GAS TANKERS

Advanced Course

INTRODUCTION

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 ABOUT STCW International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978, as amended, sets qualification standards for masters, officers, and watch going personnel on seagoing merchant ships. STCW was adopted in 1978 by conference at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London, and entered into force in 1984. The Convention was significantly amended in 1995. The 133 current stateparties to the Convention represent approximately 98 percent of the world’s merchant vessel tonnage. 1.1.1 Limitations discovered Between 1984 and 1992, significant limitations to the 1978 Convention became apparent. Many people felt that the Convention included vague requirements that were left to the discretion of parties to the Convention. Others felt that there were growing problems with: (a) a lack of clear standards of competence, (b) no IMO oversight of compliance, (c) limited port state control, and (d) inadequacies that did not address modern shipboard functions. Meanwhile, the U.S. deferred ratification efforts and worked for almost a decade to effect necessary changes to our licensing regulations. 1.1.1 Amendments adopted in 1995 On July 7, 1995, a conference of parties to the Convention, meeting at IMO headquarters in London, adopted the package of amendments to STCW. The amendments entered force on February 1, 1997. 1.1.2 Effective dates The provisions of the Convention not tied to individual mariner certification became effective when the IFR (Interim Final Rule) was published. However, provision was made for certain new requirements to be introduced over a longer period. Full implementation is required by February 1, 2002. For issuance of licenses and documents, the effective dates of the new requirements will be according to transitional guidance published by the STW Subcommittee. Mariners already holding licenses have the option to renew those licenses in accordance with the old rules of the 1978 Convention during the period ending on February 1, 2002. Mariners entering training programs after August 1, 1998 are required to meet the competency standards of the new 1995 Amendments. For persons seeking original licenses, the Coast Guard anticipates that most new training requirements will be incorporated into courses approved by the Coast Guard, or by equivalent courses. To ensure that the competency objectives of the 1995 amendments are met, parties must implement quality assurance programs, with IMO reviewing each parties’ national program. Again, this represents a fundamental change in thinking for the international community. It will be mandatory that the "pulse" of the new system be checked on a recurring basis to ensure its "good health."

1.1.3 Familiarization training: Both the STCW Convention and the U.S. implementing regulations use the term familiarization training or similar terminology five different ways: a. Companies are required to ensure that seafarers who are newly assigned to a ship are familiarized with their specific duties and with all ship arrangements, installations, equipment, procedures and ship characteristics that are relevant to their routine or emergency duties. Written instructions are to be issued by the company to each ship to ensure this ship-specific familiarization takes place. b. All persons who are employed or engaged on a seagoing ship other than passengers are required to receive approved familiarization training in personal survival techniques or receive sufficient information and instruction to be able to take care of themselves and take proper action when an emergency condition develops. This includes locating and donning a lifejacket, knowing what to do if a person falls overboard, and closing watertight doors. c. Officers and ratings who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities related to cargo or cargo equipment on tankers must complete an approved tanker familiarization course if they have not had a minimum period of seagoing service on tankers. d. Masters, officers and other personnel who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities on board ro-ro passenger ships must complete familiarization training which covers subjects such as operational limitations of ro-ro ships, procedures for opening and closing hull openings, stability, and emergency procedures. e. Masters, officers and other personnel who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities on board passenger ships other than ro-ro passenger ships must complete familiarization training which covers operational limitations of passenger ships. 1.2 THE COURSE The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW 78/95), which contains mandatory minimum requirements for training and qualifications of masters, officers and ratings of chemical tankers. This training is divided into two parts: Level 1: Chemical tanker familiarization - a basic safety training course for officers and ratings who are to have specific duties and responsibilities relating to cargo and cargo equipment

Level 1 training can also be covered through an appropriate period of supervised shipboard service where an approved shipboard training programme is conducted by qualified personnel Level 2: Advanced training programme on liquefied gas tanker operations. An advanced training programme for masters, officers and others who are to have immediate responsibilities for cargo handling and cargo equipment. In addition to level 2 training, such personnel must have completed level 1 and have relevant experience on liquefied gas tankers before signing on to these positions on board This course covers the requirements for level 1 and level 2 training required by STCW 95 Chapter V Regulation V/1 - 1.2, 2.2 and Section A-V/1 regulations 15 - 21

02.

Actual Gas Cargoes

2

ACTUAL GAS CARGOES

In the late 1920th transportation of liquefied gases in bulk started. In the very beginning it was transportation of propane and butane in fully pressurised tanks. When the steel quality became better and the knowledge about propane and butane was better they started to carry those liquefied gases under temperature control. From the mid-1960th we have carried fully refrigerated liquefied gases and now the biggest gas carriers are more than 125 000 m3. Liquefied gas is divided into different groups based on boiling point, chemical bindings, toxicity and flammability. The different groups of gases have led to different types of gas carriers and cargo containment system for gas carriers. • • • • • • • IMO divides liquefied gases into the following groups: LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas LEG - Liquefied Ethylene Gas NH3 - Ammonia Cl2 - Chlorine Chemical gases

The IMO gas carrier code define liquefied gases as gases with vapour pressure higher than 2,8 bar with temperature of 37,8oC. IMO gas code chapter 19 defines which products that are liquefied gases and have to be transported with gas carriers. Some products have vapour pressure less than 2,8 bar at 37,8oC, but are defined as liquefied gases and have to be transported according to chapter 19 in IMO gas code. Propylene oxide and ethylene oxides are defined as liquefied gases. Ethylene oxide has a vapour pressure at 37,8oC on 2,7 bar. To control temperature on ethylene oxide we must utilise indirect cargo cooling plants. Products not calculated as condensed gas, but still must be transported on gas carriers, are specified in IMO’s gas code and IMO’s chemical code. The reason for transportation of non-condensed gases on gas carriers is that the products must have temperature control during transport because reactions from too high temperature can occur. Condensed gases are transported on gas carriers either by atmospheric pressure (fully cooled) less than 0,7 bars, intermediate pressure (temperature controlled) 0,5 bars to 11 bars, or by full pressure (surrounding temperature) larger than 11 bars. It is the strength and construction of the cargo tank that is conclusive to what over pressure the gas can be transported.

