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ULTRASONIC RANGE METER

ULTRASONIC RANGE METER


Mini Project Report Submitted By
DON MATHEW

In Partial Fulfillment of V1th semester of Bachelor of Technology In


ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

OF
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, POONJAR KOTTAYAM 686 582

Email: cepihrd@sancharnet.in Website :http:/www.cep.ac.in APRIL 2012

Dept. of ECE, College of Engineering. Poonjar

ULTRASONIC RANGE METER

ABSTRACT

This application is based upon the reflection of sound waves. Sound waves are defined as longitudinal pressure waves in the medium in which they are travelling. Subjects whose dimensions are larger than the wavelength of the impinging sound waves reflect them; the reflected waves are called the echo. If the speed of sound in the medium is known and the time taken for the sound waves to travel the distance from the source to the subject and back to the source is measured, the distance from the source to the subject can be computed accurately. This is the measurement principle of this application. Here the medium for the sound waves is air and the sound waves used are ultrasonic at 40 kHz, since it is inaudible to humans. Assuming that the speed of sound in air is 343meter/second at room temperature and that the measured time taken for the sound waves to travel the distance from the source to the subject and back to the source is t seconds, the distance d is computed by the formula d=343*t meters.

Since the sound and the subject will be d/2.waves travel twice the distance between the source and the subject, the actual distance between the sources. This application report describes a distance-measuring system based on ultrasonic sound utilizing the 555 timer IC and 4553, 3-digit BCD counter IC. The system transmits a burst of ultrasonic sound waves towards the subject which is controlled by 555 timer IC and then receives the corresponding echo with ultrasonic detector. The time taken for the ultrasonic burst to travel the distance from the system to the subject and back to the system is accurately measured by the IC 4553 and displays it using a LED 7-segment display.

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ULTRASONIC RANGE METER

CONTENTS

1. Introduction 2. Hardware requirements 3. Block level description 3.1 Block diagram 3.2 Block diagram explanation 4. Circuit explanation 4.1 Design of the circuit 4.2 Circuit diagram 4.3 Working of the circuit 4.4 Circuit parts explanation 4.5 Components used for the circuit 5. PCB 5.1 PCB layout 5.2 PCB explanation 5.2.1 Manufacturing Process 5.2.2 Layout Approaches 5.2.3 Board Cleaning 5.2.4 Screen Printing 5.2.5 Plating 5.2.6 Etching
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5.2.7 Component Placing 5.2.8 Drilling 5.2.9 Soldering 6. Result 7. Advantages & disadvantages 8. Future scope 9. Conclusion 10. Reference 31 32 32

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ULTRASONIC RANGE METER

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure8 Figure9 Figure10 Figure11 Figure12 Figure13 Figure14 Figure15 Figure16 Block Diagram Ultrasonic pulse oscillator Ultrasonic oscillator Amplifier circuit Detector circuit Comparator circuit Transmitter circuit Measurement pulse oscillator Ultrasonic pulse oscillator Ultrasonic oscillator Ultrasonic sensor drive circuit Signal amplification circuit Detection circuit Signal detector Diagram of signal detection Flip flop circuit and timing diagram of Transmission pulse Figure17 Figure18 Measurement pulse oscillator Circuit of counter clear pulse and Latch clear pulse
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Figure19 Figure20 Figure21 Figure22 Figure23 Figure24 Figure25 Figure26 Figure27 Figure28 Figure29 Figure30 Figure31 Figure32 Figure33 Figure34 Figure35 Figure36 Figure37 Internal block diagram of BCD counter IC 4553 LED display circuit Power circuit Ultrasonic sensor Brief specification of sensors Low noise operational amplifier Low power operational amplifier NAND Gates (4011) Inverters (4069) Regulator (78l09) LED control transistor2SA1015) Schottky barrier diode (1SS106) 7 segment LED IC socket Variable resistor Resistor Ceramic capacitor Multilayer ceramic capacitor Electrolytic capacitor 19 20 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 26

Dept. of ECE, College of Engineering. Poonjar

ULTRASONIC RANGE METER

1. INTRODUCTION
The Range meters helps in measuring the distance of a destination from the source point. In many cases the traditional measuring tools can never serve the purpose especially when the source and destination are in motion. Sometimes the response time can be crucial. Hence the urge for more advanced, quick responding Range meters have been increasing. The Ultrasonic range meter is based on the reflection of sound waves. The Ultrasonic is transmitted using T40-16 sensors and received using R40-16 sensors. The oscillations are generated by 555 timer ICs. If the speed of sound in the medium is known and the time taken for the sound waves to travel the distance from the source to the subject and back to the source is measured, the distance from the source to the subject can be computed accurately. The Distance is displayed using 7 segment LED display. The range meters finds a variety of applications, in automobile parking assistance systems, reverse assistance systems etc. The ultrasonic range meters are preferable as they are comparatively long distance, quick response and less affected by temperature variations.

