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A knowledge-based theory of the firm to guide in strategy formulation
Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Helsinki, Finland
Keywords Organizational theory, Information, Strategic management, Intangible assets, Publishing Abstract This article is seeking to explore the practical implications of an epistemological approach to strategy formulation. In doing so it tries to expand the field of knowledge management and intellectual capital beyond its operational and often inwardly technological focus to a new theory of the firm. A resource-based perspective is suggested, using autopoietic epistemology to guide strategy formulation. People use their capacity-to-act in order to create value in mainly two directions; by transferring and converting knowledge externally and internally to the organisation. The value grows each time a knowledge transfer or conversion takes place. The strategy formulation issues are concerned with how to utilise the leverage and how to avoid the blockages that prevent sharing and conversion. Activities that form the backbone of a knowledge-based strategy are to be aimed at improving the capacity-to-act both inside and outside the organisation.
Towards a knowledge-based theory of the firm In the last two decades of the twentieth century the resource-based theory of the firm has received attention as an alternative to the traditional productbased or competitive advantage (Porter, 1980) view (Blackler, 1995; Wernerfelt, 1995). It is a perspective on organisation and strategy formulation inspired by epistemology and suggesting a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Venzin et al. (1998) make a distinction between three epistemologies that may guide practice and research under such a perspective: the cognitivist (represented by Simon, 1982), the connectionist (represented by Zander and Kogut, 1995) and the autopoietic (introduced by Maturana and Varela, 1980). The cognitivist perspective assumes organisations to be open systems, which develop knowledge by formulating increasingly accurate ``representations'' of the world. The more data and information organisations can gather the closer the representation will be. Hence most cognitivist perspectives equate knowledge with information and data. The connectionist epistemology the organisation still ``represents'' its outside world, but the process of representation reality is different. As in cognitivist epistemology information processing is the basic activity of the system. Autopoietic epistemology provides a fundamentally different understanding of the input into a system. Input is regarded as data only. Knowledge is private,
Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2001, pp. 344-358. # MCB University Press, 1469-1930
This was a plenary presentation at ANZAM conference, Macquarie University Sydney, December 2000. It has been edited slightly to suit a journal publication.
he or she makes sense out of a new situation by holding justified beliefs and committing to them (von Krogh et al. their pathways and their timing are the forms we tend to make into objects. all tangible physical products. Sveiby (1994. Building on Plato et al. houses. 2000).
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.. McLuhan (1967). both of which have to be interpreted inside the system. People are seen to be constantly extending themselves into their world by tangible means such as craft. gardens and cars and through intangible associations with corporations. assets as well as the intangible relations. are results of human action and depend ultimately on people for their continued existence. If one looks for a structure one will not find it. Autopoietic systems are thus both closed and open. Autopoietic systems are self-referring and the world is thus not seen as fixed and objective. Inspired by McLuhan. Structures should be seen as constructed in a constant process by people interacting with each other (Weick. (2000) define knowledge as a justified true belief: when somebody creates knowledge. so verbs such as ``knowing'' and ``organising'' are better descriptions than the nouns knowledge and organisation. Most ``things'' in organisations are such relationships. 1977. Open to data. Sveiby (1997) suggests that people in organisations create external and internal structures in order to express themselves. These sequences.a notion. calls these intangible extensions ``media''. What one will find are events linked together. personal and distinctly different from data (discrete. the notion individual competence can be used as a fair synonym to a capacity-to-act. The emphasis in this definition is on the conscious act of creating meaning. People are seen as the only true agents in business. Since the dynamic properties of knowledge are most important for managers. Both Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) and Sveiby (1997) come close to such an epistemology. which comes close to Polanyi's (1958) concept of ``personal'' knowledge. An organisation can be seen as a group of individuals who have created an emergent common frame of reference. A knowledge-based theory for strategy formulation It follows from the discussion above that strategy formulation should start with the competence of people. Building on Polanyi (1958) and Wittgenstein (1995). and other people. unstructured symbols) and information (a medium for explicit communication). Each individual has to re-create his or her own capacity-to-act and reality through experience ± a view which is akin to constructivism (von Glaserfelt. but closed to information and knowledge. 1983). The emphasis of the definition is on the action element: A capacity-to-act can only be shown in action. The structures are not objects. ideas. 1988). 1997) defines knowledge as a capacity-to-act (which may or may not be conscious). Knowledge is dynamic. the world is constructed within the system and it is therefore not possible to ``represent'' reality. (1995) and von Krogh et al.