9 .6 . It is also from the north.14 4.43 3. The LPG gases are taken out of the raw oil during refining. some LPG is transported with intermediate pressure gas carriers. When LNG is transported on gas carriers.Liquefied Petroleum Gas is a definition of gases produced by wet gas or raw oil. Mainly LNG contains Methane. for example.west Europe to USA. the ROB and boil off from the cargo is utilised as fuel for propulsion of the vessel. butane and a mixture of these. or from natural gas separation. The sea transport of LPG is mainly from The Persian Gulf to Japan and Korea. gas pipes from the oil fields in the North Sea and down to Italy and Spain.7 at Methane CH4 Propane C3H8 n . and can also be utilised for LPG transportation.8oC and boiling point at atmospheric pressure: Condensed gas Boiling point Gas pressure at atmospheric pressure 37. Large atmospheric pressure gas carriers carry most of the LPG transported at sea. LPG gases are defined as propane. but also contains Ethane. LPG is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry 2. .Liquefied Natural Gas is a gas that is naturally in the earth. and from the western Mediterranean to USA and Northwest Europe.7 10.Examples of some gas pressure at 37.2 LNG LNG .33 5.5 14. About 95% of all LNG are transported in pipelines from the gas fields to shore.7 .161 12.8oC bars in oC absolute Gas .7 . and they will use a lot of energy. However. Propane. Cargo cooling plants for large LNG carriers are very large and expensive. Butane etc.Butane C4H10 Ammonia NH3 Vinyl Chloride C2H3Cl Butadiene C4H6 Ethylene oxide C2H4O 2.0 -5 2. LPG can be cooled with water. and most LPG carriers have direct cargo cooling plants that condenses the gas against water.1 LPG LPG . Small LNG carriers have cargo-cooling plants.0. Gas carriers transport the remaining 5%. Fully pressurised gas carriers mainly handle coastal trade.

Korea and from the Mediterranean to Northwest Europe and the East Coast of USA and from Alaska to the Far East. Wet gas is transported from the Persian Gulf to the East. and therefore has be transported in gas carriers equipped with cargo compartment that can bear such a . Propane. This gas is not a natural product. and Butane or from Naphtha.The sea transport of LNG is from the Persian Gulf and Indonesia to Japan. Ethane.3 NGL NGL . which have direct cascade cooling plants and are allowed to carry cargo down to –104oC. LPG.8oC. NGL is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry. Europe to USA and some within Europe.5 LEG LEG . The gas separates by refining raw oil. There is also some transport of wet gas in the Caribbean to South America. The composition of wet gas varies from oil field to oil filed. Ethane can only be transported by semi-pressurised gas carriers. 2. Ethylene has a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of -103. This will create too high condense pressure if using water as cooling medium. Atmospheric pressure gas carriers and semipressurised gas carriers carry the most of the wet gas. The cargo is condensed against Freon R22 or another cooling medium with boiling point at atmospheric pressure lower than –20oC. 2. but is produced by cracked wet gas. Pentane and heavier fractions of hydrocarbons or a mixture of these.Natural Gas Liquid or wet gas is dissolved gas that exists in raw oil.Liquefied Ethylene Gas.4 COMPOSITION OF NATURAL GAS 2. This is because Ethane has a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of –89oC. such as. The wet gas consists of Ethane. LNG is used for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry.

Ethylene is very flammable and has a flammable limit from 2. One can cool ammonia with all types of cargo cooling plants. Ammonia is utilised as raw material for the fertiliser industry.low temperature. plastic. originally taken up by the ammonia gas. Ethylene is transported from the Persian Gulf to the East. As critical temperature of Ethylene is 9. with air. Ammonia is a poisonous and irritating gas. which is produced by combustion of hydrogen and nitrogen under large pressure. the Caribbean to South America. The gas carrier carrying chlorine must be type 1G with independent type C tanks. There are stringent demands regarding the oxygen content in Ethylene. and must not be transported in a larger quantity than 1200m3. zinc. there are demands for less than 0. we can replace the volume. Indonesia and Korea 2. nor galvanised surfaces. With an open hatch. A decreased tank pressure will occur if there is water in the tank when commence loading ammonia and the tank hatch is closed. Ammonia is transported with atmospheric pressure gas carriers or semi-pressurised gas carriers.7oC one can not utilise water to condense Ethylene. There is a lot of transportation from the Black Sea to USA. Inert gas that contains carbon dioxide must not be used to purge ammonia. Ammonium carbamate is a powder and can blockage lines.7 CHLORINE CI2 Chlorine is a very toxic gas that can be produced by the dissolution of sodium chloride in electrolysis. We can locate the rules in the IMO Gas Code. a decreased pressure is formed by 1 volume part water absorbing 200 volume parts ammonia vapour. The volume of ethylene must be less than 2% in the gas mixture to keep the mixture below the LEL “lower explosion limit”.6 AMMONIA NH3 The next gas we will focus on is Ammonia. When ammonia gas is mixed with water. aluminium. and must be transported at a temperature colder than –20oC. It responds to water and there are special rules for vessels that transport Ammonia. Normally. from USA to South Africa and from Venezuela to Chile. the Mediterranean to the East and Europe.5% to 34% by volume mixed with air. Ethylene is utilised as raw material for plastic and synthetic fibres.2% oxygen in the gas mixture in order to prevent pollution of the cargo. The definition of Ethylene tankers is LPG/LEG carrier. chapters 14. That means the cargo tank must.5 meter . lie B/5 “Breadth/5” up to 11. valves and other equipment. Because of the toxicity of Chlorine it is therefore transported in small quantities. carrier. 17 and 19. at the least. 2. Gas carriers carrying Ammonia must be constructed and certified in accordance with IMO’s IGC code for transportation of liquefied gases. it has TLV of 25 ppm and the odour threshold is on 20 ppm. There is also transport of Ethylene between the countries Malaysia. colours and detergents. One must not mix ammonia with alloys: copper. explosives. Cascade plants are used to condense Ethylene. The definition for ammonia tanker is LPG/NH. The boiling point for ammonia at atmospheric pressure is –33oC. as these results in an carbamate formation with the ammonia.

