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CA LC U L AT I O N S D ES I G N A PPL I CAT I O N S B . 3 .

Design calculations for snap t joints in plastic parts

Contents

1.

Introduction

2.

Requirements for snap-fit joints


Basic types
3.1 3.2

3.

of snap-fit joint leg snap-fit Barbed leg snap-fit supported


Barbed
on

4
4

both sides

4 4 5

3.3 3.4

Cylindrical snap-fit Ball and socket snap-fit snap-fit joint permissible undercut depth Hmax. and maximum permissible elongation s,^
a

4.

Critical dimensions for


4.1

Maximum

6 10 10

4.2

Elastic modulus E

4.3
4.4

Coefficient of friction M Assembly angle a\ and retaining

angle 2

11

5.

Design calculations for snap-fit joints Barbed leg snap-fit 5.1 5.2 Cylindrical snap-fit
5.3

12

12
13 14

Ball and socket

snap-fit

6.

Calculation
6.1 6.2
6.3 6.4

Barbed

examples leg snap-fit Cylindrical snap-fit Ball and socket snap-fit Barbed leg snap-fit supported
on

16
16 16

18

both sides

18

7.

Demoulding ofsnap-fit joints Applications


8.1 8.2
8.3

20

8.

21 21 23 24

Barbed

leg snap-fit Cylindrical snap-fit Ball and socket snap-fit

9.

Explanation of symbols

24

10. Literature

25

1.

Introduction

2.

Requirements for snap-fit joints


are

Snap-fits are formfitting joints which permit great design flexibility. All these joints basically involve a projecting lip, thicker section, lugs or barbed legs moulded on one part which engage in a corresponding hole, recess or undercut in the other. During assembly, the parts are elastically deformed. Joints may be non-detachable or detachable, depending on design (figs. 4 and 5). Nondetachable joints can withstand permanent loading even at high temperatures. With detachable joints, it is neces
sary
to test

Snap-fits position.

parts together in a certain important to exclude play between the assembled parts (e. g. rattle-free joints for automotive applications). The axial forces to be transmitted are relatively small. In the majority of appli cations, the joints are not subject to permanent loads
to
two

used

fix

In

some

cases,

it is

(e. g. from internal pressure).

in each individual
can

deformation which

case the permanent load be permitted in the joint. In the

unloaded state, snap-fit joints are under little or no stress and are therefore not usually leaktight. By incorporating

Special fasteners such as rivets and clips also work on the snap-fit principle. They should be easy to insert, suitable for blind fastening, require low assembly force and be able to bridge the tolerances of the mounting hole.

sealing elements, e.g. O-rings, or by using leaktight joints can also be obtained.

an

adhesive,

Snap-fits are one of the cheapest methods of joining plastic parts because they are easy to assemble and no additional fastening elements are required.

Hostaform
Acetal

copolymer (POM)

Hostacom
Reinforced

polypropylene (PP)

Celanex Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)

@Vandar
Impact-modified polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-HI)

lmpet
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

registered

trademark

3.

Basic types

of snap-fit joint

The undercut

depth H

is the difference between the

outside

edge

of the barb and the inside

edge

of the hole

(% 1):
The parts with an undercut can be cylindrical, spherical or barbed. There are three corresponding types of snapfit

undercut
is deflected

depth H

LI

L2

(1)

joint:
The

leg

by

this

amount

during assembly.
to

Barbed

2. 3.

leg snap-fit Cylindrical snap-fit Ball and socket snap-fit

In

designing a

barbed
at

leg,

care

should be taken

pre

vent

overstressing
as

the vulnerable

because of the notch effect. The

point of support radius r (fig. 1) should

therefore be
3.1

large

as

possible.

Barbed

leg snap-fit
3.2

Hg.l

Barbed
3

leg snap-fit supported on

both sides

Fig.

-\

1, Pj

i
S
(/}

_vu
-1 >~

HJ1

T t

1
l

/R

spring elements supported on one or both sides and usually pressed through holes in the mating part (fig. 1). The hole can be rectangular, circular or a slot. The cross-section of the barbed leg is usually rectangular, but shapes based on round cross-sections are also used. Here, the originally cylindrical snap-fit is divided by one or several slots to reduce dimensional rigidity and hence assembly force (fig. 2).
Barbed

legs

are

This
on

joint employs

barbed

both sides. The undercut hole

spring element supported depth H is the difference

between the outside the

receiving

edge of the barb and the width of (fig. 3). Hence as in formula (1) we

obtain:

undercut

depth

Lt

L2

(la)

This

Fig.2

snap-joint may be detachable or non-detachable depending on the design of the retaining angle.

3.3

Cylindrical snap-fit

Cylindrical snap-fits consist of cylindrical parts with a lip or thick section which engage in a corre sponding groove, or sometimes just a simple hole in the mating part.
moulded

Fig.

4: Non-detachable

joint

compression ( ) of the shaft


^
_==*.

^1DG
UG

100%

(4)

elongation (+)

of the hub

e2

+ ~^-WO%
,

AV*
i-TC

(5)

As it is

depth H is appor mating parts, it is assumed for sim plicity that only one part undergoes a deformation e corresponding to the whole undercut depth H.
not

known how the undercut

tioned between the

H
s

-100%

or

Dr,

e=^^-100% DK

3.4

Ball and socket


6

snap-fit

Fig.

