cry. the sinful are led on. giving extreme misery. seethes. a flow of pus and blood. O Son. go the sinful. carrying much foam. and its opposite cannot be seen. with heaps of bones on the banks. filled with huge crocodiles. impassible for the sinful. impassible. like butter in the frying-pan: Covered all over with dreadful throngs of insects with piercing stings. O Father!'--again and again wailing. 27. O Bird. with leeches. with powerful roaring. They stay for a moment in the lower region. . O Târkshya. 21. That river. Very sinful people.

incessantly crying out. whatever have I done! 35. 'I did not emaciate myself by monthly fasts by the course of the moon. the departed reaches the City of Saumya. Large numbers of the departed are in that excellent and beautiful city.--O Dweller in the Body. 'Oh. make reparation for whatever you have done! 37. 'I made no gifts. Owing to my bad deeds in former lives I got a woman's body. thus going on the way. 'Not knowing my duty I did not serve my husband. make reparation for whatever you have done! 36. did not pay due respect to my worthy elders. which is a source of great misery. 43.--O Dweller in the Body. make reparation for whatever you have done! 41. O Târkṣya.--O Dweller in the Body.--also. full of very great misery. make reparation for whatever you leave done! 38. nor worship the wise.--O Dweller in the Body. I did not do my duty. did not perform service at a place of pilgrimage as prescribed. never performed any benevolent acts. did not value the precepts of the Vedas and the Śâstras. did not wait upon good men. 44. never preserved fidelity to my husband. go on towards the mansion of Yama. 'I did not follow the good advice of my husband.-O Dweller in the Body.' repents:-'By great meritorious effort birth as a human being is gained. either for the benefit of men or for the sake of animals and binds. Haying obtained that. 33-34.--O Dweller in the Body. For seventeen days he goes on alone with the speed of the wind. performed no penances. make reparation for whatever you have done! 40. The River Puṣhpabhadrâ is there. 'I did not duly honour the assemblies of Brâhmiṇs. And the stupid. I did not excavate tanks in waterless places. make reparation for whatever you have done!' 39.Bewailing their own karmas these beings. Thus having lamented many times. did not listen to the Purâṇas. Having become widowed I performed no austerities. becoming exhausted. nor after his death enter the fire. ' Alas. did not visit the holy river 1. oh.' 42. crying 'Whence did I attain this human state?' he goes on. no offerings to the fire. On the eighteenth day. did not even a little for the support of cows and brahmins. 'I made no daily gifts and did not give food daily to the cow. remembering the past incarnation. . nor by detailed observances. calling on son and grandson. did not worship the deities. and a fig-tree delightful to see.

his family and dependents all. then the departed belonging there and the servants say this: Where is your wealth now? Where are your children and wife now? Where are your friends and relatives now? You only suffer the result of your own karma. 57-58. and having seen the fearful forests there he cries in misery. he is forcibly dragged by the nooses.41. O Mortal. 53. When he bewails his wealth. 55-56. 'Have you not heard. Thence the departed speedily goes to Nagendrabhavana. 'You know that provisions are the strength of a traveller. of this way. You do not strive for provisions. falling down and getting up again and running. In the fifth month the departed goes thence to the city of Krauncha. and there having eaten the rice-balls offered in the third month he moves on. Go on for a long time! 48. water and cloths given by his relatives. 46-47. Having enjoyed there the rice-balls. being again dragged with the nooses he is led onwards by the servants. At the end of two months the afflicted leaves that city. . There stones rain down copiously upon the departed. In that city he takes rest. and thence goes on into Sauripura. Upon the coming of the third month. and is miserable. you fool. In that city he eats a mixture of water and food. son and others. Having seen him he is overcome with fear and decides to give up efforts. given at the end of three fortnights. who has the appearance of Death. And in the fourth month reaches Śailâgama city. where there is neither buying nor selling. There is there a king named Jangama. O Traveller in the Higher World! Yet you must inevitably go on that way. 54. Having eaten the rice-balls of the fourth month he becomes somewhat happy. 59. which is familiar even to children? Have you not heard of it from the twice-born. and then passes on from that city. There he remembers the enjoyment of wife. 49. Here he eats the monthly rice-balls given by his sons and grandsons through either love or compassion. as spoken of in the Purâṇas?' 50. 51. having arrived at the city of the Gandharvas. 52. Thus spoken to by the messengers and being beaten with the hammers. Being dragged unmercifully he weeps again and again. along with the servants of Yama.

bringing a boat for you--who desire to cross the great Vaitaraṇî River-if your merits are sufficient. to Sutaptabhavana. At the end of five and a half months the ceremony before the six-monthly is performed. goes to Krûrapura. 'Oh heavens. 'It is said by the sages. for a time and having left that city. he arrives at the city of Duhkhada. Having seen many people crying in agony in various ways. At the end of the ninth month he goes to the city of Nânâkranda. He goes to Chitrabhavana. very greatly afflicted with the desire to eat. otherwise not. He goes on the way lamenting. 64-65.60. goes. and then. . When he sees his huge form he runs away in fear. Seeing him it seethes. 71. Having then eaten the rice-balls of the sixth month. trembling and very miserable. He remains. floating in the air. and this is called Vaitaraṇî because it is crossed over by that. then the boat will come to you. Having stayed. 62-63. 70. Then having come before him some fishermen say: 'We have arrived. over which kingdom rules a king named Vichitra. in the tenth month. 'If you have made the gift of a cow.' he exclaims. Having left that city. having eaten it. threatened by the servants of Yama. satisfied with the rice-balls and jars then given. 72.' Having heard their words. The sinful soul who has made no gifts verily sinks in that. the departed eats the rice balls given by hand in the fifth month. 69. O Ruler of Birds. Having eaten the rice-balls which are given in the eighth month he moves on. carry him across like a fish upon a hook. At the approach of the seventh month he goes to the city of Bahwâpada. he passes on. he cries in great misery. Having fixed a skewer through his lips. 73. that Vitarana is a gift. the messengers. who see the truth. threatened by the servants of Yama. There he enjoys what is given by his sons in the seventh month. seeing which he cries loudly. who is the younger brother of Yama. 68. the departed. 75. Travelling in the air he suffers great misery. Remaining in the city of Krauncha. 74. 61. and being himself faint of heart. Having passed beyond that city. with difficulty.' 66-67.

and them. There he enjoys what is offered in the eleventh month by his sons and others. 70. At the end of the year he goes to the city of Śîtâḍhya. and half after the eleventh month he reaches Payovarṣaṇa. 77. he. where cold a hundred times greater than that of the Himâlaya afflicts . he is not happy At the completion of the eleventh month he goes to the city of Raudra. in misery. obtains the Śrâddha before the annual one. giving misery to the departed. There clouds team. Though he there obtains the rice-ball gifts and water. 78.76.

and are called. by men.CHAPTER III. Four and forty yojanas. who have authority over mortals and immortals. 11. he asks Chitragupta about their sins. 9. and in the nether regions. 13. they become benevolent. The sinful man cries when he hears the mingled wails of 'Oh. The Śravaṇas are the sons of Brâhmaṇ who wander in heaven. openly and secretly. lies the great city of the King of Justice. well-known to the King of Justice. Such is the power of these.' and having heard his cry. 1. . The doorkeeper Dharmadhwaja. Garuḍa said: What are the torments like that the sinful suffers. 10. 2. Thus do these truth-speaking Śravaṇas relate the actions of man. Nevertheless. 12. these are all. O Târkshya. and see a long way off. speech and body. those who walk about in the city of Yama. 4-5. All go to the door-keeper and report it to him. having passed along the way of Yama into the abode of Yama? Tell me this. enquires of the Śravaṇas 1. 3. An Account of the Torments of Yama. I will tell it to you from the beginning to the end. beyond the city of Bahubhîti. Chitragupta. O Descendant of Vinatâ. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. Their wives have a similar nature. 6. These report to Chitragupta everything that is said and done. Sravanîs. always stands there. granting heaven and liberation. distinctively. and the karma born of mind. 1 reports the good and evil deeds. O Keśava. O Kâśyapa. These followers of the King of Justice know accurately all the virtues and vices of mankind. They know accurately all that is done by women. The men who are Deniers. 8. 14. To the man who pleases them by austerity. hear and understand at a distance. 7. Even at the description of hell you will tremble. Oh. although he is allknowing. having gone to Chitragupta. on earth. He. and always delight in great sin. charity and truthful speech. Then Chitragupta tells it to the King of Justice. as is proper.

18. you foolish people. the sinful then grieve over their karmas. sky. the heart. 27 'Hitherto you have committed sins with great delight. with mouth gaping with formidable fangs. fire. wind. 23. polluted with egoism. Śravaṇas. why ever did you commit sin? 26. possessing thirty-two arms. by command of Yama.15. and remain silent and motionless. rod in hand. and Justice--know the actions of man. overcome with fear. evil-doers. 22. become dispensers of misery. 16. day and night. The sun and moon. injudicious. the sun and others see fully the sins and merits of the embodied being.' The sinful soul who made no gifts trembles and cries again. and bewailing their karmas. like a mountain of lampblack. seated on a buffalo. 19-21. the wretch. roaring. 'O. Yama. and those sins are the cause of unavoidable misery. Near to him are all the messengers. why ever did you commit that misery-giving sin which is born of lust. 'The sinful actions done by you are very many. Then. anger and association with the sinful. with eyes like wells. 'It is known that Yama deals equally with the fool and the learned. . Fever and others. Then Yama. with red eyes and a long nose. It is no use turning your faces away. earth and water. attended by Death. Chitragupta. Very sinful people behold the terrifying form of Yama--huge of body. Roaring like a cloud at the time of pralaya. 24. cries 'Oh. 'O. terrible with weapons gleaming like lightning. 25. Chitragupta speaks to all those sinners. you sinners. 17 The King of Justice. the two twilights. 29. those truth-speakers. Even Chitragupta is fearful. who are crying. having assured himself concerning the sins of the sinful. the beggar and the wealthy.' 30. relating them before the King of Justice. Oh. Having seen him. and thereby are now destined for torment. Hearing these words of Chitragupta. resembling Yama. summons them and shows them his own very terrible form. 28. Extending three yojanas. Knowing the wicked actions of the sinful. the strong and the weak.

'You did not do any acts of service. swooning away. the servants address them thus: 'O. for whom there is no rescuer. lead them towards the hells. There is one big tree there. 39-40. 37. Suffer the fruits of your own sin! Because you are devoid of righteousness you deserve to be beaten. 42. implore the messengers. by the messengers. burning there. 'Oh. you evildoers.' 33. you sinner.' 46. 31. has fitting punishment ordered for the sinful. Thus having spoken the messengers heat them mercilessly. You did not meditate well upon Yama and Chitragupta. The King of Justice. with maces and with big pestles. glowing like a blazing fire. why ever did you commit such wicked deeds? You did not even make the easy water and food offerings at all. Though living as a householder you did not even express compassion. seeing them standing motionless like thieves.31. They. nor honour your guests. We only punish miscreants. with iron clubs. nor worshipped the deities. they beat them. 'Go along. 44. helpless. Thus beaten they become still. Then. and beaten by the messengers of Yama. It covers five yojanas and is one yojana in height. Then the cruel messengers. Many sinful ones are hung on that silk-cotton tree. 'You did not give even halt a mouthful of food to the dog or the crows. 34. seeing them quiet. with metal rods. Prachaṇḍa. . and on account of the beating they fall down like glowing charcoal. you sinners. with hammers. having bound them with one noose. 43. to the very dreadful terrifying hells. 32. nor make the water-offering to the forefathers. with spears. 'Forgiveness of faults is done by the Lord Hari 1 Îśwara. Having bound them on the tree by chains. nor repeat their mantra. 45. You never visited any places of pilgrimage. 36. those most. sinful people. Chaṇḍaka 1 and others. Again and again they are forcibly struck. forgive my faults'--with suppliant hands. having beaten them. cry. executors of the sentences of Yama. head downwards. 41. The messengers. 35. along with which torment cannot exist. exhausted by hunger and thirst. say. as we are ordered.

In the world of Yama I see my wealth being enjoyed by you. 3 Raurava. and others into heated oil. 12 Kâka. in the hell-region. Some are surrounded closely with blazing charcoal. There are eighty-four lakhs of hells. 10 Sampratâpana. 4 Kuḍmala. are squeezed like sugar-cane. Hells full of great misery are there. and smelted like a lump of ore. Some of the sinful are cut with saws. Others clamour: 'Give up. give up my wealth. 50. 56. the sinful. 52. enwrapped with torches. Some are plunged into heated butter. and some with hands and feet bound are placed head downwards. Tâmisra. are pierced in the head with arrows. 58. the midst of which are twenty-one most dreadful of the dreadful. which you owe me. and others thrown flat on the ground. 16 . 61-64. in front of huge maddened elephants.47. 2 Kâlasûtraka. Some are thrown into wells. 48. 59. Some are thrown in the way. by order of Yama. are chopped into pieces with axes. are given pieces of flesh torn off with pincers by the messengers. Thus disputing. By the hard beaks of huge flesh-eating crows and vultures they are pecked in the head. 6 Pûtimṛittika. are eaten away by them. like firewood. and thrown into the dreadful hells. 54. and they cry. 60. Others. eyes and faces. 53. and. being bound with various nooses some are beaten with hammers. 15 Mahâpathin. others plunged into pits full of worms.' 57. 11 Mahâniraya. and like a cake thrown into the frying-pan they are turned about. their bodies half-buried in a pit. O Bird. Some. 7 Maharauravaśâlmalî. fixed in the middle of a machine. 55.--in which there is great misery indescribable in words. 8 Lohitoda. 13 Ûlu. 14 Sanjîvana. Then the mouths of those who are crying are filled with dust by the messengers. they are taken hold of by the messengers. Thus quarrelling.--near to the tree. fallen down and bitten by dogs. some are hurled from heights. In falling their limbs are cut by the sharp leaves. 51. Tâmisra and others. 5 Saṅghâta. 9 Saviṣa. 49. 1 Lohaśaṇku.

and inhabited by multitudes of servants. goes to Andhatâmisra. 28:1 Darkness. 18 Kumbhîpâka. the various torments of hell. Having experienced in due order the torments below. he comes here again. 28:3 Very terrible silk-cotton tree. Thus he who was holding a family or gratifying his belly. he goes alone to hell. 68. 71. Raurava and other hells. and being departed. 24:1 Both names mean fierce or violent. 70: The individual. the various fruits of sin. 28:5 Blossoming. purified. the support of his family. . 67. All formed of various afflictions and diseases of different classes. experience there. like an invalid who has been robbed of his wealth. devoid of righteousness.Avîchi. 69. obtains appropriate fruit. having given up both. 21--in all twenty-one. 20 and Tapana. 17 Andhatâmisra. who was fond of supporting his family by unrighteous means alone. Footnotes 21:1 Name of the being who records the doings of men. which are produced by secret association. provisioned with the opposite of happiness. which was nourished at the expense of other creatures. 28:4 Terrible. Having cast off his body. Who have fallen into these. He who takes away (sins). 22:1 Lit. until the end of the age. which is the place of uttermost darkness. Andhatâmisra. Listeners. The sinful fools. 66. 26:1 Lit. Men and women suffer the torments of Tâmisra. The man experiences in a foul hell what is ordained by his fate. 65. 28:2 Iron spears. 19 Sampratâpana.

