# A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO DRAFT SURVEYS TRIMMING CALCULATIONS ETC.

GLENN J SALDANHA
(allgeez@gmail.com)

PLEASE PRINT THIS OUT USING BOTH SIDES OF THE PAPER - HAVE ADJUSTED THE FILE TO ALLOW EASIER READING WHEN PRINTED & FILED THIS WAY

INDEX
CHAPTER I II III IV V VI TOPIC THE 6-SIDED DRAFT THE DRAFT SURVEY TRIMMING HOG / SAG CONTROLLING DRAFTS MAXIMUM DRAFTS PAGES 3 - 10 11 - 21 22 - 51 52 - 56 57 - 59 61 - 63

2

CHAPTER I - THE 6 - SIDED DRAFT

3

In the above diagram L.B.P. = Length between Perpendiculars L.B.M. = Length Between Marks C = LCF = Longitudinal Center of Floatation - distance fm midships c = difference between draft at LCF & draft at midships dF = Ford Draft mark dA = Aft Draft Mark FP = Forward Perpendicular AP = Aft Perpendicular WL = water line when even keel W1L1 = water line when trimmed (in this case by stern) T = TRIM (at the perpendiculars) Ta = APPARENT TRIM (at the marks) A = Distance between the ford draft mark & ford perpendicular a = Difference between draft at ford mark & draft at ford perpendicular B = Distance between the aft draft mark & aft perpendicular b = Difference between draft at aft mark & draft at aft perpendicular ^M = Angle of Trim As all are similar triangles with the same ^M : T = Ta = c = a = b = LBP LBM LCF A B Since Ta = a then a = A x Ta LBM A LBM &

Tan ^M

Ta = b then b = B x Ta LBM B LBM In the formula for correction to be applied to the ford draft A is a constant value on EACH SHIP as is LBM as is B

4

On a Cape-size vessel A = 1.00 metres and LBM = 248.50 meters Since Correction to be applied to the ford read draft (marks) = a = Therefore a = 1 x Ta 248.5 and a = 0.0040241 x Apparent trim and since B = 10.5 meters Therefore b = 10.5 x Ta 248.5 and b = 0.0422535 x Apparent Trim

A x Ta LBM

When the Draft Marks are on the Perpendiculars then no correction is to be applied If the ford draft mark is aft of the ford perpendicular and the aft draft mark is ford of the aft perpendicular as in the diagram and on most but not all vessels then, a will be subtracted from the read ford draft to get the draft ford and b will be added to the read aft draft to get the aft draft WHEN THE VESSEL IS TRIMMED BY THE STERN WHEN VESSEL IS TRIMMED BY THE HEAD the correction sign will be opposite.

After reading the drafts and applying the draft correction then one will proceed to calculate the Mean Quarter Mean Draft using the 6 sided formula Many surveyors do not worry about the correction to the read drafts when the trim is very small. Actually, in theory, there is a correction to be applied to the read midship drafts as well - unless the midship draft is computed by measuring the freeboard from the deck line or computing the draft by measuring the distance from the Loadline Mark to the water line - because the loadline mark is exactly at midships and the midship draft marks are actually displaced either just forward or just aft of midships but as this distance is so small & the correction so small I have never known anyone to apply a correction to the read midship draft mark.

5

No matter what is taught in the various colleges of the world wrt hydrostatic draft, bulk carrier draft calculations the world over is based on the six-sided formula. Drafts are read on all six sides Fp - Ford port Fs - Ford stbd Mp - Midship port Ms - Midship stbd Ap - Aft port As - Aft stbd After these drafts are read, the trim correction is applied to the ford & aft drafts & to the midship drafts when relevant (on some vessels the midship draft marks are not exactly at midships) - ( same explained later) to convert these read drafts to drafts at the perpendiculars We are now left with drafts Fpc, Fsc, Mpc, Msc, Apc, Asc - which are the same as above except that they are corrected to the perpendiculars or midships as the case may be. Using the mean of each set we get the Ford, Aft & Midship Drafts (Fpc + Fsc) = F (Ford Draft) (Mpc + Msc) = M (Midship Draft) 2 2 (Apc + Asc) = A (Aft Draft) 2 (F + A) = 2 Mean (Mean Draft)

Now to get the draft, reqd for calculating displacement, known as Mean Quarter Mean (MQM) draft we use the six - sided formula (6M + F + A) 8 OR 6 x Midship draft + Ford Draft + Aft Draft 8 = Mean Quarter Mean Draft = MQM

Now as (Ford Draft + Aft Draft) = Mean Draft OR ( Ford Draft + Aft Draft) = 2 x Mean Draft 2 Therefore the 6 Sided formula is also : (6M + 2Mean) = MQM 8 OR 6 x Midship Draft + 2 x Mean Draft 8 = Mean Quarter Mean Draft