5: Detachable

joint

Fig.

The difference between the

largest

diameter of the Ball and socket

shaft DG and the smallest diameter of the hub DK is the

undercut

depth

H.

snap-fits (fig. 6)
A ball

are

mainly

used

as

motion

undercut

depth H

DG

DK

(2)

transmitting joints. corresponding socket;


ence

or ball section engages in a the undercut depth H is the differ

between the ball diameter DG and the socket open

DG largest diameter of the shaft [mm] DK smallest diameter of the hub [mm]
The parts
are

ing diameter DK.


undercut

depth

DG

DK

(7)

deformed

by

the

amount

of this undercut

depth during assembly. The diameter of the shaft is reduced by ADC, and the diameter of the hub increased by +ZlDK.
So the undercut

DG ball diameter [mm] DK socket opening diameter [mm]


Because the shaft is solid and therefore very rigid, the hole undercut depth H must be overcome by expanding

depth
H

can

also be described

as

the hub. As
=

result of this diameter

change,

the hub is

ADC

JDK

deformed

(3)
the shaft and hub
,
-

as

follows:

As
are

result of these diameter


as

changes,

elongation

DG-DK ^
jL>K

H
100%
=

100%

deformed

follows:

DK

(8)

4.

Critical dimensions

the deformation is lower. So barbed much less than

legs

are

stressed

for a snap-fit joint


snap-fit there is a linear relation depth H and elongation e. The maximum permissible undercut depth Hmax. is limited by the specified maximum permissible elongation e^^
Irrespective
between the undercut
.

cylindrical snap-fits. As a result of this, higher elongation is permissible and in many cases is necessary for design reasons.

of the type of

non-rectangular barbed leg cross-sections, the follow ing relationships apply between undercut depth H and deformation e in the outer fibre region (outer fibre elon gation):
For

The

load-carrying capacity

of

snap-fits depends

on

the

elastic modulus E and coefficient of friction //. It can be matched to the requirements of the joint by adjusting undercut

semicircular
cross-section

I2

Hmax.= 0.578
r

en

100

(10)

depth

H and

assembly angle

or

retaining
third of
a

angle

K2

(see section 4.4).


circle

I2

cross-section
4.1

Hmax.

0.580
r

en

100

(H)

Maximum

maximum

permissible undercut depth Hm permissible elongation &max.

and quarter of a circle cross-section

Hmax.=

0.555-^-^of
an

(12)

In barbed

legs (fig. 7), the following relation applies between undercut depth H (= deflection) as a result of deflection force FB and elongation or compression in the outer fibre region of the barbed leg cross-section (rectangular section):
undercut

These

relationships

also

apply approximately to leg


sectors

cross-sections in the form of

annulus.

comparison

between formula 9 and formulae 10

to

depth Hmax.

-|- - ^
-

12 shows that the maximum

(9)

permissible

undercut

depth Hmax.

for barbed

legs

with cross-sections in the

barbed

x.

leg length [mm] barbed leg height [mm] permissible elongation [/o]
7

form of segments of a circle is 15% lower than that of a rectangular barbed leg cross-section (assumption:

-I).

The maximum

Fig.

permissible undercut depth Hmax. for barbed legs of different length and height with a rectangular cross-section can be read off figs. 10 to 13.

Kg-

\
'fi

a
\

Fig.

8:

Elongation

in cross-section A- A

'T
(fig. 7)

n t

1
The maximum barbed
The maximum deformation critical

(fig. 8) only applies

in the

region

A, fig. 7, while in other cross-sections

permissible undercut depth Hmax. for leg snap-fits supported on both sides can be calculated with the aid of fig. 14, irrespective of the material. Fig. 14 applies for emax 6% (see calculation example 6.4).
=

Fig.

10: Maximum

permissible

undercut

depth Hn

Fig.

12: Maximum

permissible

undercut de

for Hostaform and Hostalen PP

for Hostacom M 4 N01 and G 3 N01

a
3

o^

~13^
~

max.

2%

s 1=50 mm
s_

<^i
4^
mm

LU u=L
1
E

^|

i"
s,

30
M

^
t
-%

20

y&^
\
s

n *iln*L

max.

8%

N
\
mm

S Is
A
=

Hmax. depth

oj

:
V

\
>

Vl

|5
=

30

mrr [

KJ

x=
N

20

mn

X
s
V

20

mm

10

undercut
\

s
Xj
f p bo \.

s
SJ
= =

^s

15 mm\

10

rn

m\
\

\
Sk
s
N

\.
mmN.

s
1

8
6

Sl=15

s
V

s
s

\
sl
=

10

mm

sv

permis ble
Maximu

x \
v
S.

p^

s\
s
Si
=

op

4*

X 1= 5

s
mm

mi n

\\

Ui

X
V

\
pfo

S
\

I
0 5 0.8

o l^

1.0

2345

6mm8

0.5

0.8

1.0

345

6mm 8

Height

of barbed

leg

Height

of barbed

leg h

Fig.

11: Maximum

permissible

undercut

depth Hn

Fig.