28:20 Burning. 28:12 The great exit. 28:8 Accumulation. 28:16 The great path. 28:9 Iron weights. 28:7 Stinking clay. 28:18 Besetting darkness. . 28:15 Living together. 28:13 Crows. 28:10 Poisonous. 28:19 Based like a pot. 28:11 Burning.28:6 The thread of death. 28:21 Hot. 28:17 Waveless. 28:14 Owls.

who are foolish. An Account of the Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell. teachers and Shining Ones. those who misappropriate deposits. slayers of owe. and many others. who thinks themselves learned. The Blessed Lord said: 'Those who always delight in wrong deeds. the Vedas. The righteous go into the city of the King of Justice by three gateways. who turn away from the company of the good. . go from hell to hell. 4. certainly go on the Way of Yama. devoid of righteousness. and those who commit secret sins. murderers of women. The Vaitaraṇî River is only on this very miserable way. who are attached to the wicked. the Nyâya and the Vedânta. those who betray confidence. 5-12. drinkers of intoxicants. who are jealous of those who have merit. 13. I will tell you what sinners fall into it. from fear to fear. Garuḍa said: For what sins do they go on that great Way? Why do they fall into the Vaitaraṇî? Why do they go to hell? Tell me this. Those who do not repay their debts.-These. Those who do not listen to good counsel nor even to the word of the Śâstras. who are unbending. and those who steal the possessions of children. good actions. infanticides. those who take away the possessions of women. who are self-satisfied. who speak evil words. Beaten by the messengers of Yama. they go towards the Vaitaraṇî. and those who kill with poisonous foods. and are always evil-minded. Those who steal the wealth of the teacher. but the sinful go into it only by the road of the southern gate. weeping day and night. Those who seize upon the fault and depreciate the merit. the property of the temple or of the twice-born. very sinful. 3. O Keśava. who try to make the happy wretched. destroyers of the embryo. Those who are elated at seeing the miserable. Those who despise places of pilgrimage. good men. who are foolish. Slayers of Brâhmiṇs. who turn away from good deeds. those who disparage the Purâṇas.CHAPTER IV. 1. 2. I will tell you who the sinners are who go by it. from misery to misery. the Mîmâṁsâ.

Who covets the King's wife. Who did not make gifts of black cows. who perform false duties. says. and treat them disrespectfully. gardens and forests. 16. who is of unbridled nature. 15. Those who wickedly abandon their wives. and who. and who slanders virtuous women. faithful. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. who drinks the milk of the tawny cow. teachers and preceptors and the reverend. anal abandoning prescribed ditties. and who gain a livelihood by thieving. and consorts with a lowcaste woman. The Brâhmiṇ who sells liquors. 18-24. by command of Yama. and modest. who kills animals for his own gratification. having called them. who repents of his gifts: who takes away another's livelihood.-These.--these men sink in it. fathers. Those who dishonour their mothers. not for the prescribed sacrifices of the Vedas.14. O King of Birds. who removes fieldboundaries. possessed of thousands of merits. 26. who earn by cheating. who destroy the chastity of widows. the messengers hurl them into that river again. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. of noble birth. who does not study the Śâstras. who hinders others making gifts. 28-30. nor perform the ceremonies for those who are in the upper body. . 23. Who cut down and destroy big trees. 'There is nothing for you. who is lustful towards virgins. having suffered great misery in it.'--of these two the stay is continued. The Śûdra who studies the letter of the Vedas. who ploughs up pastures. fond of treading forbidden paths. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. 17. who abducts others' wives. 27. and having come. who prevents the telling of stories. Who obstructs sacrifices. and many other fools. Who does not fulfil promises made to Brâhmiṇs. who neglect vows and pilgrimages. Who give false witness. which is the foremost among hells. of good qualities. they then hurl those sinners into the Vaitaraṇî. Having come all along the path the sinful reach the abode of Yama. Who takes away what he gave. Who has put aside his Brâhmaṇic duties. who eats flesh and drinks liquor. who wears the sacred thread or consorts with Brâhmiṇ women. Those who ascribe evil to the good. go to the tree standing on its bank.

The woman who despises her husband and thinks about another,--such and others at the silk-cotton tree experience much beating. 31. Those who fall down, through being beaten, the messengers cast into hells. I will tell you about the sinful who fall into them. 32. Deniers, those who break the laws of morality, the avaricious, those attached to senseobjects, hypocrites, the ungrateful,--these certainly go to hell. 33. Those who destroy wells, tanks, ponds, shrines, or people's houses,--these certainly go to hell. 34. Those who eat, having neglected their wives, children, servants and teachers, and having neglected the offerings to the forefathers and the Shining Ones,--these certainly go to hell. 35. Those who obstruct roads with posts, with mounds, with timber, with stones or with thorns,--these certainly go to hell. 36. Those who, self-indulgent, do not worship Śiva, Śivâ, Hari, Sûrya, Gaṇeśa, the wise, and the good teachers,--these certainly go to hell. 37-38. The Brâhmaṇi who places a harlot on his bed, goes to a low condition; begetting offspring of a Śudra woman, he is certainly degraded from the Brâhmiṇ rank: That wretched twice-born is not worthy of salutation at any time; those fools who worship him certainly go to hell. 39. Those who are fond of quarrels, do not give up causing dissension among Brâhmaṇs and cow-fights but delight in them,--they certainly go to hell. 40. Those who, through malignity, commit transgression at the time of conception, with women who have no other refuge,---these certainly go to hell. 41. Those men who, blinded by passion, consort with women in the monthly courses, on the four days of lunar change, in the day time, in water, on Śrâddha occasions, these certainly go to hell. 42. Those who throw their bodily refuse into fire, into water, in a garden, in a road, or in a cowpen,--these certainly go to hell. 43. Those who are makers of swords, and of bows and arrows, and those who are sellers of them,--these certainly go to hell. 44. Vaiśyas who are dealers in skins; women who sell their hair; these who sell poisons;-all these certainly go to hell.

45. Those who do not compassionate the helpless, who hate the good, who punish the guiltless;--these certainly go to hell. 46. Those who do not feed the Brâhmaṇ guests, who have come full of hope to the house, even though food is cooked;--these certainly go to hell. 47. Those who are suspicious of all creatures, and who are cruel to them, those who deceive all creatures;--these certainly go to hell. 48. Those who assume observances, and afterwards, with senses uncontrolled, cast them away again,--these certainly go to hell. 49. Those who do not respect the teacher who imparts the knowledge of the Supreme Self, and the tellers of the Purâṇas,--these certainly go to hell. 50. Those who betray their friends; those who cut short friendship; and those who destroy hopes;--these certainly go to hell. 51. He who interferes with marriage, processions of the Shining Ones, 1 or bands of pilgrims, dwells in a dreadful hell from which there is no return. 52. The very sinful man who sets fire to a house, a village or a wood, is captured by the messengers of Yama and baked in pits of fire. 53. When his limbs are burnt with fire, he begs for a shady place, and then is led by the messengers into the forest of sword-like leaves. 54. When his limbs are cut by its leaves, sharp as swords, then they say, 'Ah, ha! Sleep comfortably in this cool shade!' 55. When, afflicted with thirst, he begs for water to drink, then the messengers give him boiling oil to drink. 56. Then they say: 'Drink this liquid and eat this food.' As soon as he drinks it he falls down, burning inside. 57. Getting up again somehow, he wails piteously. Powerless and breathless he is unable even to speak. 58. Thus, it is declared, O Târkṣya, that there are many torments for the sinful. Why should I explain them fully, when they are spoken of in all the Śâstras? 59. Being tortured thus, men and women by thousands are baked in dreadful hells until the coming of the deluge. 60-62. Having eaten there their undecaying fruits they are born again. By order of Yama they return to the earth and become unmoving and other creatures:

Trees, bushes, plants, creepers, rocks and grasses, these are spoken of as unmoving; enveloped in great delusion,-Insects, birds, animals and fish;--it is said that there are eighty-four hundred thousands of fates of birth-fates. 63. All these evolve thence into the human condition; having come back from hell they are born in the human kingdom amongst low outcastes, and even there, by the stains of sin, become very miserable. 64. Thus they become men and women oozing with leprosy, born blind, infested with grievous maladies, and bearing the marks of sin.

Footnotes
36:1 The images are carried round the streets on occasions.

the drinker of intoxicants. . 5. becomes an epileptic. perfumes. an ant. Who steals food becomes a rat. who goes with his teacher's wife. 11. who sells flesh becomes unlucky. 10. the murderer of a virgin becomes leprous. 1. He who eats sweet foods. and the signs produced by particular sins. 13. eats what should not be eaten. a eunuch. who speaks lies becomes a stammerer. Who steals jewels is born in a low caste. The slayer of a woman and the destroyer of embryos becomes a savage full of diseases. who steals gold gets diseased nails. 8. the killer of a cow becomes humpbacked and imbecile. flesh. a scorpion. and who listens to them becomes deaf. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ becomes consumptive. 4. who despises the Vedas and the Śâstras certainly becomes jaundiced. 7.CHAPTER V An Account of the Signs of Sins. who interferes with marriage becomes lipless. a gad-fly. by what sins particular signs are produced. 9. becomes big-bellied. and salt.--these hear from me. and to what sorts of birth such sins lead? 2. an incendiary becomes bald. and who steals poison. who eats fled of other beings becomes diseased. a musk-rat. 12. who commits illicit intercourse. O Keśava. who steals any metal becomes poverty-stricken. The man who. one with discoloured teeth. insults his teacher. 3. The Blessed Lord said: The sins on account of which the sinful returning from hell come to particular births. Who steals vegetables and leaves becomes a peacock. who steals water becomes a Châtaka-bird 2. who gives impure food at a Śrâddha ceremony is born a spotted leper. who steals a book-is born blind. Who strikes a cow or a Brâhmaṇ with his foot is born lame and deformed. without giving to others. who steals grain becomes a locust.--all three born as outcastes. on account of greed. A poisoner becomes insane. the Brâhmaṇ who. through pride. becomes swollen-necked. who breaks the meal-row 1 becomes oneeyed. The eater of flesh becomes very red. 6. diseased-skinned. honey. Garuḍa said: Tell me. a vulture. Who bears false witness becomes dumb.

Who dies by drinking poison becomes a black serpent on a mountain. and she who scolds her husband becomes a louse. who cheats in selling. runs after another man. grass and cotton are born from sheeps' wombs. 21. 18. or browbeats a Brâhmaṇ. Who. who robs caravans on the road. Those twice-born who do not make offering to the World-deities. becomes a ruddy goose for a long time. The Brâhmiṇ who officiates for one unfit to perform sacrifice becomes a village hog. Who destroys hopes and who destroys affection. 27. having become a hyena and a porcupine. even for a thousand births. 25. a crow. The lustful man who goes with a female ascetic becomes a desert fiend. and causes constant quarrels. 20. Who lives by violence. the pupil who does not serve his teacher becomes an animal. whose feature is unrestrained becomes an elephant in a desolate forest. 17. 22. 15. an owl. . 29. The woman who abuses her mother-in-law and father-in-law. who through dislike abandons his wife. 19. becomes a flying-fox. Who steals betel. and who is fond of hunting. is destroyed when an embryo in the womb. and who eat all foods without consideration. becomes a leech.--an ass or a cow. becomes a crane. 26. Who does not give to a twice-born according to his promise becomes a jackal. who is not hospitable to the goody becomes a howling Fire-face. who quarrels with sister and brother. who does not meditate at twilight. a house-lizard. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend in a waterless wilderness. become tigers in a desolate forest. abandoning her own husband. by embracing a woman of his own family. The twice-born who does not impart learning to the deserving becomes a bull. or a kind of female serpent. who is inwardly wicked while outwardly pious. The Brâhmiṇ who does not recite the Gâyatrî 1. certainly becomes a goat in a butcher's house. by eating without grace. and by too many sacrifices he becomes an ass.14. 16. fruits and flowers becomes a forest-monkey. Who hates mother. 24. Who threatens and spits at his teacher. who speaks ill of caste and order is born a pigeon in a wood. father and teacher. 2 23. Who deceives a friend becomes a mountain-vulture. 28. He who cuts off his lineage. who steal shoes. is born from the womb of a bear. who consorts with an immature girl becomes a huge snake in a wood.

36. by taking a Brâhmiṇ's possessions. 31. Having neglected. The Brâhmiṇ's possessions acquired by deception. who robs a Brâhmiṇ. who goes with the king's wife becomes corrupt.--and by forcible robbery even as long as the moon and stars exist: A man may digest even iron filings.30. a drinker of intoxicants enters the wombs of a wolf. who is passionate becomes a lustful horse. By appropriating temple property. and poison. and having experienced the results in the successive hells. The devalaka is born from the womb of a hen. gives it to some other. powdered stone. becoming not a giver but a beggar. a donkey. The wretch among twice-born who worships the deities for the sake of wealth is called a devalaka and is unfit to offer oblations to ale deities and forefathers. O Târkṣya. 38-40. 44. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend. who consorts with a Śûdra woman becomes bull. an insect and a bird. but where is the person in the three worlds who can digest a Brâhmiṇ's wealth! Chariots and troops supported by the wealth of a Brâhmiṇ crumble away in battle like artificial river-banks of sand. Who commits unnatural vice becomes a village pig. it would be like offering to ashes instead of to the blazing fire near by. a dog and a jackal. are born here upon the exhaustion of their karma. a camel and a she-buffalo. 34. Who goes with his teacher's wife. Who covets his teacher's wife. goes to the condition of grass. instead of making a gift to one who is well-read in the Vedas and Śâstras and has resorted to him. becomes a chameleon. families become broken up. But it is no neglect if the Brâhmiṇ is without Veda-knowledge. 41-43. 35. Who steals another's wife. Who feeds upon the eleventh-day offerings to the dead is born a dog. . and by neglecting Brâhmiṇs. enjoyed even in friendship. Those who are very sinful. afflict the family even for seven generations. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ goes into the womb of an ass. The stealer of gold attains the condition of a worm. bushes and plants. He is called a neglector who. and with his friend's wife. having passed through dreadful hells produced by their great sins. he is born blind and in poverty. 37. 32-33. who misappropriates deposits.

47. He who does not mike gifts becomes poverty--stricken and through poverty he commits sin. Thus the makers of bad karma. is born as a lame dog. but robs. is born for sixty thousand years as a worm in excrement. held fast by the noose of karma. they suffer from carrying burdens and other miseries. he becomes an embryo in due course. when the good and evil are balanced. a dog and a monkey. obtaining for thousands of lives the bodies of animals. Then. Karma which has been made. As the wheel of time turns. Man and woman having come together. 57. and is again born in poverty and again becomes sinful. 51. 55. O Lord of Birds. Birth and death are the lot of all embodied beings. The sinner who takes back by force what has been given by himself. 46. Who takes away a plot of land. Having given the means of subsistence and a piece of land. rain and heat. Who gives the means of support to Brâhmiṇs obtains fruit equal to that of a lakh of cows. whether good or evil. Karma not suffered does not fade away even in tens of millions of ages. 54. which was given by himself for another. These and other signs and births. he again dies. so mortals revolve by my magic. They revolve at one time of earth.45. made by themselves in this world. . in these stated forms. 56. are born with the residues of their sins. Who does not protect. are seen to be the karma of the embodied. 48. having experienced the tortures mf hell. 53. goes into hell until the coming of the deluge. by the force of sin he goes to hell. must inevitably be suffered. he afterwards reaches the human state. Having suffered the miseries from conception onwards to death. 52. at another in hell. Having experienced as a bird the misery of cold. he should then protect it firmly. 49. thus turns the wheel in the four kingdoms of beings. who robs Brâhmiṇs of their means of sup port becomes an ape. 50.

Whoever gives different food to one than to another is said to break the row also. . and rising together.Footnotes 39:1 This refers to the custom among Brâhmiṇs of sitting in a row at meals. 40:2 A class of evil spirits. 39:2 A bird fabled to live only on rain-drops. 40:1 A sacred mantra repeated every day by the twice-born caste.