6

The 6-sided formula is central to all calculations on bulk carriers & must be dinned into your head and understood completely. In the first place it is used in all actual all draft calculations, but can also be used in precalculation of cargo figures as the following examples will show It is to be remembered that using the 6 sided formula for actual draft calculation is completely accurate, the following examples, which are useful in pre calculation, makes one assumption which is theoretically incorrect, and that is, that we are assuming the vessel is trimming about midships - in actual fact the vessel trims about the Centre of Flotation which is not necessarily midships, but the recalculation examples are shown for when the vessel is completing loading, when in case of bulk carriers we almost always finish even keel, without trim, or very close to even keel, which makes any inaccuracy caused by making the assumption that the vessel is trimming about midships, so very small as to be discarded. In any event pre-calculations are only that and the actual picture only obtained, during & after loading. Before any examples are given, the formula must be understood properly the Mean Quarter Mean Draft which is used for obtaining displacement concept must be understood properly. MQM = 6 M + F + A or MQM = 6 M + 2 Mean 8 8 and Hog / Sag = Difference between Midship Draft and Mean Draft When Midship Draft is greater than Mean Draft, Vessel is Sagging. When Midship Draft is less than Mean Draft, Vessel is Hogging. Now it must be understood that if M= 17.0 meters and the vessel is sagging by 10 cms, then the MQM is NOT 16.90 meters - to illustrate Example 1: Given that Midship Draft (M) = 17.0 meters, and vessel is sagging 10 cms Vessel is sagging 10 cms, therefore the Midship Draft is 10 cms more than the Mean Draft. Therefore Mean Draft = M - 0.10 = 17.0 - 0.10 = 16.90 meters Therefore as MQM = 6M + 2Mean 8 MQM = 6M + 2(M - 0.10) = 6(17.0) + 2(17.0 - 0.10) 8 8 = 102 + 2 (16.9) = 102 + 33.8 8 8 Therefore MQM = 16.975 meters AND THIS MUST BE UNDERSTOOD COMPLETELY BEFORE PROCEEDING FURTHER
7

Example 2: Consider a Cape-size bulk carrier, SILC, of about 151,000 dwt Given that max draft is 17.5 meters, by experience you expect that the vessel with that cargo, loaded in all 9 holds will sag 10 cms, and you wish to sail out even keel - you will by the formula get Midship draft = 17.50 meters ( v/l sagged & even keel), Mean draft = 17.40 meters and as v/l to finish even keel, F = 17.40m A = 17.40m and therefore, MQM = (6 x 17.50) + 17.40 + 17.40 = 17.475 meters 8 Therefore you will get the displacement for 17.475 meters, apply the Dock water correction, reduce the lightship, constant and deductibles and you will get the cargo to be loaded. To expand : the density of Dockwater = 1.023 lightship = 18643 K= 400 (FO: 2000 DO: 100 FW: 200 U/Pumpable Ballast : 100) Deductibles = 2400 Displacement in SW at 17.475 Dock water 1.023 , displ in DW = 169560.15 = 169560.15 x 1.023 1.025 Displ in DW = 169229.3 Lightship = - 18643 Deadweight = 150586.3 K + deductibles = - 2800 CARGO TO LOAD = 147786.3

Example 3: Max draft = 17.00 meters V/l to finish with 20 cms trim by stern 12 cms of sag To calculate Ford & Aft drafts and MQM to obtain displacement & therefore cargo. To get max cargo have the Midship draft equal to the max draft - remember that in the formula the midship draft is multiplied 6 times, the fore & aft draft only once so it is much better to have the midship draft maximum. As v/l is sagging 12 cms, Mean Draft = 17 - 0.12 = 16.88 Now to calculate the fore & aft draft we assume that the v/l trims about the midships and since v/l is to be trimmed 20 cms & is trimming equally ford & aft therefore ford draft = 16.88 - (0.20 / 2 ) = 16.78 & aft draft = 16.88 + (0.20 / 2) = 16.98 MQM = 6 x 17.0 + 16.78 + 16.98 = 16.97 meters 8

8

Example 4: Cargo to load = 130,000 MT FO: 1800 MT DO: 100 MT FW: 250 MT U/P ballast : 100 MT LTSHIP: 18643 K: 400 Density : 1.025 v/l to sail out even keel, sagged by 8 cms, calculate F, A, M Displacement = 130000 + 1800 + 100 + 250 + 100 + 18643 + 400 = 151293 For SILC, displacement of 151293 in 1.025 corresponds to draft of 15.85 meters Therefore MQM is 15.85 meters Let Midship Draft = X meters Since v/l sagged 8 cms, Mean Draft = (X - 0.08) meters From Formula MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6X + 2 (X - 0.08) 8 8 8(MQM) = 6X + 2X - 0.16 (8 x 15.85) = 8X - 0.16 (126.8) + 0.16 = 8X Therefore X = Midship Drafts = 15.87 meters v/l sagged 8 cms, Mean Draft = 15.87 - 0.08 = 15.79 = F = A ( v/l finishing even keel) To confirm in reverse MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6(15.87) + 2(15.79) 8 8 MQM = 15.85 meters Example 5: Same conditions as in Eg 4 except vessel to finish hogged by 10 cms Let Midship draft = X metres As v/l hogged by 10 cms, Mean Draft = (X+0.10) metres MQM = 6X + 2 (X+0.10) = 6X + 2X + 0.20 8 8 8 ( MQM) = 8X + 0.20 8 (15.85) - 0.20 = 8X X = 15.825 metres = M Since v/l hogged by 10 cms & even keel Mean Draft = F = A = 15.825 + 0.10 = 15.925 You can confirm same by formula MQM = 6M + F + A = 6 x 15.825 + 15.925 + 15.925 8 8