13: Maximum

permissible

undercut

depth Hmax.

for Hostaform C 9021 CV 1/30

for Hostacom G 2 N01 and M 2 N01

mm

10
8 6 5

P^\ y
rr
""

max.

6%

s
\

x\r 30r s
\

on

S
JV

X
s

s. ^V 1

S
=

20

mm

X
X
Si
=

Sj=15mmS \
10
mm

4
3

\ X

I I
0.1

N^

V
S

X
1 1.5

mr n

X
s
Height
of barbed

X
6mm8

X
0.8 1.0

0.5

0.8

1.0

345

6mm8

345

Height of barbed leg h

leg h

The undercut

depth H is

calculated

as

follows:
maximum

permissible

undercut
en

depth
DC

(14)

, 12

(-!)' (>+4)
(-1)
leg [mm]

J~lmax.

100

^ ()

Dt

outside diameter of the shaft [mm] in cylindrical snap-fits or ball diameter [mm] in ball and socket

1
s

barb width [mm] length of hole [mm]


thickness of
maximum

snap-fits
The maximum definite

Smax.

permissible elongation (table 1) [%]

Fig.

14: Barbed

leg snap-fit supported


TT

on

both

sides; relative undercut depth


width and

as a

function of barb
=

permissible elongation of materials with a yield point (e. g. Hostaform) should be about a third of the elongation at yield stress es (fig. 15a). For materials without a definite yield point (e. g. glass fibre reinforced Hostacom, fig. 15b), the maximum per missible elongation (see table 1) should be about a third of the elongation at break SR.

spring leg thickness for

emax.

6%

Fig. 15a: For materials (e. g. Hostaform)


1.0 0.8 0.6

with

definite

yield point

os

0.4

relative

spring leg thickness

0.01

0.2

es 3

El-

0.1
0.08

0.06

Fig. 15b: For materials without point os (e. g. Hostacom)

definite

yield

0.04

|
TB
e

0.02

0.01

0.008

0.006

IE.
0.004

SR

0.002

Fig.

16

0.001

F ^o

ES
/

'

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Relative barb width

-r

With

cylindrical snap-fits
permissible

and ball and socket

the maximum

undercut

calculated from the maximum


emax.

snap-fits, depth can be permissible elongation

(%) using the formula:

Table 1 :
Maximum

permissible elongation

emax.

for determination of the maximum

permissible

undercut

depth Hn

Material

Maximum

permissible elongation

emax.

(%)

Barbed

leg

ball and socket

Cylindrical snap-fits, snap-fits

Hostaform C 52021 Hostaform C 27021 Hostaform C 13021 Hostaform C 13031 Hostaform C 9021 Hostaform C 2521 Hostaform C 9021 K
Hostaform C 9021 M

Hostaform C 9021 TF
Hostaform T 1020 Hostaform S 9063/S 27063 Hostaform C 9021 GV 1/30 Hostaform S 9064/S 27064
Hostacom M2 N02 Hostacom M2 N01
1.5 0.8

10

Hostacom G2 N01 Hostacom M4 N01 Hostacom G2 N02 Hostacom Ml U01 Hostacom G3 N01
1.5 1.0

Hostacom M4 U01

Impet

2600 GV 1/30

S 1.0 ^ 3.0 S 2.0

S 0.5

Vandar 4602 2

^2.0

Celanex 2500
Celanex 2300 GV 1/30

1.0

S 1.0

S 0.5

4.2

Elastic modulus E

The elastic modulus E0 is defined in DIN 53 457 as the slope of the tangent to the stress-strain curve at the

Fig. 17: Secant modulus Es as a function of outer fibre elongation (based on 3-point flexural test) (el%/min)
a

origin (fig. 16,

page

8).
Celanex 2300 GV 1/30
Hostacom G 3 N01

E0

at

the

point

(15)

b Hostaform C 9021 GV 1/30


c

d Hostacom M 4 N01 With greater elongation, e. g. Si (fig. 16), the elastic modu lus is smaller because of the deviation from linearity
a e. corresponds slope of a secant which is drawn from the origin through the e\ point of the stress strain curve. This is known as secant modulus Es and is dependent on the magnitude of elongation e
to e

Hostaform C 9021 Celanex 2500

between
the

and

The elastic modulus then

g Hostacom M 2 N01 h Hostacom G 2 N01

Vandar4602Z

The

following applies:
Es
=

N/mm2
7500

,a
S,

f(8)

(16)
7000

This
tion

secant

snap-fits.
e

modulus ES is used in design calculations for Fig. 17 plots the secant modulus against elonga
to

6500

up

the maximum

permissible elongation for


6000
r

barbed

legs.

\ \
v

450(f
4.3

Coefficient offriction fj.

4000

assembling snap-fits, friction has to be overcome. The degree of friction depends on the materials used for the mating elements, surface roughness and surface loading. Table 2 gives coefficient of friction ranges for various combinations of mating element materials. The friction values quoted are guide values only.
In

\ \ \

3500

\
3000

V
\
vV

2500

S3
"V

2000

Vs sf__ .!^
_\ sjX \ ^ ^1
1
^S

Table 2
1500

[*-_
'

^^^

---^
=

Mating

element materials

Coefficient of friction //
0.2 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.3
to to to to

1000

^s
l"**
*-

25*^.