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while praying. If the state of mind which arises in the womb. adores in plaintive tones Him who placed him in the womb. after experiencing his karma. 16-23. "Fallen into a well of fœces and urine. Having fallen on the ground he moves like a worm in excrement. 25. "If I am released from this womb I will lay myself at Thy feet. the destroyer of evil. 26. bound in seven bonds. he who is in the womb trembles and moves about because of the parturition winds. and I will take the means by which I may obtain liberation. Cast out forcibly. 15. Let not this transmigration occur to me again. He is become changed in condition. suddenly is cast out head downwards into birth. or upon hearing the Purâṇas were permanent--who would not be liberated from bondage! 28. "But no. like a uterine worm. bending down his head. "Because remaining even here in great misery. The Blessed Lord said: He who has thus considered. "I am bewildered by Thy magic. the husband of Śrî. where misery results from my sinful actions.14. and anxious to escape from it. and has been ten months in the womb. "I did good and evil actions for the sake of my dependents. and is compassionate to the afflicted. then verily the man is bewildered by the magic of Viṣṇu. with hands put together. while they who enjoy the fruits escape." 24. I am burnt by the fire of the belly. resorting to Thy feet I will keep myself aloof from the worlds of change. misled by my egoism I am transmigrating. during illness. imploring and trembling. . O Lord. 27. by the winds of delivery. Having this insight he. I wish never to come out of the womb. deprived of knowledge. he comes out with anxiety and painfully breathless and with memory destroyed. as regards body and son and wife. who has given me this experience. and as s result I am tormented. will I seek refuge. When shall I get out? "In Him alone. on the cremation ground. "I seek refuge in Viṣṇu. The creature says. and cries loudly. bearing the fatigue. From the beginning of the seventh month. endowed with insight. though he gains consciousness. who is compassionate to those who come for shelter. When he comes out of the womb. the supporter of the universe.

how then shall the infatuated one not be destroyed. he goes to a miserable hell. spends in vain the human birth which was difficult to obtain. Then he begins evil brooding. 31. mingling in the company of the wicked. He longs for the unobtainable. bugs and other flies bite him. when he is touched by that magic. He experiences the miseries of infancy and childhood arising from dependence. when he enjoys the five kinds of objects by five senses. like a moth into a flame. Who is more sinful than the fool who. Mosquitoes. 36. Thus held fast in the ever-circling noos . the elephant. as one elephant by another. through foolishness lets slip the nectar from his hand. 33. The deer. 37. 30. Lain upon a bed unclean and befouled by perspiration. the bird. He is nourished by people who do not understand his wishes. 35. infatuated he falls into great darkness. 32. attached to sense-objects. 42. to sit. 34. he reaches youth and acquires evil tendencies. death having come. and. 41. rise or move. In this wise having experienced the miseries of infancy and of childhood. unable to ward off what is thrust upon him against his desire. he is troubled with great diseases. gnats. just as insects bite little worms. and his pride and anger increase with the growth of his body. his senses captivated by her blandishments. and even more difficult to obtain is that as a twice-born: and who then only provides for and pampers the senses. he hates the scriptures and good men. The lover makes quarrels with rivals. he is unable to speak. to his own ruin and is destroyed by those stronger than himself. he is unable to scratch his limbs. 39. Seeing a seductive woman. the bee and the fish: these five are led to destruction by one of the senses. Then. and on account of ignorance becomes angry and sorry. having arrived at old age. 38. skinless and weeping and deprived of understanding. as before.29. and becomes lustful. Then. powerless. 40: After hundreds of lives one obtains human birth on earth.

hard.Footnotes 46:1 That is. .

Garuḍa said: Tell me by what means men who have committed sins unknowingly or knowingly escape from the torments of the servants of Yama. one should avoid a woman of lower caste. but never so. 14. O Bird. the intelligent should beget a son. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One. and the means by which people attain a happy condition. carries the whole family over. O Lord of Birds. that of those who have sons and who are righteous. Sons having father and mother of the same caste are legitimate. by making Śrâddha-gifts are the means of their fathers' attaining heaven. Accordingly. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya. 1. Having listened to the Harivanśa. By the touch of his grandson a mortal is released from the three-fold debt. Even a single son. The son saves his father from the hell called Put. then some means should be taken for obtaining a son. the exact meaning of the Purâṇas. The Vedas also proclaim the great importance of the son. They alone. having seen the face of a son. is the fate of the sinful and those without sons.CHAPTER VII. 9. Hard indeed. their reason clouded by sin. again questioned Keśava for the benefit of men. 2. therefore he was named "putra" by the Self-existent himself. 11. For those men who are immersed in the ocean of transmigration. 5. and great-grandsons he goes from the worlds and obtains heaven. 12. 7. 13.' is the ancient saying. and I will tell you all. 8. of weak intelligence. 3-4. O Lord. you have done well in asking for the benefit of men. if righteous. grandsons. as already said. The son of a Brâhma marriage uplifts. O Mâdhava. 10. trembling like a leaf of the holy fig-tree. but the illegitimate drags down. O Best of Birds. With the help of sons. Sûta said: Having heard this. or performed the Śatachaṇḍî. Garuḍa. or worshipped the Blessed Śiva with devotion. one is released from the debt to the forefathers. Listen attentively. 6. If by any past action of his the birth of a son has been prevented. 'By the son he conquers the worlds. their self dimmed by attachment to senseobjects-For their uplifting tell me. . Knowing this.

and punishing the guilty. having drunk of that cool water. ran out of sight into the interior of the forest. went hunting. and resounding with the cries of various birds. Babhruvâhana came out of the water refreshed. Formerly. from ancient history. coming to a lake bathed in it with his horse. fainting with the heat and with fatigue. an example of the efficacy of gifts for the higher body. Lord of Gifts. there reigned over the delightful city of Mahodaya a king named Babhruvâhana. carrying the arrow with him. Then. . with hair erect. He entered a thick forest. Seeing him deformed and dreadful Babhruvâhana wondered. rendered fragrant by the-pollen of the lotus. 22. that powerful king. who was very powerful. Once. The Departed One. 24. That leader of men. And saw a delightful fig-tree. giving cool shade with its large spreading boughs. always delighting in Kṣattriya duties. The deer. Crowded with various species of animals. 16. Concerning this I will give you. The king. when a Departed One went to heaven even when it was offered by another. skilled.15. 29-31. and firm in righteousness. valuing the good. And standing like a big standard over the whole forest. Târkṣya. 28. 25-27. following the blood-stains on the grass. 17-19. compassionate. prosperous. with his army. A sacrificer. Now he beheld a Departed One. The king approached and sat at its root. of terrible appearance. 20-21. sounding with many birds. Need I say one attains heaven by means of the Śrâddha performed by a son. humpbacked and fleshless. dirty. pursued the deer and came into another forest. endowed with good character and of good conduct. full of various kinds of trees. a lover of Brâhmaṇs. severely wounded by his very hard arrow. Now listen. 23. In the midst of the forest the king saw a deer in the distance. Righteously protecting his subjects as though they were his own sons. also seeing the king who had come to that dreadful forest. and with senses discomposed by hunger and thirst. in the Treta age. hungry and with parched throat.

" 32-33. no relative and no friend like you. 42-45. and abounding in precious stones of various kinds. By fire-offering I pleased the Shining Ones. O Reverend Sir. Who are you. by what bad deeds did you reach this state of the Departed. please know. and by what gifts will your condition as Departed pass away?" 34-38. "By caste I am a Vaishya. always engaged in worship of the Shining Ones.--I am highly blessed. "If the sixteen monthly Śrâddhas. help me over. "Therefore. O warrior. "I have no offspring. . The Departed one said: "I will tell you everything from the beginning. and I will give you a most precious jewel. through my evil fate has proved fruitless. O Târkṣya. O King. It is said that in this world the king is the kinsman of all castes. "In that manner please act. possessed of all prosperity. by doing the ceremonies for my higher body. "I gladdened the twice-born by offering various gifts. How my good deeds proved fruitless I will relate to you. so that my departed condition may be destroyed.And becoming filled with curiosity. You will surely have compassion upon me when you have heard the cause of my condition as Departed. the blind and the wretched. "All this. having many districts. no companion. Then. O great king. 39-41. I dwelt. O Great-Armed one. "Uplift me then. O Best of Kings. even if hundreds of annual Śrâddhas are performed for him. O Lord of Kings. who will perform for me the ceremonies for the-higher body. O Lord of Earth. and highly unhappy?" "Tell me in detail the cause of your condition. The king said: "O Black-complexioned and Gaping-mouthed. There. this king of the Departed spoke thus to the king: "I have escaped the condition of the Departed and reached the highest condition. and in which many religious acts are performed. and my higher state arise. and likewise the forefathers by food. I gave food of various kinds to the poor. "Beautiful with palaces and mansions. dear. came near to him. if you desire my welfare. by being in touch with you. I cannot endure this departed condition. "There is a town named Vaidaśa. by name Sudeva. dreadful to see. the condition as Departed becomes firmly fixed. are not performed. Suffering from the misery of hunger and thirst.

"Next. 5 Worship these in turn with sandal-paste and flowers. "Then he must give thirteen sets of pots to Brâhmiṇs. "If the great Nârâyaṇa rite is performed for me. 51-56. 49-50. with Vaidic mantras. consecrate a pot of water for the sake of the departed. having bathed. according to the rite. and compassion to all beings. to the north Gadâdhara. about the pot which gives release to the departed. "The gift which is named 'the pot for the departed. bathe it in many waters. "Listening to holy scriptures. I have heard. put on it various ornaments. you have done well in asking this.' is a destroyer of all evil."In this forest there is sweet and cool water. along with all the ceremonies for the higher body. Please take notice and l will describe that good gift by gh ich the departed condition cannot exist. and pleasant fruits. having gone round them. but I am not able to grasp them at all. and having made the gift of a bed. The king said. the sacrificer should perform. gifts. association with the good. Make offerings to the universal deities with clarified butter. and perform all the ceremonies and the release of a bull. In all the worlds it is difficult to obtain this dissipator of evil conditions. "Dress it with a pair of yellow cloths. "Then. honestly gained. The departed said: "Oh Great King." 57. 4 "In the middle Pitâmaha 5 and also Maheśwara. by giving up anger and greed. you should worship thus. are the destroyers of the departed condition. "Then surely my condition as departed will unfailingly pass away. 46-48. worship of Viṣṇu. in front of Nârâyaṇa. "So I will tell you about the worship of Viṣṇu. the ceremony for the upper body. make offerings in the fire to these deities.--these. calm and controlled in mind. to the west Vâmanadeva 3. O King. on account of my sympathy for all." 58-63. .--and placing it. Bring two pieces of gold. the destroyer of the departed condition. "Place Śrîdhara 1 to the east of it. and in accordance with what: rites must it be given? Tell me. although afflicted with hunger and thirst. according to the rite. and make one image of Nârâyaṇa from them. Vaidic mantras. "How is the pot for the departed to be prepared. austerities. "He must commence. as prescribed in the scriptures. curds and milk. Madhusûdana 2 to the south. O King.

Îśa 1 and Keśava •càśś ."Having prepared a pot of refined gold. consecrated it to Brahmâ.

and should recite the eight and the twelve syllabled mantras. should he fearless and alert. Garuḍa said: Tell me. and also how these rites should be performed by the sons. Of him who gives voice to the auspicious name "Kṛiṣṇa" tens of millions of great sins are quickly reduced to ashes. 1. 5-8. all the rites for those in the other worlds who have done good. 9. takes away sins: fire burns. the names of Viṣṇu and Śiva. The sinful man is not able to sin while the power of the name Hari is uprooting the sins. the Dwarf. the Man-lion. O Twice-born. 10-11. An Account of the Gifts for the Dying. and should make reparation for any sins committed knowingly or in ignorance. Râma. He should give presents to Brâhmiṇs. finding his body. The good person.CHAPTER VIII. Relatives. and worship Viṣṇu in the form of Śâlagrâma. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya. 12-16. with flowers. He should call to mind. even though accidentally touched. with lamps. should feed them with the offerings. 2. O Lord. coming near the diseased. with red saffron. When it is near the time to die he must perform his ablutions. the Boar. meditated upon even by one who has evil thoughts. and also Kalkî 1: These ten names should always be meditated upon by the wise. I will tell you all about the rites proper for the righteous. The Fish. 3-4. He must worship with fragrant substances. you have done well in questioning me for the benefit of mankind. which had been given to his son. takes away the sins of men. and not hearing the sounds of life. coming with the range of hearing. Those who recite them near the diseased are called relatives. in its old age. with offerings of food and many sweetmeats. with leaves of the holy basil. with incense. Even the dying Ajâmila reached heaven by pronouncing the name Hari. the Tortoise. and the planetary conditions unfavourable. My holy name should be remembered and meditated upon repeatedly. Buddha. Paraśurâma. 2 How much more then is its effect when it is pronounced with faith! Hari. The name of Hari. . afflicted with diseases. And knowing his death to be near. should not mourn. and listen to. Kṛiṣṇa. and other things.

One should worship the Achyuta. even in dream. Hence one should remember the name of Mahâ Viṣṇu. The man. bones and blood. who has turned his face away from Nârâyaṇa. It is for the sake of this that the wise pray for a righteous son in this world. The performance of penances does not purify the wicked man. 24-25. By the name of Kṛiṣṇa one is riddened of sins. the Lord of Jânakî." "Bring them whose tongues do not pronounce the qualities and name of the Lord. Gopîkâvallabham. the Gîtâ. whose minds do not meditate upon His lotus feet. do not go near those sinless people who take refuge in the lotus-eyed Vâsudeva and Viṣṇu. to be the best expiation for even great sins. with clarified butter and gold. Know. the water of the Ganges. 28-31.-which are served by the race of Paramahaṅsas. but O messengers. Keśava. the hymning of Viṣṇu. Nârâyaṇa. which is the path to hell. 1 "O servants. which effaces multitudes of sins. who know the true essence of things. little or much. Mâdhavam. who is the supporter of the earth. just as even rivers cannot purify a liquor-pot.--and those whose desires are bound up in the household. if it is approved by his Son.--who. which bestows welfare on the universe. Râmachandra. and are without possessions. Hari. and should read or listen to the Gîtâ and the Hymn of the Thousand Names. then. and carries in his hand the conch and discus. having a body of flesh. Yama nor his servants. do not bring the man who meditates on the name Hari. 26-27. whose heads never bow to Kṛiṣṇa. Dâmodara. "Bring those sinners who always turn away from time nectar of the lotus-feet of Viṣṇu." 17-20. towards the end gives cows to the twice-born. Then he must dedicate food. Śrîdhara. Kṛiṣṇa." never falls into the Vaitaraṇî. The fast of the eleventh day. uttering "Nandanandanam. to a learned twice-born and. . O Lord of Birds. is exempt from decay. and never sees.Yama said to his servants: "Bring the man who denies. Whatever a man gives in his last days. the foot-water and names of Viṣṇu--all these are givers of freedom at the time of death." 21-23. the leaves of the holy basil. who do not offer worship to Viṣṇu. In these last days a good son should make all the gifts. also give cows with calves. Vâsudeva. O Târkṣya.

a cow. By the gift of salt one is freed from the fear of Yama. a plot of ground.--then he does not go within the domain of Yama. Yama holds in his hands. seeing their father lying upon the ground with eyes half-closed. and of unexcelled strength. happiness is bestowed by these great messengers of Yama:-Uraṇa. 41-44. The eight great gifts are the effacers of great sins. 1 Brahmâ and others. which is the bringer of happiness in the world of Yama. should not covet his earned wealth. There are three kinds of holy sesamums generated from my sweat. gold. shining ones. iron. Udumbara. By the gift of cotton-stuff one is freed from fear of the messengers. thought and action. He does not go to the world of Yama.--every one of these is said to purify. the seven grains. The gift of these removes the sins gathered in speech. Hear now their good effects: 35-36. about this most supreme gift. 45. Hear this great secret. Bhûvar and Swar worlds. Sesamum. and those who are in the assembly of the King of Justice are gratified by the gift of gold. cotton stuff. prosperous. nor tread his path. and should be given in the last days. White. O child. He dwells for a long time in the world of truth and is then reborn here as a king. for the punishing of the sinful. Therefore should be made the gift of iron. 32-34. and become granters of boons. O Târkshya. eloquent. and free him from misery when he goes into the next world. . but reaches heaven. This gift is considered propitiatory to these weapons of Yama.The sons. 1 A good son will make such gifts as will prolong his father's life. Śyâmasûtra. sages. 37-40. salt. Śeṣa and Bala. a threshing-pestle. Asuras. a sword and a dagger. by which are pleased the dwellers in Bhû. handsome. Therefore a gift of gold should be made for the uplifting of the departed. black and brown are the three kinds of sesamums. Because of this gift of iron. Śuṇdâmarka. A gift of iron-ore should be made with the hands touching the ground. They are indispensable-the eight-fold gift of sesamum and other things. a rod. righteous. an axe. In disease and calamity two gifts rank above all others. Dânavas and Daityas 2 are gratified by the gift of these sesamums.