= 15.85

9

Example 6: MQM = 15.85m

Sag: 8 cms Trim: 14 cms by stern

RD: 1.025

Midship draft = X mts

Mean draft = (X - 0.08) mts ( sag of 8 cms)

MQM = 6M + 2Mean = 6X + 2(X-0.08) 8 8 MQM = 6X + 2X - 0.16 => 8 MQM + 0.16 = 8X => 8(15.85) + 0.16 = 8X 8 Therefore X = 15.87 = Midship draft Sag = 8cms Therefore Mean draft = 15.87 - 0.08 = 15.79 mts Assuming vessel trims abt midships & trim = 14 cms F = 15.79 - 0.07 = 15.72 & A = 15.79 + 0.07 = 15.86 Example 7: If the v/l, in Eg.6 was then to go into RD less than 1.025, say 1.010, you would have to first convert the MQM of 15.85 into the MQM of that density At MQM 15.85 mts displacement in SW = 151293 Equivalent displacement in 1.010 = 151293 x 1.025 = 153539.9 1.010 Therefore MQM in 1.010 = 15.968 mts Assuming that the sag remains same, & very likely it will, MQM = 6X + 2(X - 0.08) where X = Midship draft 8 8(15.968) = 6X + 2X - 0.16 Therefore X = 15.988 = Midship draft and Mean Draft = 15.988 - 0.08 = 15.908 Again assuming v/l trims around the midship we will have F= 15.838 & A=15.978 However there will be a change of trim due change of density & this will have to be applied to get the actual Ford & Aft Drafts in the DW of density 1.010.

If the vessel were to hog instead of sag, say hog by 10 cms then as in Example 5, assume X = Midship draft and Mean Draft = (X + 0.10) - all other calculations same.

10

CHAPTER II - THE DRAFT SURVEY

11

12

13

CORRECTION FOR HULL DEFORMATION If the vessel is neither hogged or sagged ( at amidships) then the midship drafts will be the mean of the fore & aft drafts but this is very seldom the case - the best formula used for calculating the draft making allowance for the various hull deformations for a bulk carrier or tanker has been found to be the 6 sided formula where MQM = FORD DRAFT + AFT DRAFT + (6 x AMIDSHIPS DRAFT) 8 TRIM CORRECTION When a ship is trimmed the calculated mean draft is not the same as the true mean draft measured at the LCF. To correct the displacement to that corresponding to the true mean draft the following correction(s) are applied: FIRST TRIM CORRECTION (IN TONNES) = TRIM (in cms) x LCF(in meters) x TPC LBP (in meters)

In the above formula LCF is the distance of the Centre of Flotation (COF) from amidships. In some ships the LCF is given in the hydrostatic tables from the aft perpendicular. Remember in this formula, the LCF is the distance of the COF from amidships. Also on some ships the sign (-) indicates the LCF is aft of midships, on others the sign (-) indicates the LCF is ford of midships - please make sure you know exactly what the sign convention in your ship means. This correction is also known as the layer correction and is applied as follows when the COF is in the same direction as the deepest draft it is added, and when the COF is on the other side of amidships as the deepest draft it is subtracted. This correction does not allow for the fact that, when a ship trims, the COF moves from it s tabulated position. Some ships have corrections for this, but when this is not provided the following correction called the 2nd trim correction must be applied 2ND TRIM CORRECTION = (TRIM IN METERS) x (TRIM IN METERS) x 50 (dM/dZ) (IN TONNES) LBP (in meters) where dM/dZ is the difference between the MCT for a draft of 50 cm greater than the corrected mean draft and 50 cm less than the corrected mean draft i.e. if the corrected mean draft is 12.0 meters then dM/dZ would be the difference between the MTC (Moment to change trim) at 12.50 meters and 11.50 meters. This correction is ALWAYS ADDED to the displacement. When there is very little trim many surveyors ignore the 2nd Trim Correction.