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ULTRASONIC RANGE METER

2. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

The hardware required for the fulfillment of this project.

ULTRASONIC SENSOR- The transmitter is T40-16 and the receiver is R40-16. 40 Shows the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic (40 kHz) & 16 shows the diameter of the sensor. LCD DISPLAY- The measurement result is displayed in the three 7 segment LEDs. The cathode common type must be used.

POWER SUPPLY UNIT- A voltage regulator network used to provide sufficient voltage requirements. 3- DIGIT BCD COUNTER IC (4553) - It is used to measure the propagation time of the ultrasonic. 555 TIMER IC - It is the circuit to make oscillate the ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz.

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ULTRASONIC RANGE METER

3. BLOCK LEVEL DESCRIPTION

3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

OSCILLATOR

TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT

DISPLAY SECTION
LCD DISPLAY LCD DRIVER

TIME MEASUREMENT SECTION

DETECTOR CIRCUIT

POWER SUPPLY
TRANSFOR MER RECTIFIER REGULATOR (7809) FILTER

SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION CIRCUIT

RECIEVER CIRCUIT

Figure1: Block diagram

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3.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION

POWER SUPPLY The circuit is using the various oscillators. The frequency of those oscillators is related with the measurement precision. So, the power supply voltage to use must be stable. A dc voltage of 9v can be delivered from the 230V supply. The 230V supply is step downed to an appropriate value and that is rectified and regulated by IC 7809 voltage regulators. OSCILLATOR Oscillator section involves two oscillator circuits. The two oscillator sections ultrasonic pulse oscillator and ultrasonic oscillator are using 555 timer ICs. The ultrasonic pulse oscillator is the oscillation circuit to control the sending-out time of the ultrasonic pulse. The ultrasonic oscillator is the circuit to make oscillate the ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz. It makes Rb>Ra to bring the duty(ratio of on/off) of the oscillation wave close to 50%.the frequency of the ultrasonic must be adjusted to the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic sensor. The oscillation frequency is adjusted by making the Rb the variable resistor (vr1). TRANSMITTER In the transmitter section inverter is used for the drive of the ultrasonic sensor. The two inverters are connected in parallel to increase the transmission electric power. The sensor used in the transmitter section is t40-16. 40 show the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic. (40 kHz) 16 shows the diameter of the sensor. Time measurement section This section includes the gate circuit to measure the time which is reflected with the measurement object and returns after sending out the ultrasonic. It is using the SR (the set and the reset) flip-flop. The set condition is the time which begins to let out the ultrasonic with the transmitter. It uses the transmission timing pulse. The reset condition is the time which detected the signal with the signal detector of the
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receiver circuit. That is, the time that the output of SR-FF (d) is in the on condition becomes the time which returns after letting out the ultrasonic. In addition it includes a measurement pulse oscillator which makes the pulse to measure the propagation time of the ultrasonic. This oscillation circuit uses the cmos inverter.

DETECTOR CIRCUIT This section includes two unites, detection circuit and signal detector. The detection is done to detect the received ultrasonic signal. It is the half-wave rectification circuit which used the schottky barrier diodes. The dc voltage according to the level of the detection signal is gotten by the capacitor behind the diode. This circuit is the circuit which detects the ultrasonic which returned from the measurement object. The output of the detection circuit is detected using the comparator. At the circuit this time, the operational amplifier of the single power supply is used instead of the comparator. The operational amplifier amplifies and outputs the difference between the positive input and the negative input.

SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION CIRCUIT The received signal has to be amplified to sufficient gain. The ultrasonic signal which was received with the reception sensor is amplified by 1000 times (60dB) of voltage with the operational amplifier with two stages. It is 100 times at the first stage (40dB) and 10 times (20dB) at the next stage. RECEIVER CIRCUIT The sensor used in the receiver section is r40-16. R shows the thing is for the receiver. 40 show the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic. (40 kHz) 16 shows the diameter of the sensor. DISPLAY SECTION Display section includes led driver unit and led display unit. The measurement result is displayed in the three 7 segment LEDs. The control of the display is done by the display controlling function of the BCD counter. The control of the display is done at the cathode side of the led. Therefore, as the led, the cathode common type is used. Pnp type transistor is used for the control.4511 is the decoder which changes the binarycoded decimal (BCD) code into the control code of the 7 segment led.
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4. CIRCUIT EXPLANATIONS
4.1 DESIGN OF THE CIRCUIT
ULTRASONIC PULSE OSCILLATOR IC1 is the oscillation circuit to control the sending-out time of the ultrasonic pulse. Let the time of the oscillation pulse can be assumed as TH = 64 msec and TL = 1 msec. Therefore TL = 0.69*RB*C 1* = 0.69*RB*0.01* Let C = 0.01 F

RB = 150* RB = 150 K TH = 0.69*(RA+RB)*C 1* = 0.69*(RA+RB)*0.01*


Figure2: Ultrasonic pulse oscillator

Let C = 0.01 F

RA = 9250* RA = 9250 K = 9.1 M

ULTRASONIC OSCILLATOR It makes oscillate at the frequency of about 40 KHz. It makes RB>RA to bring the duty (Ratio of ON/OFF) of the oscillation wave close to 50%.The frequency of the ultrasonic must be adjusted to the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic sensor. Therefore to adjust the oscillator frequency, use RB as the variable resistor.

