Computational Fluid

Dynamics
Natteri M. Sudharsan, PhD.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 2
CFD – A part of Knowledge
Based Economy
 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Structural
Mechanics (CSM) is the study of fluid and structures subjected various
external / internal flow and/or load conditions.
 CFD is used in various fields such as:
Aerospace
Automobile
Bio-medical
Ocean
Oil and Gas
Power Engineering
Turbomachinery
Fluid – Structure Interaction
Environmental Agencies
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 3
Aerospace Applications

External
Aerodynamics (all
speed regimes)

High Lift

Internal Flows

Thermal Management

Aero acoustics

Stability and Control

Tank Sloshing

Plume Analysis

Multi-Species

Propeller Simulation

Heat Exchangers

Fluid Structure
Interaction (FSI)

Combustion
KEY APPLICATIONS INCLUDE
 
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 4
CFD Simulations in Aerospace
Plume Analysis
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 5
HIGH LIFT
ROTORCRAFT
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 6
Environmental Control Systems
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 7
Automotive Applications
Fuel Injection – Break-up
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 8
Thermal Stress Analysis on Cylinder Head
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 9
Valve Simulation
After Treatment Devices for Pollution Control
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 10
Under the Hood
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 11
Comfort
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 12
Brake Cooling
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 13
Biomedical Applications
Grid Generation from MRI Scan
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 14
Streamline flow of Blood
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 15
Building Applications
Fire & Smoke Modeling
Heating Ventilation and Air
conditioning
Pollutions Dispersion Modeling
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 16
Turbomachinery
Pelton Wheel Simulation
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 17
Wind Turbine
Power – conventional vs. Shrouded Turbine
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 18
Environmental Applications
ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATOR
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Forest Fire & Control
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 20
Chemical Applications
Break-up and coalescence of bubbles
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 21
Spray Dryer
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 22
CFD Aided Design of
HDDs
Objectives:
•Identify the flow characteristics in HDDs
at high rotating speed
•Seek solutions to reduce the flow-induced
vibration of arms
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 23
Governing Equations
&
Numerical Methods
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 24
Summary
1. Derivation of Governing Equations for Energy.
2. Behavior of these Equations.
3. The three numerical schemes.
4. Discretization for transient problems.
5. Convection – Diffusion Equation and schemes.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 25
Derivation of Energy Equations
 Consider a control volume of Area A and length
∆x. The energy balance is given as:
Heat in = Heat out
 
q
x
+ g’’’ = q
x+∆x
+ q
conv
+ q
rad
(1)
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 26
Figure: 1 Energy balance in a control volume
q
x
q
x+∆x
∆x
g”’
q
conv
+ q
rad
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 27
Steady State Heat Conduction
Neglecting convective and radiation loss and for a
steady state heat conduction with no internal heat
generation g’’’, the energy balance simplifies as
q
x
= q
x+∆x
(2)
 
Using Taylor series expansion to estimate q
x+∆x
we
have,
... x ) (q
dx
d
!
x ) (q
dx
d
q q
x x x Δx x
+ ∆ + ∆ + ·
+
2
2
2
2
1
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 28
Neglecting higher order terms, we get,
(3)
Substituting the Taylor series expansion for q
x+∆x

In (2) yields
( ) x q
dx
d
q q
x x x x
∆ + ·
∆ +
( )
dx
dT
kA q
x q
dx
d
q q
x
x x x
− ·
∆ + ·

0 · ∆

,
_

¸
¸
− x
dx
dT
kA
dx
d
(4)
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 29
Assuming k and A to be constants (4) becomes
0
2
2
· ∆ − x
dx
T d
kA
since k, A or ∆x cannot be zero, in coordinate
invariant form yields:
0
2
· ∇ T
This is a 2
nd
order Linear PDE. Classified as Laplace
equation.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 30
Steady State Heat Conduction with Internal
Heat Generation
Assuming that there is internal heat generation
within the control volume, equation (1) simplifies
to
q
x
+ g’’’ = q
x+∆x
(5)
(6)
( )
0
2
2
· +
− ·
∆ + · ∆ +
k
g
dx
T d
dx
dT
kA q
x q
dx
d
q x A g q
x
x x x
' ' '
' ' '

Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 31
Steady State Heat Conduction with Convection
Heat in = Heat out by conduction + Convection
L
∅ d
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 32
0
2
2
· − −
− ∆ + ∆

,
_

¸
¸
− + ·
− ∆ + ·


∞ ∆ +
) (
) (
) (
T T
kA
hP
dx
T d
T T x hP x
dx
dT
kA
dx
d
q q
T T x hP q q
x x
x x x
Let,
2 2 2
dX L dx and dX L dx d T T dT
L
x
X
T T
T T
b
b
· · − ·
·


·



; ) (
;
θ
θ
(7)
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 33
Substituting in (7) we get,
( ) 0
2
2
2
· − + − −

∞ ∞ ∞

T T T T
kA
hP
dx
d
L
T T
b
b
) (
) (
θ
θ
0
2
2
2
· − θ
θ
) (mL
dx
d
(8)
Fin tip boundary condition is convective then 
) ( ,
) (
θ θ θ
θ
Bi
k
hL
k
hL
dX
d
T T hA
dx
dT
kA
·

·
− · −

Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 34
Steady state heat conduction with radiation
0
4 4
2
2
· − −

) ( T T P
dx
T d
kA σ ε
Slug Flow
T
x

T
x+∆x

Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 35
x x p x x x p x
AUT C q AUT C q
∆ + ∆ +
+ · + | | | | ρ ρ
α
θ θ
θ
α
ρ
UL
Pe
dX
d
Pe
dX
d
T T
T T
L
x
X
dx
dT U
dx
T d
AUdT C x
dx
T d
kA
i L
i
p
· ·


· ·
·
· ∆
,
,
2
2
2
2
2
2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 36
Unsteady Heat Conduction
Heat in = Heat out + Heat stored
 