14

CORRECTION FOR HEEL Vessel should be upright for draft survey but when it is not the following correction must be applied CORRECTION FOR HEEL IN TONNES = 6 x (TP1 - TP2) x (D1 - D2) where TP1 TP2 D1 D2 = = = = TPC for the deepest draft amidships TPC for the shallower draft amidships Deepest draft amidships ( IN METRES) Shallower draft amidships ( IN METRES)

This correction is ALWAYS ADDED to the displacement because the effect of heel is to increase the waterplane area & so lift the ship out of the water. CORRECTION FOR DENSITY Almost all ships have their displacement tables tabulated for a Relative Density of 1.025 . However what we are interested in finding is the actual displacement, i.e. is the displacement in the dock water that the vessel is lying in.
TRUE DISPLACEMENT = R.D. OF DOCK WATER x SCALE DISPLACEMENT R.D. USED FOR DISPLACEMENT SCALE

eg: On SILC if your draft is 15.00 metres & v/l is lying in DW of 1.017 then true displacement would be calculated as follows: Scale Displacement for 15.00 metres = 143291.2 tonnes True Displacement = SCALE DISPLACEMENT x R.D. OF DOCK WATER R.D. FOR DISPLMNT SCALE = 143291.2 x 1.017 1.025 = 14217.3 tonnes

The displacement now obtained is the true displacement, within the limits of accuracy of the drafts and the ship s stability data. While the actual calculation on all of our ships is just a matter of feeding in the read drafts and the deductibles it is wise to know what is actually being done - also not all surveyors are above board & some will try & pull wool over your eyes in order to show more cargo at the loading port and less cargo at the discharge port.

15

16

17

At the discharge port cargo is calculated as followsLet Displacement prior commencement of discharge Fuel Oil prior commencement of discharge Diesel Oil prior commencement of discharge Fresh Water prior commencement of discharge Ballast Water prior commencement of discharge Constant Light ship = = = = = = = A FO1 DO1 FW1 BW1 K LS

Deductibles on arrival = FO1 + DO1 + FW1 + BW1 = a Displacement prior commencement = A = a + K + LS + Cargo on Board CARGO ON BOARD = A - ( a + K + LS) opening the bracket CARGO ON BOARD =

A - a - K - LS

as a = FO1 + DO1 + FW1 + BW1 CARGO ON BOARD = A - FO1 - DO1 - FW1 - BW1 - K - LS Using this you should in theory be able to compute the cargo on board, but this assumes that the value of the lightship is accurate and your computed constant at the load port is accurate. This however is not always true so the cargo is actually calculated as follows Let Displacement after completion of discharge Fuel Oil on completion of discharge Diesel Oil on completion of discharge Fresh Water on completion of discharge Ballast Water on completion of Discharge Constant Light Ship Deductibles on completion of discharge = = = = = = = B FO2 DO2 FW2 BW2 K LS

= b = FO2 + DO2 + FW2 + BW2

Displacement on completion of discharging = B = b + K + LS Please note that K & LS are the same prior commencement & at completion of discharge.

18

19

Deductibles on arrival = FO3 + DO3 + FW3 + BW3 = c

Displacement prior commencement of loading = C = c + K + LS as c = FO3 + DO3 + FW3 + BW3

Displacement on completion of loading = D = d + K + LS + CARGO CARGO ON BOARD = D d K - LS

20

Ideally, if there were no changes to fuel, diesel, fresh water and ballast between commencement and completion of discharge, cargo on board would be a simple matter of D - C. But as all these values change, CARGO ON BOARD = (( D - (d + K + LS) )) (( C - (c + K + LS) ))

opening the single brackets CARGO ON BOARD = (( D - d - K - LS )) - (( C - c - K - LS )) opening the double brackets CARGO ON BOARD = D - d - K - LS - C + c + K + LS CARGO ON BOARD = D - d - C + c CARGO ON BOARD = D - FO4 - DO4 - FW4 - BW4 - C + FO3+DO3+FW3+ BW3 Once again it appears that the constant and lightship are eliminated, but remember you have adjusted the draft, the ballast soundings or the density which has changed the initial displacement C or the initial ballast BW3 to arrive at a contrived constant. The constant is calculated at the initial draft survey - less ballast shown at the initial draft survey will show a larger constant and more ballast shown at the initial draft survey will result in a lesser constant. As I have repeated over and over again do not reduce the constant, even though less constant means more cargo - should you then get the real constant at the disport ( which you do by using this same method without making any adjustments) you will end up with less cargo and real problems. IF ONE UNDERSTANDS THE DRAFT SURVEY AND HOW TO GO ABOUT IT, IF YOUR DRFAT READINGS AND SOUNDINGS ARE ACCURATE YOU SHOULD NEVER HAVE PROBLEMS WITH THE CARGO TO LOAD, CARGO LOADED OR CARGO DISCHARGED AND NO DRAFT SURVEYOR WILL BE ABLE TO PULL WOOL OVER YOUR EYES.

21

CHAPTER III - TRIMMING

22

TRIMMING This is probably the subject about which very little or almost nothing is taught in any nautical school - have learnt the following method from the foremen in Brazil who are loading at up to 16,000MT per hour and require to be spot on. Am going to show various possible situations on the Cape-size vessel SILC at the stop for draft check prior trimming and then trimming with different sets of holds.