Hostaform/Hostaform Hostaform/other Hostaform/steel


Hostacom/Hostacom

to
to to

0.3
0.3 0.2
0 500

T
1 1
1

plastics

calculation

example

6.2

3456

Hostacom/other Hostacom/steel

plastics

0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

0.2 0.2
0.2 0.1

Elongation

Impet/Impet Impet/other plastics Impet/steel


Vandar/Vandar Vandar/other Vandar/steel Celanex/Celanex

to
to

0.3
0.2

0.4
0.3

plastics

to
to to

0.2 0.2 0.2


0.1

0.3
0.3

Celanex/other
Celanex/steel

plastics

to
to

0.3
0.2

10

4.4

Assembly angle assembly angle


a\

at

and

retaining angle

a2

Fig.

18: Detachable

joint

The

(figs.

18 and

19), along with the

barb dimensions and coefficient of friction fj, between the mating elements (table 2), determines the required

(fig. 20). The greater a\ the higher the required. With a large assembly angle and high coefficient of friction //, it may no (! 45) longer be possible for parts to be assembled. The barb then shears off rather than being deflected. The recom mended assembly angle for barbed legs and cylindrical 15 to 30. snap-fits is i assembly assembly
force
=

force F,

Fig.

19: Non-detachable

joint for

90

With ball and socket be

snap-fits, the assembly angle cannot freely chosen. It depends on the maximum permissible socket opening diameter DK (fig. 27). retaining angle 2 (figs. 18 and 19) decides how much loading the joint can stand. The maximum load-bearing capacity is reached when the retaining angle is a2 90 (fig. 19). During long-term loading and/or in the event of elevated ambient temperatures, the retaining angle 2 should always be 90. The joint is then permanent. For detachable joints, a retaining angle 2 45 should be provided, preferably a2 30 to 45.
=
=

The

Fig.

20

F]

assembly force required

11

5.

Design calculations for snap-fit joints

5.1

Barbed

leg snap-fit

Fig.

22

The

load-bearing capacity of snap-fits under steady (short-term) stress depends primarily on:
1
.

the mechanical

particularly

stiffness

properties of the plastics concerned, as expressed by the elastic

modulus ES,
2. the

undercut

design of the snap-fit, i. e. wall thickness, depth H, retaining angle 2defined

Load-bearing capacity is
which the

joint

can

stand in the

assembly

without the parts

pull-out force F2 opposite direction to separating.


as

the

possible to design the direction of snap-fit assembly right angles to the actual loading direction F during service (fig. 21). Then the load-bearing capacity of the joint is not determined by pull-out force F2 but by the break resistance or shear strength of the vulnerable cross-section. This design technique is most often used with ball and socket snap-fits.
In many cases, it is
at

The

barbed

assembly force FI and pull-out force F2 (fig. 22) legs can be calculated from the formula:
3H

for

Fl,2
H

ES -J
1
1

// +

tan

Ii2

[N]

(17)

jM-tan!^

Es

Fig. 21

J
1

ft
i
2

[mm] [N/mm2] (Fig. 17) moment of inertia [mm4] (table 3) barbed leg length [mm] coefficient of friction (table 2) assembly angle [] retaining angle []
secant

undercut

depth

modulus

The factor

-^

can

be taken

fig.
tr

l-w-tanai.2

directly from '

23.

Fig.

V- + i-i 23: c Factor -r^ 1 \JL

tan

gl,2

tan

1,2
as a

j
Table 3 Barbed
section

(from formulae 17, 22 and 25) assembly/retaining angle i, 2

function of

leg

cross-

Moment of inertia

[mm4]

rectangle
semicircle third of
a

^\1 xNSN

b'h3
|2

b
i,p. wnere

h
r

leg width [mm] leg height [mm]


radius [mm]

_j

0.110 r4

circle

|>_
^_

0.0522 r4

quarter of a circle

0.0508 r4

15

30

45

60
t
,

90
2

Assembly/retaining angle

12

With the

retaining angle a2 90, the pull-out force F2 is determined by the shear-stressed area and the shear strength TB of the plastic used.
=

Fig.

24

Table 4

Material

Ultimate tensile tensile

strength OR and strength OB


[N/mm2]*

The shear

stress

TS is

Hostaform C 52021 Hostaform C 27021 Hostaform C 13021 Hostaform C 13031

65 64
65

Ts

[N/mm2]

(18)

71
64

Hostaform C 9021
Hostaform C 2521 Hostaform C 9021 K Hostaform C 9021 M Hostaform C 9021 TF
Hostaform T 1020

Taking into account ultimate tensile strength OR or tensile strength 0B (table 4), the following holds true shear strength
TB
=

for

62 62
64 49 64 110
or

0.6
0.6

CTR

(19) (20)
[N]

TB

OB

Hostaform C 9021 GV 1/30 Hostaform S 27063 Hostaform S 9063

F2max.

A TB

rB

(21)

50 5.2 53
42 42

Cylindrical snap-fit
25

Hostaform S 27064
Hostaform S 9064
Hostacom M2 N02 Hostacom M2 N01 Hostacom M4 N01 Hostacom G2 N01 Hostacom G2 N02 Hostacom G3 N01

Fig.