Heat in – Heat out = Heat stored
Heat stored is
τ
ρ


∆ ·

T
xC A dT C m
p p
.
τ
α


·

∂ T
x
T
2
2
Heat in – Heat out =
2
2
dx
T d
x kA∆
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 37
DISCRETIZATION METHODS
Finite Difference Method
2
1 1
2
1 1
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
0
2
3
1
2
3
2
2
3
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
h
h
y y
y
h y y
h
y y
h y h y h x y h x y
h
dx
y d
h
dx
y d
h
dx
dy
x y h x y
h
dx
y d
h
dx
y d
h
dx
dy
x y h x y
i i
i i
) ( '
!
'
!
' ) ( ) (
...
! !
) ( ) (
...
! !
) ( ) (
' ' '
' ' '
+

·
+ ·

+ · − − +
+ − + − · −
+ + + + · +
− +
− +
 
i-2 I -1 ∆x i i+1 i+2
 
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 38
The above is known as central difference. The
forward or backward difference for y’ can be
obtained from yi and yi+1 or yi and yi-1 to yield
) ( ' x
x
y y
y
i i
∆ +


·
+
0
1
) ( ' x
x
y y
y
i i
∆ +


·

0
1
and
Similarly forward difference for y” is given as:-
2
1 2
2
1 2
3 2
3 2
2
2
2 2
3
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
2
1
2 2
x
y y y
y
x y y y y
h x y from subtract and by h x y Multiply
h y h y h y y h x y
h y h y h y y h x y
i i i
i
i i i i
i i i i
i i i i

+ −
·
∆ + − · −
+ +
+ + + · +
+ + + · +
+ +
+ +
' '
' '
' ' ' ' ' '
' ' ' ' ' '
) (
) ( ) (
) (
!
) (
!
) ( ) (
) (
!
) (
!
) ( ) (
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 39
Backward difference
2
1 1
2
x
y y y
y
i i i
i

+ −
·
+ −
' '
Central difference using
y(x+h) and y(x-h) yields
2
2 1
2
x
y y y
y
i i i
i

+ −
·
− −
' '
Non uniform grid size discretization
i-1 i i+1
2
2
2
1 1
2
2
2
1 1
2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
x
T
a x a
aT T a T
a x a
x
T
T a aT T
x
x
T
x
x
T
T T
x a
x
T
x a
x
T
T T
i i i
i i i
i i
i i


·
+ ∆
+ + −
+ ∆


+ + · +



+ ∆


+ ·



+ ∆


− ·
+ −
+ −
+

) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
Let the distance
from node i-1 to i be
a∆x and i to i+1 be
∆x.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 40
W
P E
w e
∆x
wP
∆x
PE
∆x
WP
∆x
Pe
FVM Formulation
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 41
Γ
Γ
+ ·
− + ·
+ + ·
· ∆ + ∆ −

,
_

¸
¸


Γ −

,
_

¸
¸


Γ
· + −

,
_

¸
¸
Γ
+ +
of behaviour the on depending
mean harmonic or mean arithmetic be may
S S S as linearized is Source The Where
S a a a
S a a a
x S x n
x x
yields above the g Integratin
S n
dx
d
dx
d
w or e
u P P
P e w P
u E e W w P p
Pe wP Pe wP P
WP
W P
w
PE
P E
e
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
φ
φ φ φ
φ
φ φ φ φ
φ
φ
0
0
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 42
The 4 rules of Finite Volume
• Ensure that the flux across the face common to the
two control volumes is represented by the same
expression.

Coefficients of a
p
and its neighbors should always be
positive.

S
P
should always be negative, at best should be less
than 1.

a
P
should be sum of all neighbors a
nb
.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 43
Discretization for Transient Problems
) (
) (
;
Pe wP
n
WP
W P
w
PE
P E
e
n
WP
W P
w
PE
P E
e
n
P
n
P
p
x S
x x
x x
yields above the g Integratin
c
k
x x
+
+
+
∆ +
1
]
1

¸



Γ −


Γ −
+
1
]
1

¸



Γ −


Γ ·

,
_

¸
¸


· Γ


·

,
_

¸
¸


Γ


φ φ φ φ
β
φ φ φ φ
β
τ
φ φ
ρ
τ
φ
ρ
φ
1
1
1
Where β = 0 is Explicit and β = 1 is Implicit
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 44
W
P E
w e
∆x
wP
∆x
PE
∆x
WP
∆x
Pe
Convection – Diffusion Equation
Represents Upwind Formulation
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 45
) (
/ ; / ;
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
w e e w p
e e e w w w E e W w P p
W P w P E e W P
w
P E
e
WP
W P
w
PE
P E
e w w e e
F F a a a
F D a F D a a a a
D D
F F
Scheme CD
x D and u F Let
x x
u u
yields g Integratin
dx
d
dx
d
dx
d
u
− + + ·
− · + · + ·
− − − · + − +
∆ Γ · ·

,
_

¸
¸


Γ −

,
_

¸
¸


Γ · −

,
_

¸
¸
Γ ·
2 2
2 2
φ φ φ
φ φ φ φ φ φ φ φ
ρ
φ φ φ φ
φ ρ φ ρ
φ φ
ρ
CD Scheme Limitation F/D i.e. Pe less than 2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 46
Upwind Scheme
e e e w w
e e w w w
P w E e
P e W w
F D a and D a have We F
D a and F D a have We F
and have We F
and have We F
− · · <
· + · >
· · <
· · >
0
0
0
0
φ φ φ φ
φ φ φ φ
Note: CD Scheme gives rise to artificial
diffusion. Good for Pe < 2, hence ∆x needs to be
small to ensure low Pe. Upwind gives
reasonable results for higher Pe number. A
hybrid scheme or power law can also be used.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 47
Fluid Mechanics
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 48
TYPES OF FLUID
Ideal Fluid – Incompressible ‘zero
viscosity’ fluid – Imaginary fluid.
Real Fluid – Fluid with viscosity
Newtonian – shear stress in proportional to
‘strain rate’ - grad V.
Non – Newtonian –
Ideal Plastic – shear stress in more than
yield value and is proportional to strain
rate.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 49
Linear translation refers to bodily movement of
fluid element with out deformation
Linear deformation refers to deformation in linear
direction with axis remaining parallel
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 50
Angular deformation refers to
average change contained by 2
adjacent sides
( )
1
]
1