When people work internally they create an internal structure. In contrast to tangible goods. IT. 1992. they may create tangible structures such as machinery and tools and intangible structures such as better processes and new designs for products. sales and marketing ± in short. Also. Sveiby. the experts. 1986. 1997) is. Competence in a
. It is useful to include also the support staff. When they direct their attention outwards. for instance. The value of such assets is primarily influenced by how well the company solves its customers' problems. the informal organisation. since they are the keepers of the organisation. the R&D people. accounting. the ``culture'' or the ``spirit'' belongs to the internal structure. The common divide between professional experts and administrative staff in knowledgeintensive firms (Sveiby and Lloyd. The internal structure consists of patents. concepts. they can create. If the managers of a car or soap company direct the efforts of their people internally. such as cars or soap. knowledge grows when used and depreciates when not used. at least parts of both the internal and the external structures will probably remain intact and can serve as a platform for a new start (Sveiby and Risling. and can change over time. The distinction between professional/technical staff and support/managerial staff is made because their different roles determine how they relate to each other so it is useful for strategy formulation and action planning. 1987. explained by the theory as lack of knowledge sharing between the two. Even if the most valuable individuals leave a company that depend heavily on individuals. which tend to depreciate in value when they are used. 1992).4
People in an organisation can use their competence to create value in mainly two directions: externally or internally. and computer and administrative systems. and there is always an element of uncertainty here. Leverage knowledge transfers to create value To appreciate why a knowledge-based theory of the firm can be useful for strategy formulation let us consider some of the features that differentiate knowledge transfers from tangible goods knowledge transfers.JIC 2. Reputations and relationships can be good or bad. The individual competence family consists of the competence of the professional/technical staff. Sveiby. all those that have a direct contact with customers and whose work are within the business idea. intangible structures. Three families of intangible assets The external structure family consists of relationships with customers and suppliers and the reputation (image) of the firm. HR and management in the internal structure family. models. They are partly independent of individuals. Some of these relationships can be converted into legal property such as trademarks and brand names. the factory workers. such as customer relationships and new experiences. The structure is partly independent of individuals and some of it remains even if a large number of the employees leave. These are created by the employees and are thus generally ``owned'' by the organisation. such as a consultancy firm. in addition to tangible things. the internal networks.
Knowledge transfer between individuals tends to improve competence of both individuals and team work tends to be a team co-creation of knowledge. An organisation's boundaries become irrelevant if the customers and suppliers are included as one of the families of the ``firm''. ideas. Knowledge shared is knowledge doubled. The choice of the words ``knowledge transfer'' may suggest a one-directional movement of knowledge. However. The manufacturing and transportation of physical goods from suppliers. The firm from a knowledge-based perspective
. Thus. from an organisational viewpoint the knowledge has effectively doubled. The importance is
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Figure 1. 2000). via a factory to a buyer.. The knowledge I learn from you adds to my knowledge but does not leave you. it helps strategy formulation and action planning to distinguish directional components of the activities. 2000) activities rather than command-control activities. gave birth to the concept of the value chain. feedback. This is not true.language or a sport requires huge investments in training to build up ± managerial competence takes a long time on-the-job to learn. In contrast to the value chain the intangible value in a value network grows each time a transfer takes place because knowledge does not leave the creator. 1995). If one stops speaking the language it gradually dissipates. etc.) and tangible $-value. hence the term. Since knowledge cannot be managed the knowledge strategist looks at enabling (von Krogh et al. If we see the organisation as creating value from knowledge transfers together with its customers the value chain collapses and the relationship should better be seen as a value network (Allee. an interaction between people in different roles and relationships who create both intangible (knowledge. see Figure 1. The key to value creation lies in how effective these communications and conversions are and the major issue strategy for formulation is: how can the leverage be used to create value for the firm? The value creation is primarily determined by the tacit/explicit transfer of knowledge between individuals and in the conversion of knowledge from one type to another (Nonaka and Takeuchi.