46-48. The sins committed in boyhood. shall dwell in hell as long as Śeṣa 2 supports the earth. learned in the Vedas. in old age and in previous births. absolves one from Brahmicide. barley. The fruit produced by the gift of land increases daily. in manhood. without even a village hut. 58-61. having become a king. All other gifts. Not by vows. does not make gifts of land. through pride. a cow should be given. wheat. And by gifts of the seven grains the standard-bearer of the King of Justice and others who stand at the gates are propitiated. He who gives to the twice-born land filled with grains goes to the abode of Indra and is worshipped by divinities and demons. salt. He should give a cow to overcome death. Therefore shall a king especially make gifts of land. mâṣa. is reborn for many times as a beggar. 53-55. should the gift of a cow for Vaitaraṇî be made. to a well-conducted and austere Brâhmiṇ. He who. milkgiving. The cows verily carry the man beyond three kinds of hells. though for others. The king who. 49-52. in youth. in the twilight. With special rites. with the calf and other necessary things. O Bird. of a cow is equal to a gift of land. Towards the end. another for the gaining of liberation. 56-57. another to absolve himself of debts. are producers of little fruit. cotton-stuff. not by holy pilgrimages. kidney beans. the gift. in accordance with the rites. not by any gifts but by the gift of land is a great sin committed in kingship expiated. Chitragupta and the others who dwell in the city of Yama are propitiated. Rices. . I say. in the morning. to a proper person. The giver is released by her at the end from the accumulated sins. sesamum and gold. dwarf-peas: these are called the seven grains.--of action. O Kâśyapa. speech and thought. 1 panic seeds. By gifts of inn. in the forenoon and the afternoon. Having given even once a tawny cow. The sins committed in the night.--one is absolved of all these sins. does not give land to the twice-born. It has been observed by the sages that the gift of a plot of land of the size of a cow's hide.

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That river. "O Cow." 83-84. So one who desires his own welfare should make unending gifts. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî. He who. gives the Vaitaraṇî cow. at Vyatîpâta. Yama in the form of a cow. with these rites. At the equinoctial and solstitial points. according to his wealth. the very form of Viṣṇu. "O Lord of the Universe. and having walked round all these things. Thou art verily the saviour of those who are immersed in the ocean of existence. possessions are not eternal. The wise man. to a learned Brâhmiṇ. does not appear in the Great Way after the gift of a cow.77-82. being desirous of crossing that river. Whether the body is well or ill one should carry out the Vaitaraṇî observance. and lies on the very dreadful way of Yama. 89. which is a hundred yojanas in extent. 87-88. at the eclipses of the sun and moon. goes by a righteous path into the assembly of the King of Justice. may cows be behind me. should make a gift of a cow. God upon earth. made miserable by the waves of sorrow and remorse. "O Best of the Twice-born. 91-92. 2 Therefore it is necessary to give a cow at all sacred times. with these mantras. "May she who is the Goddess of Prosperity for all creatures. and in the dwelling-places of Brâhmiṇs. in which faith is produced. Queen of the shining ones! "May cows be in front of me. on the day of the new moon. may cows be in my heart 1. That verily is called the sacred time. look upon me. . Salutations to Vaitaraṇî! "I have presented this to you. Vaitaraṇî. Salutations to thee. at the crossing over 1. death is always near. like the Ganges. 85-86. for the sake of my passing through the gateway of Yama on the great path. At all the sacred bathing-places. compassionate to those who seek refuge in Thee. 2 on Yuga days 3 and at other sacred times. O Bird. Bodies are transitory.--one should accumulate righteousness. I have presented this gift to you. who is the mainstay of the shining ones. With hands together having invoiced. he should give them to the Brâhmiṇ. its the form of a cow remove my sins. desiring to cross that river.--thence flows unending benefit.--the supreme gift of a cow should be made. and when a proper person is present. 90. uplift me. and may I dwell in the midst of cows.

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and as prescribed. Righteousness verily is the cause of freedom. a thousand-fold. Footnotes 62:1 The ten avatâras. presented with devotion. Therefore. 113-114. do not make gifts at the time of illness come to grief when dead. descents or incarnations of Viṣṇu. through the sister. himself. I accept that. 65:1 They may expect ancestral property. a gift should be made. though in poverty. a flower. 62:2 Ajâmila was a man of very evil life. Whether it be small or great does not count with me. For him who makes gifts there are no troubles and no torments of hell. not by large piles of wealth. If the wealth made by the father is given to the deserving by the sons--then. but not that earned by the father. by righteousness desire is conquered. with devotion. incalculable. From him who offers to Me. leave faith. Hence should wealth be given. 63:1 Names of Vishnu. 112. who. and no fear caused by the messengers of Yama at the time of death. except Kalkî. because of greed. brothers. All those sinful-misers. grandsons. Righteousness is supported by faith. through the brother. The wise. his sets. by that. ten-thousand fold. who named his son Nârâyaṇa. . and happened to call him as he was dying. Therefore should righteousness be pursued. grandsons and great-grandsons are ennobled.On account of gifts made in a former birth much wealth is obtained in this. a fruit or water--from him. for the sake of righteousness. 116-118. 115. who is still to come. 110-111. He should cause his ailing father to make gifts on earth. by one knowing this. Sons. by all means. What is given through the father has a hundred-fold merit. O Bird. through the mother. a leaf. A righteous son is honoured even by the shining ones. and go to heaven. Wealth is born of righteousness. the self-subdued. 65:2 Classes of non-human beings. which appeared in archaic and ancient times. kinsmen and friends who do not make gifts on behalf of a dying man are without doubt slayers of Brâhmaṇ.

71:2 Note the subjective char . are closely connected with sacrifice and therefore with the sun. 71:1 Note here. 67:2 The eternal serpent. given by another for one. 70:1 Probably the afore-mentioned cow. silk. gold. that the cow is merely a symbol. 70:2 Akṣata. 67:1 A kind of spotted grain. 68:1 That is. astral and lower mental worlds. ghee. etc. whole rice coloured with turmeric and saffron. and used to honour persons by sprinkling over them.66:1 Physical.

--the servants of Yama do not come to it. my riches. Brâhmiṇs and cows do not lose their purity by being used again and again. goes to the city of Viṣṇu. which removes the pain of being. The man who dies with a leaf of it in his mouth. . 1 Next. Garuḍa said: You have spoken fully about the gifts for the diseased. fire. Dânavas and Daityas run away from sesamum. of the rites for the dying. and they prevent an ailing man from going to a miserable condition. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. O Târkṣhya. then. Yama is not able to see him who gives up his life while having a holy basil shoot. near to a holy basil tree one should make a ring with cowdung. hence by the mere touch of them men attain heaven. and by what rites men after death reach a good condition. The house in which the holy basil tree is enshrined is like a holy bathing place. darbha-grasses and holy basil are three holy things. O Lord. An Account of the Rites for the Dying. Hence kuśa. and I will explain the rites for one leaving the body. hence Asuras. 10-13. upon a seat of sesamum and darbhagrass. in the middle of the kuśa is Janârdana. When. 1. 14-15. The darbha grasses. having scattered sesamum seeds. there is always liberation for the dying. Brahma is seated at the root of the kuśa-grass. holy basil. Because the sesamum is produced from My sweat it is holy. 6-9 Where is the shade of the holy basil tree. the embodied leaves his ordinary body. mantras. 1 at the tip of the kuśa is Śaṅkaradeva 2--three shining ones are seated in the kuśa grass. unfailingly. Sesamums. Liberation is certain for the being who dies near the Śâlagrâma stone. are produced from my hairs. 3-5. O Târkṣya. though he have no son.CHAPTER IX. Tell now. 2. by the effects of karma. difficult to obtain by gifts. though he have hundreds of sins. he should strew darbha-grass. which removes all ills and sins. and then have the Śâlagrâma stone placed on the cleaned platform.

so. goblins. One should lay the dying man on the ground cleaned with cow-dung and spread over with darbha-grasses. by eating the offerings for the departed. and is not born again on earth. elementals. and he who drinks the water of the Ganges. a bundle of cotton is destroys. Hence without this ring one should not perform oblations to the fire. with no stain to be seen. 1 Brahmâ. Śrâddha. The ground must he pure everywhere. He who performs a thousand times the Chândrâyaṇa fast which purifies his body. Demons. when basely used. nor place the dying man upon the ground. 1 is freed from all By bathing in other rivers men are purified. on a cremationground. by the rays of the sun births and goes to the abode of Hari.--so also by merely touching. drinking or calling upon the Ganges. If there is a stain it should be cleaned away by further plastering. Just as. and give him the Water of the Feet of Vishnu in the form of the Śâlagrâma. not support him in the air. whose water helps one over the ocean of transmigration. Brâhmiṇs. 4 23-30. Next. are both equal. He who drinks the water of the Ganges. one should put gold and jewels upon his lips. goes when dead to the city of Viṣṇu. and Sacrificial Fire stand upon the ring. Ganges" while life is flickering in the throat. and goes to the residence Vaikuṇṭḥa. is his sin reducs. Rudra 2 all the shining ones.--therefore should one make a ring. . He who calls. cows and holy basil. "O Ganges. the feeding of Brâhmiṇs. He who drinks even a drop of the water of the water of the Śâlagrâma stone 3 is absolved from all sins. placing him on the cleaned ground. the worship of the Holy Ones. O Târkṣya. and gives fruit of merit equal to bathings and gifts at all the sacred waters. to ashes. and a cot above the ground. by his drinking the water of the Ganges. by falling into the fire.Darbha-grass becomes unclean with rice-balls. and fire. heats. Viṣṇu. which is the effacer of great sins. spooks. Therefore should one drink of the Ganges. Then one should give him the water of the Ganges. mantras. and the followers of Yama enter an impure place. 21-22. It sanctifies meritless men by hundreds and thousands. 16-20.

77:2 Śiva. and is honoured by the Holy Ones. bringing a chariot wreathed with countless bells. arrive. . possessed of gold and diamond ornaments. and thus consecrated to Viṣṇu. 80:3 That is. by virtue of gifts attains heaven. And they. who has performed the rites. to die they remove him from the couch to the ground. giving up attachment to worldly life and its objects.46-47: Then the messengers of the Shining Ones. 78:1 When the people of the house are aware that one is about. 48. 80:2 Sannyâsa. 77:1 Viṣṇu. always beloved by the righteous. wise. That great man. 80:1 The Bhâgvata Purâṇa. carry him. 78:4 The heaven of Viṣṇu. 79:1 Here is a mystical suggestion. away in their own chariot. 78:2 Siva. in a resplendent body. with shining garments and garlands. truly says. 78:3 Water is poured over the stone. Footnotes 76:1 Cowdung is extensively used in India as a purifier and antiseptic. resplendent with flashing plumes. knowing the true righteousness.

along with all his relatives. 3. He who carries his dead father on shoulder or back or hip pays off the debt of constant parental kindnesses. O Târkṣya. but one should perform the funeral ceremonies for his parents.--how can he be called a son. At the place of death. should pronounce the family name. by doing which sons and grandsons are released from the hereditary debt. in order to remove all sins. should have the shave. Then. he should make a halt. Ḥe should wake offering at the threshold in the name of him who is become a traveller. 11-13. abandoning sorrow. 14. There is no need for numerous gifts. Garuḍa said: Tell me. with his sacred thread on the right shoulder. 1. he should make an offering for him. By this the earth and its presiding deity become pleased. or the clay of the Ganges. 10. 7-9. The son who bears his father on his shoulder to the burning-ground obtains the fruit of the horse-sacrifice at every step. and dedicate rice-balls and presents. garlands. after cleaning and sprinkling. . The Blessed Lord said: Listen. The son who does not have the shave when the mother or father has died. Then the son. half-way. Then. 2. Therefore he must have the shave by all means. the helper through the ocean of changefulness. Having bathed the corpse. O Lord. except the nails and the hair of the armpits. and describe also the greatness of the wife who is faithful. 1 4-6. Then. I will tell you all about the ceremonies for the upper body. he should bathe the corpse and next adorn it with sandalpaste. bringing river water. the rites for burning the bodies of the good. Having covered it with new cloths he. by this the evil ones amongst the tens of millions of elementals can do no harm. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire. having bathed with his relatives he must put on clean cloths. then along with the other relatives the son should bear it on his shoulder.CHAPTER X. in the name of the so-called dead. he should offer them. Then the daughter-in-law 1 and others should go round it and worship it. the son who does so obtains fruit like that of the Agniṣṭoma.

lead Thou him to heaven!" 20-22. either in this name. as follows: Having swept the ground and washed it with cow-dung. the dead gets the benefit of the offering of five rice-balls. This one belonging to the changing world is dead. Who dies in the Pañchaka does not attain a good condition. should give them to the fire. for the burning of the body. he should make there a funeral pyre with sandal wood. make of darbha grass. and having placed the fire as prescribed. And having worshipped with flowers and coloured rice the Shining One known as the eater of flesh. if it is done. Having thus prayed to the fire. If burning takes place. Nourisher of Creatures. in the hand of the dead. in the five Pañchaka mansions ending with Revatî 2 is not a suitable time for burning. or in that of Departed. and with the wood of palâsha and aśwattha. From the time he is on the funeral pyre the condition as departed begins. Having placed the departed on the funeral pyre. 1 25-27.'-"Oh. Then one should place near the corpse images. Then it should be taken to the burning-ground. and some trouble arises for the sons and family. shall not cause disturbance of that body which is to be sacrificed. O Târkṣya. Supporter of Beings. and consecrated with the four Rikṣa mantras. Beginning from the middle of Dhaniṣṭhâ. if there is not Pañchaka. Harm befalls the house in which death takes place in the Rikṣa mansion. son. 16-19. o know the ways of the departed call him a seeker. Oblations should be made in order that goblins. the holy bath wood. demons and fiends. and others in the various directions. and laid down with its head to the north. he should offer in the name of the departed two rice ball. having taken out some earth and erected an altar and sprinkled it with water. in case burning takes place in the middle of Rikṣa.15. Burning should not be done then. otherwise the aboved come to disturb. . 1 he should make an oblation as prescribed. Womb of the World. beginning with 'loman. Thou. 20-33. I will explae ino you the rites for the warding off of all ills. evil occurs. 28. Some place should be cleaned there.on the funeral pyre. another death occurs. An offering should be made neral pyre. having dedicated five rice-balls to the departed. and having brought the with the grasses.

56-50. his skull should be split open. For warding off ills he should give a vessel full of sesamum. does the burning. and the departed goes to the supreme condition. gold. in that of ascetics with a cocoanut. Whether half or wholly burnt." and with leaf-vessels. so that he may attain the world of the forefathers. after having thus performed the pacificatory ceremonies. Then the burning along with the images should be done. and the son. and a bronze vessel filled with clarified butter. silver. with the mantra "Pretâjayata.Purified gold should be used. should perform the pacificatory rites for him. His son. in the case of householders with a piece of wood.--no harm befalls him. having split open the brahmarandra 1 should make an oblation of clarified butter with this mantra: . Who. and sacrifice performed with Rikṣa mantras. on the day of the offering of the rice-balls. diamonds. in order.