19
33 33 32 70

80

Hostacom Ml U01 Hostacom M4 U01

36 33

Celanex 2500
Celanex 2300 GV 1/30 Celanex 2300 GV 3/30 Vandar 4602 Z

65

150
50

40

Impet

2600 GV 1/30

165

I Test

specimen injection

moulded

according to

DIN 16770 part 2.

assembly force FI and pull-out force F2 for cylin snap-fits unlike for barbed legs can only be roughly estimated. This is because the length a (fig. 25) which is deformed during assembly of the parts with consequent increase in assembly force FI is unknown. The length a depends on both the wall thickness of the hub and the undercut depth H. A useful guide to a has proved to be twice the width b of the moulded lip.
The

drical

13

The

assembly

force FI and

pull-out

force F2

can

be calcu

lated from the formula:

Fig.

26:

ratio
->u r> c Fu-p.rt.IV2b
r

Geometry factor DG Ji
or

as a

function of diameter

f_

M+

DG
tan

DK

1,2
'

rxn

[N]

(22)

joint

pressure

[N/mm2]

DG
b
fj.
ai

outside diameter of the hub [mm] width of the moulded lip [mm] coefficient of friction

(table 2)
y

assembly angle [] retaining angle []


pressure p, the

Between undercut

depth H and joint following relationship applies:


H
1

s
o

^-Es-^

[N/mm2]
[mm]

(23)

DK

smallest diameter of the hub

1.2

1.5
a
_

The geometry factor K

depends

on

the dimensions of the


Diameter ratio

snap-fit:

L>G

or -pj

UK

mv +
K=

VDGj

1 +1

Fig.
(24)

27

fuy-i loj
Da DG
outside diameter of the hub

[mm]

outside diameter of the shaft [mm]

Here it is assumed that the whole undercut

depth

H is

accommodated

by expansion

of the hub. With thin-

walled shafts, the shaft deforms as well but this can be ignored in the case described here. Fig. 26 shows the geo
metry factor K
as a

function of the diameter ratio Da/Dc.

5.3

Ball and socket

snap-fit

In this

design (fig. 27), the assembly angle j and retain ing angle 2 and hence assembly force FI and pull-out
force F2
The
are

the

same.

Table 5

and

assembly/retaining angle is between 8 (e 16 (e 4%), depending on elongation.


=

1%)
=

-^100% UK

Assembly angle a\ Retaining angle 2


8
11.4 13.9 15.9

DG
0.07 0.10

1 2 3 4

0.12
0.14

14

To estimate

assembly or pull-out force, cylindrical snap-fits are used:


Fi
T-. F2

the formulae for

The

relationship
can

between undercut

pressure p

be described

by

the

depth H and joint following formula (23):

T^2
=

fs~

'

DG

+ tan T i l jM-tana

r-Nn

[N]

(25)
undercut socket
secant

rJ'Es'T

tN/mm2]

[N/mm2] DG ball diameter [mm] f deformation length divided by the a DG l ball diameter (table 5) coefficient of friction (table 2) H a. assembly or retaining angle [] (table 5)
p

joint

pressure

DK ES
K

depth [mm] opening diameter [mm] modulus [N/mm2] (fig. 17)

geometry factor

my bJ
K=

+ i

(26)
+1

fAi- 1 iDj

15

6.

Calculation

examples

b) Assembly force FI
For the

assembly
ES J
I3

force FI formula
// + tani

(17) applies:

6.1

Barbed

leg snap-fit

3H
_

\-fjL-

tan 0.1

The top and bottom

plates of a time switch are to be detachably joined by two diagonally opposite spacers and two barbed legs. The hole diameter in the top plate is DK 8 mm. The pull-out force F2 required per barbed leg is 50 N. The barbed legs are to be injection moulded
=

0.3

mm

ES

2800 N/mm2

(fig. 17).
mating elements, it is assumed 0.2 (table 2).
=

For the Hostaform/steel

from Hostaform C 9021 and will have


cross-section

slotted circular

that the friction coefficient fi

(fig. 28).
Using table
3
we

obtain for the semicircular

cross

Fig.

28

section:

J
So

0.110 r4

0.11

44

28.2 mm4

assembly
F,= FI
=

force FI works

out as

3-0.3-2800-28.2
153 1

0.2 + 0.577
-

0.2

0.577

18.5 N

Each

securing
to

element

comprises

two

each have

be deflected FI

by
=

H. The
37 N.

legs which assembly force per

barbed

element is therefore 2

c) Pull-out force F2
The

a)

b) c)

What should the dimensions of the barbed What assembly force FI is required ?
What

leg be?

pull-out force F2 is calculated in the same way as 45 is substituted for assembly force except that 2 The pull-out force is thus
=

a\.

pull-out

force F2 is obtained? fibre

F2

31.6N

a) The maximum permissible


chosen
=

outer

elongation

is

Each element withstands


2

pull-out

force of

1 % For the semicircular crossto be emax. section, the following applies using formula (10):

31.6 N

63

N, which is greater than the required

pull-out

force of 50 N.