(8) from internal to external structure. are to be aimed at improving the capacity-to-act of people both inside and outside the organisation. so they leverage each other and do not neutralise investments made in other areas. However. (4) from individual competence into internal structure. for instance. The nine knowledge transfers exist in most organisations. we can distinguish nine basic knowledge transfers. (6) within the external structure. (3) from external structure to individuals. Therefore many of good initiatives go to waste or neutralise each other. The nine knowledge strategy questions Given the framework above. (2) from individuals to external structure. Efforts to use ex-employees for building marketing relationships are useless if alumni programs are delegated to the administrative function. An ex-employee can. a fact long exploited by the professional services firms. Reward systems that encourage individual competition will effectively block efforts to enhance knowledge sharing. thus the issue of whether an individual is a formal employee or a customer or a contractor is not important as long as the relationship generates value. a waste of money if the organisation's climate is highly competitive ± only junk will be shared. Lack of standards and poor taxonomies reduce the value of document handling systems. Investing in a sophisticated IT system for knowledge sharing is. The Affarsvarlden case (see Figure 2) illustrates how important it is to È È integrate all activities in a strategic framework. Enabling activities that form the backbone of a knowledge strategy.JIC 2. From an individual viewpoint. be more valuable as a customer. knowledge shared may be opportunity lost if the effect of the sharing is lost career opportunities. for instance. and (9) within internal structure. (5) from internal structure to individual competence. (7) from external to internal structure. they tend not to be coordinated in a coherent strategy. Most organisations also have legacy systems and cultures that block the leverage. which create value for the organisation. extra work and no recognition. A program for knowledge sharing with customers are neutralised by red tape prohibiting sharing of commercial secrets.
. These involve knowledge transfers: (1) between individuals. because management lack the full perspective that a knowledge-based theory may give them.4
placed on how effective the value creation is in the whole system. Data repositories do not improve individuals' capacity-to-act unless the databases are made highly interactive.
redesigned whole work areas to create an atmosphere of openness. The nine knowledge transfers
1. the only room where paper is ``safe''. and sharing. the Danish hearing-aid manufacturer established in 1905. The strategic question is: how can we improve the transfer of competence between people in our organisation? The most important issue is probably about trust in the organisation (see. job rotation. 1998). Personnel rotation programs expose employees to expertise held locally and tacitly and are common. The company emphasizes ``live'' interaction. The company therefore designated a ``paper room''. for instance. The company believes that paperwork hampers the exchange of information because it is slower and more formal than oral communication. These tactics have contributed towards live dialogue becoming an integral part of Oticon's business. Huener et al..A knowledgebased theory of the firm 349
Figure 2. Stand-up coffee bars encourage impromptu meetings. How willing are people to share what they know? Answers to such questions lead towards activities focussed on trust building. Knowledge transfers between individuals Knowledge transfers between individuals concern how to best enable the communication between employees within the organisation. One example is Oticon. master/apprentice schemes and so forth. 1994). Even electronic mail is discouraged in favor of face-to-face communication. every executive including the CEO at
. flexibility. For instance. induction programs. enabling team activities. so much so that other forms of communication are almost non-existent (LaBarre. Oticon even locked up elevators so there would be more ``accidental'' meetings in the stairwell. and ``dialogue rooms'' with a table and chairs help employees relax while solving problems or sharing knowledge.
in Trevose. and providing customer education. Examples: Adding a knowledge dimension to traditional dollar-based sales and revenue reporting. 2. Organisations tend to have systems that capture such knowledge (see section 7). Betz measures value added from this knowledge by tracking its customers' return on investment. consultants at McKinsey. This ``shop-floor'' experience keeps the knowledge of the operation fresh in the minds of all people. Indeed. This is the counterpart of section 2. Baxter International markets healthcare products and has extended its offering to include service to hospitals. frequently participate in its customers' quality management teams in order to gain a better understanding of. This knowledge is used to develop products that will boost customer sales. are encouraged to spend time on publishing their research and methods in order to build the reputation of the firm. enables an organisation to follow up such intangible revenues (Sveiby. not measured and hence not systematically influencing strategy formulation. suppliers and other stakeholders improve the competence of the employees? Answers to such questions lead towards activities focused on creating and maintaining good personal relationships between the organisation's own people and the people outside the organisation. the US-based consulting firm. The strategic question is: how can the organisation's employees improve the competence of customers. supplier and community feedback: ideas. Knowledge transfers from competence to internal structure Huge investments were made in the 1990s in order to convert (often tacitly held) individual competence into data repositories. feedback and new technical knowledge. 3. suppliers and other stakeholders? Answers to such questions lead towards activities focussed on enabling the employees to help customers learn about the products. getting rid of red tape. Knowledge transfers from external structure to individuals Employees learn a lot from customer. holding product seminars. 1994). 1998). It also improves communication across all levels (Fambare 1989). new experiences. 4. and its own employees receive awards for outstanding efforts to increase these returns (Garvin. but they are scattered. the manufacturers of such database software have been so successful
. and even anticipate. ticket agent. The idea was that information in such repositories would be shared with the whole organisation. customer needs. For example. The strategic question is: how can the organisation's customers. or flight attendant. Knowledge transfers from the external structure to individuals concern how the organisation's employees can learn from the external structure. enabling job rotation with customers. Knowledge transfers from individuals to external structure Knowledge transfers from individuals to external structure concern how the organisation's employees transfer their knowledge to the outer world. Employees at Betz Laboratories. Baxter employees now mix drugs in intravenous solutions and act as brokers for other vendors (Harari. Pennsylvania.4
Southwest Airlines spends at least one day every quarter as a baggage handler.JIC 2. 1993).