CASE 1. Assume the read drafts at the draft check to be Fp = 16.70 Fs = 16.70 Mp = 16.82 Ms = 16.84 Therefore, F = 16.70 M = 16.83 A = 16.93

Ap = 16.93

As = 16.93

Ford trim correction = Apparent trim x Dist fm ford mark to ford perpendicular (see page 4) Length between marks = Apparent trim x 1 248.5 = Apparent trim x 0.004

Aft trim correction

= Apparent trim x Dist fm aft mark to aft perpendicular Length between marks = Apparent trim x 10.50 248.5 = Apparent trim x 0.042

Apparent trim = 0.23m Apparent trim x 0.004 = 0.23 x 0.004 = 0.0009 = corrn to ford draft which is negligible Apparent trim x 0.042 = 0.23 x 0.042 = 0.01 = corrn to aft draft(to be added) Therefore corrected drafts are Fc = 16.70 Corrected trim = 16.94 - 16.70 = 0.24m Mc = 16.83 Ac = 16.94

23

Vessel is in water of R.D. = 1.025 and is required to load such that it s midship draft is 17.25 metres and finish with a stern trim of 42 cms. Max allowed draft = 17.50 meters. Assume you are to trim with holds 4 & 8. (This was an actual situation where we were loading in Richards Bay where max draft is 17.50 metres, Winter zone draft when passing Finistere en route to Le Havre is 17.16 metres. The difference between 17.25 metres & 17.16 metres is the consumption en route from Richards Bay to Finistere and the 42 cms trim would after consumption result in v/l arriving Le Havre even keel.) Corrected drafts are Fc = 16.70 Mc = 16.83 Ac = 16.94 Midship draft is 16.83 meters and maximum midship draft is 17.25 meters. Sinkage available = (17.25 - 16.83) = 0.42m = 42 cms Just so that you do not overload assume that the vessel will sag a further 2 cms after trimming. Therefore sinkage available is 42 - 2 = 40 cms. As TPC = 106.30 tonnes, therefore cargo to load = 106.30 x 40 = 4252 MT. Final midship draft will be Midship draft + addl sag + sinkage = 16.83 + 0.02 + 0.40 = 17.25m From trimming tables at draft of 17.05 metres ( mean between 16.83 and 17.25) for every 100 MT No. 4 Hold No. 8 Hold sinkage ford 1.81 - 0.50 sinkage aft 0.09 2.35 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 1.81 - (0.09) = 2.35 - (-0.50) = 1.72 2.85

ADDING THE VALUES FOR CHANGE OF TRIM FOR 100MT IN EACH = 4.57 (disregard for the moment that #4 will trim the v/l by head & #8 trim by stern) **** (In the case of No.4 hold as loading in #4 will cause both the ford and aft drafts to increase and therefore the values in column 2 & 3 are positive, and the last column is the DIFFERENCE between the two, the values 1.81 and 0.09 are subtracted to give 1.72 . In the case of No.8 hold, since the ford draft reduces and the aft draft increases, the signs are different when you are looking for the DIFFERENCE, you add the values 0.50 & 2.25 to get 2.85. Do go through all 9 cases so you fully understand this.)

24

We have a 24 cm trim by stern presently and require to finish with a 42 cm trim by stern - therefore you have to trim the vessel by a further 42 - 24 cms = 18 cms by stern. First tackle this To trim the vessel by stern and you are trimming with 4 & 8 you would have to load in 8. Use the formula Trim required in cms x 100 Trim caused by 100 MT (from the values lifted from the trimming tables listed above) Trim required in cms x 100 Trim caused by 100 MT = 18 x 100 2.85 = 631.58 MT = 632 MT

Therefore 632 MT in #8 will be required to finish with the required trim. Therefore we have to load 4252 - 632 = 3620 MT distributed in holds #4 & #8.without causing any further change in trim. To load in #4 without any change in trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #8 = 3620 x 2.85 = 2257.5 = 2258 Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.57 To load in #8 without change of trim we load Weight to load x Change of trim caused by #4 = 3620 x 1.72 = 1362.4 = 1362 Change of trim caused by #4 & #8 4.57

Therefore you will have to load 2258 MT in #4 and (632 + 1362) = 1994 MT in #8 to finish with the required drafts - you can check this - see below Ford Aft 16.70 16.94 Loading 2258 MT in #4 0.409 0.02 After loading in #4 17.109 16.96 Loading 1994 MT in #8 - 0.10 0.469 On completion of trimming 17.009 17.428 which is a 42 cms trim by stern Midship draft from above = 17.25M PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT.

25

CASE 2 Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 17.00 Fs = 17.00 Mp = 17.21 Ms = 17.21 Ap = 17.29 As = 17.29 R.D. = 1.025 V/l to finish even keel Max.draft: Summer = 17.525m Trimming with #3 and #7. Apparent trim is 17.29 - 17.00 = 0.29 cms by stern Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.004 = 0.29 x 0.004 = 0.001 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.042 = 0.29 x 0.042 = 0.01 Corrd drafts are Fc = 17.00 Mc = 17.21 Ac = (17.29 + 0.01) = 17.30 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.3 - 17.0 = 0.30m BY STERN v/l to load to max draft of 17.525 meters - let us assume that there will be 1 cm further sag. Therefore sinkage available is 17.525 - (17.21 + 0.01) = 0.305 = 30.5 cms Since TPC = 106.35 cargo to load = 30.5 x 106.35 = 3244 MT Final midship draft will be Midship draft + sag caused + sinkage = 17.21 + 0.01 + 0.305 = 17.525m