ethylene oxide and propylene oxide or a mixture of these. the requirements of IMO IGC code. even though the vapour pressure does not exceed 2. 2. Gas carriers that are allowed to transport ethylene oxide or propylene oxide must be specially certified for this. The difference of Chlorine and other gases transported is that Chlorine is not flammable. Ethylene oxide must be transported on gas tanker type 1G. To transport Chlorine.8 bars at 37.8oC such as. stringent demands for low oxygen content in the cargo tank atmosphere. Chlorine is utilised in producing chemicals and as bleaching agent in the cellulose industry. at all times. . Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide have a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of respectively 11oC and 34oC and are therefore difficult to transport on tankers without indirect cargo cooling plants. butadiene and VCM are transported with mediumsized atmospheric pressure tankers from 12000 m3 to 56000 m3. and especially to the Far East where there is a large growth in the petro-chemical industry. Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide can not be exposed to high temperature and can therefore not be compressed in a direct cargo cooling plant.8 CHEMICAL GASES The chemical gases mentioned here are the gases produced chemically and are defined in IMO’s rules as condensed gases. Chemical gases that are mostly transported are Ethylene. often below 0. Chemical gases like propylene. these gases must be carried on gas carriers as specified by the IMO gas code. Cooling of Chlorine requires indirect cargo cooling plants.2% by volume. butadiene and VCM. This involves that we have to use nitrogen to purge out air from the cargo compartment before loading those products.8oC. Chemical gases that have to be transported by gas carriers are those mentioned in chapter 19 in IMO IGC code.from the ships side. they are still in the IMO gas code as condensed gases. Because of the gases’ boiling point at atmospheric pressure and special requirements for temperature control. There are. Chemical gases are transported all over the world.8 bars at 37. Condensed gases are liquids with a vapour pressure above 2. chapters 14. Chemical gases are mainly utilised in the petro-chemical industry and rubber production. Propylene. In addition. 17 and 19 must be fulfilled. Semi-pressurised gas carriers are also used in chemical gas trade and then in smaller quantity as from 2500 m3 to 15000 m3.

2.9 LNG CONDSATION PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM .

10 OIL/GAS FLOW DIAGRAM .2.

12 CONNECTION TABLE Table showing connection between cargo temperature and type of compartment and secondary barrier requirement Cargo temperature at atmospheric pressure Basic tank type Intergral Membrane Semi-membrane Independent Type A Type B Type C Internal insulation Type 1 Type 2 .11 PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL GASES 2.10oC and above No secondary barrier required Below -10oC down to –55oC Hull may act as secondary barrier Below -55oC Separate secondary barrier where required Tank type not normally allowed Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier Partial secondary barrier No secondary barrier required Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier is incorporated .2.

03- Cargo Compartment Systems .

but rather tanks installed into the hull and isolated from the hull. must at all times have full or partly secondary barrier. Secondary barrier is a tank or hull construction built outside the cargo tank itself. for example. When utilising the hull around the cargo tank as the secondary barrier the vessel is limited as it will not have the capability to transport cargo colder than –55oC. must be electrically grounded with a wire or steel strip to the hull. it will be the ballast tank. How much hold space volume the cargo tank absorbs depends on the cargo tank’s shape. cylinder tanks.10oC and above Below -10oC down to –55oC Below -55oC No secondary barrier required Hull may act as secondary barrier Separate secondary barrier where required Integral Membrane Semi-membrane Independent Type A Type B Type C Internal insulation Type 1 Type 2 Tank type not normally allowed Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier Partial secondary barrier No secondary barrier required Complete secondary barrier Complete secondary barrier is incorporated Cargo tanks that are built for fully refrigerated gas carriers. The group division indicates how the cargo tanks transfer dynamic strength to the vessel hull. If the hull around the cargo tank is used.7 bars. and tanks with MARVS less than 0. . either in the insulation between cargo tank and hull. The space where the cargo tank is installed is called hold space. or in the hull around the cargo tank. Gas carriers are built with two or more spaces where the cargo tanks are installed. Table showing connection between cargo temperature and type of compartment and secondary barrier requirement Cargo temperature at atmospheric pressure Basic tank type . ships side or cofferdams that is the secondary barrier. The cargo tanks on gas carriers are rarely a direct part of the hull.3 CARGO COMPARTMENT SYSTEMS Cargo compartment systems on gas carriers are divided into groups and types. Cargo tanks that will be used on gas carriers must at all times have a documented strength and certification of welded joints and steel quality. Cargo tanks isolated from the hull.