¸



+


·
∆ + ∆ ·
y
u
x
v
rate strain shear Or
n deformatio Angular
2
1
2
1
2 1
θ θ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 51
Pure rotation occurs when
fluid particle rotates such that
both axis moves with the same
magnitude and direction

,
_

¸
¸





·

,
_

¸
¸





·

,
_

¸
¸





·
x
w
z
u
z
v
y
w
y
u
x
v
y x z
2
1
2
1
2
1
ω ω ω ; ;
The rotational components are given as
ω 2 or V is Vorticity × ∇
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 52
Reynold’s Transport
Theorem
Consider a fluid mass occupying an
arbitrary volume. Let Φ be a transported
quantity, and φ its intensive property, i.e.
φ = Φ/m.
Let Sp be the space occupied by the fluid
and cv the control volume overlapping
fluid space Sp.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 53
∫ ∫
· · Φ
) (
) ( ) (
t Sp cv
dV dV
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
• ∇ · •
• +


·
Φ
cv cs
cv cs
dV u dS n u
dS n u dV
t dt
d
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
ρ φ ρ φ
ρ φ ρ φ
By Gauss divergence theorem
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 54
u
Sp(∆ t)
Sp(t+∆ t)
CV
Amount of fluid contained
in time in time,t, is

) (
) (
t sp
t
dV ρ φ
PROOF
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 55
Thus from time t to t+∆t we have
ρ φ
) t ( sp
t
dV ) (
∆ +
∆ +
) t t ( sp
t t
dV ) (
The increment ∆Φ · Φ(t+∆t) - Φ(t) =


) (
) (
t sp
t
dV

∆ +
∆ +
+
) (
) (
t t sp
t t
dV
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 56
this can be re-written as
ρ φ − ρ φ
+ ρ φ − ρ φ
∆ +
∆ +
∆ +
∆ +
) t ( sp
t
) t ( sp
t t
) t ( sp
t t
) t t ( sp
t t
dV ) ( dV ) (
dV ) ( dV ) (
The first two terms deals with the deformation
of the fluid and will occur at the rate of fluid
velocity = u.n ds
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 57
ρ φ
cs
u ) (
dS n .
The next two terms yields
∆ ρ φ


) t ( sp
tdV ) (
t
Thus proved.
ρ φ • ∇ · • ρ φ
• ρ φ + ρ φ


·
Φ
·

∆ Φ
cv cs
cv cs
dV ) u ( dS n u ) (
dS n u ) ( dV ) (
t dt
d
t
Lim
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 58
Derivation of Continuity Equation
Let Φ the transported quantity be mass, m, the
intensive property φ = Φ/m =1. Law of
conservation of Mass
0
t t
m
·

Φ ∂
·


0 ndS u dV ) (
t
cs CV
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 59
Hence , using Gauss divergence theorem
we have,
0 dV ) u (
t
cv
·

,
_

¸
¸
ρ • ∇ +

ρ ∂
For an incompressible fluid we have
0 u .
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 60
Momentum Equation
By Newton’s II law, the rate of
change of momentum is equal to the
total force (both surface and body
forces )
cv
dV . X
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 61
Normal and shear components are
given in figure below.
I subscript refers to the plane at which
force acts x – YZ plane.
II subscript refers to the direction.
σ
xy
σ
xx
σ
yx
σ
yy
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 62
ds
dy
dx
Resolving the horizontal forces we have,
dx dy
yx xx
dx dy
yy xy
And vertical forces =
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 63
n
x
=dy/ds and n
y
= - dx/ds or
[dy -dx] = n.ds
Thus the external forces can be
written as n. ds
1
]
1

¸

σ σ
σ σ
× −
yy yx
xy xx
dx dy
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 64
The surface + body forces =

Letting Φ to be momentum, mu, and φ=mu/
m = u. Thus the rate of change of momentum
+ σ •
cs cv
dV X ds n
dV X
dt
d
cv
+ σ • ∇ ·
Φ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 65
dV ) uu ( ) u (
t dt
d
cv

,
_

¸
¸
ρ • ∇ + ρ


·
Φ
from Reynolds transport theorem we have
and equating this rate of change of
momentum to the forces =
( ) dV X
cv
+ σ • ∇
X ) uu ( ) u (
t
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 66
X
u u u . u
t
u
t
u
Taking the first and third term in LHS
and second and fourth term of LHS we
have,
X u u
t
u
u
t
u + σ • ∇ ·

,
_

¸
¸
∇ • +


ρ +

,
_

¸
¸
ρ • ∇ +

ρ ∂
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 67
By continuity equation the first
term of LHS is equal to zero. Thus,
X u u
t
u
+ σ • ∇ ·

,
_

¸
¸
∇ • +


ρ
Now connect the equation by
substituting σ with known quantities
viz. pressure and velocity.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 68
( )

,
_

¸
¸
·

,
_

¸
¸
·
2
2
2
w wv wu
vw v vu
uw uv u
w v u
w
v
u
uu
( ) D
z / w z / v z / u
y / w y / v y / u
x / w x / v x / u
w v u
z /
y /
x /
u ·

,
_

¸
¸
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
·

,
_

¸
¸
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
· ∇
z
w
y
v
x
u
u


+


+


· • ∇
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 69
A
B
D C
A’
C’
D’
B’
δ
2
δ
1
It moves to a
position
A’B’C’D’.
Consider a fluid
volume ABCD
in space
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 70
Although the volume is conserved
there is a strain in x and y direction as
well as angular movement.
Strain, .
x
xx
Strain rate is given as,
x
xx
xx
.
u
t x x t t
·

,
_

¸
¸

ε ∂


·

,
_

¸
¸

ε ∂


·

ε ∂
· ε

y
yy
v · ε

z
zz
w · ε

Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 71
The angular movement , 2 1
.
xy
2
1
δ + δ · ε
x
and
y
Where
2
1
2
1
.
2
1
xy