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TL = 0.69*RB*C and C = 1000pF 10* = 0.69* RB*1000* Let TL = 10sec

RB = 15K (RB = VR1+R4 = 10K+8.2K) TH = 0.69*(RA+RB)*C Let TH = 11sec and C = 1000pF 11* = 0.69* (RA+RB)*1000* = 1.5K
Figure3: Ultrasonic oscillator

RA = 1.5*

AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT The ultrasonic signal which was received with the reception sensor is amplified by 1000 times (60dB) of voltage with the operational amplifier with two stages. It is 100 times at the first stage (40dB) and 10 times (20dB) at the next stage.
Figure4: Amplifier circuit

At the 1st stage, gain = 100 Use Ri =10 K We get Rf1= 1 M At the 2nd stage, gain = 10 Use Ri =10 K We get Rf2= 100 K Use the coupling capacitor, C=1000 pF.

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DETECTION CIRCUIT

Schottky barrier diodes are used for high frequency applications. Use the capacitors, C = 1000 pF.

Figure5: Detector circuit

COMPARATOR CIRCUIT Let the Vrf = 0.4 V and Vcc = 9V Use Ra = 1M Vrf = = (Rb*Vcc)/ (Ra + Rb) Then we get Rb = 47 K and take RL = 10 K

Figure6: Comparator circuit

TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT

Use the base resistors Rb = 5.6K and collector resistors Rc = 1 K for the proper functioning of the circuit.
Figure7: Transmitter circuit
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MEASUREMENT PULSE OSCILLATOR In case of the 1-m distance, the time that the sound wave depends on the going and returning is 2 m/343.5 ms-1 = 5.82msec. The frequency to make the 100 pulses occur to at this time becomes the frequency of the measurement pulse. It becomes
Figure8: Measurement pulse Oscillator

f = 100/ (5.82*10-3) = 17.18*103 = 17.18 KHz Let C = 2200 pF then, the oscillation frequency can be calculated by f = 1/ (2.2*R*C) R = 1 / (2.2*C*f) = 1 / (2.2*2200*10-12*17.18*103) = 1 / (83.15*10-6) = 12.03*103 R= 12 K

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4.2 WORKING OF THE CIRCUIT

The circuit contains a transmitter for transmitting the ultrasonic waves and a receiver for receiving the reflected waves from the obstacles. The received signal is a low voltage signal. So, two operational amplifiers are used for amplifying it. The ultrasonic signal received is amplified by 1000 times (60dB) of voltage with the operational amplifier in two stages. It is 100 times at the first stage (40dB) and 10 times (20dB) at the next stage. For the positive input of the operational amplifiers, the half of the power supply voltage (9V) is applied as the bias voltage. . When using the operational amplifier with the negative feedback, the voltage of the positive input terminal and the voltage of the negative input terminal become equal approximately. This is called virtual grounding. So, by this bias voltage, the side of the positive and the side of the negative of the alternating current signal can be equally amplified. The amplified signal then passed through a detector circuit to detect the received ultrasonic signal returned from the measurement object. This is the half-wave rectification circuit with Schottky barrier diodes. The DC voltage according to the level of the detection signal is output to the capacitor behind the diode. The Schottky barrier diodes are used because their high frequency characteristics are good. The output of the detection circuit is detected using the comparator. At this time, the operational amplifier of single power supply is used instead of the comparator. Its operation is same as the operation of the comparator. The operational amplifier amplifies and outputs the difference between the positive input and the negative input. The output of the detection circuit is connected with the positive input of the signal detector and the voltage of the negative input is made constant. During the transmission of ultrasonic pulses continuously, there is a possibility to get different ranges by reflecting the pulses from the obstacles separated by small distances. In order to prevent this problem, we transmit one pulse first and the second pulse is transmitted after a delay. To implement this, we use a signal holding circuit, which is an SR flip flop. We are using two 555 ICs (IC1 & IC2) at the transmitter section. They together makes oscillate frequency at 40kHz.The inverter is used for the drive of the ultrasonic sensor.