this indicates that cargo compartment on gas carriers have different MARVS pressures for IMO and USCG. membrane and semi membrane tanks is that they all transfer static stress in the form of tank pressure to the hull around the cargo tank when this is loaded. and C The characteristics of integrated. Independent tanks only transfer the weight of the cargo tank and the cargo to the hull fundamentals.Secondary barrier will prevent cargo liquid from any possible leaks coming from the cargo tank cooling the environment around the cargo tank.Membrane tanks Independent tanks. at a minimum. because Ammonia has a reaction on CO2 and form a material called Ammonium Carbamate IMO divides the cargo tanks into 4 main groups: Integrated tanks Membrane tanks Semi . Nitrogen or dry air must be utilised when the cargo content is Ammonia or nonflammable cargo. is stated in accordance to specification and pressure test. The bilge arrangement is meant to pump out the cargo if there has been a leakage from the cargo tank. The safety valve’s maximum allowed set point. called MARVS. keeps the cargo liquid away from the surroundings for at least 15 days and maintains its full function at static lurch of 30o. MARVS and vacuum for each cargo tank must be specified in the vessels “Certificate of Fitness”. but does not transfer static pressure. B. If we have to pump water we must be sure that all connections to the loading system is disconnected. The tolerance of vacuum on the cargo tanks is stated in bars. stated by the manufacturer of the cargo tank. US Coast Guard has more stringent rules for safety margins for pressure tanks than IMO. When the cargo is Ammonia one must under no circumstance utilise inert containing CO2 in the spaces. In hold spaces and inter barrier spaces there are demands for an own bilge system that is independent from the vessel’s other bilge systems. . type A. for example the ship sides. On atmospheric pressure tankers. Inter barrier space is the space between the cargo tank and the secondary barrier. This is arranged with independent ejectors or bilge pumps in the spaces and usually one in each side of the space. The system can also be utilised to remove water from the hold space or inter barrier space if there is accumulation of condensed water. All cargo tanks on gas carriers are constructed to a given excess pressure and vacuum. The secondary barrier must have a construction that. either by dry inert or nitrogen when loaded with flammable cargo. kg/cm2 or percentage of vacuum. hold space and inter barrier space must at all times have a neutral atmosphere.

Membrane tank system is built up with two equal membranes. 3. This type of cargo compartment is less suited and rarely approved for gas transportation. placed outside each other like building blocks.1 INTEGRATED TANKS The first cargo compartment system we will look at is integrated cargo tanks. but is built up with a trunk for narrowing the tanks up against the top of the tank. membrane tank system and semi. OBO carriers and product tankers. The membrane thickness is normally of 0.2. There is insulation between the secondary membrane and the hull. This prevents pollution from collision or run grounding. or polyurethane gradually sprayed directly on as the tank is built up. The cargo tank is an integrated part of the hull so the hull absorbs the weight and pressure from the cargo. Common for all membrane tanks is that there is no centre bulkhead for reducing the free liquid surface. Characteristic for these types of steel is a very small thermal expansion coefficient approximate equal 0.membrane tank system. this type of cargo compartment is not approved. It is the same type of cargo compartment that we have on oil tankers.2 MEMBRANE TANKS Membrane compartment are divided into two groups. while semi-membrane system have a membrane against the cargo and metal or veneer as secondary barrier. stainless steel or ferro nickel steel with a content of 36% nickel. Example of integral tank 3. The insulation is often perlite filled in plywood boxes. and the membrane . Then low temperature steel in the cargo compartment is required. The hull takes up all weight from the cargo. The tank shell and the secondary barrier are built in profiles formed as a membrane. this renders the material thickness small and no more than 10 mm thick. International rules also require a minimum distance from the ship's side to the cargo tank of 760 mm for guiding of toxic or flammable cargo. If we transport cargo colder than –10oC.3.1 Membrane tank system Membrane tank is a cargo tank built of thin plate of invar steel.2 mm.5 to 1.

These tank types are utilised on large LNG and LPG tankers. as secondary barrier and balsa as insulation. The main membrane is welded together of small plates by a special shaping so that the tank tolerates expansion. and there is a demand for secondary barrier. Semi-membrane tanks are built up with an inner tank. The hull absorbs all dynamic loads from the cargo tank when the tank is loaded. but one must utilise low temperature steel in the hull around the cargo tank. We can utilise the hull as secondary barrier for cargo temperatures down to –55oC. One can use the hull as secondary barrier for cargo temperature down to –55oC. the plate thickness is about 1. For cargo colder than –55oC a tank must be placed into the insulation as secondary barrier. The insulation is mostly perlite. ferro nickel steel with 36% nickel. Normal excess pressure for such cargo tanks is 0.3 SEMI . with 36% nickel steel or invar steel. Polyester-coated aluminium foil is now utilised as secondary barrier. Frequently ballast tanks or cofferdams form the hull structure around the cargo tank. The first tanks from Technigaz utilized veneer plates. The tanks are built of aluminium. and polyurethane foam for insulation.2 mm. It is the membrane that takes up the thermal expansion. One can also place a tank into the insulation as secondary barrier. Normal excess pressure for such cargo tanks is 0. insulation.2. but we must utilise low temperature steel in the hull round the cargo tank. 3. One cannot utilise the hull as secondary barrier for temperature colder than –55oC.25 bars.MEMBRANE TANKS These are tanks used on large LPG tankers. or built of stainless steel. French Gaz-Transport patent utilise two identical membranes outside each other as primary and secondary barriers.takes up the thermal expansion.2 Sketch on membrane tank 3. Technigaz membrane system utilises stainless steel in the main membrane and veneer in the secondary membrane. but can also be polyurethane or polystyrene. membrane and insulation against hull.25 bars. and there are demands for secondary barrier. The insulation in Gaz-Transport patent is perlite filled with plywood boxes. A membrane inside is then .

and there are demands for full secondary barrier. Independent tank type B has greater strength than type A does.2 Cross-section of gas tanker with membrane tank 3. In recent years. and only demands a partly . to the side or floating up.1 Example of semi-membrane tank 3. This division distinguishes between the pressure the tank must tolerate and the demands for secondary barrier. Independent tank Type A has the weakest strength of the independent tanks. only the tank weight is transferred to the cradles or the support points in the hull.built in the insulation as secondary barrier. B and C.3. but no LPG tankers are built with this tank type. Independent tanks are divided into three types: A.3. astern. This tank type was designed for LPG transportation. 3. Therefore. Japanese yards have started to utilise this tank type on large LPG tankers. The cargo tanks are built with support to prevent the tank from slipping forward.3 INDEPENDENT TANKS Independent cargo compartment is cargo tanks that do not transfer the pressure loads to the hull when they are loaded.