Having placed them on palasha leaves. Then he should make. He should take fifteen steps in the northerly direction and. Having prepared a triangular plot of ground. taking a three-legged stool he should place on it a jar with mouth uncovered. Then he should several times sprinkle the bones with water and milk. Having collected the ashes from the pyre." Then having sprinkled milk over the place of the funeral pyre. digging a hole there. he should sprinkle water. O Lord of Birds.67. he. As long as a man's bones float on the water of the Ganges. water and sweetmeats. containing water. Bhagîratha 1 brought her down from the world of Brahmâ. for the uplifting of his forefathers.--for so many thousands of years he remains in the heaven-world. in the three directions. and cleansed it with cow-dung. Having put them into a leaf-box. touched with it his heart and head and walked round it saluting it. Having worshipped. and. Having gone to the burning-ground. place in it. having put on a woollen garment. and walk round three times. He whose bones sink in the water of the Ganges within ten days. he should drop it into the middle of the Ganges. by those who maintain household fires. If there is nothing to prevent. When the wind which has touched the waves of the Ganges touches the dead. and by those who do not. the divine Ganges. should offer three rice-balls. and. and wearing the sacred ring. facing south. as prescribed. . and worship them well. never returns from the world of Brahma. perform Śrâddha as prescribed. having bathed and become pure. the jar of bones. having put them into an earthen pot. taking the vessel from the hole. On the fourth day the collection 1 should be made. carry it to a tank of water. with sandal-paste and saffron. 1 The son should make the grain oblation to the denizens of the burning-ground. O Bird. 79-84. and begin to pick up the heap of bones. for the departed. with great austerities. Then he should offer over it a rice-ball. his sin is at once destroyed. on the second or the third day he should do as follows: 68-78. he should sprinkle them with milk and water. repeating the mantra beginning with "Yamâyatva. which destroys the pain of burning. an oblation of cooked rice with curds and clarified butter.

or from dangerous thieves. went to the place called hell. one should have Brâhmiṇs. If an infant dies. On the eleventh and twelfth days one should perform the ceremonies for a youth. When his bones were dropped into the Ganges by a crow he ascended the divine chariot and went to the abode of the Shining Ones. as explained above. Older than that it should be burned and its bones strewn on the Ganges. and she alone be burned. fed. but without the rites of releasing a bull and of the great gift. And from the same day the ten-days' ceremonies should be performed and that date should be noted.In the three worlds is celebrated the purifying fame of the Ganges. along with milk-food and lumps of sugar. 88-90. then. . a destroyer of all sorts of creatures who. one should have young children fed. one should offer ten rice-balls. along with children. killed by a lion in a great forest. who led to heaven the sons of Sagara 2 who had been reduced to ashes. 92-93. Hence the good son should himself drop the bones in the Ganges. for the performance of the annual Śrâddha. up to twenty-seven months old. If a woman dies in the fulness of pregnancy. If a youth dies. 94-98. and the child drawn out and placed on the ground. it should be buried in the ground. whether vowed or not. If the embryo perishes. After the bones are collected he should perform the ten-days' ceremonies. 85-86. 87. or in a wood. there are no rites. milk-porridge and eatables. if anybody meets his death in an uninhabited place. If a child dies on the bank of the Ganges. There was a certain hunter. A gift of a waterpot should be made. one should burn it alone. and food should be given to children. if a child dies. and if his body is not found. When one who has passed five years dies. if in another place. 91. on the day this is heard of-Having made an effigy of darbha grass. it should simply be thrown into the Ganges. Those men who die after committing sins attain the heaven-world by their bones falling into the Ganges. and then collect its ashes and drop them into the water of the Ganges. If a youth who has taken the vow dies. then one should offer a jar. Now. one should give milk. her womb should be cut open.

with all the castes. 99. is declared to take the place of vows. and when dead. 101. 86:2 The fifth Nakṣatra. rites are done according to age. and the gifts of land. Marriage. Previous to the taking of vows. Therefore rice-balls and water should not be offered to them. is not available. there is not joint rite for the youth. hence they do not expect rice-balls to be given. Those who know are always free. becomes Nârâyaṇa 1. with women and Śûdras. 85:1 The fire-deva. Bahûdaka. and Śrâddha at Gayâ. who is little bound by sense-objects. because of carrying the three-fold staff they never go into the condition of the departed. 102-107. With all ascetics there is no burning.If the father is living. Where great rivers exist. requires but scanty rites. these are Sannyâsins. but one should perform the annual Śrâddha at the sacred waters. but on the twelfth day one should perform the ceremony for him alone. it is declared that they should be buried in the ground. by realisation of their own true nature. 100. they must be buried in the ground. no water rites. 2 O Târkṣya. Paramahaṅsa. A man. and he who is young in age of body. If the Ganges. Footnotes 83:1 A certain sacrifice. In boyhood and in youth the cot. 5 days in each month. Kutîchaka. . or other. by the mere holding of the staff. with devotion to the forefathers. and the ten-days' ceremonies should not be performed for them by their sons. The Haṅsa. 84:1 His son's wife--the wife of the son performing the rite. 86:1 A certain astrological position. the great gift and the gift of a cow should be made. the bull and other sacrifices should be performed. He who is little attached to action. they should be thrown into them.

87:87-34 87:87-35 88:88-41 88:88-42 88:88-46 .

90:2 The funeral pyre is lighted from the sacred household fire.89:89-48 89:89-53 90:1 An opening at the top of the head. were released and purified by him in the Ganges. the ancestors of Bhrigu. and that they. 93:2 There is a legend to the effect that the 80. 92:1 A finger-ring of kusha grass. 96:1 Viṣṇu. 96:2 These names are given to advanced stages of human development. 91:1 Of the bones. .000 sons of Sagara were reduced to ashes by Viṣṇu. 93:1 A great king who is said to have brought down the Ganges from heaven to earth. put on the third finger of right hand.

CHAPTER XI. taking calm courage. An Account of the Ten-Days' Ceremonies. 3-8. 1. and who should perform it if there is no son. Garuḍa said: Tell me. a good son is released from the hereditary debt. and I will tell you about the ten-days' ceremony. refraining from tears. The son. O Târkṣya. 2 The Blessed Lord said: Listen. having done which. what good results follow from the performance of the ten-days' rite. O Keśava. should offer rice-balls to the father. Because the departed has inevitably to drink .

the father should not. A man or a woman who performs the rites for a friend. The rites must not be neglected. The ten-days' ceremony for the father should be performed by the son. to have a son. O Bird. obtains the fruit of tens of millions of sacrifices. they are all considered. the riceball offerings. even if the wealth has been divided. 19-21. devoted to Brâhmaṇ. . of brothers of the same father. 22-24. only one shall perform the ten-days' ceremony. If there is nobody else. Therefore should the eldest son perform with devotion the ten-days’ ceremony. Even if the eldest son dies. by this sacrament for the helpless departed. 2 and pure. all of them have a son.-Only by one these ceremonies. through excessive affection. only one has a son. If a man has several wives. 18.Manu declared that if. and the other sixteen Śrâddhas. sleeping on the ground. But the annual Śrâddha should be performed severally if the wealth has been divided. on account of that son. Although there be many sons. on account of that son. For all who have no sons a friend may offer the rice-balls. but only one of them has a son. 1 eating one meal. the family priest may do them. perform it.

On the tenth day a ball of flesh should be given. Indestructible.Crow-food. 100:2 A rough image. 37-38. In the same way that on the first day a rice-ball is given as prescribed. Having meditated upon Hari. symbolical of the deceased twice-born person. pray for the release of the departed. water. with hands together. There is no reason for fear for those who bow to Govinda. The son who performs the ceremony must again have a complete shave. gone home. wealth or other things. in accordance with the sapiṇḍa rite. taking with them panic grass and parched grain. he should. as beautiful as the atasî flower." Every day at the conclusion of the Śrâddha he should prayerfully repeat this incantation." and then leave in the house the mixed-panic grass and grain. as also should the other relatives. Having bathed. confer eternity upon the dead. the Eternal. O Lord of Birds. O Bearer of the conch. 33. one should pronounce the name of the departed woman or man. and having the women go in front. and given food to the cow. since flesh is forbidden in the Kali Yuga at the ceremony for the forefathers. 41-42. that has been given by me to the departed in his earthly name. so should the nine rice-balls be given. they should proceed to the place of the dead. During the ten days he should feed a twice-born with seasoned foods. milk and water. persist. . Lotus-eyed. Having bathed in the open. clad in yellow robes. And say: "May his family increase like the panic grass. Therefore. 40. he may eat. 34-36. 100:1 A square flat mound a few inches high. Food. wishing the dead to reach heaven. and radiate like the parched grain. On the ninth day all the authorised kinsmen at the proper time should besmear themselves with oil. 39. or a ball of mâṣa. if given in the name of the departed. and handfuls of castor-oil in a pot: "May all this. be Thou the giver of release to the departed. from the first day onwards. On the tenth day he should shave." 31-33. Footnotes 99:1 One each day. "O Beginningless and Endless Deva. discus and mace. 99:2 Celibate. cloths.

6-10. to Śiva and to Justice. and an iron one of Yama. O Mâdhava. 3. explain the ceremony of the dedication of the bull. Garuḍa said: O Lord of the Holy Ones. one should do the eleventh-day ceremony. To the south there should be a pot of rain-water for Yama. One should perform the tenth-day Śrâddha in the family name. pray for the release of the departed. and there one should place Rudra. his ornaments. with mantras. and performing the Sandhyâ and other ceremonies 1. 2. clad in white robes. To the east there should be a pot of milk and water for Brahma. and placed therein kuśa-grass. His clothes. and there one should place Brahmâ. his conveyances. 1. to the creator 2. offer a rice-ball to the departed. having made a circle in the middle. The Blessed Lord said: In the early morning on the eleventh day one should go to a water-reservoir. He should invite Brâhmiṇs. should make the wateroffering. which he has used. tell me about the eleventh-day rite also. To the north there should be a pot of honey and clarified butter for Rudra. An Account of the Eleventh-day Rite. with Vaidic mantras. and. He should make water-offering.CHAPTER XII. and perform diligently all the funeral ceremonies. One should make a golden image of Viṣṇu. clad in yellow robes. 5." 12-15. clad in black robes. with hands folded together. well-read in Vedas and Śâstras. 4. and upon it one should place Yama. and bowing their heads. Even a preceptor should become purified by bathing. to Viṣṇu. The son. And he should next make a gift of a cow for the helping along of his forefathers: "this cow is given by me. . O Bird. a silver one of Brahmâ.--a brass vessel filled with clarified butter. O Ruler of the universe. 3 perform the offering to the fire and then the eleventh-day Śrâddha. clad in red robes.--these. facing southward. and upon it one should place Viṣṇu. as prescribed. May it please Thee. a copper one of Rudra. To the west there should be a pot filled with Ganges water for Viṣṇu. without mantras. 11-13. and on the eleventh day. with the sacred thread over the right shoulder 1. the seven grains which he liked.

21-30. neck and hoofs." With these words it should be given to a Brâhmiṇ preceptor who has a family. 16. sweetmeats. red horns. Having washed the feet of a Brâhmiṇ he should honour him with cloths and other things. . O Brâhmiṇ. and by the rite of the dedication of a bull. and give him cooked food.Sesamum and the rest. and is entirely beautiful in all its limbs. a reddish colour. white belly and 1 on its forehead is called deep-brown. they should be brought to his bedside and he should have them given. give the bed as prescribed. and the other things. with the image of the departed. is called very dark--of which five varieties are known. 20. "This bed is given by me to you. He should not use a cow which is crippled. ill or too young. On the eleventh day the rite of the dedication of a bull should be performed as prescribed. and having worshiped it. so going round him he should salute him and present it. flour-cakes and milk. That which is dark over all its body. and red in its eyes. but one having well-marked characteristics. Then the son should place upon the bed a golden image. That which has red eyes. for the sake of the departed. and Śrâddhas of the ninth and other days. the departed goes to the highest condition.19. for the sake of the dead. 17-. the eight great gifts: if one does not offer these in his last days. By this gift of the bed.

This should by all means be dedicated, and should not be used for domestic purposes. It exists in the world on this account,--so runs an ancient saying. 31-35. One should desire for many sons, of whom one perchance may go to Gayâ, or marry a virgin Gaurî or dedicate a dark bull. He alone should be considered a son who performs the dedication of a bull and the Gayâ Śrâddha---who does not do so verily is like unto excrement. Any one whose ancestors are tormented in Raurava and other hells helps them all out for twenty-one generations by the dedication of a bull. Even the forefathers who have gone to heaven desire the dedication of a bull: "which son in our lineage will perform the dedication of a bull, "By whose dedication, all of us will go to the highest condition? Among all sacrifices, the bull-sacrifice is the certain giver of release to us." 36. Therefore, for the release of the forefathers, one should perform the bull-sacrifice. He should do everything with diligence according to the prescribed rite. 37. Having cast the positions of the planets and worshipped them with their respective mantras, the ailing man should make the fire-offering, according to the Śâstras, and worship a bull. 38-42. Having brought together a young bull and cow, he should bind them together with a marriage string in accordance with marriage rites, and then tether them to a post; And should bathe the bull and young cow with the water from the pot of Rudra, and, having worshipped them with fragrances and garlands, walk round them. He should [mark] the right side with the trident of Śiva and the, left side with a discus. Having released the bull, the son, with hands folded together, should recite this mantra:-"Thou art Justice in the form of a bull. Thou wert formerly created by Brahma. On account of your being released, help over this ocean of existence!" Having thus bowed to it, with this mantra, he should release the bull and the young cow. "I shall always be the grantor of boons to you, and will give release to the departed." 43. Therefore this should be done. Its fruit comes even during life. The man who has no son, doing it himself, goes easily to the highest condition. 44-45. In the month of Kârtika 1 and in other auspicious months, when the sun is going north, in the bright fortnight, or the dark on the twelfth and following days, In the two eclipses, at a sacred bathing place, at the equinoctial and solstitial points, one should perform the dedication of a bull.

46-49. At the hour when the sun enters an auspicious constellation, and in a pure place, a Brâhmiṇ who knows the rites and has the ausp

The fourth to king Soma, the fifth to the bearer of oblations to the Shining Ones, 1 and the sixth to the bearer of oblations to the forefather; the seventh one should present to Death; The eighth one should give to Rudra, 1 the ninth to Puruṣa, 2 the tenth to the departed, and the eleventh reverently to Viṣṇu; The twelfth one should give to Brahmâ, the thirteenth to Viṣṇu, the fourteenth to Śiva, the fifteenth to Yama; The sixteenth rice-ball, O bird, one should give to Puruṣa: These are called the middle sixteen by men who know the truth. 65-67, One should give rice-balls in each one of the twelve months, on the fortnight, the third fortnight, before the six months, and also before the year,-This is the last sixteen, I have declared to you. Having had food cooked, O Târkṣya. The forty-eight Śrâddhas destroy the condition of the ghost-life. He for whom this series is performed becomes a member of the assembly of the forefathers. 68-69. The three sixteens should be performed so that the departed may join the assembly of the forefathers; if deprived of Śrâddhas the ghost remains as preta always. If the performance of the three sixteens of Śrâddhas is not carried out, either by himself or another, then he certainly does not join them. 70-72. Therefore the three sixteens should be performed by the son, as prescribed, or if the wife does them for the husband there is uninterrupted prosperity. She who does the funeral ceremonies on the death of her husband, and the annual and the fortnightly is called by me, "the Faithful." This faithful wife lives for the good of her husband: the life is fruitful of her who worships her dead lord. 73-78. Also, for any one who, owing to carelessness, is killed by fire, or by water, one should perform the sacrament and other rites as prescribed. If he is killed through recklesness or wilfully, or by a serpent, then me should worship a serpent on the fifth day of each fortnight. One should form a picture of a hooded serpent upon the ground with ricepowder, and worship with white sweet-smelling flowers and sandalpaste. One should offer a serpent incenses and lights, much strew rice and sesamum, and should dedicate 1 uncooked rice-flour, 2 eatables and milk.