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The two inverters are connected in parallel as the transmission electric power increases. The voltage applied to the positive and negative terminals of the sensor is shifted by 180 degrees. Since it is cutting the direct current with the capacitor, about twice of voltage of the inverter output are applied to the sensor. Three 7 segment LEDs are used for 3-digit display. At a time only one digit is displayed. Yet an illusion of a three digit display is made using the phenomenon of persistence of vision. The control of LED display is done by the display controlling function of the BCD counter (IC 4553) and transistors in association drive the 7 segment display. In association with BCD counter, use a decoder (IC 4511) which converts the BCD code into the controlling code of the 7 segment LED. This increases power efficiency. The voltage of +9V is made with +12V power supply using the 3 terminal regulator. In association with BCD counter ,use measurement pulse oscillator which makes the pulse to measure ultrasonic and also uses generation circuit of the counter clear pulse and the latch clear pulse, this circuit makes the counter clear pulse and the pulse to clear the latch of the display to use with the measurement counter(4553)

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4.3 CIRCUIT PARTS EXPLANATION


TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT Here we are using two 555 timer ICs for the transmitter circuit of the ultrasonic. ULTRASONIC PULSE OSCILLATOR

IC1 is the oscillation circuit to control the sending-out time of the ultrasonic pulse. The time of the oscillation pulse can be calculated by the following formula. Actually, with the error of the parts, it is different from the calculation a little.

Figure9: Ultrasonic pulse oscillator

The condition: RA = 9.1M-ohm, RB = 150K-ohm, C = 0.01f TL = 0.69 x RB x C = 0.69 x 150 x 103 x 0.01 x 10-6 = 1 x 10-3 = 1 msec TH = 0.69 x ( RA + RB ) x C = 0.69 x 9250 x 103 x 0.01 x 10-6 = 64 x 10-3 = 64 msec

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ULTRASONIC OSCILLATOR

IC2 is the circuit to make oscillate the ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz. Oscillation's operation is same as IC1 and makes oscillate at the frequency of about 40 kHz. It makes RB>RA to bring the duty (Ratio of ON/OFF) of the oscillation wave close to 50%. The frequency of the ultrasonic must be adjusted to the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic sensor. Therefore, I am made to be able to adjust the
Figure10: Ultrasonic oscillator

oscillation frequency by making the RB the variable resistor (VR1).The output of IC1 is connected with the reset terminal of IC2 through the inverter. When the reset terminal is the H level, IC2 works in the oscillation. The ultrasonic of 40 kHz is sent out for the 1 millisecond and pauses for the 62 milliseconds.

The calculation example of the frequency is shown below. The condition: RA = 1.5 K, RB = 15K. C = 1000pF TL = 0.69 x RB x C = 0.69 x 15 x 103 x 1000 x 10-12 = 10.35 x 10-6 = 10 sec TH = 0.69 x ( RA + RB ) x C = 0.69 x 16.5 x 103 x 1000 x 10-12 = 11.39 x 10-6 = 11 sec F = 1 / ( TL + TH ) = 1 / (( 10.36 + 11.39 ) x 10-6) = 46.0 x 103 = 46.0 kHz

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ULTRASONIC SENSOR DRIVE CIRCUIT

The inverter is used for the drive of the ultrasonic sensor. The two inverters are connected in parallel because of the transmission electric power increase. The phase with the voltage to apply to the positive terminal and the negative terminal of the sensor has been 180 degrees shifted. Because it is cutting the direct current with the capacitor, about twice of voltage of the inverter output are applied to the sensor.
Figure11: Ultrasonic sensor drive circuit

RECEIVER CIRCUIT

SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION CIRCUIT The ultrasonic signal which was received with the reception sensor is amplified by 1000 times (60dB) of voltage with the operational amplifier with two stages. It is 100 times at the first stage (40dB) and 10 time(20dB) at the next stage.
Figure12: Signal amplification circuit

Generally, the positive and the negative power supply are used for the operational amplifier. The circuit this time works with the single power supply of +9 V. Therefore, for the positive input of the operational amplifiers, the half of the power supply voltage is applied as the bias voltage and it is made 4.5 V in the central voltage of the amplified
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alternating current signal. When using the operational amplifier with the negative feedback, the voltage of the positive input terminal and the voltage of the negative input terminal become equal approximately. So, by this bias voltage, the side of the positive and the side of the negative of the alternating current signal can be equally amplified. When not using this bias voltage, the distortion causes the alternating current signal. When the alternating current signal is amplified, this way is used when working the operational amplifier for the 2 power supply with the single power supply DETECTION CIRCUIT The detection is done to detect the received ultrasonic signal. It is the half-wave rectification circuit which used the Shottky barrier diodes. The DC voltage according to the level of the detection signal is gotten by the capacitor behind the diode. The Shottky barrier diodes are used because the high frequency characteristic is good

Figure13: Detection circuit

SIGNAL DETECTOR This circuit is the circuit which detects the ultrasonic which returned from the measurement object. The output of the detection circuit is detected using the comparator. At the circuit this time, the operational amplifier of the single power supply is used instead of the comparator. The operational amplifier amplifies and outputs the difference between the positive input and the negative input. In case of the operational amplifier which doesn't have the negative feedback, at a little input voltage, the output becomes the saturation state. Generally, the operational amplifier has tens of thousands of times of mu factors. So, when the positive input becomes higher a little than the negative input, the difference is tens of thousands of