This tank type is used for large LPG and medium-sized tankers. 3. 3. the hull is generally used as secondary barrier as low temperature steel is used in the hull construction around the cargo tank.2 Example of “anti float” brackets A full secondary barrier for this type of tank is required.5% nickel steel. brackets are welded to prevent the tank from floating up. LPG and ammonium.7 bars. 3.3 Independent tanks type B Independent tank type B is a prismatic tank. These tanks are designed and model tested. The tanks rest on reinforced plywood supports for free expansion. The tanks are normally provided with centreline bulkhead to reduce the free liquid surface. .4. steel quality approved by the class companies. This type of cargo tank is utilised for carrying LNG. The cargo tanks are mounted on building blocks so the tank can expand freely. On top of the tanks and in the ship side or up under deck. and they have better quality than type A tanks.1 Independent tanks type A Independent tank type A could be a prismatic tank and built in 3. Normal operating pressure is 0. This is done by building a tank of veneer plates around the cargo tank with polyurethane foam as insulation in between.4. One can also use nitrogen or inert between the tanks as insulation. The material is a recognised standard. On LPG tankers designed for minimum temperature of –48oC. Independent tank type C is a pressure tank with no demands for secondary barrier.25 bars. spherical tank or membrane tank.4. coal manganese steel or aluminium. This type of tanks is built for excess pressure less than 0. The tanks are insulated with polyurethane or perlite. Prismatic tanks are produced in aluminium or 3% nickel steel in stiff plates.secondary barrier. If the hull is not utilised as secondary barrier an extra tank around the main cargo tank are constructed. Submerged pumps or deepwell pumps are utilised as discharging pumps.

this is sprayed directly on the tank shell. Tanks type C utilised on gas carriers are built in sizes from 300 m3 to 2500 m3. . Other types of insulation are polystyrene plates placed in layers. Polyurethane is often utilised as foam on type B tanks as insulation. 2 – 5 % nickel steel or acid-proof stainless steel. Some patents keep the tanks down in the cradles by steel bands that are extended over the tank and fastened to the cradle. and therefore does not need secondary barrier. The other cradle functions as a support for the tank to expand freely. Normally polyurethane or polystyrene is utilised as insulation. The thickness of the insulation is dependent of the quality of the insulation material and the temperature of the cargo.4 Independent tanks type C Independent tanks. Tanks designed for cargo colder than –10oC must have insulation. 3. The tanks are stored on cradles and welded to one of the cradles. The tanks are equipped with submerged pumps. This type of tank has a large rate of security. or perlite either filler around the tank or placed in small veneer cases. The tanks are supported with cargo tank shirt at equator and down to the hull. Another patent is to weld “anti float” brackets on top of the cargo tank and up under deck to prevent the tank from floating up.Spherical tanks produced by Moss-Rosenberg patent are produced in aluminium or 9% nickel steel. The insulation on spherical tanks is spinned on from the bottom and up. The tanks are built in carbon manganese steel. The thickness of the insulation on tanks that carry ethylene is about 200 mm. This tank type is utilised for fully pressurised gas carriers and semipressurised gas carriers. Either submerged or deepwell pumps are utilised as discharge pumps. type C are either spherical tanks or cylinder tanks. The insulation is either sprayed directly or placed on in blocks on the cargo tank.4. Around the tank that is above deck there is a waterproof cover.

Ship type 1G is a gas carrier that can carry all products mentioned in chapter 19 in the IGC Code. the international rules determined by IMO.: toxicity. Gas carriers are built according to IMO’s Gas Codes. Fully refrigerated carriers: designed for excess pressure in the cargo tank below 0. national rules and class companies rules that decide to which group and ship type the carrier belongs. The gas carrier owner decides which group and type the carrier should have.3. 2G.7 bars. The three main groups are: • • • Fully pressurised carriers: designed for excess pressure in the cargo tank above11 bar. flammability. cargo tanks.). and has the largest rate of security to avoid pollution of the environment. The third gas code.8 bar absolute at a temperature of 37. the pressure is normally 3 – 5 bars. safety valves. the first deals with existing gas carriers and passes for gas carriers delivered before 31st of December 1976. which are designed for MARVS of at least 7 bars. The next code passes for gas carriers delivered on or after 31st of December 1976. 2PG or 3G. reactivity etc.5 – 11 bars.e. Also. and that requires defensible security to prevent leakage of the product. the pressure is normally 0. The latest gas code is for gas carriers that keel is laid and 1% of the construction mass is used on 1st October 1994. There are three versions of gas codes. . IMO defines liquefied gases as products with a vapour pressure exceeding 2. steel qualities in cargo tanks. The gas code has a content in demands for damage stability. but before 1st of July 1986.25 – 0. Ship type 1G is the type that can carry all cargoes mentioned in chapter 19 of the IGC Code. where the product is transported in independent tanks type C. Gas carriers are divided into three main groups and four types. All gas carriers classed according to IMO IGC Code for transportation of gases mentioned in chapter 19. IGC Code passes for gas carriers started or the keel set after the first of July 1986. and that requires defensible security to prevent leakage of the product. Each of the groups is again divided into ship types dependent on the cargo's hazardous properties (i. and requires largest rate of security to prevent leakage from the product to the surroundings.3 bars. personnel protection. Ship type 2G is a gas carrier that can carry the products marked in 2G.8oC. It is the ship owner’s specification of the gas carrier. etc. Then. Ship type 2PG is a gas carrier of 150 meters or less that can carry the products marked 2PG or 3G in chapter 19 in the IGC Code. is given one of the following description types: 1G. Semi-pressurised carriers: designed for excess pressure the cargo tank on 0. gas tankers cargo handling equipment.5 TYPES OF GAS CARRIERS Gas carriers are tankers constructed for transporting liquefied gases in bulk. according to the freight the vessel will trade. pipe systems for cargo handling. 2PG and 3G in chapter 19 in the IGC Code.