simulations and interactive e-learning environments. The Copeland Corporation. uses customised simulations for speeding up the learning of its warehouse employees. Examples abound and are beyond the scope of this paper: AI systems for medical diagnostics. databases. actively engages in building local communities to improve the image of its products. Examples: Danish biomedical producer. improving the quality of the offering. The strategic question is: how can we improve individuals' competence by using systems. process and systems so they can be shared more easily and efficiently. Berrett-Koehler. templates. by focussing on how the competence of customers is transferred between the stakeholders in the external structure. whether an ongoing program or a demonstration project. in which a multifunctional team designed a demonstration factory to manufacture a new product line. etc. document handling systems. otherwise the investment is a waste. Examples: IKEA. helps individuals move from superficial knowledge to a more basic understanding of its processes ± from knowing about something to learning how and why. changed its entire manufacturing approach based on the results of a single demonstration effort. 6. the Swedish furniture company. The corporation was able to transform from a high-cost operation with marginal quality to a 25 percent market share in two years (Garvin. Knowledge transfers within the external structure What do the customers tell each other about the services of an organisation? A knowledge perspective adds a richer range of possible activities to the traditional customer satisfaction surveys. action-based learning processes. Experimentation. Book publisher. runs seminars for its book buyers featuring its authors as speakers. above. Knowledge transfers from internal structure to individual competence This is the counterpart of 4. a manufacturer of compressors. Once competence is ``captured in a system'' it needs to be made available to other individuals in such a way that they improve their capacity to act. tools and templates? Answers to such questions lead towards activities focused on improving the human-computer interface of systems. 5. The strategic question is: how can we improve the conversion of individually held competence to systems.. conducting product seminars and alumni programs. 1993). My argument in this paper is that this is only one of nine possible strategic activities and to focus one's investments on databases and document handling. tools and templates? Answers to such questions lead towards activities-focused tools. Novo. etc.that many managers believe that such approaches are equal to ``knowledge management''.
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. suppliers and other stakeholders so they improve their competence? Answers to such questions lead towards activities focused on partnering and alliances. will not by far realise the full value of a more strategic approach based on a knowledge-based theory of the firm balancing all nine knowledge transfers. intranets. improving the image of the organisation and the brand equity of its products and services. The strategic question is: how can we enable the conversations among the customers.
because loading the press with plates and paper and adjusting it
. To illustrate the application of the knowledge-based perspective and the concepts discussed above. I will now provide a brief illustration of the application of these concepts in which I was personally involved. 9. e-business. All staff are required to fill in cards with information from every personal encounter with a guest. 8. Ritz Carlton. Example: KnowledgeCurve. Knowledge transfers from external to internal structure Knowledge transfers from external to internal structure concern what knowledge the organization can gain from the external world and how the learning can be converted into action. tools and processes and products be effectively integrated? Answers to such questions lead towards activities focused on streamlining databases. extranets. Knowledge transfers within internal structure The internal structure is the supporting backbone of the organisation. the US potato chips maker. Example: Frito-Lay. These data plus guest profiles are stored and printed out to all staff in order to ensure personal treatment of all guests. The strategic question is: how can competence from the customers. creating alliances to generate ideas for new products. product tracking. Knowledge transfers from internal to external structure This is the counterpart of 7. tools and processes and products improve the competence of the customers. improving the office layout. one of the oldest industries on earth. È È Affarsvarlden: knowledge strategy gives runner-up advantage The competition between the two weekly Swedish business magazines Affarsvarlden (AFV) and Veckans affarer (VA) offer a vivid illustration of the È È È value of a knowledge-focussed strategy in publishing. suppliers and other stakeholders? Answers to such questions lead towards activities focused on making the organisation's systems. suppliers and other stakeholders improve the organisation's systems.4
7. the hotel chain renowned for its service.JIC 2. The data are analysed and fed back to their sales people empowering them with superior customer knowledge and competitive intelligence. above. etc. PricewaterhouseCooper's intranet integrates several thousands of databases previously held individually or locally. the nine knowledge questions are now illustrated in Figure 3. etc. In summary. The strategic question is: how can the organisation's systems. The strategic question is: how can the organisation's systems. tools and processes and products? Answers to such questions lead towards activities focused on empowering call centres to interpret customer complaints. etc. Examples: Ernst & Young allows its clients to tap into its own tax and legal database. help desks. R&D alliances. tools and processes effective in servicing the customer. There are substantial advantages of scale in the printing process. building integrated IT systems. uses its sales force to collect data about their customers. ``Ernie''. has installed a customer information database with global access.