Figure14: Signal detector

times amplified and the output becomes the same as the power supply almost.(It is the saturation state) Oppositely, when the positive input becomes lower a little than the negative input, the difference is tens of thousands of times amplified and the output becomes 0 V almost.(It is in the OFF condition) This operation is the same as the operation of the comparator. However, because the inner circuit is different about the comparator and the operational amplifier, the comparator can not be used as the
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operational amplifier. At the circuit this time, it connects the output of the detection circuit with the negative input of the signal detector and it makes the voltage of the positive input constant. Vrf = ( Rb x Vcc )/( Ra + Rb ) = ( 47 K x 9V )/( 1 M + 47 K) = 0.4V So, when the rectified ultrasonic signal becomes more than 0.4 V, the output of the signal detector becomes the L level (Approximately 0 V). There is another device in this circuit. It is the diode (D) which connects with the side of the positive input. The pulse sending-out timing signal of the transmitter is applied to this diode. So, it makes not detect the transmission signal which was crowded when sending out the ultrasonic signal from the transmitter and going around to the reception sensor, making the voltage of the positive input of the signal detector rise in the pulse sending-out timing signal. The transmission signal has the remaining signal even
Figure15: Diagram of signal detection

if it stops the transmission timing pulse. So, it make the falling of the transmission timing pulse gentle with the capacitor (C) and it is preventing from the misdetection by the remaining signal. The value of this capacitor is the one point which decides the efficiency of the equipment. The detection start time becomes late when the value of this capacitor is big and cannot do the measurement of the short distance. The equipment this time makes the transmission pulse long (About 1 millisecond) to make the measurement possible to the about 10-m distance and makes the capacitor of the detector big a little. Therefore, the shortest measurement distance becomes about 40 cm. To measure the short distance, making TL in IC1 short, the value of the capacitor of the signal detector Figure16: Flip flop circuit and timing must be made small. Diagram of transmission pulse
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Way, in the time that the ultrasonic goes and returns in the 30-cm distance at 20C, it is the 1.75 milliseconds.

TIME MEASUREMENT GATE CIRCUIT

This circuit is the gate circuit to measure the time which is reflected with the measurement object and returns after sending out the ultrasonic. It is using the SR (the set and the reset) flip-flop. The set condition is the time which begins to let out the ultrasonic with the transmitter. It uses the transmission timing pulse. The reset condition is the time which detected the signal with the signal detector of the receiver circuit. That is, the time that the output of SR-FF (D) is in the ON condition becomes the time which returns after letting out the ultrasonic. MEASUREMENT PULSE OSCILLATOR This circuit is the oscillator which makes the pulse to measure the propagation time of the ultrasonic. It is the oscillation circuit which used the CMOS inverter. The oscillation frequency can be calculated by the following formula.
Figure17: Measurement pulse Oscillator

F = 1 / (2.2 x C x R) The oscillation frequency this time is about 17.2 kHz. This frequency is calculated from the propagation speed (343.5m/sec) of the sound wave at 20C.For example, in case of the 1-m distance, the time that the sound wave depends on the going and returning is 2m/343.5m/sec = 5.82msec. The frequency to make the 100 pulses occur to at this time becomes the frequency of the measurement pulse. It becomes f = 100/ (5.82 x 10-3) = 17.18 x 103 = 17.18kHz supposing that the capacitor (C) is 2200 pF, the value of the resistor (R) is as follows.

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R = 1 / ( 2.2 x C x f ) = 1 / ( 2.2 x 2200 x 10-12 x 17.18 x 103 ) = 1 / ( 83.15 x 10-6 ) = 12.03 x 103 = 12 K I adjusted the oscillation frequency using the two variable resistors of 20K-ohm and 1K-ohm. The variable resistor of 20K-ohm is for the adjustment of the main frequency and it is mounting to the printed board. It adjusts to establish 1K-ohm in the middle, and to measure the 1-m distance and for the display to become 1.00. Because the propagation speed of the sound wave changes with the temperature, it uses the variable resistor of 1K-ohm for the adjustment. This resistor is installed in the case and it is possible to be easily adjusted. The change in frequency, with the variable resistor of 1 K is as follows. Frequency when the resistor is 11.5 K (The resistor of 1 K is 0 ) F = 1 / ( 2.2 x C x R ) = 1 / ( 2.2 x 2200 x 10-12 x 11.5 x 103 ) = 1 / ( 55.66 x 10-6 ) = 17.97 x 103 = 17.97khz It becomes the propagation speed at the time of about 46.5C. Frequency when the resistor is 12.5 K (The resistor of 1 K is 1 K) F = 1 / ( 2.2 x C x R ) = 1 / ( 2.2 x 2200 x 10-12 x 12.5 x 103 ) = 1 / ( 60.5 x 10-6 ) = 16.53 x 103 = 16.53kHz It becomes the propagation speed at the time of about -1.5C

