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54, 2685 - 2695

**Bidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Hindmarsh-Rose Neuron Model
**

1,2

Mada Sanjaya WS, 1Mustafa Mamat, 1Zabidin Salleh, and 1Ismail Mohd

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Malaysia. 2 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung, Indonesia. madasws@gmail.com

1

Abstract In this paper, the bursting chaotic synchronization of two neurons coupled with gap junction in the condition of external electrical stimulation is investigated. In this paper, the coupled model is established on the basis of Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model, and then the relation of bidirectional coupling strength of the gap junction and the synchronization is discussed in detail. The sufficient condition of complete synchronization is obtained from rigorous mathematical derivation. The synchronizations of periodic neurons and chaotic bursting neurons are studied, respectively. Keywords: chaotic synchronization, Hindmarsh-Rose model, gap junction.

1 Introduction

System of signals propagation from one neuron to another represent event of very complex electrochemical mechanism. Many cells are linked to each other by specialized intercellular pathways known as gap junctions. Gap junctions are clusters of aqueous channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjoining cells. They allow the direct transfer of ions and small molecules, including second messenger molecules, between cells without leakage to the extracellular fluid. As the gap junctions play an important role in the process of information transmitting among the coupled neurons system [1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 13]. Neurons can demonstrate different types of activity such as continuous spiking, bursting, etc. The Hindmarsh–Rose is one of the most popular low-dimensional

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neuron models exhibiting chaotic bursting dynamics [2, 7, 9]. Therefore, when modelling the cooperative behavior of bursting neurons, this model is often used as a unit. In agreement with this approach we assume it as a paradigm of both amplitude and spike timing chaos. Over last decade, many new types of synchronization have appeared. Since the discovery of chaotic synchronization [11, 12], there has been tremendous interest in studying the synchronization of chaotic systems. Recently, synchronization of coupled chaotic systems has attracted considerable attention Especially, a typical study of synchronization is the coupled chaotic identical chaotic systems [5]. The synchronization may play an important role in revealing communication pathways in neural system. The synchronization of neurons Fitzhugh-Nagumo model electrical coupled with gap junction in external electrical stimulation is investigated detail in [4, 8, 10]. In these papers, the synchronization bursting of two neurons electrical birectional coupled Hindmarsh–Rose model with gap junction in periodic external electrical stimulation are the main focus. After introducing some ideas to be described in this paper, in Section 2, we give some reviews about the nonlinear bursting model of individual neuron in external stimulation. With the variation of the stimulation and the initial condition of the neuron, the complex behaviors including chaos are revealed. In Section 3, the model of two neurons electrically coupled with gap junction is given. The chaotic synchronization of two coupled neurons and the influence of coupling coefficient on chaotic synchronization are studied. The conclusion is given in Section 5.

**2 The Hindmarsh-Rose model single neuron
**

The original model introduced in [7] is given by

dx ⎫ = y + ax 2 − x 3 − z + 1⎪ dt ⎪ dy ⎪ 2 = 1 − dx − y ⎬ dt ⎪ dz ⎪ = μ (b( x − x e ) − z ) ⎪ dt ⎭

(1)

where x represents the membrane potential, y and z describe the dynamics associated with fast varying (e.g., sodium) and slow varying (e.g., calcium) currents, respectively, I or I(t) is an external current supplied to the cell, a, d, b and xe are parameters, μ is a small parameter, such that the adiabatic approach in which the model is decomposed into a fast and a slow subsystem, may be applied. Although different in structure, more physiologically conductance-based models of spiking neurons often exhibit many of the same qualitative phenomena that we

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observe for the Hindmarsh–Rose model. For this system, we choose a = 3, b = 4, d = 5, μ = 0.005, xe = −(1 + 5 ) / 2 , and I is varied . The simplest modification to Hindmarsh and Rose model for a single neuron, can be done by introducing the stimulus [4, 8, 10] represented as

I (t ) = ( A / ω ) cos(ωt )

(2)

to (1) where A denotes the magnitude of the stimulus, and ω refers to the frequency of given stimulus. Furthermore, if we τ = t , then non-autonomous system (1) and (2) can be written as an autonomous system

dx dt dy dt dz dt dτ dt

⎫ A = y + ax 2 − x 3 − z + ω cos ωτ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ = 1 − dx − y ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ = μ (b( x − xe ) − z ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =1 ⎭

(3)

The stimulus frequency is varied while keeping the magnitude at a fixed value of A = 0.1, since at this particular value of A, modified Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model gives periodic bursting. Simulation results at different stimulus frequencies are shown in Fig. 1. It can be observed that with the variation in stimulus frequency ω , the neuron shows complex chaotic behavior. Hence the stimulus frequency ω can be considered as a significant parameter that affects the behavior of neuron.

(a) phase space for

ω

= 0.09 Hz

(b) phase space for ω = 0.045 Hz

ω

= 0.075 Hz

(c) phase space for

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(d) time series for

ω

= 0.09 Hz.