η ∂
· δ

ε ∂
· δ

,
_

¸
¸
δ + δ · ε
• • • • •
x y
xy
x 2 y 1
v u
2
1
v
x t
u
y t
+ · ε
·

,
_

¸
¸

η ∂


· δ ·

,
_

¸
¸

ε ∂


· δ

• •
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 72
If the fluid undergoes net rotation it is given
by
u u v
t
y x 1 2
× ∇ · − · δ − δ


also known as vorticity ω.
Thus the full strain tensor is given as,
[ ]
T
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
D D+ ·
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

• • •
• • •
• • •
2
1
ε ε ε
ε ε ε
ε ε ε
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 73

,
_

¸
¸
·

,
_

¸
¸
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
·
z z z
y y y
x x x
w v u
w v u
w v u
z / w z / v z / u
y / w y / v y / u
x / w x / v x / u
D
Constitutive relation as per Hooke’s Law is
ε · σ ] E [
For a Newtonian Fluid its given as:
ij ij kk d ij
2 p
ε
kk

xx

yy

zz
=∇•u
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 74
Thus,
ij ij d ij
2 u p
The negative sign for p ensures positive
flow along decreasing slope. p
d
stands for
thermodynamic pressure, which includes
the rotational and vibrational modes of
energy as well as the mechanical pressure
related to the translation energy (kinetic
energy) of molecules.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 75
p = static pressure = - (σ
xx

yy

zz
)/3 which
is the mechanical energy related to
translation of kinetic energy of molecules.
The constitutive equation can be written as
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 76
) u w (
2
1
2 ) u w ( &
) v w (
2
1
2 ) v w ( &
) u v (
2
1
2 ) u v ( &
w 2 u p
v 2 u p
u 2 u p
z x z x xz xz
z y z y yz zy
y x y x yx xy
z d zz
y d yy
x d xx
+ µ × · + µ · σ σ
+ µ × · + µ · σ σ
+ µ × · + µ · σ σ
µ + • ∇ λ + − · σ
µ + • ∇ λ + − · σ
µ + • ∇ λ + − · σ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 77
Since σ
xx

yy

zz
= -3p
Adding the constitutive equations yields
-3p= - 3p
d
+3λ∇•u+2µ(∇•u)
p
d
– p = ∇•u(λ + 2/3µ)
For incompressible flow ∇•u = 0,
therefore p
d
= p. (3λ + 2µ) is called
the Bulk viscosity.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 78
By Stoke’s hypothesis setting bulk
viscosity = 0 yields λ = - 2/3µ
Thus,

,
_

¸
¸
δ • ∇ − ε µ + δ − · σ
ij ij ij ij
u
3
2
2 p
Thus,
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
δ • ∇ − ε µ • ∇ + ∇ − ·
+ σ • ∇ ·

,
_

¸
¸
∇ • +


ρ
ij ij
u
3
1
2 p X
X u u
t
u
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 79
For isothermal and incompressible flow ∇•u =
0, hence the III term in LHS equation simplifies
as
( )
1
]
1

¸

+ • ∇ · • ∇
ji ij ij
ε ε µ ε µ
2
1
2 ) ( 2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 80

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


+



,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


+




• ∇ ·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


+



,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


+

,
_

¸
¸


+




• ∇
z
w
y
w
z
v
x
w
z
u
y
w
z
v
y
v
x
v
y
u
x
w
z
u
x
v
y
u
x
u
z
w
y
w
z
v
x
w
z
u
y
w
z
v
y
v
x
v
y
u
x
w
z
u
x
v
y
u
x
u
µ µ µ
µ µ µ
µ µ µ
µ
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 81

,
_

¸
¸
1
]
1

¸





+
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+




+
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+




1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+




+
1
]
1

¸





+
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+




1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+




+
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+




+
1
]
1

¸





·
z
w
z y
w
z
v
y x
w
z
u
x
y
w
z
v
z y
v
y x
v
y
u
x
x
w
z
u
z x
v
y
u
y x
u
x
µ µ µ
µ µ µ
µ µ µ
2
2
2

,
_

¸
¸
∂ ∂

+
∂ ∂

+


+


+


∂ ∂

+
∂ ∂

+


+


+


∂ ∂

+
∂ ∂

+


+


+


·
z y
v
z x
u
y
w
x
w
z
w
z y
w
y x
u
z
v
x
v
y
v
z x
w
y x
v
z
u
y
u
x
u
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
µ µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ µ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 82

,
_

¸
¸


+
∂ ∂

+
∂ ∂

+ +


+


+


∂ ∂

+


+
∂ ∂

+


+


+


∂ ∂

+
∂ ∂

+


+


+


+


·
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z
w
z y
v
z x
u
z
w
y
w
x
w
z y
w
y
v
y x
u
z
v
y
v
x
v
z x
w
y x
v
x
u
z
u
y
u
x
u
µ µ µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ µ µ

,
_

¸
¸
1
]
1

¸



+


+




+


+


+


1
]
1

¸



+


+




+


+


+


1
]
1

¸



+


+




+


+


+


·
z
w
y
v
x
u
z z
w
y
w
x
w
z
u
y
u
x
u
y z
v
y
v
x
v
z
w
y
v
x
u
x z
u
y
u
x
u
µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Re-arranging, we get:
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 83
But the sum in brackets at the end of each
row is the divergence of the velocity, which is
zero for Incompressible Flow.
z
w
y
v
x
u
v


+


+


· • ∇

u
z
w
y
w
x
w
z
v
y
v
x
v
z
u
y
u
x
u
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
∇ ·

,
_

¸
¸


+


+




+


+




+


+


· µ µ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 84
u p X u u
t
u
0 u
2
∇ µ + ∇ − ·

,
_

¸
¸
∇ • +


ρ
· • ∇
( )
u
ji ij ij
2
2
1
2 ) ( 2
∇ ·
1
]
1

¸

+ • ∇ · • ∇
µ
ε ε µ ε µ
Thus,
We therefore have:
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 85
For a creeping flow, neglecting inertial
terms yields the Stokes equation:-
X u p
t
u
2
+ ∇ µ + − ∇ ·