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GENERATION CIRCUIT OF THE COUNTER CLEAR PULSE AND THE LATCH CLEAR PULSE This circuit makes the counter clear pulse and the pulse to clear the latch of the display to use with the measurement counter (4553) to mention later. These pulses are made by differentiating the output of the time measurement gate circuit. The point A changes into the H level from the L level when beginning to let out the ultrasonic. The electric charge begins to store up at the capacitor C1 by this change, the signal which was differentiated by C1 and R1 is applied to the inverter (I1) and the counter clear pulse develops with the output (the B point) of I2. Discharging by the electric charge which was stored up in C2 at this time but to flow through D2, the input of I3 is as the H level and the output (the C point) of I4 doesn't change. Next, when the ultrasonic reaches the reception sensor, the A point changes into the L level from the H level. The electric charge begins to store up at Figure18: Circuit of counter clear the capacitor C2 by this change, the signal which pulse and the latch clear pulse was differentiated by C2 and R2 is applied to the inverter (I3) and the latch clear pulse develops with the output (the C point) of I4.Discharging by the electric charge which was stored up in C1 at this time but to flow through D1, the input of I1 is as the L level and the output (the B point) of I2 doesn't change. The inverters of I1 to I4 are put to arrange the output wave form of the differentiation circuit. CIRCUIT OF THE MEASUREMENT DURING THE TIME The 3-digit BCD counter IC (4553) is used to measure the propagation time of the ultrasonic. The block diagram inside is shown in the left figure. The reset of the counter and display scan's initialization are done when the master reset (MR) becomes the H level. At the circuit this time, the counter clear pulse is applied to the MR and it clears the counter in case of the measurement beginning. The display isn't cleared. The counter inside is cleared only. The measurement pulse is applied to the clock. The count up is done in the falling of the pulse. The measurement pulse is inputted to the clock terminal only at the time of the output of the time measurement gate circuit is the H level by the NAND gate.
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The contents of the BCD counter are taken in the quad latch register when the latch enable (LE) becomes the L level. When the LE is the H level, the taken contents are maintained (the latch). So, even if the contents of the BCD counter changes in the condition of the LE with the H level, the display doesn't change. After taking in the contents to the latch register in case of the measurement ending, until the time of the following measurement ending, the Figure19: Internal block diagram of display doesn't change. This time, in BCD counter IC 4553 the measurement interval, it has about 63-millisecond period. So, the display changes about 16 times within the 1 second. As for the measured figure of the 3 digits, the 1 digit is output by the multiplexer. The control of the figure to display is done by the scan oscillator. The frequency of the scan oscillator is decided by the value of the capacitor, Ct. The frequency can be calculated by the following formula. Supply voltage(VDD) Scan frequency(Hz) 5V 0.4 / Ct 10V 1.2 / Ct 15V 1.5 / Ct The unit of Ct is the f. The circuit this time is using +9 V for the power supply voltage. The scan frequency becomes 1100 Hz, making Ct 1000 pF and supposing that the coefficient is 1.1. The scan frequency changes mainly with the power supply voltage. However, because the eyes of the human being can not see the change of such a speed, there is no problem. The electricity consumption can be lowered by displaying the 1 digit in the order. If using the high brightness LED for the LED, there is no problem with the light

LED DISPLAY CIRCUIT

The measurement result is displayed in the three 7 segment LEDs. The control of the display is done by the display controlling function of the BCD counter. The control of the display is done at the cathode side of the LED.

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Therefore, as the LED, the cathode common type must be used. Also, the transistor to control must use the PNP type. 4511 is the decoder which changes the binary-coded decimal (BCD) code into the control code of the 7 segment LED. The left figure is the example which is displaying "8.76". It is displaying slowly. In case of the actual circuit, it seems to be displaying at the same time because it is changing at the scan period of about 1100 Hz.

Figure20: LED display circuit

POWER CIRCUIT The circuit this time is using the various oscillators. The frequency of those oscillators is related with the measurement precision. So, the power supply voltage to use must be stable. Because the circuit is using the CMOS, the power supply voltage is OK rather than +5V. The inner power supply voltage is made +9 V

Figure21: Power circuit

By the 3 terminal regulators. To make the output voltage of the regulator be stable, the input voltage must make about 3 V higher than output. The maximum voltage of the regulator is about +30 V. So, + 12V to +30V is supplied from outside. The consumption electric current is about 70 mA.

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4.4 COMPONENTS USED FOR THE CIRCUIT

ULTRASONIC SENSOR Here, the ultrasonic sensor for the air which is made by the Nippon Ceramic company is used. This sensor separates into the two kinds for the transmitter and the receiver. For the transmitter, it is T40-16 and for the receiver, it is R40-16.
Figure22: Ultrasonic sensor

T shows the thing for the transmitter and R shows the thing for the receiver. 40 shows, the resonant frequency of the ultrasonic (40 kHz).16 shows the diameter of the sensor. Because the one of the terminal is connected with the case, when grounding, the terminal on the side of the case should be used.