26

from Trim tables for draft of 17.37 ( mean between 17.21 & 17.525) for every 100 MT No. 3 Hold No. 7 Hold sinkage ford 2.35 0.07 sinkage aft - 0.48 1.79 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 2.35 - (-0.48) = 1.79 - (-0.07) = 2.83 1.72

27

CASE 3. Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 17.25 Fs = 17.25 Mp = 17.19 Ms = 17.19 Ap = 17.00 As = 17.00 R.D. = 1.023 V/l to finish even keel Max.draft: - 17.50m Trimming with #3 and #8. Apparent trim is 17.25 - 17.00 = 0.25 cms by head Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.004 = 0.25 x 0.004 = 0.001 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.042 = 0.25 x 0.042 = 0.01 Corrd drafts are Fc = 17.25 Mc = 17.19 Ac = (17.00 - 0.01) = 16.99 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.25 - 16.99 = 0.26m BY HEAD v/l to load to max draft of 17.50metres - let us assume that there will be a 1 cm hog caused by the quantity of cargo loaded in #3 & #8 during trimming. Therefore sinkage available is 17.5 -(17.19 - 0.01) = 0.32 = 32 cms Since TPC = 106.35 x 1.023 / 1.025 = 106.14 cargo to load = 32 x 106.14 = 3396MT Final midship draft will be Midship draft - hog caused + sinkage = 17.19 - 0.01 + 0.32 = 17.50m

28

from Trim tables for draft of 17.35 ( mean between 17.19 & 17.50) for every 100 MT No. 3 Hold No. 8 Hold sinkage ford 2.385 -0.495 sinkage aft - 0.475 2.34 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 2.385 - (-0.475) = 2.34 - (-0.495) = 2.86 2.835

29

CASE 4. Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 16.81 Fs = 16.81 Mp = 17.07 Ms = 17.07 Ap = 17.23 As = 17.23 R.D. = 1.0215 V/l to finish 70 cms by stern Reqd midship draft by calculation =17.45 Depth available at this port 22.0 meters Trimming with #4 and #7. Apparent trim is 17.23 - 16.81 = 0.42 cms by stern Ford trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.004 = 0.42 x 0.004 = 0.002 which is negligible Aft trim corrn = Apparent trim x 0.042 = 0.42 x 0.042 = 0.017 Corrd drafts are Fc = 16.81 Mc = 17.07 Ac = (17.23 + 0.018) = 17.247 CORRECTED TRIM = 17.247 - 16.81 = 0.437m BY STERN v/l to load to max midship draft of 17.45meters - let us assume that there will be a 3 cm sag caused by the quantity of cargo loaded in #4 & #7 during trimming. Therefore sinkage available is 17.45 - (17.07 + 0.03) = 0.35 = 35 cms Since TPC =106.35 x 1.0215 / 1.025 = 105.99 cargo to load= 35 x 105.99 = 3710MT Final midship draft will be = Midship draft + sag caused + sinkage = 17.07+ 0.03+ 0.35 = 17.45m

30

from Trim tables for draft of 17.26 ( mean between 17.07 & 17.45) for every 100 MT No. 4 Hold sinkage ford 1.81 sinkage aft 0.09 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 1.81 - (0.09) = 1.72

= 2181 x 1.72 = 1090 MT 3.44

Therefore you will have to load 1091 MT in #4 and (1529 + 1090) = 2619 MT in #7 to finish with the required drafts - you can check this Ford Aft 16.81 17.248 Loading 1091 MT in #4 0.197 0.01 After loading in #4 17.007 17.258 Loading 2619 MT in #7 0.018 0.469 On completion of trimming 17.025 17.727 which is 70 cms by stern Midship draft from above = 17.45m PLEASE REMEMBER MIDSHIP DRAFT IS NOT MEAN DRAFT.
31

32

Sinkage available = 17.30 - (17.03 + .0155) = 0.2545 = 25.45 cms Since TPC= 106.35 x 1.022 / 1.025= 106.04 cargo to load= 25.45 x 106.04= 2699MT Final midship draft will be Midship draft + sag caused + sinkage = 17.03+0.0155+ 0.2545 = 17.3m from Trim tables for draft of 17.165 ( mean between 17.03 & 17.30) for every 100 MT sinkage ford sinkage aft difference = CHANGE OF TRIM No. 4 Hold 1.81 0.09 1.81 - (0.09) = 1.72

33

34

from Trim tables for draft of 17.3625 ( mean between 17.20 & 17.525) for every 100 MT No. 3 Hold sinkage ford 2.385 sinkage aft - 0.475 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 2.385 - (-0.475) = 2.86