ρ
For high fluids with high inertial terms the
viscous terms can be neglected to yield the
Euler equation:-
p X u u
t
u
∇ − ·

,
_

¸
¸
∇ • +


ρ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 86
Integrating Euler equation over time
yields the Bernoulli equation
Where, p
*
= p + X and
*
p u u

,
_

¸
¸
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
· ∇ •
z / w z / v z / u
y / w y / v y / u
x / w x / v x / u
w v u u u
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 87
1
1
1
]
1

¸

∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂
· ∇ • ∴
z / w w y / w v x / w u
z / v w y / v v x / v u
z / u w y / u v x / u u
u u
We have seen the derivation of the Navier-
Stokes Equation and the simplification of the
equation to yield the Stokes, Euler and
Bernoulli equation.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 88
Slug Flow using Reynold’s Transport Theorem
Γ
· · · ·
UL
k
UL C UL
Pe
C
k
P
p
ρ ρ
α ρ
α ,
P
C
k
· Γ
Continuity Equation
0 ·


+


) (
j
j
u
x t
ρ
ρ
Generalized Transport Equation
( ) ( ) S
x x
u
x t
j j
j
j
+

,
_

¸
¸


Γ


·


+

∂ φ
φ ρ ρ φ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 89
Let density remain constant and let φ =C
p
T and
Assuming 1-D and constant velocity, U,
2
2
x
T
x
T
U
t
T


Γ ·


+


ρ ρ
dividing by density and for steady state
2
2
x
T
x
T U


·


α
α
θ θ
θ
UL
Pe
dX
d
Pe
dX
d
T T
T T
L
x
X
i L
i
· ·


· ·
,
,
2
2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 90
Boundary layer
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 91
Boundary Layer Flows
Flow around bodies immersed in a
fluid stream
Flow will have viscous effects near
body surface, inviscid in far field
Flow is unconfined unlike pipe flow
Field of study – Aerodynamics,
Hydrodynamics, Transportation,
Wind engineering (Tall structures)
etc.,
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 92
Boundary layer analysis can be used
to compute viscous effects near wall
and patch the results to the outer
inviscid motion. This patching is
successful for large Re.
Consider figure with Re = 10. The
fluid flow is retarded greatly with
thick shear layer.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 93
Re 1 to 1000
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 94
Flows with thick shear layers do not
have simple theory for performing
analysis.
Low range Re flows are studied
experimentally or numerically
(computational fluid dynamics).
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 95
Turbulent Flow – Re=10
Very Thin boundary layer – Amenable to
boundary layer patching (Prandtl,1904)
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 96
The three regions in the boundary layer
are:
1. The Wall Layer: Viscous shear
dominates
2. Outer Layer: Turbulent shear
dominates
3. Overlap Layer: Both shear types are
important.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 97
Laws relating to Velocity Profile
Velocity Frictional u
w
,
ρ
τ
τ
·
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 98
Linear Sub Layer y+<5 Law of the wall
w
y
u
y ≈


· ) (
Integrating with B.C’s u =0, y=0, gives a linear
relationship and equated as,
+ +
· ·
· · ·
y u or
y u
u
u
y u y y
u
w w
ν
ν ρ ν
τ
µ
τ
τ
τ
τ
2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 99
Far away form the wall one can expect
that velocity at a point be influenced by
the retarding effect of the wall through
the value of wall shear stress, but not by
viscosity itself. Thus,
) / (
max
τ
y g
u
u u
·

is known as the velocity defect law.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 100
Log Layer – Turbulent region close to the
smooth wall. The region outside viscous sub
layer where both viscous and turbulent effects
are important.
30 < y
+
< 500. τ varies slowly with distance
from the wall and within this inner region it is
assumed to be constant and equal to wall
shear stress.
] Ey [ ln
k
1
B , B y ln
k
1
u
+ + +
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 101
k and B are universal constants, E is the
wall roughness, the constants are obtained
by measurements. B=5.5, k=0.4 and E =
9.8. The log layer is shown to be valid
from
0.02 < y/δ <0.2 by experiments.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 102
A
y
k u
u u
+

,
_

¸
¸
·

δ
τ
ln
max
1
Outer Layer – Inertia dominated region.
For larger values of y, the velocity defect
law provides the correct form. For the
overlap region between the log layer and
the defect layer the values must be the
same, i.e.
A is a constant and called the law of the
wake
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 103
TWO – DIMENSIONAL FLOW

,
_

¸
¸


+


µ +


− ·

,
_

¸
¸


+


ρ

,
_

¸
¸


+


µ +


− ·

,
_

¸
¸


+


ρ
·


+


2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
y
v
x
v
y
p
y
v
v
x
v
u
y
u
x
u
x
p
y
u
v
x
u
u
0
y
v
x
u
Since shear layer is thin for large Re (Prandtl),
following assumptions apply
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 104
only ) x ( p p or 0
y
p
eqn momentum y to applying
y x
u v
· ·





< <


< <
For the outer inviscid flow applying the
Bernoulli equation
2
2
2
2
y
u
x
u
dx
dU
U
dx
dp


< <


ρ − ·
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 105
The three full equations are reduced to
Prandtl’s two – boundary layer equation
y
u
y
u
y dx
dU
U
y
u
v
x
u
u
y
v
x
u
t
l


·


·


+ ≈


+


·


+


τ
µ τ
µ τ
τ
ρ
1
0
LAMINAR
TURBULENT
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 106
Boundary Layers with
Pressure Gradient
Flow separation is caused by excessive
momentum loss near the wall in a boundary
layer trying to move downstream against
increasing pressure dp/dx>0 is called adverse
pressure gradient. At the wall u = v = 0 thus
dx
dp 1
y
u
2
2
µ
·


Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 107
Boundary Layers with
Pressure Gradient
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 108
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 109
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 110
Turbulence
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 111
The uniform distribution of velocity tends to
become irregular either due to a solid interaction
or when neighboring streams of the same fluid
flow past one another causing what is known as
turbulence. It is to be noted that the irregularity
associated with turbulence can be described by the
laws of probability by being able to determine the
fluctuation by statistical averaging.
TURBULENCE
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 112
N – S Equation for Turbulent Flow
The additional terms depend on the turbulent
fluctuations of the stream. These terms can be
interpreted as components of stress tensor.
Therefore,
1
]
1