111:1 Śiva. Sris Chandra Vasu. and a cow. he mast change it. It is the ceremony for all the ancestors together. as it were in anticipation of the annual event. one should give every day a jar with food and water until the end of the year. Then one should. 112:2 Made into a ball." And should further perform for them the rite Nârâyaṇa-bali. Viṣṇu. 106:1 Orthodox Hindus place a mark on the forehead to show caste and other things. 79. for this ceremony. usually with sugar and cocoanut. 111:2 The primeval man. Footnotes 103:1 For an account of these ceremonies. having done all the rites. Panini Office. according to his means.One should offer a serpent made of gold. with hands together "may the King of Serpents be pleased. by which they are absolved of all sins and obtain residence in heaven. 104:2 Brahmâ. 110:1 That is Fire. see the Daily Practice of the Hindus by Mr. Thus. Allahabad. 1 and when free from pollution he should have made a gift of a bed and other gifts. or rice-balls with water regularly. 80. Having done this on the eleventh day he should then offer the rice-balls for all the ancestors. to a twiceborn. . 108:1 Including the latter part of October and the first part of November. 104:3 Dharma or Yama. and passes of the hands are made as though a influence it towards the image. 104:1 It is usually worn ever the left shoulder under the right arm. 112:1 The food is placed near the image. 113:1 This ceremony is performed on the twelfth day.

and afterwards. ten nights. the removal of pollution. they are never purified. without the Sapiṇḍa rite the impurity does not depart. 1 are not uplifted by the various gifts made by the sons. merely till bathing. and the gift of accessories. . before tonsure. and the gotrajâs 3 are purified merely by bathing. then the purification from the first pollution includes that from the second. An Account of the Ceremony for all the Ancestors. the sixth. the Sâkulya relatives 2 in three nights. If the son is always impure. by which the condition of preta is left behind and the soul enters the class of the pitṛis. If a second pollution comes daring that from the first death. The eighth. those in the fifth degree. If after a year. it is said. and I will explain to you the entire Sapiṇḍa rite. a Vaiśya in fifteen days. he becomes pure even by bathing. I will tell you about the ending of pollution to be observed by all. one night. Those whose piṇḍas have not been mixed together with the ancestors called Śiva and the rest.CHAPTER XIII. If a boy who has not yet cut his teeth dies. in six nights. Those who are related within the fourth degree to the deceased are purified in ten nights. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. about the method of [performing] the Sapiṇḍa rite. the ninth.--so long lasts the pollution of death and birth [according to the distance of degrees from the deceased]. a Śûdra in a month. the seventh. O Lord. Therefore the Sapiṇḍa. A Brâhmiṇ becomes pure in ten days. 1. a single day. The Sapiṇḍa relatives 1 are purified from the death pollution in ten days. he is polluted for three nights. before the investiture with the thread. 6-9. three nights. 10-11. 2. If a person dies in a foreign land and one hears of his death. purification is immediate. If after the lapse of ten days. Garuḍa said: Tell pre. O Târkṣya. 13. the tenth. a Kṣattriya in twelve days. three days. then the impurity lasts for the remaining portion of ten days on which he hears the news. 3-5. 12. at the end of the pollution period. a quarter of a day. should be performed by the son. four days.

for the purifying from pollution. or a twice-born intent upon Brâhmaṇ. only the husband's family. suffers evil.14-16. 19. During the Kali Age--it is authoritatively declared in the Śâstras--ten days' purification for all the castes. engaged in mantras or in fire-offerings. so Manu declared. who then goes to the world of the forefathers to join the multitudes of forefathers. feeding of Brâhmiṇs and the observance of vows should not be done during the death pollution. If the embryo dies. lying on a bed. one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for the father. fire-offering. an ascetic or a king there is verily no pollution. religious study. in all the castes alike. 24-26. If the embryo dies before sixth month. If a girl dies between birth and tonsure. in as many days the embryo lived months. . accepts it. purity is regained. can be eaten. Therefore. giving. the third fortnight. O Târkṣya. following the scriptural ordinances. 17-18. during pollution. purification is immediate. reception of guests. Whoever. that for the four castes the Sapiṇḍa should be on the twelfth day. Blessing the worship of the Shining Ones. if after marriage. reciting. and before the pollution by birth or death. but the giver even though it be to a mendicant that he gives. But I say. 28-30. 20-22. after births and deaths. Sandhyâ prayers. according to the caste. 23. and from that to old age three nights are authoritative. and the Brâhmiṇ who knowing it. salutation. gives food to a twice-born. He who during pollution performs the daily. If after the betrothal ceremony three days for both families. After this the women are polluted. Up to betrothal a single day. and touching others should not he done during the death pollution. accepts through ignorance.--are both subjected to suffering. Food prepared before marriage festivals and sacrifices. hiding his pollution. Whoever. it should be understood. purification of the Sapiṇḍa relatives is immediate. the sixth month or at the end of the year. offering to the forefathers. The truth-knowing sages hare declared that the Sapiṇḍa ceremony should be on the twelfth day. the occasional and the specially desired ceremonies--of him the regular and other ceremonies already done are lost. 27. suffers no evil. For one observing vows.

Rudra and Arka. the fruit which at fruit is obtained by doing the Sapiṇḍa 35. marriage and other ceremonies should not be done. the fulfilment of vows. the sacred bathing-places.uld be discontinued. The daily and the occasional cerem alms. then investiture with the sacred thread. 34. having given rice-balls to other departed ones. and the impermanence of the body. Until the Sapiṇḍa has been performed the mendicant should not accept alms. 2 Next.ermteETaire. Hence. as laid down in the scriptures. and having cleaned with cow-dung the place of death. and because of the shortened life of men. . having bathed. the son should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. Then he should worship the world1 and âchamana. He should offer three rice-balls in order to his grandfather and others. leaves of the holy basil. in the forms of Vasu. The fruit which accrum visiting all accrumm performing all sacrifices: th ceremony on the twelfth day. and guestofferings should not be accepted. He should worship with sandal-paste. whether he be without fire or with fire. If a Brâhmiṇ house-holder dies. 31-33. and the fourth rice-ball to the dead.The twelfth day is preferable because of the endless variety of conditions in the Kali Age. he should sip water. therefore one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. 36-30. By the omission of ritminfulness aris es. incea .

the gift of a bed should he made. Afterwards he should always have a guest fed until he says "hanta. If. and white cloths having been donned. 2 and Vinîyakam 3. 58. extol the gift of a bed. scales. 47. with mantras. O Târkṣya. having put grasses between them. He should have maintenance for a year. a weapon. 1 headed by Indra.45. "The Sapiṇḍa rite for women should be done with that for the husband. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony having been thus performed. delightful. first the offering of a rice-ball and other things for the father. silver. 59-64. Only one son should perform the rites. having bathed again. canopied with silken cloth. sprinkle water. All the Devâs. Then he should worship with mantras--after saying "Hail to thee"--the planets. and make to him a gift. should present the coloured rice also consecrated with mantras. O Târkṣya. an elephant. After the feeding of the twice-born. During the Sapiṇḍa he should worship the feet of a twice-born with sandal-paste and coloured rice." 1 By this the forefathers. 46." along with Vaidic mantras. He should utter "Let there be Swadhâ. Then he should have Brâhmiṇs fed with various pleasant sweetened foods. food. then. and he should give them presents." 52-53. As much as a mouthful is called "alms. . the Shining Ones and the Dânavas are pleased. who are respectively thus purified. 55. and twelve pots with water and food. 49-51. water. a chariot and a plot of ground given to a preceptor. for his continued satisfaction. during life or else after death. is not my opinion. a horse. O Kâśyapa! husband and wife ascend the same funeral pyre. Devi. coloured rice and eatables. he should make the offering of water to the forefathers. and a rod should be touched severally by the castes. clarified butter." and four abundances is called "hantakâra. painted in beautiful colours. with saffron. 54. ornamented with gold leaves. his father and grandfather"--that. and having bound a thread upon the hand." four mouthfuls is "abundance. Having done the Sapiṇḍa. the rite for the mother. he should perform it with that of the mother-in-law and father-inlaw. the cloths worn during the rite should be cast off. a good cow. the sages. Made of the choicest wood. because the wife being already half the body of her husband requires no Sapiṇḍa ceremony with regard to her husband. and after that. The preceptor should then. Therefore a bed should be given. 50-57. gold. strong.

a vessel. 69-71. furnished with all the necessaries. having placed them on the bed. ornaments. "O Brâhmiṇ. weapons and clothes. a seat. 75. an oxtail fan. with ear and finger ornaments and golden necklaces. and all the other necessary things. in their proper places. 76. standing in front of the Brâhmiṇ: "Just as. should be seated by him on the comfortable bed. with his wife adorned with fragrances and flowers. . Then a Brâhmiṇ. And all the other accompaniments of the bed he should place round it. your bed is the ocean full of milk. may this likewise be not empty in my future births. If he is rich he should give a very beautiful house. he should pronounce this mantra. a row of silver lamps. O Kṛiṣṇa. How seldom does any one so give!" He should rock the twice-born and Lakṣmî and Hari. according to the rite. together with Lakṣmî. it should be placed on the ground covered with cloth. 65-66. and tells about Brâhmiṇ. he should have the red dye. with all the ornaments. there should be performed. and a canopy of five colours. the Planetary Spirits and Vinâyaka." 72-74. so that he may sleep happily on the bed. and then. having walked round and bowed. seated on the bed. and then the bed-gift with its accompaniments. If a living man makes with his own hand the gift of a bed. broad and pleasant: such a bed as this being made. Well-bound with bright bands. together with a coverlet made fragrant with the scent of flowers. saffron. He should give it to him who observes vows. receive these. in front of Lakṣmî and Nârâyaṇa. 67-68. On it he should have placed a golden Hari. a water-pot. and adore the Guardians of the World. on full moon day the dedication of a bull. Wearing a turban and an upper cloth and jacket. a mirror. give them leave.Having beautiful pillows stuffed with swans' down. and say. And. Facing north. while he is still living. clothes. in the case of women. Thus he should place the handsful of flowers before the Brâhmiṇ and the image of Hari. and holding flowers in his palms. is a teacher. He should worship Hari and Lakṣmî with saffron and flower-garlands. An umbrella.

through the gift of a water pot he. The messengers of Yama. a set of five vessels--are called the seven kinds of padas. 78. The miseries of cold and heat and wind are dreadful there. according to his means. An umbrella. very terrible. The father. This bed should be given to one only. and on all the days of the changes of the moon: even superior to these is the merit arising from the gift of a bed. It is enveloped in great heat. gives a water-vessel made of copper. by which the man is scorched. 87-93. is windless and without water. uncooked rice. but the gift of an umbrella makes pleasant shade above his head. This pada becomes complete with a staff. 81. and the son giving it. At the celestial house of Indra. There is there intense heat. And on the path in the world of Yama. By this padadâna the righteous go to a good condition. seated in the best of chariots. waited upon by numbers of celestial damsels. do not trouble on the road him who made the gift of a signet ring. until the coming of the deluge. Having this made the gift of a bed. drinks water. and this padadâna gives happiness to those who have gone on the way of Yama. shoes. clothes. fierce and brown-black. a signet ring. and sacred threads. Having given a bed to a deserving person. the son should have Padadâna given. The merit from all the sacred bathing places. for the dead. . and I will tell you the method of it. and at the abode of Yama. O Bird.77. obtained these thirteen padas he should give. Divided or sold it drags down the giver. when thirsty. a water-pot. he may obtain the fruit of his desires. he will arrive without doubt through the potency of the gift of a bed. but by the power of the gift of clothes he goes happily along the way. 79-80. Having. Listen to my words. certainly enjoys the fruit which is obtained by thousands of gifts of wells. rejoices here and hereafter. valuables. He will reside there free from trouble. 82-86. foods. a seat. and never to several. those who gave shoes go riding horses. them to thirteen Brâhmiṇs on the twelfth day. Who. full of great thorns. a copper vessel.

in the irregular month. this gift. 100-105. on the day of the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. . also chaṇḍalâs and other outcasts. If one dies at the full moon his rites fall on the fourth day. the annual and the fortnightly ceremonies. The ceremony for one only should not be done. There is no re-doing of what is done excepting the rites for the departed. as a means of unfading satisfaction. the twice-born should be fed. 107-110. should be done when there is no sankrânta. his day is the fourteenth. rice-balls are proper. Thus. leisurely going on the path he comfortably enjoys his provisions. by it one becomes the destroyer of his forefathers. Now I shall tell you the rules concerning the monthly. as prescribed.Through properly giving to a twice-born a seat and a vessel. the two fortnights and the thirty days are the same [both must be performed.] For the first half day take the former [the dark]. for the sake of the departed it may be done again. 97-99. Then. the month being double. Having thus given. the Śrâddha is not performed. for the second half. the latter. 1 O Bird. If one dies on the fourth day his rites fall on the ninth. When in one month [Kṣayamâsa] two saṅkrântis occur. when there is sankrânta. After a year one should always offer three rice-balls at the Śrâddha. at the end of the first year one should perform the annual Śrâddha. then in the thirteenth month the annual ceremony for the departed occurs. When there is no sankrânta. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony. he should have many Brâhmiṇs fed. 94-95. Thus are understood by the wise the two months which are in the irregular month. and in that. but. If one dies on the ninth day. In these cases one should perform the fortnightly Śrâddha on the twentieth day. 1 When there are two months in one month. If there is an additional month in the middle of a year. 106. similarly the monthly and the first annual Śrâddhas. in addition. 911. after the Sapinda and before the annual ceremony. rice-balls are not used. Thus the annual Śrâddha should be done in both months. and of dying on lunar days. of those two. a water-pot with rice-balls should be given every month. O bird.

the Gajachchhâyam. with devotion to the forefathers. He should worship the feet of Viṣṇu with the shoots of the holy basil. like the son of Kauśika. is happy and becomes liberated. O Târkshya. The seven sons of Bharadwâja. they go to the supreme state.The Śrâddha at a sacred bathing-place. He who. If the son performs the Śrâddha at Gayâ. performs the Śrâddha and gives satisfaction to the forefathers. by favour of the Viṣṇu. O Lord of birds. the son of Manu:-"Are there none in your family. the garden of Ikṣvâku. 111-113. and in proper order offer rice-balls round them. although they killed a cow. for the fathers--these he should not do during the year. The seven hunters in the country of Daśârṇas. He who offers. with devotion?" 116-119. The son who thus performs the rites for the other world. it should be done after a year. his life is fruitful. a rice-ball of the size of even a śamî leaf helps over seven clans and one hundred and one fatuities. treading the good path. the forefathers hear a song sung by the Holy Ones in Kalâpa. having gone to Gayâ. nor on yuga days. The forefathers are freed from the ocean of existence by the Śrâddha at Gayâ and. having gone to Gayâ. will offer us rice-balls. were liberated by the favour of the forefathers. on the head of Gayâ. who. 111-115. O Târkshya. delighting the family. nor at eciipses. having experienced a series of births. the Śrâddha at Gaya. O Lord of Birds. the deer on the mount .

120:2 The consort of Śiva.123-126. 120:1 A benediction which the recipient makes when he has had enough.--all males and unmarried females. in the assembly of Righteousness. Go on the way of righteousness to the mansion of the King of Justice. 115:3 Cousins up to the forty-second. on the male line.--listen to the fruit for him:-The father gives good sons. 120:3 Gaṇeśa. 121:1 A high class of superhuman beings. highly respected. The great-great-grandfather gives foods in abundance: all these. 125:1 If other ceremonies have been badly done they may not be re-performed. granting the son's desires. with water. Garuḍa went into raptures. and flowers. darbha grass. and also hears the Garuḍa Purâṇa. the Śrâddha offerings described by me. the grandfather. 115:1 Cousins up to the seventh. Footnotes 114:1 The grandfather. gratified by the Śrâddha. on the male line. wealth of cows and his great-grandfather becomes the giver of riches. but this may.--all males and unmarried females. on the male line. his father and grandfather are considered as corresponding to Vasu.--all males and unmarried females. thus declared by the Blessed Viṣṇu. 120:120-48 . Rudra is Śiva. Rudra and Âditya. . Sûta said: Having heard the result of the after-death gifts and their mighty greatness. He who performs. 115:2 Cousins up to the fourteenth. 127. 118:1 Consisting of rice. and there they remain. 118:2 See "Daily Practice of the Hindus" for an account of âchamana. according to the rite.

Astrological calculations are done with solar months. the malamasa. In this case the intercalary is added and (?) treated as such. not 13. or irregular portion. Hence there is an intercalary month of 30 days every three years. and on the same day in the bright half if he died during the second half of the day. but there are to be only twelve of the monthly ones in a year. lf. the passing of the sun through one zodiacal constellation. It is November. on the other hand. In this long month. a main has died and his month is dropped the preceding month is taken for the annual Śrâddha. in which there is no sankrânti. The month preceding month which is dropped has its two fortnights taken as belonging to the regular and the dropped month respectively. The sankrânta is a solar month. is the first half. but the regular mouth is dropped. then his annual Śrâddha must be done in the dark half on the same day on which he died. hence an additional irregular month occurs once in 27 months. The difference of solar and lunar months is about 11 days in the year. The kṣaya-mâsa is a name for a month which occurs every 149th year. If a man dies in the adigmâsa. although it is a year of intercalary month.126:1 "The ceremonies are performed according to the lunar months. January or February which is thus dropped. December. . If a man dies in the second fortnight in this case the annual ceremony belongs to the month which was dropped.--thus there are only 12 months in that year. but the intercalary is always associated with one of the other eight. if his death occurred during the first half of the day. while the second half is regular.

decorated by skilful painters and constructed by divine architects. Surrounded with shining ramparts of iron. To the south are those of Rheumatism and skin diseases. up to ten [yojanas] heights. I will tell you about that shining city of Justice. 6-9. In that city is the very lovely dwelling of Chitragupta. with four gateways. Beautiful with gardens and parks. which is accessible to Nârada and others find is reached by the very meritorious. Syncope. all built of diamonds. Headache. resounding with songs and music. 1-2. O Treasure-house of Compassion. . to the north-west. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. which extends to the number of twenty-five yojanas. 10-15. tell me about those righteous ones and the ways. surrounded by high ramparts and measuring a thousand yojanas. To the north there is consumption and Jaundice likewise. and smallpox likewise. seated on his most wonderful throne in that assembly. Between the south and south-west is the city of the son of Vivaswata. 3-5.CHAPTER XIV. Dyspepsia. considers the lives of men individually. and with whom does Justice reside? The righteous go by righteous ways to the mansion of Justice. to the south-east. with hundreds of streets decorated with flags and banners. habited in every part by celestial damsels and choristers. Garuḍa said: what is the extent of the world of Yama? What is it like? By whom was it made? What is the assembly like. Chitragupta. and sounding with the songs of various birds. Abounding in chariots. or by whom good or evil deeds have been done And by order of Chitragupta he experiences all of them there. and Biliousness also. resplendent. He is never mistaken in distinguishing between good and evil deeds. O Târkṣya. To the west are those of the Snare of Death. It is declared to be four-angled. An Account of the City of the King of Justice. To the east of the abode of Chitragupta is the great house of Fever. impregnable by Holy Ones or Demons.