35

36

CASE 7. Assume the read drafts to be Fp = 16.89 Fs = 16.89 Mp = 17.00 Ms = 17.00 Ap = 17.04 As = 17.04 R.D. = 1.023 Maximum draft at load port 17.50 mts. V/l required to arrive at disport with max draft of 17.20 m. Charter party stipulates maximum cargo = 145000 MT Total change of trim on voyage from load port to disport including change due to consumption of fuel & fresh water & change of trim due to change of density = 52 cms Sinkage due to change of density at disport = 2 cms Sag due to consumption of fuel and fresh water on voyage = 1 cm Rise due to fuel and fresh water consumption on voyage = 9 cms. Trimming with #4 and #8. At load port : FO: 2179.0 DO: 87.0 FW: 250 U/pump ballast: 93.0 ltship: 18643 Deductibles = (FO + DO + FW + BALLAST) = 2609 K:393

In almost all cases trimming is governed by drafts not quantity of cargo to be loaded where the draft is a limiting factor - max.draft at the load port or max draft at the disport or the draft when v/l crosses into Winter zone from Summer Zone or when it crosses from Tropical Zone into Summer zone etc. However you can also have a maximum quantity of cargo to load - very often the C/P states something like 135,000 +/-5% MOLOO which means you can load anywhere between128250 & 141750 but not less than 128250 & not more than 141750 - in the Case under study I have given a situation where you are not permitted more than 145000. Also just for practice & understanding have stated a max draft at the load port & the discharge port. Normally you would be told the density of the disport & then you would have to calculate the rise or sinkage between the load port & disport due to the change of density and also the change of trim due to the change of density - you would have to apply the fuel consumption to compute your change of trim on the voyage etc. - but as the object of this exercise is TRIMMING I have given an example where all the required changes have been pre-calculated.

37

38

At the stop for trimming the corrected drafts are F: 16.89 M: 17.00 A:17.046 By the 6-sided formula - the MQM = 16.89 + 17.046 + 6 ( 17.00) = 16.992 8 Displacement in SW for 16.992 m draft = 164419.41 Trim correction = + 10.25 Displacement corrected for trim = 164429.66 Correction for Density (1.023) = - 320.85 True Displacement in DW = 164108.81 Lightship = - 18643.00 Deadweight = 145465.81 Constant = 393.00 145072.81 Deductibles = - 2609.00 Cargo on Board at trimming stop = 142463.81 Required to load = 145000.00 Cargo available for trimming = 2536.19 First we will have to check whether after loading this 2536.19 MT what the sinkage will be - add the estimated sag caused by same (of 0.8 cm) and check whether the midship draft will be within the allowed calculated maximum of 17.26 mts. Sinkage = W / TPC (TPC = 106.35 x 1.023 / 1.025) = 106.14 Sinkage = 2536.19 / 106.14 = 23.895 cms Sag caused by trimming = 0.8 cms Total sinkage = 23.895 + 0.8 = 24.695 cms = 0.247 m Therefore final midship draft = 17.00 + 0.247 = 17.247m As max permissible midship draft is 17.26m, this is fine. Therefore we can load the 2536.19MT and therefore lift the max. of 145000. We are attempting to sail out with a trim of 52 cms by stern, within the limitation of a max.draft of 17.50 mts. As we will be sagged 4 cms and the midship draft will be 17.247 mts our mean draft will be 17.247 - 0.04 = 17.207 & assuming we trim about midships we will finish with Ford draft of 16.947 and Aft draft of 17.467 meters which is permitted.

39

from Trim tables for draft of 17.1235( mean between 17.00 & 17.247) for every 100 MT No. 4 Hold sinkage ford 1.81 sinkage aft 0.09 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 1.81 - (0.09) = 1.72

40

41

42

from Trim tables for draft of 17.105( mean between 17.00 & 17.21) for every 100 MT sinkage ford sinkage aft difference = CHANGE OF TRIM No. 4 Hold 1.81 0.09 1.81 - (0.09) = 1.72