¸



+


+


− ∇ +


− ·
1
]
1

¸



+


+


+


' ' ' ' ' w u
t
v u
y
u
x
u
x
P
z
u
w
y
u
v
x
u
u
t
u
2 2
ρ µ ρ
1
]
1

¸





+


+ ∇ +


− ·
1
]
1

¸



+


+


+


zx yx xx
z y x
u
x
P
z
u
w
y
u
v
x
u
u
t
u
' ' ' τ τ σ µ ρ
2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 113
in 3-D comparing the above
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

− ·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

·
2
2
2
' ' ' ' '
' ' ' ' '
' ' ' ' '
' ' '
' ' '
' ' '
w v w u w
w v v u v
w u v u u
zz yz xz
zy yy xy
zx yx xx
T
ρ
σ τ τ
τ σ τ
τ τ σ
σ
The total laminar and turbulent stresses in the
fluid are
' ' : ' ' ; ' ' w u
x
w
z
u
v u
x
v
y
u
u
x
u
P
xz xy xx
ρ µ τ ρ µ τ ρ µ σ −
1
]
1

¸



+


· −
1
]
1

¸



+


· −


+ − ·
2
2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 114
TURBULENCE MODLES
Mixing length – Prandtl’s mixing length
hypothesis
   κ - ε Model
Reynold’s Shear Stress (aka) 7 equation
model
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 115
Models for evaluating ρu
i

u
j

J Boussinesq
introduced a mixing co-efficient for the
Reynold’s stress term as µ
τ
y
u
y
u
y
u
y
u
v u
l
t


·


·


·


· − ·
ρ ν µ τ
ρ ν µ ρ τ
τ τ
' '
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 116
Thus the equation can be re-written as
( )

,
_

¸
¸


+


+


− ·


+

,
_

¸
¸





+


− ·


+


y
u
y x
P
y
u
v
x
u
u
v u
y
u
y x
P
y
u
v
x
u
u
t
ν ν
ρ
ν
ρ
1
1
' '
term is known as eddie viscosity. The
kinematic viscosity is a property and not
influenced by flow, but the eddie viscosity is
attributed to the random fluctuation and it is
not a property of the fluid.
τ
ν
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 117
There are various models that relate the
apparent (or) eddie viscosity to the mean
velocity gradient.
Prandtl mixing length hypothesis
y
u
l
y
u
l


·


·
2
2
τ
τ
ν
ρ µ
l is the Prandtl mixing length, For wall –
boundary layers
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 118
. , . ,
, . , , .
) / ( ) / (
wall from dist y and realised is U where location
const Karman Von const length mixing
y for l and y for y l

· ·
> · ≤ ·
99 0
41 0 09 0
δ
χ λ
δ χ λ λ δ δ χ λ χ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 119
1
1
]
1

¸

− ·

,
_

¸
¸

+
ν
ρ τ
A
y
w
e y l
2 1
1
/
) / (
, is the wall shear stress, and A
+
is the Von
Driest damping constant = 26 for smooth surface
without suction or blowing on low pressure
gradient surface.
w
τ
1
1
]
1

¸

− ·

,
_

¸
¸

+
ν
ρ τ
A
y
w
e y l
2 1
1
/
) / (
1
1
]
1

¸

− ·

,
_

¸
¸

+
ν
ρ τ
A
y
w
e y l
2 1
1
/
) / (
w
τ
1
1
]
1

¸

− ·

,
_

¸
¸

+
ν
ρ τ
A
y
w
e y l
2 1
1
/
) / (
, is the wall shear stress, and A
+
is the Von
Driest damping constant = 26 for smooth surface
without suction or blowing on low pressure
gradient surface.
w
τ
Very close to the wall, viscous effects play a vital
role. The mixing length should gradually go to
zero
1
1
]
1

¸

− ·

,
_

¸
¸

+
ν
ρ τ
A
y
w
e y l
2 1
1
/
) / (
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 120
For free shear flows, the mixing length scales
with the shear layer thickness (δ
s
). The eddie
viscosity can be written as
s d
CU δ ν
τ
·
where U
d
, is the characteristic velocity defect
across shear layer and C is the proportionality
constant to be determined from experiments.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 121
κ - ε Model for Turbulence
The instantaneous velocity of the fluid is
decomposed into mean and fluctuating
components. The effect of the fluctuating
components on the mean motion is modeled
after obtaining empirical relations for specific
cases from experiments.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 122
In κ - ε model, the local turbulent viscosity is
determined from the solution of the transport
equation for the turbulent kinetic energy, κ,
and the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy, ε.
The x-momentum

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸


+




+

,
_

¸
¸




+


− ·


+


+


x
v
y
u
y x
u
x x
P
v u
y
u u
x t
u
eff eff
µ µ ρ ρ ρ 2 ) ( ) (
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 123
The y-momentum

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸


+




+

,
_

¸
¸




+


− ·


+


+


x
v
y
u
x y
v
y y
P
v v
y
v u
x t
v
eff eff
µ µ ρ ρ ρ 2 ) ( ) (
09 0
2
. ; / ; · · + ·
µ µ τ τ
ε ρ κ µ µ µ µ C C
eff
The transport of passive scalar is written as
Advection = Diffusion + Generation –
dissipation
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 124
κ
ε
ρ
κ
ε ε
σ
µ
ε
σ
µ
ε ρ ε ρ
ρ ε
κ
σ
µ
κ
σ
µ
κ ρ κ ρ
ε ε
κ κ
2
2 1
C G C
y y x x
v
y
u
x
G
y y x x
v
y
u
x
eff eff
eff eff
− +
1
]
1

¸





+
1
]
1

¸





·


+


− +
1
]
1

¸





+
1
]
1

¸





·


+


) ( ) (
) ( ) (
G, is the generation of turbulent kinetic energy
and is given as
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸


+


+

,
_

¸
¸
1
]
1

¸



+
1
]
1

¸



·
2 2 2
2
x
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
G
τ
µ
Empirical Values: C
1
= 1.44, C
2
= 1.92, σ
κ
= 1.0,
σ
ε
= 1.3 C
µ
= 0.09

Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 125
For near wall region the equation for wall
shear stress is given as
µ
ρ κ χ κ ρ
τ
µ
τ
µ p
p
p
w
y C
y and u u u where
Ey
C u
4 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 / / / /
, / ,
) ln(
· · ·
+
+
+
+
u
τ
, is the frictional velocity and y
p
+
>11 non-
dimensional distance from the wall to the point
outside viscous layer, E an empirical constant,
wall roughness = 9.8.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 126
Since ,
t
s
is the characteristic time scale, v
s

1/2
and
l
s
=(κ
3/2
)/ε,
( )
s
t t
and w v u
κ κ
ε κ ~ , ' ' '
2
1
2 2 2


· + + ·
ε ρ κ µ
µ τ
/
2
C ·
B.C Inlet κ - ε distribution must be
given, outlet or symmetry
0 0 · ∂ ∂ · ∂ ∂ n and n / / ε κ
Free stream κ = ε = 0. Solid walls depends
on Re.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 127
ky
u
C
u
Ey
u
u
u
3 2
1
τ
µ
τ
τ
ε κ
χ
· · · ·
+ +
; ); ln(
High Reynold’s number 30<y
+
<500.
Low Reynold’s number
09 0
2
. ; / ; · · + ·
µ µ µ τ τ
C f C
eff
κ
ε
ρ
κ
ε ε
σ
µ
ε
σ
µ
ε ρ ε ρ
ρ ε
κ
σ
µ
κ
σ
µ
κ ρ κ ρ
ε ε
κ κ
2
2 2 1 1
f C G f C
y y x x
v
y
u
x
G
y y x x
v
y
u
x
eff eff
eff eff
− +
1
]
1

¸





+
1
]
1

¸





·


+


− +
1
]
1

¸





+
1
]
1

¸





·


+


) ( ) (
) ( ) (
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 128
ε ν κ
µ
µ
/ Re ); Re exp( ;
.
Re
.
)] Re . exp( [
2 2
2
3
1
2
1
05 0
1
5 20
1 0165 0 1
· − − ·

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·

,
_

¸
¸
+ − − ·
t t
t
y
f
f
f
f
Re
t
Turbulence Reynold’s number
Reynolds shear Stress Model
7 equation model, 6 PDE for the stresses
2
2
2
'
' ' '
' ' ' ' '
w
w v v
w u v u u
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 129
Disadvantages
Completely incapable of
describing flows with
separation and recalculation.
Only calculates mean flow
properties and turbulent shear
stress.
Advantages
Mixing length model:
Easy to implement and cheap
in terms of computing
resources.
Good Predictions for thin
shear layers i.e. jets, mixing
layers, wakes and boundary
layers.
Well established
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 130
More expensive to implement
than mixing length model (2 extra
PDE’s)
Poor performance in a variety of
important cases such as
 Some unconfined flows
Flows with large extra strains
(eg curved boundary layers,
swirling flows)
Rotating flows
Fully developed flows in non-
circular ducts.
k- ε Model:
Simplest turbulence models for
which initial and/or boundary
conditions need to be supplied.
Excellent performance for many
industrially relevant flows.
Well established: The most
widely validated turbulence
model.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 131
Very large computing cost (7
extra PDE’s)
Not as widely validated as
mixing length and κ - ε models.
Performs just as poorly as the
κ - ε model in some flows owing
to identical problem with the ε
equation modeling (eg, axi-
symmetric jets and unconfined
re-circulating flows.
Reynold’s Stress model:
Potentially the most general of
all classical turbulence models.
Only initial and / or boundary
conditions need to be supplied
Very accurate calculation of
mean flow properties and all
Reynold’s stresses for many
simple and more complex flows
including wall jets, asymmetric
channels and non circular duct
flows and curved flows.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 132
Unstructured Finite
Volume Method
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 133
Summary
1. Discretization of equations in unstructured
finite volume method.
2. Simple Algorithm.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 134
0 · −

∂ S
s
dS n v v ). (
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
∂ ∂
+ · − +


S S V
b s
V
dV f dS n T dS n v v v vdV
t
. ). ( ρ ρ
] ) ( [
T
v v pI T ∇ + ∇ + ·
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
∂ ∂
+ ∇ + ∇ − · − +


S V
b
V S
s
V
dV f dS n v pdV dS n v v v vdV
t
). ( ). ( µ ρ ρ
Continuity Equation
Momentum Equation
Governing Equations
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 135
Linear system
(momentum)
0 0 0 0 0
1
k
C j j
P p P P p
j
a a b φ φ
·
· +

1 1
0
1
( ) ( )
k k
j j j j j
C
j j
P
j
p A A
a
· ·
¸ _

∇ ⋅ · ⋅

¸ ,
∑ ∑
n v n
∫ ∫

· −


S V
dS n v dV
t
0 .
Space Conservation Law
Pressure correction
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 136
C
N
j
j
r
c
r
j
Arbitrary cell C with neighbor Nj across jth face
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 137
Spatial Representation

∫ ∫

≈ ⇒ ·
− + ·
j
j j C
S V
C j C
S
V
grad dS dV grad
r r grad j
φ φ φ φ
φ φ φ
1
) (
) ).( ( ) (
The gradient is obtained using the Gauss Theorem (2
nd
order approximation). Since the value of j would be
different when applied from either side of face a
symmetric expression is used and presented as follows:
( ) [ ] ) .( ) ( ) .( ) (
j j j
N j N C j C N C
SO
j
r r grad r r grad − + − + + · φ φ φ φ φ
2
1
2
1
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 138
( )
j
N C
φ φ +
2
1
Term gives the value midway between cell
centers connected by a straight line.
[ ] ) .( ) ( ) .( ) (
j j
N j N C j C
r r grad r r grad − + − φ φ
2
1
The above expression provides a correction which
takes into account that the cell-face center may not lie
on the line connecting the cell centers and/or that the
distances to the two CV’s may not be equal. This
would vanish otherwise.
( )
FO
j
SO
j
FO
j j
j N
j C
FO
j
C to N from is flow When
N to C from is flow When
j
φ φ γ φ φ
φ
φ
φ
− + ·
·
*
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 139
Time Integration
∆ + ·
+
+ +
) , (
1
1 1
n
n n n
F
A first order approximation can be used where
temporal accuracy is not important
Implicit Schemes that can be used are the Crank-
Nicolson Method or a second order approximation
assuming a quadratic profile for φ
[ ]
[ ] profile Quadratic F
Nicolson Crank F F
n
n n n n
n
n
n
n n n
τ τ φ φ φ φ
τ φ τ φ
τ
φ φ
∆ + − ·
− +

