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Capacitor

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07/06/2012

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# Capacitor

Miniature low-voltage capacitors, by a cm ruler

A typical electrolytic capacitor A capacitor (originally known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator); for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates," referring to an early means of construction. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, resulting in a breakdown voltage, while the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance.

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies, in electric power transmission systems for stabilizing voltage and power flow, and for many other purposes.[1]

Contents
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1 History 2 Theory of operation o 2.1 Overview o 2.2 Hydraulic analogy o 2.3 Energy of electric field o 2.4 Current-voltage relation o 2.5 DC circuits o 2.6 AC circuits o 2.7 Parallel-plate model o 2.8 Networks 3 Non-ideal behaviour o 3.1 Breakdown voltage o 3.2 Equivalent circuit o 3.3 Ripple current o 3.4 Capacitance instability o 3.5 Current and voltage reversal o 3.6 Leakage o 3.7 Electrolytic failure from disuse 4 Capacitor types o 4.1 Dielectric materials o 4.2 Structure 5 Capacitor markings o 5.1 Example 6 Applications o 6.1 Energy storage o 6.2 Pulsed power and weapons o 6.3 Power conditioning  6.3.1 Power factor correction o 6.4 Supression and coupling  6.4.1 Signal coupling  6.4.2 Decoupling  6.4.3 Noise filters and snubbers o 6.5 Motor starters o 6.6 Signal processing  6.6.1 Tuned circuits o 6.7 Sensing 7 Hazards and safety 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

 History

Battery of four Leyden jars in Museum Boerhaave, Leiden, the Netherlands. In October 1745, Ewald Georg von Kleist of Pomerania in Germany found that charge could be stored by connecting a high-voltage electrostatic generator by a wire to a volume of water in a hand-held glass jar.[2] Von Kleist's hand and the water acted as conductors, and the jar as a dielectric (although details of the mechanism were incorrectly identified at the time). Von Kleist found, after removing the generator, that touching the wire resulted in a painful spark. In a letter describing the experiment, he said "I would not take a second shock for the kingdom of France."[3] The following year, the Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented a similar capacitor, which was named the Leyden jar, after the University of Leiden where he worked.[4] Daniel Gralath was the first to combine several jars in parallel into a "battery" to increase the charge storage capacity. Benjamin Franklin investigated the Leyden jar and "proved" that the charge was stored on the glass, not in the water as others had assumed. He also adopted the term "battery",[5][6] (denoting the increasing of power with a row of similar units as in a battery of cannon), subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells.[7] Leyden jars were later made by coating the inside and outside of jars with metal foil, leaving a space at the mouth to prevent arcing between the foils.[citation needed] The earliest unit of capacitance was the 'jar', equivalent to about 1 nanofarad.[citation needed] Leyden jars or more powerful devices employing flat glass plates alternating with foil conductors were used exclusively up until about 1900, when the invention of wireless (radio) created a demand for standard capacitors, and the steady move to higher frequencies required capacitors with lower inductance. A more compact construction began to be used of a flexible dielectric sheet such as oiled paper sandwiched between sheets of metal foil, rolled or folded into a small package.

Early capacitors were also known as condensers, a term that is still occasionally used today. The term was first used for this purpose by Alessandro Volta in 1782, with reference to the device's ability to store a higher density of electric charge than a normal isolated conductor.[8]

 Theory of operation
Main article: Capacitance

 Overview

Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. A dielectric (orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance.

A simple demonstration of a parallel-plate capacitor A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region.[9] The nonconductive region is called the dielectric. In simpler terms, the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. Examples of dielectric media are glass, air, paper, vacuum, and even a semiconductor

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