0.578-^-smax.
6.2

r--^The
1 is chosen
to

Cylindrical snap-fit body


of
a

rubber-tyred

roller is

to

be made in

two

be 15

mm

parts which are permanently joined together (fig. 29). Because of the relatively high stress involved and the fact

0.578
4

-0.01

that the roller bears


is used
as

directly

onto a

steel axle, Hostaform

the construction material.

H= 0.3mm

The diameter of the undercut is calculated from

a) What should the dimensions of the snap-fit be (undercut depth H) ?


be

DK

2H

8.6

mm.

The slot width is chosen


a\ 30

to

1 mm, the

assembly angle

and the

retaining

b) What assembly

force FI is

required?

angle
16

a2 45.

c) What is the pull-out force F2?

a) Maximum permissible undercut depth Hmax.


To determine the maximum

H
=

tan

permissible

undercut

depth
2

H
-tan

Hmax., it is assumed that only the hub is deformed.


The greatest elongation takes place at the diameter DK 16 mm. which is expanded during assembly to DG
=

30

0.64

The maximum
is 6max.
=

permissible elongation
to

for Hostaform

2-0.577

4%, according

table 1. b
=

0.55

mm

Fig.

29

The

joint

pressure p is calculated from formula


H 1

(23).

P"W
1

E*-i
a

Qil

<f^ K
7r*
0
^

^:

r
3S^
~B

1 Q?
\

With The

^- ^r I" L>G
=

1.5

fig.

26 shows

value for K of 3.6.

secant

modulus for
=

emax.

4% for Hostaform

(fig. 17)
So the

is Es

1800 N/mm2.

joint

pressure works

out as

p-0.04.Jff
p
=

20 N/mm2

The

assembly force FI
Fi
=

is
0.2 + 0.577

20-yt-16-2 -0.55 1-0.2-0.577

So the maximum

calculated

permissible undercut depth according to Formula (14):


TT
_

can

be

FI

970.8 N

max.

p\

100

c) Pull-out force F2
~

16 100

Hmax.

0.64

mm

DK DK

DG-H
16
-

90, the joint is perma retaining angle 2 nent. The force required to separate the mating elements can be calculated from the shear strength rB and the shear-stressed area A (shear surface).
Because the
=

0.64
mm

15.36

According
mm.

to

formula

(20) the shear strength


=

is

The diameter DK is chosen

to

be 15.4

TB

0.6

OB

b) Required assembly
For the

force FI

OB

62 N/mm2 e.g. for Hostaform C 2521

(table 4)

assembly
F!
=

force FI, formula

(22) applies:
tan ! tan !

TB

0.6

62

JT

DG

2b
1

fj, +

TB

37.2 N/mm2

fj.

The shear surface in this The

case

is

assembly angle
=

a\

is 30.

The coefficient of friction elements is asumed


to

for Hostaform/Hostaform

mating

it

DG b
16 0.55

be /A 0.2 (table 2). The width b of the undercut can be determined from the assembly angle a\ and the undercut

depth

H.

27.6 mm2

17

So

using

formula

(21), the pull-put force


=

ist:

b) Assembly
For
e
=

force FI

pull-out
a

force F2

F2

max.

TB

%, table 5 gives

27.6-37.2 1027N

The deformation
~=

length
to

divided table 5.

8. retaining angle of 2 the ball diameter is by


=

0.07

F2max.

according

For Hostacom/Hostacom the coefficient of friction is


6.3

Ball and socket


the
a

snap-fit
of the accelerator
the

(JL

0.4

(table 2).
14
=

In

car,

movement to

pedal

is

trans

D For
Y^r"

linkage joint connecting the pedal pull-out


DG
=

mitted via

the carburettor. A ball and socket


to

JLG

~5~~
0

1-75 for K

using

formula

(26).

made from Hostacom G 3 N 01 is

linkage (fig. 30) and required to have a


K=
=

force F2 of at least 100 N. The ball diameter 8 mm, the outside diameter Da 14 mm.

VDj

my + 1
+1

AY.

loj
Fig.
30

14

+ 1

\7.92J
-+1

P1_Y_ \7.92j
K=2.94

According to fig.
G3N01fore
=

17 the

secant

modulus of Hostacom

l%is

Es
The

4400 N/mm2.

joint

pressure

can

be calculated with H

DG

DK

from formula

(23):

a)

How

large

should the socket force F]

opening

diameter DK be?

P=D~'Es'"K
b)
What

[N/mm2]
1

assembly

or

pull-out

force F2 is
0.1 44007.92
'

obtained?

2.94

a) Socket opening diameter DK

18.89 N/mm2

According to table 1 the maximum permissible gation for Hostacom G3 N01 is emax. 1%.
=

The elon

assembly

or

pull-out force
T^-f A.

is then

(formula 25):
tan L

Thus

using

formula

(8)
DG
~

^p-^D-g:-^fc' //tan
1

a_

U T fJ. +

DK

18.89 -;r-82- 0.07-

0.4 + 0.14 1-0.4-0.14

100%

DK

Fi.2
DK

152 N

DG
=
r>

+ 1

100
6.4

Barbed

leg snap-fit supported on


halves of
a

both sides

DK

0.01 + 1

The

two

from Hostacom M2 N01

DK

7.92

mm

by

box-shaped moulding made be non-detachably joined barbed leg snap-fits supported on both sides (fig. 31).
are to

housing

18

For

an

assumed

Fig.