All there have bodies of light. Filled with various wonders. and was created by the Architect of the Universe by doing tapas 2 for a long time. It is certainly two hundred yojanas in extent. and in every way satisfying. and splendid like lightning. beautiful with trees. both hot and cold. has no bondage. tranquil. And with windows of strings of pearls. All there are in a condition of happiness. 24-28. Pleasing to the mind with cupolas of the splendour of the autumnal sky. In that there is a divine assembly place which is a thousand yojanas in extent. and is full of palaces and mansions. are of good vows. That assembly. O Târkṣya. and embellished with golden fringes. . the sounds and other things there are pleasant. plants and creepers without thorns. and enjoyable in every way. truth-speaking. and purified by good actions go there. 16-23. splendid like the sun. full of light. The water. most ravishing to the mind with no sorrows and no old age there. to the north-west cold and heat--with these and other diseases it is surrounded. and measures fifty yojanas in height. is enchanting. whether they be human or divine. and remain there ornamented with their own meritorious actions. It is supported by thousands of pillars. is Dysentery. with hundreds of golden doors. flame and the sun. are sweet. rich with the sounds of bells and drums. It is shining with jewels. ornamented with gold. accomplished. decorated with flags and banners. Those who have done great tapas. decorated with emeralds. and no trouble of hunger and thirst. 1 With no extreme heat and no extreme cold. is the very resplendent mansion of the king of justice. renouncing. with beautiful crystal stairways and walls beautified with diamonds. and trees always bear the fruit desired. In the middle of the city. Chitragupta records the good and evil of men. 29-30. and are adorned with shining garments.To the south-west. is a fulfiller of desires. the eatables are tasteful and plentiful. Twenty yojanas before the abode of Chitragupta. With these and other embellishments decorated always--it was created by the architect of the Universe by the power of his own Yoga.

--these knowers of righteousness wait upon the King of Justice in the assembly. are in the assembly of Righteousness. Kraturatha. Śibi. 1 serve the King of Justice by order of Parameṣṭhin. Yayâti.-These royal sages. Puru. the recorder of fate. Dakṣa. Aryamâs and others. ten yojanas in extent. music and dances. and others having forms. Śântaṇu. Nala. Those who expound with accurate commentaries. There the Lord of Justice. bearing awful nooses and rods. . Nârada. either by their names or their deeds. no untruthfulness. by kâla 1 still more powerful. and Pṛithu. Sagara. hosts of progenitors. 2 The kings of the Solar Race. made splendid with a large crown. Duṣmanta. bedecked with all kinds of jewels-Sits. and by Chitragupta. and no jealousy. Adorned with all ornaments. the powerful Barhiṣads formed and formless. and many others in the assembly of the King of Progenitors. meritorious. Muchakunda. Pitṛis. Vaśiṣṭha. and fanned by celestial damsels bearing in their hands fans of hair.31-33. Pâṇdu.--all these wait upon the King of Justice. and also Bhṛigu. the Best of the Good. Jâmadagnya. Who are the Agniṣvâttha. famous. also of the Lunar Race. Ambarîṣa. splendid as a blue cloud. Mândhâtâ. He is waited up by Mṛityu 1 with a noose in his hand. ornamented with ear-rings. 41-45. Manu. the Dharmaśâstras. ready to do his bidding. impossible to enumerate. There is there no favouritism. round about. Dilîpa. Righteousness alone prevails in the assembly of the King of Justice. 34-40. his head dignified with the regal umbrella. Anaraṇya. Nahuṣa. with the sages: Atri. Pulaha. Aṅgiras. Multitudes of celestial choristers and numerous groups of celestial damsels. prosperous. Pulastya. serve him with songs. on a throne pure and incomparable. Bhagîratha. and also Sahasrârjuna. Agastya. Surrounded by various servants equal to him in prowess. 2 the Somapâs and the Uṣmapâs. Nimi. O Bird. Bharata. well-read in the Vedas. 46-47.-These. having performed many horse sacrifices.

Those who go into the mansion of righteousness by the three gateways. Such. who go by the southern path. and beautiful with Brâhmany ducks. the northern way. Busy with numerous chariots. O Târkṣya. the stainless royal sages. enter by the eastern gate. By that go the holy Brâhmiṇ-sages.All those assembled are knowers of the scriptures. The second. It is full of swans and water-fowl. and of purified intelligence. magicians and great serpents. and who give fuel in winter. covered with the shade of Pârijâta trees. and paved with jewels. of cows. 2 and those who bathe at the sacred waters at the changes of the moon. and certainly those who give a hermitage. those taking pleasure in the service of their Teacher. and make them gifts. and is paved with yellow sandal-wood. of houses. Those who make gifts of land. bounded by trees and pleasure-gardens. and others of good deeds. 59-61. and there is there a delightful tank full of the essence of nectar. The sinners. those who impart learning. and in that assembly they continually wait upon Vaivasvata 3 48-49.--are travellers on the path-These. choristers. And worshippers of the deities. There is an eastern way. And those who delight in truth and righteousness. Those who shelter ascetics 1 in their houses during the rains. is the assembly of the great-souled King of Justice. and the devotees of Śiva. are those of good deeds. There are four ways leading into the city of the King of Justice: The way for the sinful has already been described to you. those who speak consolation to the mentally distressed. On this way go those who are learned in the Vedas. is filled with hundreds of great chariots and with palanquins. all are devoted to righteousness. they go to the Assembly of Righteousness. those devoted to father and mother. eastern and others. those free from anger and greed. those who give rest-houses in the summer. do not behold it. . abounding in all enjoyments. By their merits they go into it. those who tell and listen to the Purâṇas. having the essence of nectar. and multitudes of celestial damsels. splendidly lined with swans. also those who honour guests. those who are worshippers of Dûrgâ 1 and Bhanu. 50. Hear about them:-51-55. Skilful in goodness.

Those who have attained knowledge and dispassion. those who die in Benares. . in the service of the master. go to the Assembly of Righteousness. accompanied by numbers of celestial damsels. and those who die of vow of starvation. holding his conch. entering by the northern gate. 65-73. and from calumny. and entering by the western gate. Is filled with maddened elephants sprung of the family of Airâvata 1 and with jewels of horses sprung from Uchchaiḥśravâ. ascend the best of chariots. the austere. Those who abstain from the company of the wicked. Observers of the vow of celibacy. devotees of the feet of Śrî. the good. They drink nectar. those who keep vows to Śiva and Viṣṇu. The third. those intent upon the welfare of all beings. and splendid with ponds. those who perform Śrâddha for the forefathers. those who repeat the Gâyatrî-mantra. those who always take pleasure in the five sacrifices.-these. 2 By this way go the self-reliant. repeatedly bids them welcome. Yama. those who maintain household fires. discus. those faithful to their wives. reach the Assembly of Righteousness.Those who die in the pursuit of righteousness. he speaks and acts in a hind and friendly way to those who delight in meritorious deeds. always filled with the essence of nectar. devoted to the society of the good. forest dwellers. those who repeat the Vedas. Those who turn away from injury to others. those who die in the practice of Yoga. those who perform the Sandhyâ at the proper times. those intent upon renunciation. those who are accidentally drowned in the sacred waters. and go to the mansion of righteousness. Then. those who die in the protection of cattle. assuming his four arms. 74-76. and those who delight in making great gifts. those who look equally upon gold. those entirely devoted to Viṣṇu. those who contemplate the good scriptures. Those who are rid of the three-fold debt. at the sacred waters and on holy ground. seeing them come. Those who die for the sake of Brâhmiṇs. mace and sword. is beautified with jewelled mansions. rising and coming forward. Those who always honour the deserving.-these. the western way. those who perform the rites of Brahmâ. by the will of the Shining Ones. stone and earth. from the wealth of others.

"O’ You Assembled! Salute with deepest reverence the knower. he alone is a wise man. stores up unchanging righteousness. Go along the highest path. Who is more foolish than he? "He who. he goes to a dreadful hell. the state of happiness. having heard the words of Justice. and bows to them. amid perishable wealth and other things. and then honours them with sandal-paste and other things. departing from my dominion." 82-85. never acts wisely. difficult to reach. Go you to the holy place which abounds in all enjoyments. He. "O. "Therefore should righteousness be accumulated. with every effort. will go to the world of Brahmâ. and being honoured by the immortals and extolled by the leaders of the sages. as a . washes their feet. They. and enjoyed superhuman pleasures. then those in that assembly of righteousness rise up with great respect Having spent there 1 some ages. they obtain. attaining the human state. in the impermanent body. "He who.He offers them the throne. you have by your merits attained divinity. accompanied by multitudes of chariots. who avoid the pains of hell. 77-81. and having saluted him and the assembly. Best of the Wise.

the son of Visvasvat. 137:2 The Sun.135:3 Yama. 136:1 Those who have renounced the world. . 138:1 The divine elephant. 138:2 The divine horse. 137:1 The consort of Śiva. 140:1 That is in Heaven world.

7-10. Hear how the Yogins perform the meditation upon the six chakras 1 within it. That night is never obtained by vulgar people. Having bathed. On the firth. in this body. An Account of the Coming to Birth of People who have done Good. reaps a good harvest. Pungent. Lord said: You have asked well. a store of auspicious qualities. . and washed her clothes. From the seventh day she becomes fit to perform the rites of worship to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. lest sin should arise in the body. I wish to hear what. I will tell you that supreme secret. the man of good deeds thinks. Tell me. Then is produced the righteous son. 5-6. daughters on odd. acid. on even nights he enters. Keeping away from.--the object of concentration of Yogins. O Treasurehouse of Compassion! 3-4. 13. astringent and hot things should be entirely avoided. During the seven days the embryo continues impure. 1 On the fourteenth night the seed remains there certainly. 1-2. Here the sons gradually enter during the eighth day. 11-12. like a husbandman. After menstruation the women should be avoided for four days. is born in a stainless family. Sixteen nights are declared to be common for women. her during the first seven days. Sons are born on even nights. I will tell you also about the rites and observances of the parents. and likewise meditation upon the nature of Chit and Ânanda in the Brahmarandhra. O Târkṣya. even by knowing which one becomes all-knowing. a woman becomes pure on the fourth day.CHAPTER XV. Now tell me how he is produced in the womb of the mother. Garuḍa said: The righteous man having enjoyed heaven. Their face should not be seen during that time. day women should eat sweet foods. 14-18. And how he of good deeds is born in the house of the pure and prosperous. I will tell you the real nature of that body which possesses the attributes of the universal Egg. The husband. having sown the seed of great potentiality in the field which is productive of grain. The Blessed.

Then the man obtains semen. and clean clothes. 1 put on flowers and sandal-paste. The intelligence joined with the seed remains always in the sperm. having chewed betel. thought and sperm become united.The man. When desire. According to the thoughts in his mind at the time of union will be the nature of the one who enters the womb. and with righteous thoughts in his mind. and in the interior of the womb the formation of ovum takes such a(who ePunsa . should unite with his good wife.

Vâta. and Vyâna also. placing the water over the fire. inflamed by the air. the two Aśvins. Yawning. 9 and Saṅkhinî.Speech. feet. Prâṇa. The organs of speech. and carries all over the body the nourishment which is obtained by eating mouthfuls of food. 3 thirdly. The air called Vyâna carries the essential part in all the Nâḍîs. The fire. and are the ten principal Naḍîs. 7 Alambuṣa. and also Gândhârî. 4 Gajajihva. Arka. Vyâna: Vomiting is called Nâga. vacuity. reason. and the 3akea1aepara dNrough( the w. as soon as eaten. delusion and mental instability--the five attributes of ether. 2 Suṣumnâ. tongue and nose are the sense organs. all-pervading. 6 Yaśasvinî.--Nâga. 8 and Kuhû. Devadatta. The Vyâna air makes the essence go all over. in the region of the throat. in the anus. Iḍâ. analysis--these four are called the Internal Means. 32. eyes. Prâṇa. and distributed all over the body. Apâna. thought. Udâna. Having entered near the anus it separates the solid and liquid portions. 5 Pûṣâ. Samâna. the cause of hunger is to be known as Kṛikala. and the solid over the water. The Prâna standing under the fire. 40-43. Mitra. Dik. Kṛikala. is split into two by that air. Devadatta and Dhanañjaya 12:-In the heart. hands.)7elavee . Apâna. does not leave even the corpse. and have the flavour of past karma. individualisation. opening and shutting the eyes is known as Kûrma. are declared to be the duties of the organs of sense and action. 34-35. Udâna. Kûrma. inflames it slowly. 10 the tenth as well--are situated in the interior of the body. Indra. Vahni. 33. separates the substance from the waste. skin. Ears. may be understood by you with effort. Food. Upeudra. in the navel. 31. Samâna. Prachetas. Dhanañjaya. 1 Pingalâ. Mind. the organs of generation and of excretion are the organs of action. 11 36-39.

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the Kṣîra ocean in the milk.62-65. Maṇipûraka. with letters from va to sa. and is red in colour. Viśuddhi and also Âjñâ. and I will explain the best method of Ajapâ. it should be known. in the mass of hair. Anâhatam. at the root of the generative organ. the Sura ocean is situated in the phlegm. and is golden-coloured. the Krauncha continent in the nerves. Mûlâdhâra. in the heart. by doing which the individual always gives up his separateness. Mars is situated. the Maṇipûraka is red in colour and has ten petals. this lotus has a thousand petals. the Mâtra 1 lotus is two-petalled. one should meditate upon the six chakras. between the eyebrows. and has the letters from ba to la. 74-75. Puṣkara. the Kuśa continent is situated in the flesh. Always at dawn. in the navel. The viśuddhi lotus is sixteen-petalled. the Dadhi ocean is known to be in the ova. the Anâhata is twelvepetalled. Venus is situated in the seed. in the eyes. in the face. Gomeda. The Śâlmalî continent is in the skin. it should be known. Mercury is in the heart. light-possessing and eternal. The Rasa ocean in the juices. ever auspicious. the one at the top of the head is the most resplendent. Listen. Râhu. by merely thinking upon it one is released from all sin. from da to pha. it is declared. in the place of the nails. with the vowels. Sâka is situated in the marrow. is six-petalled. and is the seat of truth and bliss. In all these forms one should meditate on his own body. in the region of the pelvis. Saturn is in the navel. 72-73. sitting steadily cross-legged. in the marrow. the Svâdhiṣṭhâna resembles the sun. from ka to tḥa. The mûlâdhâra is four-petalled and resplendent. Swâdhishthâna. 69-71. The sun is situated in the Nâda chakra. it is declared. and has the light of the moon. has the letters ha and kṣa.--in the body is the circle of the planets.--are spoken of as the six chakras. in the throat. in the order of the Ajapâ. 66-68. Jupiter is in the Viṣṇu-sthâna.--and next the oceans: In the urine the Kṣâra ocean. 1 The Gâyatrî called Ajapâ is the giver of liberation to the sages. the Swâdu ocean in the region of the soft palate. . O Târkṣya. you should know son of Vinatâ. at the top of the head. Ketu is situated in the lungs. Jambu is in the place of the bones. the moon is in the Bindu chakra. One should meditate in order upon the chakras. the Ghṛita ocean.