+ ·
+
+ − +
+
+ +
) , (
) , ( ) , (
1
1 1 1
1
1 1
3
2
3
1
3
4
2
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 140
Moving Grid
t
V
dS n v V
dS n v dV
t
j
S
j
S V

· ·
· −



∫ ∫



δ
.
. 0
In second order the the swept volume by the cell face
during the preceding time step is included to yield:



· ·

j
S
n
j j
s j
t
V V
dS v V
2
3 δ δ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 141
Convective Fluxes
) (
. . ) (
*
. ) (
*
* *
*
FO
j
SO
j
FO
j j
j
j j j
S
s
j
j
S
s j
V S v dS v v m
value mean face cell indicates
m dS v v C
j
j
φ φ γ φ φ
ρ ρ
φ ρ φ
− + ·

,
_

¸
¸
− ≈ − ·

≈ − ·
• •



Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 142
Diffusive Fluxes
( )
j
S
j j
S grad dS grad D
j
j
. .
*

Γ ≈ Γ · φ φ
φ φ
The approximation of the gradient based on the SO
(second order) interpolation
j
φ
Γ
is diffusivity at face-center and obtained using:
( ) [ ] ) .( ) ( ) .( ) (
j j j j
N j N C j C N C
SO
r r grad r r grad − Γ + − Γ + Γ + Γ · Γ
2
1
2
1
φ

∫ ∫

≈ ⇒ ·
j
j j C
S V
S
V
grad dS dV grad φ φ φ φ
1
) (
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 143
This II order space-centered expression cannot sense
oscillations that are twice the characteristic length of
the numerical mesh. Unphysical oscillatory profiles if
induced, remain superimposed.
RECTIFICATION: A III order dissipation term is
added as:
( ) ( )
j
j
N C j
j
j
j
j
j
C N
j j
r r d
III II I TERMS
S
S
d
d grad
d
grad grad
− ·

,
_

¸
¸


+ ·
.
*
φ
φ φ
φ φ
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 144
The over-bar in term III represents the arithmetic average
of values calculated at node C and N
j
.
The II & III term is the difference between the central
difference approximation of the derivative in the
direction of vector dj (II) and the value obtained by
interpolating cell-center gradients (III). This term in
brackets (II-III) vanishes if the spatial variation for phi is
linear or quadratic. Its magnitude is proportional to the II
order truncation error and reduces with grid refinement.
The I term is the contribution from the nearest neighbors
and treated implicitly, the II & III term represent the
cross-diffusion component and vanish with orthogonal
grid. This is treated explicitly which is a deferred
correction approach.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 145
The resulting algebraic equation is of the form
φ φ φ
φ φ
C
j
N j C C
r a a
j
· −

SIMPLE Algorithm is used to solve the equation
where, the momentum equations are solved
assuming that the pressure field is known (predictor
step).
The mass fluxes are corrected to satisfy the
continuity requirement in the corrector step by
correcting velocity and density.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 146
SIMPLE Algorithm
Semi Implicit Pressure Linked Equation
' '
; v v v p p p Let
o o
+ · + ·
Substituting the values of p and v as estimated plus
corrections in the momentum equations and neglecting
other terms yields:
ρ
ρ ρ
t
A
y
p
A v and
x
p
A u
y
p
t
v
and
x
p
t
u

·


− ·


− ·


− ·




− ·


;
'
'
'
'
' ' ' '
Note: Corrections are zero at the first iteration
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 147
y
p
A v v and
x
p
A u u


− ·


− ·
' '
0 0
Substituting this in the continuity equation gives
( )
0
2
2
2
2
2
1
0
0
v
A
p
y
p
x
p
A
y
v
x
u
y
p
A v
y x
p
A u
x
o o
o o
. '
' '
' '
∇ · ∇
·

,
_

¸
¸




,
_

¸
¸


+


·
1
]
1

¸






+
1
]
1

¸






This is poisson’s equation for pressure correction
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 148
As seen the velocity obtained in the predictor step
does not necessarily satisfy the continuity equation
and there exist a mass imbalance in each CV.
The velocity and pressure corrections are obtained
from
' ' , ' ' p
p
p grad
a
V
v
v
C


·

·
ρ
ρ
v
C
a
V ∆
This coefficient comes from the discretized
momentum equation.
p ∂
∂ ρ
is calculated from the equation of
state.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 149
The velocities used to calculated the mass fluxes are
obtained by interpolation as given below:
( ) [ ] ) .( ) ( ) .( ) (
j j j
N j N C j C N C
SO
j
r r v grad r r v grad v v v − + − + + ·
2
1
2
1
Cell-center pressure gradients are not sensitive to
oscillations between immediate neighbors. Hence a
dissipation term is added to the interpolated velocity
which can sense such oscillations and smoothen it.
This method is for co-located grids. A staggered grid may
also be used. However, requires more memory storage for
storing geometric information along with tedious
interpolation.
Natteri M Sudharsan, Ph.D., 150
j
j
j
C N
v
C
j
j
j
j
j
j
C N
v
C
j j
S
S
d
p p
a
V
v
S
S
d
d p grad
d
p p
a
V
v v
j
j
' '
'
.
*

,
_

¸
¸

− ·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

− ·
Thus the procedure is repeated till all corrections
are within the limits prescribed.
Thank you