there is also a product list of which products the vessel can carry. The type description of the gas carrier is given by the year when the keel was laid and the cargo tanks distance from ship side. as 2PG ships must be calculated as 2G ships. floating capability and of what material the cargo tank is made.5 meters from the ship side. The ship type is reported in column c in chapter 19 in the IGC Code. From the bottom plate and up to the tank no less than 2 meters or B/15 parts. and all gas tankers must have this publication onboard. B is equal to the vessel breadth. but with the same specification. and that requires moderate security to prevent leakage of the product. . On the certificate. The type of gas carrier is specified in the vessels IMO Certificate of Fitness.the cargo tank system is calculated for temperatures of –55oC or warmer. All information of the demands made for the different ship types is located in IMO Gas Code. damage stability. the cargo tank must lie at least B/5 parts up to 11. This type of carrier must tolerate any damage to the ship side along the whole ship’s length. Ship type 3G is a gas carrier that can carry the products marked 3G in chapter 19 in the IGC Code. As an example on ship type 1G. Gas tankers of 150 meters or more.

If the cargo tank’s pressure is 7 bars. This type of gas carrier trades mostly where LPG is consumed as energy. Booster pump is a one-stage centrifugal pump installed on deck close to the ship manifold. . Propane has a saturation pressure of 17.18 bars at 50oC. To prevent vapour into the atmosphere when loading. but is built to be more modern with discharging pumps in cargo tanks and indirect cargo cooling plant for more flexible cargo handling. When the tank pressure increases the cargo’s temperature also increases and the density of the liquid will be lower. one for LPG trade and one for Chlorine trade. The cargo tank construction itself is heavy as these are built of common ship steel with a thick tank shell to endure high pressure. and are built for an excess pressure corresponding to an ambient temperature of 45oC. then we can manage 16 bars on the discharge line with the booster pump. There are no requirements for insulation of the cargo tanks because these carriers are not allowed to transport cargoes with temperature colder than –10oC. the cargo tank’s excess pressure must at all time be higher than the shore backpressure.6. If there is no utilisation of the discharging pumps while discharging. These gas carriers are built in sizes up to about 3000 m3. This type of gas carrier is still built. generally by draining the discharge line to the ventilation mast. This pump is used to discharge against a higher pressure than the excess pressure in the cargo tanks. “ambient”. the flow through the pump is very low. they can remove the excess vapour by having vapour return to shore. fully pressurised carriers LPG have a relief valve setting at 18 bars. Some fully pressurised gas carriers are equipped with booster pump(s) (auxiliary pump) on deck.3. We divide this type of gas carrier into two. because the excess tank pressure will discharge the liquid to shore. consequently.6 FULLY PRESSURISED CARRIERS Fully pressurised gas carriers were the first generation of gas carriers that were built to transport liquefied gases in bulk. Normally a booster pump manages to increase the pressure up 9 bars. This type of gas carrier is easy to operate. Fully pressurised gas carriers don’t need discharge pumps in the cargo tanks.1 Fully pressurised LPG carriers This type of gas carrier is the type that in proportion to displacement can carry the lowest weight of cargo. such as house heating and cooking etc. It is the pressure in the shorelines that determines the manifold’s pressure and whether we should use the booster pump or not. We must always prime the booster pump before starting it. this because it is transported under pressure at the surrounding temperature. The type of cargo determines the excess pressure for which the tanks must be built. Normally. The trade area is often limited to near coastal waters. We must bear in mind that when running the booster pump against maximum pressure. 3. they can also carry propylene in tropical waters. IMO has a requirement when building fully pressurised tanks that they must be able to bear ambient (surroundings temperature) cargo with a temperature on 45oC. Hot gas from shore can be used to hold the excess pressure in the cargo tank. because the cargo does not need to be cooled down on the sea voyage.

Low costs for maintenance. The heat exchanger is used when we are loading a cargo with temperature below 0oC. Disadvantages: • • • • • Small amount of cargo in proportion to displacement as the cargo is transported ambient. cylindrical or spherical tanks. the Caribbean and The Mediterranean.8oC directly into the vessels cargo tanks. These compressors are in general small. When the heat exchanger is not in use it is segregated from the liquid line. and the ship hull doesn’t recover dynamic loads from the cargo tanks. Simple discharging/loading equipment on deck. Advantages: • • • • • • Easy to operate because all discharging takes place without pumps. Low costs in building because common steel is utilised in the cargo tanks. propane at atmospheric pressure corresponding to –42. The kind of cargo each vessel can carry is stated in the vessel’s IMO Certificate of Fitness. and are utilised only for holding the temperature on the cargo. Unable to have cold cargo in the tanks because of the steel quality. no need in maintenance of the insulation. Limited cargo volume because the tankers are not built large than 3000m3. Fully pressurised gas carriers are most utilised for carrying of ambient LPG and some chemical gases as propylene. Heavy cargo construction because of toleration of the pressure. no cooling of the cargo gives low energy consumption. South America. because there is little mechanical utility equipment for cargo handling. . and one can easily inspect the cargo tanks and the lines from the outside. Transporting the cargo by surrounding temperature (ambient). for example. Then the cargo has to be heated to above –10oC before we load it down to the cargo tank. and hot vapour is returned back to the cargo tanks. These are tanks installed on “cradle-like” supports down in the hold space (the space around the cargo tank). Vapour is sucked from the cargo tanks to the compressor. No insulation of tanks or liner. Fully pressurised gas carriers are constructed with independent tank type C.Fully pressurised gas carriers are equipped with a heat exchanger (cargo heater) connected to the loading lines with vales and spool piece (adapter). Limited trade area because of dependence of discharging to pressure tanks on shore. Actual cargo for fully pressurised carriers is LPG and some chemical gases. Fully pressurised gas carriers have a small cargo compressor to produce excess pressure in the cargo tanks or remove over pressure from the cargo tanks. mainly in the Far East.