31
a

spring

element thickness of

3 mm,

spring

element thickness ratio of

/
*-bf
f

3
=

"T"

"rf

0-15 is obtained.

1
V)

El
\\
\ \

1
\

KP

With the aid of


is determined.

ir

\, l J
1

fig. 14,

an

undercut ratio of

p_r
=

-p

0.019

1
u

The undercut H of the barb is then calculated from


H
0.019

1
snap-fit joints
are

0.019

20

What should the dimensions of the The holes in the

be?

0.4

mm

receiving

moulding

20

mm.

The maximum
to

permissible elongation

emax.

according

table 1 is

6max.

6%

Note:

The width of the barb is assumed

to

be b

mm.

This

gives

barb width ratio of

--04 '4
~ ~

20

possible flow line in the region of the spring element provide a weak point. By increasing wall thickness at this point, design strength can be improved (see also C.3.4 Guidelines for the design of mouldings in engineer ing plastics, p. 25, no. 18).
could

19

7.

Demoulding of snap-fit joints


on

With

cylindrical snap-fits,

it should be remembered that

a tubular part under com is greater than under tension. The hub of a pression snap-fit (fig. 32a) is generally easier to demould than the

the dimensional stiffness of

The undercut

which the effect of the

has

to

be demoulded after

portant question here is demoulded or whether it is necessary to bed the under cut in slides, followers or collapsible cores.

snap-fit depends injection moulding. The im whether the parts can be directly

parting line of the mould can run through an undercut edge, for example with a through hole and inwardly projecting lip (fig. 32a) or with an outwardly projecting lip (fig. 32b).
shaft. In
some

cases,

the

In the

more

frequent

case

of

blind hole

(fig. 33),

the

inner and

outer

faces of the undercut

must

be demoulded

There is

this. The maximum per missible deformation values quoted in table 1 can of
no

general

answer to

in succession. When the mould has

cylinder
It takes

1 is
core

course

be

ing.

Problems

applied equally usually arise

well

parts during from the introduction of


to

demould-

pressed out of the 2 along with it until

opened (A), the mould cavity by ejector


stop
4 is

3.

reached

(B).

deformation forces into the component. These can result in local stretching of the part or cause the ejector to press
into the part, among other undesirable consequences. A disadvantage here is that the demoulding temperature is

Through further movement of the ejector, the cylinder is stripped from the core. Expansion of the hub by an amount corresponding to undercut depth is not pre vented (C).

rial stiffness is

considerably above room temperature correspondingly low.

and hence

mate

Fig.

32

Fig.

33

plastic part
A

<

split core

\\\\\\\\\\

* ^
plastic
part

20

8.
8.1

Applications
Barbed

Photo 2 shows Hostaform fasteners which facilitate


No. 4 is

assembly, particularly
are

in

mass

considerably production.
cars.

Nos. 1, 2 and 3

used

to

fix interior trim in

leg snap-fit

cable holder

as

used in

washing

machines and

Photo 1 shows

mability
means

of the

examples of snap-fits in which the deforcylindrical snap-fit has been increased by

two

of slots. In the top half of the picture there are rollers with Hostaform bearings for dishwashers.

In the left

roller, each barbed leg is deflected by


and
=

a clip with a similar function. Here snap-fit is secured by driving a pin into the hollow shank (expanding rivet). The clips for fixing car exterior trim (no. 6) work on the same principle. No. 7 shows the hinge fixing for a detergent dispenser tray flap on a washing machine.

dishwashers. No. 5 is

the

during assembly. With a barbed leg length 2.5 mm, the a barbed leg height of h maximum elongation at the vulnerable cross-section of the leg support point is:
=

0.75
=

mm

of 1

mm

=1
The lower half of the

f-h
=

0.058

5.f

picture

shows how

Hostaform

bearing end by a
flange.

bush is fixed. The bush is secured barbed

Rotation of the

axially at one leg and at the other by a flange. bush is prevented by flattening off the

In all the
i
=

45

examples shown, the assembly angle the retaining angle 2 90 and the joints
=

are

non-detachable.

Photo 1

Photo 2

21

In

photo 3 another application from the automotive industry is shown. This is a Hostaform plug box which snap-fits into the fascia panel. The part is made in two symmetrical halves which are inserted into each other.
Photo 4 shows
a

Photo 5 shows that also be

non-cylindrical housing parts can legs. This air filter intake is made from Hostacom G2 N01 In assembling the two halves, the barbed legs are not deflected but the mount ing holes are elastically deformed.
joined by
barbed
.

Hostaform release lever for

a car

boot

lid, which

is secured

by

two

pairs

of barbed

legs.