The brief specification of the ultrasonic sensor is shown below. Item Frequency(kHz) Spec 40

Sound pressure 115 < level (db) Sensitivity (db) -64 < Diameter 16.2 Size (mm) Height Interval 12.2 10.0
Figure23: Brief specification of sensors

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LOW NOISE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (LM833)

This IC is the low noise operational amplifier. It is used for the amplification of the received ultrasonic signal. The low noise type operational amplifier should be used because it does the about 60dB (1000 times) amplification
Figure24: Low noise operational

LOW POWER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (LM358)

This IC is the single power supply-type operational amplifier. This IC is used for detection of the received signal. The comparator can be used.
Figure25: Low power Operational amplifier

NAND GATES (4011)

As for this IC, the four NAND circuits of 2 inputs are accommodated. It is used to compose SR-FF and to hold the detection condition of the ultrasonic.

Figure26: NAND Gates (4011)

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INVERTERS (4069)

This IC is the IC of the CMOS which the six inverters are housed in. At the transmitter circuit, it is used for the drive circuit of the ultrasonic sensor.
Figure27: Inverters (4069)

3 TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATOR FOR +9 V (78L09)

The stable +9V can be gotten from +12V input by this IC. The maximum output current is 100 mA.

Figure28: Regulator (78L09)

LED CONTROL TRANSISTOR (2SA1015)

This transistor is used to control the 7 segment LED. PNP type is used for controlling the anode side of the LED.
Figure29: LED control Transistor (2SA1015)

SHOTTKY BARRIER DIODE (1SS106) These diodes are used to detect the received ultrasonic. The ultrasonic frequency is about 40 kHz, so, the diode with the good high frequency characteristic is used.

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Figure30: Schottky barrier Diode (1SS106)

7 SEGMENT LED

Common cathode type 7-segment led display is used. The size is 18.8mm (H) x 12mm (W) x 8mm (D).

Figure31: 7 segment LED

IC SOCKET

IC sockets are used in the pcb. It helps us to replace the IC easily if it becomes damaged.

Figure32: IC socket

VARIABLE RESISTOR

Here B type variable resistors are used for display proofreading.

Figure33: Variable Resistor

RESISTOR

Here 1/8W as all resistors are used.

Figure34: Resistor

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CERAMIC CAPACITOR

These are the disk-type ceramic capacitors. Because the high frequency characteristic is good, these are used as the coupling capacitors (It cuts the direct current but it lets through the alternating current) of the ultrasonic signal amplification.

Figure35: Ceramic Capacitor

MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITOR

These capacitors are used to bypass the high frequency noise of the input and output of the power supply.

Figure36: Multilayer Ceramic capacitor

ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR

This capacitor is used as the ripple filter capacitor of the power circuit. There is polarity. So, care should be taken while mounting it.
Figure37: Electrolytic Capacitor

WIRING TERMINAL

This terminal is used to connect power supply wire and wire for the variable resistor for display proofreading.

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Figure38: Wiring terminal

5. PCB
5.1 PCB LAYOUT

Figure39: PCB lay out


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5.2 PCB EXPLANATION


Nowadays the printed circuit board here after mention as Cs makes the electronic circuit manufacturing as easy one. In olden days vast area was required to impliment a small circuit ttto connect the leads of the components & separate connectors were needed. But PCBs connects the two by copper coated lines on the PCB boards. In the single sided PCBs the copper layer is on both sides. Some cases, middle layer is also possible than the two sides. BOARD TYPES The most popular board types are: 1.SINGLE-SIDED BOARDS: They are mainly used in entertainment electronics where manufacturing costs have to be kept at the minimum. 2. DOUBLE-SIDED BOARDS: Double sided PCBs can be made with or without plated through holes. The production of boards with plated through holes is fairly expensive. 5.2.1 MANUFACTURING PROCESS First, the wanted circuit is drawn on paper & it is modified or designed PCB layout is to be drawn on the plain copper coated board. These boards are available in two types: 1. Phenolic 2.Glass eproxy Most computers PCB are glass eproxy.To draw circuit diagram we can use black colour paints.Before that the required size of plane PCB board is ditermined from the roughly draw PCB layout.Using black paint the desired circuit is drawn on the board.

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5.2.2 LAYOUT APPROCHES The first rule is to prepare each and every PCB layout as viewed from the component side.Another important rule is not to start the designing of the layout unless an absolutely clear circuit digram is available,if necessary,with a components larger ones are placed first and the space between is filled with smaller ones. Components requiring input/output connections come near to the connectors. All components are placed in such a manner that disodering of the component is is not necessary if theyhave to be reaplaced.