(e) time series for ω = 0.045 Hz

ω

= 0.075 Hz. (f) time series for

Figure 1 : Modified Bursting individual neuron model with A = 0.1

**3 Chaotic synchronization of two neuron bidirectional coupled
**

Let us consider a network composed by n Hindmarsh-Rose neurons. Firstly, these neurons are coupled by variable x. This network can be modeled by the system [2, 9] as

**dxi dt dyi dt dzi dt dτ i dt
**

( i ≠ j , i = 1,…,n,

**⎫ A = yi + axi2 − xi3 − zi + ω cosωτ i − h( xi , x j )⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ = 1 − dxi − yi ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ = μ (b( xi − xe ) − zi ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =1 ⎭
**

j =2,…,n) where the coupling function h is given by

h( xi , x j ) = ( xi − Vs ) g s ∑ cij Γ( x j )

j =1 n

(4)

(5)

in which Vs is the reversal potential, g s is synaptic coupling strength, and Γ so-called synaptic is modeled by a sigmoid function with a threshold

1 (6) 1 + exp(−λ ( x j − Θ s )) with Θs is the threshold reached by every action potential for a neuron. Neurons are supposed to be identical and the synapses are fast and instantaneous. The synapse is exitatory, that is why the reversal potential Vs must be larger than xi(t) for all i and all t [2, 9]. Γ( x j ) =

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Complete synchronization occurs when the coupled chaotic oscillators asymptotically exhibit identical behaviors, means that

xi (t ) − x j (t ) → 0, i ≠ j , i, j = 1,2,3..., n

( t → ∞ ),

for initial conditions from some neighborhood of the synchronization manifold given by x1 (t ) = x 2 (t ) = x3 (t ) = ... = x n (t ) = s (t ) (7) In fact, for any coupling matrix C, the synchronization solution (7) is always the solution of coupled system (4). However, the synchronization solution (4) is unstable under some condition. By introducing coordinates transformation to the synchronization manifold, defined by ξ i = xi +1 − xi (i = 1,..., n), the linearized equation for transversal perturbations takes the form & (8) δξ j = [Df ( s (t )) − nC ]δξ j , j = 1, 2, 3,…, n where, Df denotes the Jacobian matrix of the individual oscillator system evaluated in the synchronization manifold and along s(t) the solution of x = f(x,t). In this way, the local stability properties of the synchronization manifold can be derived by analyzing the stability of the fixed point δξ j = 0 of the linear non-autonomous systems of ordinary differential equation (8). If we apply the Lyapunov function criteria to (8) with the Lyapunov function

V = δξ j

2

,

then [2, 4, 8, 9] the inequality

δξ T ( Df T + Df − 2nC )δξ j p 0 j

(9)

can be obtained where δξ T and Df T denote the transposed vector of transverse j perturbations and the transposed Jacobian matrix, respectively. The equation (9) is a sufficient condition for synchronization, provided that its is fulfilled in all points of the attractor. It was known that (9) is satisfied for all δξ j if and only if the real symmetric matrix Df T + Df − 2nC has negative eigenvalues everywhere throughout the attractor. In the symmetric case, the matrix 1 ( Df T + Df − 2nC ) coincides with the Jacobian matrix of the linearized 2 system (8). Hence, in this case, the negativeness of the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix implies the stability of δξ j = 0 . Let us consider, for n = 2, three neurons in the same external simulation bidirectional coupled with gap junction (5). The model is described as

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dx1 1 2 3 A = y1 + ax1 − x1 − z1 + ω cosωτ1 − ( x1 − Vs ) g s ( ) 1 + exp(−λ ( x2 − Θ s )) dt dy1 2 = 1 − dx1 − y dt dz1 = μ (b( x1 − xe ) − z1 ) dt dτ 1 =1 dt dx2 1 2 3 A = y 2 + ax2 − x2 − z 2 + ω cosωτ 2 − ( x2 − Vs ) g s ( ) dt 1 + exp(−λ ( x1 − Θ s )) dy2 2 = 1 − dx2 − y 2 dt dz2 = μ (b( x2 − xe ) − z 2 ) dt dτ 2 =1 dt ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(10)

**Then the Jacobian matrix of the individual oscillator system without coupling (3) is given by
**

⎛ 2ax − 3x 2 ⎜ ⎜ − 2dx Df = ⎜ μb ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎝ 1 −1 0 0 −1 0 −μ 0 A cos ωτ ⎞ ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎠

(11)

According to (8), we have ⎛g ⎜ ⎜0 C =⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎝ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ 0⎟ ⎠

(12)

**Therefore, we have the following symmetric matrix.
**

⎛ 2 ⎜ 2 ax − 3 x − 4 g ⎜ 1 − 2 dx ⎜ + Df − 2 × 4 × C ⎜ 2 =⎜ μb − 1 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ A cos ωτ ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ 1 − 2 dx 2 −1 0 0

μb − 1

2 0 −μ 0

Df

T

A cos ωτ ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ (13) ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎠

The negativeness of the eigenvalues of the matrix (3.10), implies the stability of the chaotic synchronization [2, 4, 8, 9].