but because of the toxicity of chlorine. Tanks and lines must be built in steel quality that tolerates a temperature down to –40oC. . Either the pressure established by dry nitrogen or only the tank pressure is used. The requirements are stated in the IGC code chapter 14. Chlorine carriers can. This type of gas carrier mostly stays in the chlorine trade. There are few cargo owners that accept to load other products after Chlorine. because of the toxicity of the cargo. The gas detector onboard must measure 1 ppm chlorine and alarm setting at 5 ppm. into ventilation for accommodations and all of the gas area on deck. Some chlorine carriers are also equipped with submerged pumps in the cargo tanks. The absorption plant must neutralise a minimum 2% of total cargo capacity. There is also a summary in the certificate of fitness as to what type of cargoes the actual tanker is allowed to carry. which is saturation pressure for Chlorine at 45oC. Because of the toxicity of chlorine it is necessary that the chlorine carriers are equipped with a chlorine absorption plant connected to cargo tanks and cargo lines.2 Fully pressurised chlorine Cl2 carrier These tankers are built as fully pressurised tankers LPG.6.5 bars. line from safety valve. This information is at all times specified in IMO Certificate of Fitness. They have an indirect cooling plant. Polyurethane or polystyrene is utilised as insulation. and are thereby capable to cool cargo. The gas detector must scan the bottom of hold space. the outlet from chlorine absorption plant. special requirements are set on this type of gas carrier. In general ethanol is used as cooling medium against Freon (R22) in a small freon cooling plant. 17 and19.3. Tanks and lines must be insulated. The cargo tanks must be built for an excess pressure not lower than 13. This type of gas carrier often has an indirect cargo cooling plant with coils welded to the outside of the tank shell. This type of ship must not have cargo tanks larger than 600 m3. also carry LPG and some chemical gases depending on the relief valve’s set point. To discharge these type of gas carriers the cargo tanks excess pressure is used. Chlorine vapour obtained from shore via the ship’s vapour lines can also be used for discharging. if they are accepted. Consequently. Simple cargo handling equipment on deck. Cargo lines must at maximum have an inner diameter of 100 mm. Other indirect cargo cooling plants utilise freon as the cooling medium by directly pumping freon in and around the coils. Tanks and lines are insulated. these gas carriers are smaller than the common fully pressurised gas carriers LPG. It is prohibited to use any kind of direct cargo cooling plant on chlorine. and total capacity must not exceed 1200 m3. Advantages: They are easy to operate.

The tankers are mainly designed for Chlorine. and have thereby low loading capacity.Disadvantages: They are small tankers. . Expensive to build in proportion to the cargo amount they can transport.

because uneven thermal shrinkage of the cargo tank can lead to damage to the cargo tank. If the vessel will transport cargo with a boiling point at atmospheric pressure colder than –48oC. such as. but also for gases. the cargo tank steel must be cooled down to approximate 10oC above cargo temperature. In addition. the time for loading will be reduced and thereby reduces the time ashore.7 SEMI PRESSURISED GAS CARRIERS Semi-Pressurised gas carriers are a development from fully pressurised carriers. Semipressurised tankers are divided in two types . That will save harbour expenses for the ship owners or the charterer.1 Semi-pressurised LPG/ LEG carriers Semi-pressurised carriers are more complex than fully pressurised carriers due to their extended cargo handling equipment. the vessel must be equipped with cascade cooling plant. cargo cooling plant. Ethylene and Ammonia.Semi-pressurised carrier LPG/LEG and Semi-pressurised tanker combined gas and chemicals. such as. . Semi pressurised tankers are equipped either with direct cargo cooling plant or cascade cargo cooling plant. when the shell is cooled down. They are designed to carry cargo with temperatures down to –48oC for LPG and Ammonia. Propylene. Semi-pressurised carriers are equipped with discharging pumps in the cargo tank. If the tanker is carrying LPG or Ammonia with a boiling point at atmospheric pressure warmer than –48oC. The cooling of the tank steel must be done to prevent thermal expansion and crack in the tank shell.7. In addition. Thereby we can cool down the shell by 10oC an hour until it is about 10oC above the cargo temperature. This renders the ship type with more flexibility than other gas carrier types. 3.3. A tank of 1000 m3 that is cooled from 20oC to –103oC shrinks about 5 m3. normally with polyurethane or polystyrene. It is specified in the operating manual for each vessel how to cool down the cargo tank shell. heat exchanger (cargo heater) and booster pumps. Semi-pressurised gas carriers are utilised for transportation of petrochemical gases. the tanks and lines are insulated. Butadiene. Before loading cold cargo. We must be attentive to this. the choice is generally direct cargo-cooling plant. Which type of cargo cooling system the gas carrier is equipped with depends on the type of cargo it is meant to carry. Semi-pressurised gas carriers are normally built in sizes from 2000 m3 to 15000 m3. and –104oC for LEG. It is common that the first 30oC can be cooled the first hour.