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Figure 3. The journal's new owners in 1978 thus faced a formidable competitive barrier and had no alternative but to try a different strategy than VA. Publishers know that. The strategy and some of the activities went against ``common sense'' in publishing. AFV. the largest newspaper or magazine in a market is a licence to print money (see Figure 4). which attracts more readers. the marginal cost of printing the second copy is no more than maybe 10 per cent of the average cost. etc. Even if the smaller magazine keeps lower prices than the larger. after that. because it gives them access to a larger audience. The printing costs alone were 30 per cent higher for AFV. The leverage is not as extreme as copying a CD. but not far from it. which enable better quality. the larger and (for the magazine) more profitable advertisers tend to prefer to place their advertisements in a large magazine. even though its pages contained only half as much full-color print as VA's. Affarsvarlden's knowledge strategy È È The knowledge strategy gave Affarsvarlden a distinct competitive advantage È È on the market for financial information. the lower the cost per page. This can be a ticket to a virtuous circle of more readers who provide more resources. Thus the larger the imprint. once established. being less than one-tenth the size of VA was close to bankruptcy in 1977. AFV adopted a more knowledge-focused strategy. but its ultimate success made it a ``cult publication'' in the 1980s and created a following among other journals
. The cost advantage enjoyed by a larger paper enables it to hire good journalists and maintain a higher overall level of editorial quality. The nine knowledge strategy questions
represents a large fixed cost.
This difference in editorial productivity was sustained for 15 years.4
Figure 4. È È Towards the end of the 1980s the difference had shrunk to twice as many
and publishers in the country. Sveiby (1994) identified two features that contributed most of the difference in margin during the period 1980-1993: (1) High editorial productivity.JIC 2. Contributing knowledge strategy initiatives were:
Figure 5. In 1983-1984. the AFV journalists wrote twice as many pages as their colleagues on the VA staff (133 compared to VA's 62). A summary of Affarsvarlden's knowledge È È strategy is found in Figure 5. In the 1960s and 1970s Veckans affarer printed È six times as many pages as Affarsvarlden. Affarsvarlden È È knowledge-focussed strategy
Invest in new editorial technology. to split it into two journals: a smaller. . (2) Low staff turnover. I have argued that a knowledge-based strategy formulation should start with ``the primary intangible resource''. in implementing the new technologies that revolutionised publishing during the 1980s. employee ownership and profit sharing contributed to a shared vision and the collaborative climate.Recruit highly-educated staff. cheaper weekly with a different concept and a more expensive monthly. The financial markets in the 1980s were exploding (such as the IT markets in the 1990s) and AFV's financial analysts were prime targets of the investment bankers. by
. AFV journalists have access to more expertise in-house because they all had MBAs or higher. AFV continued to operate at a profit while VA went into the red. Computerisation freed up time to do more qualified analyses. After 18 years (!) of single-minded head-on competition.
A knowledgebased theory of the firm 355
AFV proved the value of its strategy by being more profitable than VA during the whole period (see Figure 6). AFV was at least one year faster than the competitor VA.