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(a) xj yj zj , j = 1,2,3 phase plane diagram

(b) the error e1 = x 1 – x2 phase plane diagram (c) the error e2 = y 1 – y2 phase plane diagram

(d)

xj– xi phase plane diagram

(e) yj– yi phase plane diagram

Figure 2 : ω = 0.09 Hz, g = 0.005 < 0.9 in different initial condition.

4 Discussion

With the parameters given in Section 2 that the neuron is chaotic : A = 0.1, ω = 0.045 Hz, a = 3, b = 4, d = 5, μ = 0.005. Get that if g > 0.45, then the chaotic synchronization occurs. However, we must notice that if the individual neuron without coupling bursts periodically, then with any coupling strength of the gap junction even if g = 0.005 < 0.9, the two coupled neurons are synchronous, as shown in Figure 2. On the other hand, the coupled chaotic neurons are synchronous when the gap

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junction coupling strength g satisfies the sufficient condition for synchronization. These cases are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 respectively. As shown in Figure 2, when ω = 0.09 Hz the individual neuron without coupling bursts periodically, then even the coupling strength of the gap junction g = 0.005 < 0.9, the synchronization can occur also. The errors e1 = x1 − x 2 → 0 , e2 = x1 − x3 → 0 and e3 = x 2 − x3 → 0 imply the complete synchronization.

(a)

xj yj zj , j = 1,2,3 phase plane diagram

(b) the error e1 = x 1 – x2 phase plane diagram (c) the error e2 = y 1 – y2 phase plane diagram

(d) xj– xi phase plane diagram

(e) yj– yi phase plane diagram

Figure 3 : ω = 0.045 Hz, g = 0.005 < 0.9 in different initial condition.

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(a) xj yj zj , j = 1,2,3 phase plane diagram

(b) the error e1 = x 1 – x2 phase plane diagram (c) the error e2 = y 1 – y2 phase plane diagram

(d) xj– xi phase plane diagram

(e) yj– yi phase plane diagram

Figure 4 : ω = 0.045 Hz, g = 1.25 > 0.9 in different initial condition.

As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, when the frequency of the external stimulation ω = 0.045 Hz, the individual neuron without coupling is chaotic. For different initial condition, if the coupling strength of the gap junction g = 0.005 < 0.9, the synchronization cannot occur; the synchronization occurs when g = 1.25 > 0.9 with errors e1 = x1 − x 2 → 0 , e2 = x1 − x3 → 0 and

e3 = x 2 − x3 → 0 imply the complete synchronization for this gap junction.

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4 Conclusion

In this paper, the synchronization of two neurons bidirectional coupled with gap junction in periodic external electrical stimulation with Hindmarsh–Rose chaotic bursting model is studied. The sufficient condition for complete synchronization is investigated. When the individual neuron without coupling bursts periodically, the synchronization can occur finally for any strength of gap junction. Also we attain that if the strength of gap junction satisfies some condition the synchronization can occur when the individual neuron is chaotic. However, it should be noted that the strength of gap junction satisfies some condition is only the sufficient condition. This means that when the synchronization occurs, the strength of gap junction will not satisfy the condition all the time.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Ministry of Higher Education under the FRGS Vot59146.

References

[1] S. Baigent, Cells coupled by voltage-dependent gap junctions: the asymptotic dynamical limit. BioSystems. 68(2003):213–22. [2] I. Belykh, and A. Shilnikov, When Weak Inhibition Synchronizes Strongly Desynchronizing Networks of Bursting Neurons. PRL.101(2008): 078102. [3] M. V. L. Bennett, and V. K. Verselis, Biophysics of gap junction. Semin Cell Biol.3(1992):29–47. [4] D. Bin, W. Jiang, and F. Xiangyang, Chaotic synchronization with gap junction of multi-neurons in external electrical stimulation. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. 25(2005):1185–1192. [5] L.O. Chua, M. Itoh, L. Kocarev, and K. Eckert, Chaos synchronization in Chua_s circuits. J Cricuits Syst Comput. 3(1993):93–108. [6] R. Dermietzel, Gap junction wiring: a new principle in cell–cell communication in the nervous system? Brain Res Rev. 26(1998):176–83. [7] J. L. Hindmarsh, and R.M. Rose, A model of neuronal bursting using three coupled first order differential equations. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London. B221(1984): 87–102. [8] W. Jiang, D. Bin, and K.M. Tsang, Chaotic synchronization of neurons coupled with gap junction under external electrical stimulation. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. 22(2004):469–76. [9] E. Lange, I. Belykh, and M. Hasler. Synchronization of Bursting Neurons: What matters in the Network Topology. PRL. 94(2005):188101. [10] D. Mishra, A. Yadav, S. Ray, and P.K. Kalra, Controlling Synchronization of Modified FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons Under External Electrical Stimulation. NeuroQuantology. 1(2006): 50-67. [11] L. M. Pecora, and Carroll, Synchronization in chaotic systems. Phys Rev Lett.64(1990):821–4.

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[12] A. Pikovsky, M. Rosenblum, and J. Kurths, Synchronization: a universal concept in nonlinear sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. [13] R. Vogel, and R. Weingart, The electrophysiology of gap junctions and gap junction channels and their mathematical modeling. Biol Cell. 94(2002):501–10.

Received: March, 2011

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