43

CASE 7B. (When following this case please disregard Case 7A.) All conditions the same as in Case 7 except that the limiting draft at the loadport is 17.40m The limiting draft at the disport remains 17.20m. We will be trying to load the maximum cargo and also as the limiting draft at the disport is still 17.20m we will be still required to arrive at the disport even keel. Since the change of trim on the voyage remains 52 cms we will still have to have an effective 52cms trim by stern after loading. If we load to the max. of 145,000 MT our midship draft we have found to be 17.247m. As we will be sagged by 4 cms our Mean draft would then be 17.247 - 0.04 = 17..207m & assuming we trim about midships and that our max. draft can be 17.40 mts our trim will be (17.40 - 17.207) x 2 = 0.386m & the ford draft would 17.014m. However we are required to have a trim of 52 cms in order that we arrive at the disport even keel. In order to arrive at the disport even keel we would have to fill some water in the afterpeak such that it will result in (52 - 38.6) = 13.4 cms of trim. From trimming tables for this draft - 100MT in the afterpeak will cause a change of trim of 6.11cms - Therefore to cause a trim of 13.4 cms we will have to fill (13.4 x 100)/8 = 219 MT in the afterpeak. However when we fill this water in the afterpeak this would result in a sinkage of W/TPC = 219 / 106.14 = 2.06 cms = 0.021m. As the midship draft without filling the afterpeak was 17.247m the effective midship draft would be17.247 + 0.021 = 17.268m. However we have found out that the max. midship draft we could have was 17.26m. Therefore we would be 17.268 - 17.26 = 0.008m = 0.8cms overloaded. We would therefore have to load 0.8 x 106.14 = 84.91 MT less during trimming. From Case 7 we have 2536.19 MT for trimming - we would therefore trim with (2536.19 - 84.91) = 2451 MT. Also note that we would fill the 219 MT required in the afterpeak only after sailing & would thus calculate our drafts without considering this quantity and working to finish with a trim of 38.6cms. Midship draft at trim stop = 17.00 mts Sag caused by trimming cargo = 0.008m Sinkage caused by trimming cargo = 2451.28 / 106.14 = 0.231m Midship draft on sailing = 17.239 m (if we had filled the 219MT in the afterpeak prior sailing it would have been 17.26m but we cannot prior sailing as we are limited by a max.draft of 17.40m & so will fill the 219MT in the afterpeak after sailing.) As we would be sagged by 0.04m our Mean draft would be 17.239 - 0.04 = 17.199m we are looking to trim vessel by 0.386m which means our aft draft would be 17.199 + (0.386/2) = 17.392m which is permissible.

44

from Trim tables for draft of 17.1195( mean between 17.00 & 17.239) for every 100 MT sinkage ford No. 4 Hold 1.81 sinkage aft 0.09 difference = CHANGE OF TRIM 1.81 - (0.09) = 1.72

From the above 9 cases you will assume that trimming is really quite easy and it
45

Also, this problem can be experienced especially when loading in alternate holds invariably when loading alternate holds you end up with a hog for the vessel - to
46

47

Assume the vessel is finishing even keel with 17.00 metres & 5cms sag i.e.midship draft of 17.05metres which is the maximum possible..
48

49

50

Also, I would advise that you make your cargo plan such that in the pre-calculation when you reach the trimming stage you have the same trim as when you complete loading - it is a pipe dream to think that when you actually make the stop for draft check & trimming that you will have the trim you desire - but this way you only have to make the correction in trim caused by the loader. If however you plan to finish with 50 cms by stern and your plan calls for you to reach the trimming stage with 25 cms of trim - then during trimming you would be not only trying to change the trim to the 50 cms but also making the correction to the trim caused by the loader which would be so much more difficult if, say, you reached the trimming stage with 5cms trim. Also, it is not necessary that should you ,say, make a plan to trim the v/l with #4 & #8 and plan for 2000MT for trimming, that in your plan necessarily you need to have 1000 in #4 & 1000 in #8. It s quite okay to have, say, 1200 in #4 & 800 in #8 even in your plan.

Probably the most important part of trimming is to make absolutely sure that each time you stop loading at a hold during trimming you are absolutely upright. Say, you are trimming with #4 & #8 using the 2 drop method. At the first drop you load at (a) #4 then (b) at #8. Then after a quick draft check and calculation in the 2nd drop you load at (c)#8, then at (d) #4. Be sure that at the end of each one i.e. at the end of (a), end of (b), (c) & (d) you are absolutely upright. A list of 0.25 degrees translates into almost 25 cms difference in the midship draft.

51

CHAPTER IV - HOG / SAG

52

53

54

55

CHAPTER V - CONTROLLING DRAFTS

56

57

6. You are loading on the Cape-size, summer draft = 17.52m, at Tubarao, where max.draft is 23m, for Pohang where max. draft is 17.40metres. Consumption of fuel en route causes a rise of 15cm. Both ports & route in the summer zone. Here even tho the draft available in Tubarao is much higher than in Pohang, the departure draft in Tubarao is the controlling draft. You are permitted to load up to your summer mark of 17.52 metres & no more - when you do that in Tubarao - your consumption en route to Pohang cause a rise of 15 cms - thus your draft arrival Pohang would be 17.52 - 0.15 = 17.37m. Of course you would have to adjust your trim departure Tubarao, to arrive, after the fuel consumption, even keel at Pohang.

58

Please remember there will be probably be density changes which you have to take into account. Also vessel must be within allowable stress limits at all times.

59

60

CHAPTER VI - MAXIMUM DRAFTS

61

62

Also if you were hogged, you would not be able to fill more cargo, such that the ford & aft draft exceed 17.12 & 17.92 respectively, even if your midship draft does not reach 17.52m. Should you be hogged say 5 cms, your max. ford draft would still be 17.12 meters, your max aft draft would still be 17.92 metres. Therefore your max. mean draft would be (17.12 + 17.92) / 2 = 17.52m With a 5cm hog your midship draft would be 17.52 - 0.05 = 17.47m Using the 6-sided formula, your MQM would be 17.48m - this means less cargo, but there is nothing you can do about it as otherwise you will be over draft at the ford & aft ends arrival Pohang. Please remember that if the density at Tubarao is not 1.025 then you have to make allowance for that.