5.2.3 BOARD CLEANING The cleaning of the copper surface prior to resist application in an essential set for any of PCB process using etch or plating resist.Insufficient cleaning on of the reasons most often encountered of difficuties in PCB fabrication although it might not always be immediately recognized as this. But it is quiet often the reasons of poor-resist adhesion,uneven photo-resist films,pinholes, poor plating adhesion,etc.. Where cleaning has to be done with simplest means or only for a limited quantity of pcbs,manual-cleaning process is mainly used.In the process we require just a sink with running water ,pumice powder,scrubbing brushes and suitable this. 5.2.4 SCREEN PRINTING This process is particularly suitable for large production scheme. However the preparation of a sreen can also be economically attractive for series of 1000 pcbs.Below,while photo printing is basically the non-accurate methode totransfer a pattern on to a boa surface. With the screen-printing process one canproduce pcbswith a conduction of as 0.5 + or and a registration error of 0.1mmon an industrial scale with a high reliability. In its basic form a screen fabric with uniform meshes and openingis stretched and fixed on a solid frame of metal or wood . The circuit pattern isphotographically transferred onto the screen ,leaving the meshes in the patternopen,while the meshes in the rest of
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the area are closed. In the actual printingstep,ink forced by the moving squeegee through the open meshes onto the surfaceof the material to be printed.

5.2.5 PLATING From a practical stand port ,printer circuit boards may have to be stocked before being taken for assembly of components. It is expected that the circuit Board retain itssolr ability for long periods ofseeral months so that reliable solder joins can be produced during assembly. Plating of a metal can be accomplished on a metal can be accomplished on a copper pattern by three methods. They are:

1.Immersion plating 2.electro less plating 3.electroplating

5.2.6 ETCHING This can be done both by manual and mechanical ways by immersing the board onto a solution of formic chloride and hydrochloric acid and finally cleaning the board by the soap. In all substractive PCB process,etching is one of the most important steps. The copper pattern is formed by selective removal of all unwanted copper,which is not protected by an etch resist. This looks vary simple at first glance but in practice there are actors like under etching and overhang which complicate the matter especially in the production of fine and highly precise pcbs. Etching of pcbs as required in modern electronic equipment production ,is usually done in spray type etching machines. 5.2.7 COMPONENT PLACING The actual location of the components in the layout is responsible for the problems to be placed during routing of the interconnecting. In a highly sensitive circuit the critical components are placed first and in such a manner as require minimum length for the critical conductors. In less critical circuits the components are arranged exactly
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in the order of signal flow. This will result in a minimum overall conductor length. In a circuit were a few components have considerably more connecting points than the others. These key components are placed first & the remaining ones are grouped around them. The general result to be aimed at is always to get shortest possible interconnections. The bending of the axial components leads is done in a manner to guarantee an optimum retention of components of PCB. The lead bending radius should be approximately two times the lead diameter. Horizontally mounted resistors must touch the board surface to avoid the lifting of solder joints along with the copper pattern under pressure on the resistor body. Vertically mounted resistors should not flush to the board surface to avoid strain on the solder joints as well as on the component lead junctions due to different thermal expansion coefficients of lead & board materials, when necessary resilient spaces to be provided. Coated or scaled components should to be mounted in such to provide a certain length along the leads. Especially when plated through holes where the solder flows up in the hole, clean lead of the lead of at least 1mm above the board are recommended. 5.2.8 DRILLING Drilling of components mounting holes into pcbs by far the most important mechanical machining operation in PCB production process. Holes are made by drilling wherever a superior hole finish for plated through hole process is required and where the tooling costs for a punching tool cannot be justified. Therefore drilling is applied for all the professional grade PCB manufacturing & generally in smaller PCB production laboratories. The importance of hole drilling into PCB has further gone up with electronic component miniaturization & it needs smaller hole diameters & higher package density where hole punching is practically ruled out. 5.2.9 SOLDERING Soldering is a process for the joining of metal parts with the aid of a molten metal (solder), where the melting temperature is suited below that of the material joined, and where by the surface of the parts are wetted, without becoming molten. Soldering generally implied that the joining process occurs at the temperatures below 450-degree centrigrade. Solder wets and alloys with the base metals
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& gets drawn by capillary action, into the gap between them. This process forms a metallurgical bond between the parts of the joint. Soldering consists of the relative positioning of the surfaces to be joined, wetting these surfaces with molten solder & allowing the Solder to cool down until it has solidified. During these soldering operations, an auxillary medium is mostly used to increase the flow properties of molten solder to improve the degree of wetting. Such a medium is called flux. Following characteristics are required in a flux: it should provide a liquid cover over the materials & exclusive air up to the soldering temperature. It should dissolve on any oxide on the metal surface or on the solder & carry such unwanted elements away. It should be readily displaced from the metal by molten soldering operations. Residues should be removed after completion of the solder. To achieve a soldered joint the solder & the base metal must be heated above the melting point of the solder used. With the soldered PCB many contaminants can be found which may produce difficulties with the functioning of circuit. These are to be removed through a cleaning process.

Thank you!

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