2 on Viṣhṇu. he should worship Hari and Hara. who are rays of Brahmaṇ. and that gives liberation. meditate upon the deities presiding over the chakras. selfillumined. The sages. on Gaṇeṣa. For those who are attached to the body facing-inward 1 does not come about. placed in three-and-a-half coils. not by efforts alone. He should bring his mind to a state of steadiness. as moving upwards and downwards. Having worshipped mentally in all the chakras. six thousand for Hara. . whose lotus-hand frees from fear. One should meditate. 17-80. Having done the purificatory ablution. He should regard his body as being washed in the flow of nectar from His feet." The individual is. all-pervading. with the thousand-petalled lotus inverted. 81-82. Then he should always meditate. six thousand for Hari 2. Then he should meditate on the place called Suṣumnâ. 89. 84-88. but under the instruction of a teacher. on my form. on Śiva. a thousand or the Chidâtman. haṁsa. indeed. with unwavering mind. 91-94." and enters again with the sound of "sa. "Haṁsa.--thus one should understand the respective numbers of the repetitions. and the Sandhyâ. without whom he falls. It is said by the wise that the subtle movements of the breath in one day and night number twenty-one thousand six hundred. 3 A thousand for the Jîvâtman. which goes out of the Randhra. six thousand for Vedhas 1. in order. singing His praise. in the chakras. upon the Blessed Teacher within the Haṁsa. after meditating upon the path of the Great Ones. teach it to their pupils. It goes out with the sound of "ha. Aruṇa and other sages."-Six hundred for Gaṇeśa. on Jîva. always repeating the mantra. as making a tour of the six chakras. on Vidhi. on Guru. 90. For then devotion is easier. and on Parambrahmaṇ. therefore a wise man. thereby he goes to the highest state of Viṣṇu. eternal and ever-blissful. between four o'clock and sunrise.76. a thousand for Guru. who know the succession of Teachers. he should repeat the Ajapâ-gâyatrî according to the instructions of the Teacher. should always meditate thus. He should meditate in the Ranḍhra. 83. Śuka and ethers. Then he should meditate on the Kuṇḍalinî. Having worshipped in the five-fold way he should prostrate. Having done the inward-sacrifice he should perform the outward-sacrifice.

145:9 This goes to the liṅgam. after having conned the Vedas and the Śâstras for three periods. 143:1 To augment the virile power.. 95. 145:1 The left hand nâḍî. 145:3 The central one. 144:2 refutation. if some other cause doer not render it inauspicious.. by the union due to devotion to me. but the fourteenth of them is best. . The good man who follows this. hence the name chakra. The devotion to me has a form of fruit from which the obtainer never falls away. This is the conclusion of the all-knowing Brahma and others. 143:2 A rite performed when living conception is observed.Tapas. 145:4 This goes to the left eye. Footnotes 141:1 Certain centres in the etheric and higher bodies. are also ways to liberation. O Târkṣya. 144:1 False ascription. 145:8 This goes to the mouth. 145:2 The right hand one. and Yoga. but for those who are attached to the world of change the path by devotion to me is far superior. two sorts of arguments. 145:5 This goes to the right eye. and others. Sacrifices and other righteous duties purify the mind. 142:1 Sixteen are favourable. 145:7 This goes to the left ear. 145:6 This goes to the right ear. and . which revolves like wheels when set in motion by meditation. goes to eternal liberation.

147:1 Pala is a little more than an ounce (6/5 oz." 150:1 That is. 151:1 Brahmâ. Meru is the sacred mountain or pakk.) 147:2 Individual and common physical body. 151:2 Viṣṇu. 151:3 Śiva. because they are thinking of outer things. 145:11 An inner nerve. 150:2 Brahmâ. 147:3 Universal and spiritual body.145:10 This gees to the mûla. 149:1 The saying of "Haṁsa. 145:12 Various forms of the vital breath. the Âjñâ. 147:4 Viraj means "to shine. channel for the vital breath. 152:1 Their meditation is unsuccessful. ." 148:1 The triangle in the triangle.

no one is ever known to be happy. O Lord. and if he becomes a knower 1 he attains liberation. That which is considered the individual is from a part of Him. through the accumulation of merit. Having worn and cast aside the four sorts of bodies thousands of times. Śiva. placed in various kinds of bodies. An Account of the Law for Liberation. beyond the Beyond. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. The embodied. the thirtythree deities. separated and encased in bodies by beginningless karma.CHAPTER XVI. . who has the nature of Supreme Brâhmaṇ. In every life obtained. according to their order. even by the hearing of which a man is released from the world of change. compassionate to those who seek refuge. giving happiness and misery. all-doing. O Târkṣya. and I will explain to you what you have asked. 14-16. Always miserable in this world. O Lord. in all deep miseries. like sparks of a fire. Lord of all. men. lasting until liberation. stainless and secondless. can obtain no knowledge of the truth. Self-illumined. who is partless. O Lord of Liberation. There is a Shining One. through ignorance. with beginningless ignorance. in the eighty-four hundred thousands of bodies before attaining human birth. Garuḍa said: I have heard from you. length of life. 5-7. The unmoving things. and fortune born of karma. the liṅga. in the worlds of change. and also the liberated. Through millions of myriads of thousands of births some time a being obtains human birth. beginningless and endless. tell me by what means they may obtain release. worms.--in this terrible world of change. O Bird. animals. all-knowing. 11-13. I now wish to hear about the means for eternal liberation. a higher and more subtle body. Being and Knowing and Bliss. They have also. about the transmigrating of the individual. goats. O Ruler of the Shining Ones. 1-4. the righteous. birds. without attributes. 8-10 These. Are fettered by forms of good and evil. The endless multitudes of individuals. one becomes a man by good deeds.--with nationality of body. in the unsubstantial. O Ocean of compassion. are born and die-of them no end is known.

and even that little is unfruitful owing to the miseries of childhood.--where is there a discerning one who is at ease? Even a hundred years of life is very little. having drunk the liquor of delusion. so long should he strive for the best. in view of welfare. 1 20-21. what will he do? 24-25. therefore should he guard his body as wealth and perform meritorious deeds. . youth is like a flower. does not know his own benefit. Riches are like unto a dream. duty for the sake of knowledge. the dead. So long as misery does not come. Alas! a man. life is fickle as lightning.--the stupid man digs his well when the corner of his house is already afire. He who does not take precautions against the diseases of hell while here. and half of it is sleep and idleness. He should always guard his body. Living. Though seeing those just born. those whom calamity has befallen. wealth again. and a step to liberation. he should make every effort to protect it. does not understand what benefits the soul is a slayer of Brâhmaṇ. 26-32.He who. Without a body. The time of death is not known by those who are variously embodied in the world of change. disease and old age. So long as the body lasts. If he does not guard himself against harm who else will? Therefore should he look after his own benefit.--who in this world is more sinful than he? The man who. having obtained a human body. difficult to get. does not help himself over. Old age comes on like a tigress. Therefore should he strive for the best. diseases attack like foes. life goes like water from a broken pot. which is the means to everything. good and evil actions again-the body never again. people are never afraid. so long as the senses are not decayed. A village again. a house again. nobody obtains the object of human life. knowledge for the sake of Yoga-meditation. having obtained this highest birth and superior senses. 22-23. between happiness and misery.--then he is soon released. the afflicted. and the miserable. so long should truth be pursued. 17-19. even those afflicted with diseases such as leprosy do not wish to give it up. It should be guarded for the sake of duty. afflicted with disease and having gone to a country where there is no medicine. The wise always adopt means for the preservation of the body. a field again. so long as calamity does not befall.

goes to the abode of Yama. bitten by the serpent of sense-objects. ether may be split. The wolf of death forcibly slays the lamb of a mortal. in the morning or in the afternoon. young men. the water of the ocean is dried away--what shall be said of the body? 39-41. waves may be bound. my wealth.--such is this world of creatures. Thou shalt encounter the enemy. coming is shown by age. though hearing. What is the good of association with wife. who prates of "my offspring. Death preys upon the man afflicted with the needles of thirst. . mother. the impermanent permanent. he does not know. 45-48. death. who has an army of dreadful diseases--wilt thou not see the saviour? 43-44. though reading. Air may be enclosed.--though grasped by the crocodiles of death. my wife. this other is done or not done. where he should fear he confides. father. be free from fear? 33-35. it must be done to-day."-death does not consider whether it leas been done or not done. He who is in it is afflicted with misery. and the evil good. is unnoticed. he does not understand. and baked in the fire of desire and repulsion. How shall the individual who has taken a body. disease and old age. This universe is immersed in the boundless ocean of death.--life cannot be made permanent. this is to be done. he does not understand. 36-38. leaving his own body. He who does not know what is good for him thinks the harmful beneficial. those in the embryo condition. Alas! what man is not stricken. Earth is burnt away by time. though wearing away with every moment. 42. just as an unbaked pot placed in water disappears imperceptibly. he falters. He who abandons it becomes happy.--otherwise never. when he should be awake he sleeps. my relatives. Time." Him who is thus prating death overpowers. Though seeing. bewildered by the divine magic. son and others? The world of change is verily the root of misery. which is like foam on water and is attached to passing objects." "This has been done. "It must be done to-morrow. This individual. whose. Death attacks children. even Meru is reduced to powder.He does not do what ought to be done. the old.

which is the source of all misery. and do not understand the highest righteousness. therefore should friendship with the great be cultivated. Alas! Fie upon the foods of the senses. so long shall the dagger of sorrow pierce his heart. and eating are common to all creatures. and purity of the eyes--the man who has not these is blind. 52-55. so the embodied. wife and other things. who constantly pursue evil courses. bewildered by My magic. and are intent on the filling of the belly. oblations and other things. in the night by passion and sleep. attached to the practice of vows. covetous of pleasure. All those beings who are attached to their bodies. deluded by the repetitions of mantras. but from the fetters of son and wife can never be freed. . Sleep. should be abandoned at once. desire to obtain the invisible by single meals. Attachment to the good. How shall he not tread evil ways? 58. The fools. So long as the being makes attachments pleasant to the mind. does not see the iron hook. All those deluded men who turn away from the duties of their respective castes and orders. perish fruitlessly. The men who are attached to the ceremonial alone are satisfied with mere names. People are destroyed every day by the desire for great wealth. and the refuge of all sins. discrimination. 49-51. as a remedy for attachment. Who possesses knowledge is called a man. Therefore should attachment be shunned always. Just as the fish. Some are intent upon ceremonies. who is devoid of it is called a beast. the seat of all calamities. and by elaborate rituals.This world of change. It is not possible to give up everything. Those men who do not understand what is good and what is not good for them. when the sun is in the meridian by hunger and thirst. covetous of flesh. 61-62. wealth. with self enveloped in ignorance the imposters go about. fasts and other restraints. alas! 56-57. sexual pleasure. Foolish men are tormented at break of day by nature's calls. 59-60. O Bird. and by the emaciation of the body. A man bound in fetters of iron or wood may be released. which steal away the senses of the body. does not see the torments of Yama. are destined for hell. are born and die deluded by ignorance.

"This is known. what liberation can there be by bodily tortures alone? What great serpent is killed by beating the anthill alone? 1 63. leaves and water. which feed upon grass. putting on appearances.--are these observers of vows? 70. and using antelope skins. the Śâstras and the Purâṇas. turning away from the highest truth. the brutes do not understand the chief good. this must be known. dwell in the waters of Ganges. and even delude people. . Men trouble themselves variously. ashes and dust. 64. quite naked and unashamed. does the dog which always live among earth and ashes become liberated? The jackals. 65-69. remain with senses bewildered. fishes and others. but the highest truth is otherwise. and wearing quantities of matted hair. bound in the snare of animalism. saying "I am a knower of Brâhmaṇ. caught in the six waves they remain sophists. They are tossed hither and thither in the dreadful ocean of Vedas and Śâstras. in forests and among houses. rats. O Lord of Birds. The hypocrites.--do these become Yogins? Pigeons at times eat stones. and always live in forests. 1 O Bird. He who is attached to the pleasures of the worlds of change.Of those who have no discrimination. 76-77. which from birth to death. The fools.--of that imitator all this is as the speech of a crow. decorated with garlands of poetry constructed of forms of speech. wander about like knowers. and Châtaka birds do not drink water from the earth. but does not know the chief good. 71-73. Are these free from attachment? If men are to be liberated by earth. 71-76. they explain in different ways but the best purport of the Śâstras is otherwise. Donkeys walk about among people."--thus bewildered by anxiety they read the scriptures day and night. miserable with anxiety. Fallen into the great well of the six philosophies.--do these become ascetics? The crocodiles.--direct knowledge of the Truth is the cause of liberation. Therefore this class of practices is a thing which makes pleasure for people." and is devoid of both rites and Brâhmaṇ should be shunned like a low outcaste. He who knows the Vedas. deer and others.

0012 Tw -294. They repeat the Vedas and the Śâstras. and argue with one another.--like the spoon the flavour of the food.0001 Tc . Some have ceased preaching.They talk of the highest experiences. but they do not understand the highest truth.the fnotrail knows he spmell They repadthe Vedas and the tstand ng ef the fruth. not realising them themselves.95 01. 78-82.155 Td[(pdisapparsfb talk ng ef ta la)98sp T]TJE --darkness nevrre]TJ0. The headarsflaowrst. Theyf he fworldef tchangVerbalrknowledg ceanot rdst roy -0. being engrossed in egotism.

other knowledge is skilful chiselling. pilgrimage to sacred waters. sitting alone on a pure seat prepared as prescribed. with breath controlled. 103-107. should resort to the shade of the tree of Liberation. with the sword of unattachment. He should. so long should he do austerities. upon the pure. by which he obtains liberation. saying "Not-mine" is released. Courageously wandering from home. drawn away by karmas. That is the karma that does not bind. so long as there is the sense of "mineness. so long as there is no love for the Teacher. Two phrases make for bondage and liberation: "Mine" and "Not-mine. Therefore. 100. and under all circumstances he attached to Truth. the desires connected with the body. By knowledge the being is easily released from the awful bondage of the worlds of change. performing ablutions in the water of the holy bathing places. he should every effort. So long as actions are performed. and fruits are heaven and liberation. So long as one does not reach Truth. His last days approaching. other karma is worrying. 101. with understanding. which is called the Nirvâṇa of Brâhmaṇ. recitations. so long as the senses are fickle. not forgetting the Brahma Bîja. whose flowers are righteousness and knowledge. Therefore from the mouth of the Blessed Teacher the Truth of the self should be known.93-94. the man. One who is tormented by the three miseries and the rest. 1 With reason for charioteer he should withdraw the senses from the sense-objects by the mind. so long as the impressions of the world of change remain." The being saying "Mine" is bound. 95-97. that the knowledge that gives release. should cut off. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? 98-99. vows. worship and reading of the prescribed texts of the Vedas and Śâstras. so long as there is no meditation upon the Śâstras. . if one desires liberation for himself. so long as there is imagination of plans. oblations. and should fix his mind. O Târkṣya. So long as there is not stability of mind. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? So long as there is pride of body. always. Listen! I will tell you now about the final actions of the knower of the Truth. He should practise mentally upon the supreme three-fold pure Word of Brahmâ." so long as there is excited striving. 102. restrain his mind. rid of fear.

"Oṁ. they go. the remembrance of whom re happiness for the sacrifice of worship. worships me. Free from pride and delusion. Ayodhyâ. Protector! "I stand freed from doubts. I am Brâhmaṇ. having heard these words of nectar I have been helped over the ocean of existence. on that eternal path. 4 Kaśî. Garuḍa. 6 Avantikâ. O Lord. 121. released from the contracts known as pleasure and pain. with the evils of attachment conquered. What else do you wish to hear? 118-120. 115. and w . Sûta said: Having thus heard. with desires overcome. do not go there. 111-114. who go to that goal. expecting to die. undeluded. He who. thinking of no other. 108." remembering me. said this. 109-110. these words from the mouth of the Lord. or dies in a place of liberation. devoid of knowledge and unattachment. Knowers of Truth attain liberation. I will tell you about the wise. May Hari."1 am Brâhmaṇ. He who. 8--these seven cities should be known as the givers of liberation. My desires have been completely fulfilled. 1 which removes the impurities of attraction and repulsion. sinners go to an evil omigrate. O Târkṣya. the Supreme Abode. The hypocrites. Garuḍa became silent and lost in meditation. in the waters of Truth. 5 Kañchi. he verily attains liberation. repeatedly prostrating himself. 7 Dwârâvatî. O King. firm in non-attachment. with hands folded together:-"O Lord. He who bathes in the water of the Mânasa. 3 Gayâ. He who.--he verily attains liberation. leaning his home."--having realised this and placed the self in the self he should meditate. O God of Gods. in the lake of knowledge. righteous men go to heaven. 2 Mathurâ. with tranquil self. O. 117. dwells at a sacred bathing-place. This eternal way of liberal in al has been described to you.--hearing it with knowledge and dispassion one attains liberation. full-visioned. Thus in sixteen chapters I have related to you the extracted essence of all the scriptures." Having said this. goes to the Highest Goal.--he verily attains liberation. the Highest Goal. when leaving the body. 116. always dwelling in the Higher Self. utters the one-syllabled Brâhmaṇ.

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