. The ownership model and the collaborative culture were the strategic initiatives that worked as ``golden handcuffs'' and kept the staff turnover at 5 per cent to 7 per cent throughout the whole period. whereas VA's journalists rarely held such degrees. with effect from È March 1994. ``piggy-backing'' at interviews and master/apprentice model supported tacit knowledge transfer. Build flat organisation. . . Visible managers. the competence of people. Articles written by teams. both magazines came under heavy pressure. Create collaborative climate. AFV had forced the leader to move out. Affarsvarlden continues to this day (year 2000) to be one of È È the most profitable weeklies on the Swedish market. AFV had lower fixed costs and a much more flexible concept and was thus able to adjust rapidly by reducing the number of pages and cutting down its fixed costs. AFV's analysts were early in computerising their analytical models and basic number crunching. Veckans affarer's problems caused its publishers to decide. Higher education also gives know-how in information processing. No individual by-lines on the articles reduced the traditional competitive climate among journalists. . while VA suffered at least twice the turnover. Computerise analytical models. People can use their competence to create value in two directions. Conclusions In the above paper. Open office design (also in sales departments and for managers) supported informal information knowledge transfers. When the depression of the 1990s hit the Swedish financial markets. VA was hardest hit because its editorial concept involved high fixed costs. sometimes two years.
rather it is the individual in a role and in a context who is competent or not. and unscientific guesses which are not only false but incompetent. internal networks. an actual case illustration was provided which indicated the application of these concepts. Some of these relationships can be converted into legal property such as trademarks and brand names.
Notes 1. The internal transfer relates to explicit administrative processes. Its contrast is the Category. Affarsvarlden's focus on È È managing the intangibles enabled it to maintain a higher profitability than the main contender. The value of such intangible resources is primarily influenced by how well the company solves its customers' problems. A person is competent within a tradition: Polanyi (1958) also makes an illustration of incompetence:
In a competent mental act the agent does not do as he pleases. namely scientific guesses which have turned out to be mistaken. 2. which is a grouping based on division between mutually exclusive properties. Using this framework then. nine ``basic knowledge transfers/conversions'' were identified and a number of questions were created around these transfers. The Latin root competo simply means that an actor has sufficient ability to fulfil his/her goals. Competence is thus not a property but a relation between individual actors and a social system of rules.JIC 2.
. A family is a grouping based on common properties. The notion of Family was designed by Wittgenstein (1954). Veckans affarer.
An individual is thus not competent per se. but compels himself forcibly to act as he believes he must. during most of È the period
transferring and converting knowledge externally from or internally to their organisation. organisational culture and the competences of individuals. We draw here a distinction between two kinds of error. Competence is know-how + the ability of reflection.4
Figure 6. Competence in Polanyi's sense implies the ability of know-how within a certain domain and the ability not only to submit to the rules but also by reflection influence the rules of the domain or the tradition. The external transfer involves intangible relationships with customers and suppliers and forms the basis for the reputation (image) of the firm. It is the expertise of mastering the rules of the profession so well that they no longer need to be obeyed. In order to change the rules a competent individual needs a social or communicative knowledge in addition to know-how. In the final section of the paper.
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K. E16. R. Sveiby. We are pleased to announce our attendance at the world's most popular knowledge event for the second year running as it returns this year to follow the enormous success of KM2000. most informative and prestigious dedicated knowledge event. an interactive cafe and EC projects under the IST programme. Hamel. B. Vol.com We would also welcome your interest in Emerald and/or your wish to accept a free 30-day full text trial should you be unable to make the event. (1990). (1990). The event is set to take place at The Hague. (1997).
. 7. Knowledge Inc. p. Profession Tradition och tyst Kunskap.K. 3. (1991).4
Further reading Bertil. from 27-29 November 2001. in The Netherlands. KMEurope 2001 is set to attract over 100 of the top KM companies and will include keynote speakers.JIC 2. May-June.
Important information regarding this year's prestigious knowledge management event
DON'T MISS this exciting opportunity to meet and discuss current KM issues at the Emerald stand with Robert Buckman and Hubert Saint-Onge. and Prahalad. Manasco. please contact us at info@ emeraldinsight. ``Some successful cases of knowledge practice''. company presentations. C. 2 No. Â Previous contributors to Emerald Knowledge Management related publications who will also be speaking at the event are Dave Snowden from IBM and Debra Amidon from Entovation.. Doxa. . If you would like to take advantage of this fantastic opportunity to meet with our Emerald Representatives and to discuss KM issues with Robert Buckman and Hubert Saint-Onge at stand No. Stockholm.
Urgent news . . or if you would like further information regarding the event. The Core Competence of the Organisation. Kunskapsledning (Knowledge Management). Both are keynote speakers at the event and editorial advisory board members/contributors to the Emerald Knowledge Management publications ± the Journal of Intellectual Capital and the Journal of Knowledge Management.E. Billed as Europe's largest. HBR. G. Ledarskap.