Photo 3

Photo 5

22

8.2

Cylindrical snap-fit
a

Photo 7 shows

design
pneumatic positioning device for con trolling the flaps in air conditioning systems. The two Hostaform halves are snap-fitted together, thereby at the same time forming a seal by means of an O-ring. The operating pressure is 0.2 to 0.8 bar. The undercut depth is H 86.5 84 2.5 mm. Owing to the different wall thickness of the shaft and hub, the hub is extended more than the shaft during assembly. The diameter difference is apportioned between 1.56 mm expansion of the hub and 0.94 mm compression of the shaft.
= =

to

the

adjuster for a previous example.


an

car,

which is similar in

It is controlled
a

Photo 6 shows

carburettor
secured The

vacuum.

Here,

too,

rubber

by the diaphragm is
two

by

the

snap-fit joint connecting


=

the

halves.

assembly diameter is DG 60.8 mm and the under 1.6 mm. Assuming that during assembly cut depth H only the hub is expanded, the maximum permissible elongation is
=

1.6
e
=

100%

2.6%.

The

assembly angle 45 . angle 2


=

is i

45

and the

retaining

Photo 6

Photo 7

23

8.3

Ball and socket

snap-fit

9.
=

Explanation of symbols
Unit

Photo 8 shows parts of a carburettor linkage made from Hostaform. The ball, with a diameter of DG 7.8 mm,

bears in

socket with

diameter of 7.85

mm.

The

special
not

Symbol
A
a

Explanation
area

feature of this circular but

design is the socket opening which is elliptical. The major axis of the ellipse
to
=

mm

corresponds
meter

minor axis is 7.5

the ball diameter DG 7.8 mm, the in length. In this direction, the dia mm

mm

deformation socket

length (ball snap-fit


on

and

difference is
H

b
7.8
-

mm

barb width

supported
=

(barbed leg snap-fit both sides)


shaft

7.5

mm

0.3

mm

Da

mm

outside diameter of hub

Assuming

spread evenly around the circumference, during assembly the parts will be expanded by
0.3
e
=

that this diameter difference is

Dr

mm

largest diameter of the (cylindrical snap-fit)


ball diameter

mm

(ball

and socket

snap-fit)
100 2-7.5
=

2%.

DK

mm

smallest diameter of the hub

(cylindrical snap-fit)
mm

socket diameter

(ball

and socket

snap-fit)
Es
F, F2
h
H
J~Mnax.

N/mm2 N N
mm

secant

modulus force

(fig. 17)

assembly pull-out
barbed

force

leg height depth

mm

undercut

mm

maximum

permissible

undercut

Photo 8
mnr

depth
moment

of inertia

(table 3)

geometry factor
mm

(fig. 26)

difference between outside of

edge

leg

and inside

edge

of hole

mm

barbed

leg length

mm

length of receiving hole (barbed leg snap-fit supported on both sides)


H

N/mm2

joint pressure p

^=

Es

J_
K

mm
o

wall thickness

assembly angle retaining angle elongation


maximum
rate

% %

permissible elongation (table 2)

%/min

of

elongation

coefficient of friction
N/mm2
N/mm2 N/mm2

tensile

strength (table 4)
strength (table 4)

ultimate tensile shear

strength

24

10. Literature
Engineering plastics Design Calculations Applications [1]
[2]
H. Schmidt:

Fgen durch Schnappverbindungen,


Publications
A.
so

K.

VDI-Z, No. 5, 1972 Oberbach, D. Schauf: Schnappverbindungen


aus

far in this series:

Kunststoff, Verbindungstechnik,

Nos. 6, 7

[3]

and 8, 1977 W. W. Chow: Snap-fit Modern Plastics

design

concepts.
1977

International, August

Engineering plastics A. 1.1 Grades and properties A. 1.2 Grades and properties A. 1.4 Grades and properties A. 1.5 Grades and properties Vandar, Impet
A.2.1 Calculation A.2.2

Hostaform Hostacom Hostalen GUR

Celanex,

principles
-

Hostaform
calculation

Characteristic values and Characteristic values and

examples
-

A.2.3

Hostacom
calculation

examples

B.

Design of technical mouldings B.I.I Spur gears with gearwheels made from Hostaform, Celanex and Hostalen GUR
B.2.2 Worm gears with
worm

wheels made from

Hostaform
B.3.1

B.3.2 B.3.3 B.3.4 B.3.5 B.3.7

Design calculations for snap-fit joints in plastic parts Fastening with metal screws Plastic parts with integrally moulded threads Design calculations for press-fit joints Integral hinges in engineering plastics Ultrasonic welding and assembly of engineering plastics

C. Production C.2.1 Hot

C.2.2

C.3.1 C.3.3

C.3.4

C.3.5

of technical mouldings Indirectly heated, system conductive torpedo thermally Hot runner system Indirectly heated, thermally conductive torpedo Design principles and examples of moulds for processing Hostaform Machining Hostaform Design of mouldings made from engineering plastics Guidelines for the design of mouldings in engineering plastics Outsert moulding with Hostaform
runner
-

25

World-Class Engineering Polymers Celanex thermoplastic polyester (PBT) Celcon and Hostaform acetal copolymer (POM) Celstran and Compel long ber reinforced thermoplastics (LFRT) Fortron polyphenylene sulde (PPS) GUR ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) Impet thermoplastic polyester (PET) Riteex thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPC-ET) Vandar thermoplastic polyester alloy (PBT) Vectra liquid crystal polymer (LCP)

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2009

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