Can heat the cargo while at sea and while discharging. and free in the other cradle for free expansion of the cargo tank. Uses more energy than fully pressurised tankers. The spherical tanks are also installed in a “cradle-like” construction. Ethylene and some chemical gases. There have been plans to build semi-pressurised tankers up to 36000 m3. Either nickel steel or coal-manganese steel is used in the cargo tanks.Propane. Semi-pressurised gas carriers are the type of gas carriers that is most flexible for change of cargo and cargo handling. The tanks are either strapped down with steel bands or the brackets are welded on to prevent the tanks from floating up. Between the cradle and the tank shell there is a layer of hard wood that acts as a fender to prevent damage to the cargo tank against the cradle. The tanks are placed below deck. Advantages: • • • • • Very flexible. On some vessels. . LEG. no dependence at loading to remove excess pressure. The tanks are placed in “cradle-like” constructions and are welded to one of the cradles. there is also a summary of cargo the vessel can carry. but they are still not built. specified in IMO Certificate of Fitness. Can cool the cargo on route. and brackets (anti float) are welded on top of the cargo tank to prevent the cargo tanks from floating up. Butane and Ethane. either up under deck or in the ship side. Easier tank construction than fully pressurised tankers. and larger density. Actual cargoes for Semi-pressurised gas carriers are LPG. The support goes towards a bracket in the hull of the tanker. In the IMO Certificate of Fitness. Limited cargo amount (maximum approximate15000 m3).5 – 11 bars. costly cargo handling equipment. can load and unload temperate cargo. This information is. and thereby handle heavier cargo. Ammonia. The cylinder tanks are often a combination of twin tanks that are situated longitudinally of the ship. Disadvantages: • • • • Expensive to build. the cargo tanks are attached to one of the cradles. but some vessels also have cargo tanks on deck. Semi-pressurised carriers with spherical tanks utilise the same steel quality as in cylinder tanks. Can transport fully cooled cargo. (Notice the safety valves set point). Semi-pressurised gas carriers have independent tanks type C either as cylinder or spherical tank designed for tank pressure between 0. lower temperature. and a single situated abeam. and acts as insulation against the steel in the cradle. Complicated to operate because of the cargo handling equipment. at all times. the other cradle then functions as cargo tank support by expansion of the tank.

2 Semi pressurised tankers (Combined gas/chemical) These gas carriers are constructed like other Semi pressurised tankers. in order to segregate all cargo tanks from each other. Demanding to operate because of complicated cargo handling equipment. This is specified in the operating manual and the stability book for the tanker. Tanks and lines are stainless steel. and these gas carriers are equipped with indirect cargo cooling plant in addition to cascade cargo cooling plant. . Limited cargo volume because of the tanker’s size. the Ethanol is cooled with the help of freon (R22) cooling plant.Semi-pressurised tankers with deck cargo tank or some transverse cargo tanks can have stability problems in loading/discharging. Can load and discharge tempered cargo and fully cooled cargo down to -104oC. Actual cargo LPG / NH3 / LEG / chemical gases and chemicals. This is specified in the operational manual and the stability book. The cargo tanks on this type of gas carrier are the independent type C cylinder. generally single transverse or small alongside twin tanks. The stability is a problem when loading/unloading when there are many transverse cargo tanks or deck cargo tanks. This involves separate liquid and vapour lines from each tank to the manifold.7. This means that this type of gas carriers can load equally as much different cargo as they have cargo tanks. Direct and indirect cooling/heating. but they are classified both according to IMO gas and chemical codes. The indirect cargo cooling plant is often equipped with a coil welded outside the tank shell. Access to many smaller ports/harbours because of relatively little draught.4 bars excess pressure and are built in sizes from 4000 m3 up to 15000 m3. 3. Advantages: • • • • • The tankers are very flexible. Disadvantages: • • • • Expensive to build. These gas carriers are normally designed for 3 . where Ethanol is used either to cool or heat the tank steel. can transport both chemicals and gas. They are constructed to transport cargo from –104oC to 60oC. The Ethanol is also utilised to heat the tank steel. lines. and the operators onboard must consider this. it is then heated with the tanker steam in a heat exchanger and pumped in and around the coils. Cargo tanks. and valves are constructed in stainless steel. When cooling the tank steel.

Independent prismatic cargo tanks are normally divided into two in longitudinal direction with a centre bulkhead that runs to the top of the tank dome. the first atmospheric pressure gas carrier was delivered at the end of the 1950s. and tank construction is below deck. These gas carriers are built in sizes from 15000 m3 to 120000 m3. about half of the cargo tank is above deck because the vessel’s hull is lower than what you find with prismatic or membrane tanks.8. Ammonia and some chemical gases with minimum temperature of –48oC. The cargo tanks are designed for LPG.3. If independent tank type B is utilised either prismatic or spherical tanks. The centre .1 Fully refrigerated LPG carriers The cargo tanks on fully refrigerated LPG carriers are normally built of low temperature carbon-manganese steel. With prismatic or membrane tanks the volume of the hull is utilised. only a partly secondary barrier is demanded. With spherical tanks. This is achieved by using low temperature steel in the hull structure around the cargo tank. This is achieved by utilising low temperature steel in the hull under the cargo tank.8 FULLY REFRIGERATED CARRIERS Following semi-pressurised gas carriers.7 bars. These gas carriers are built either with independent tank type A or type B as prismatic or spherical tanks. Some of the older fully refrigerated gas carriers have Perlite as tank insulation. The cargo tanks are normally insulated either with Polyurethane or Polystyrene. Fully refrigerated gas carriers are normally equipped with independent type A or B prismatic cargo tank or membrane tanks. Fully refrigerated carriers with independent tank type A must have a full secondary barrier. and are designed for excess tank pressure less than 0. or with membrane tanks. 3.

. this is utilised when loading naphtha etc. Actual cargo for this type of gas carrier is LPG. It is important that the intermediate valves are closed when there is no loading or discharging of cargo. Information of the type of cargo the tanker transports is located in IMO Certificate of Fitness. and some chemical gases. Such gas carriers are built with a trunk on deck that the membrane tank is formed out of. Butadiene and VCM. Some carriers are also equipped with strip lines in the tank that either are connected to ejectors or transportable membrane pumps. such as. These intermediate valves are installed down in the pump sump for the liquid to flow from one side to the other. and thereby reduces the effect of the free liquid surface. Some atmospheric pressure tankers do not have booster pumps or heat exchangers (cargo heaters). When atmospheric pressure gas carrier are carrying flammable products. one utilises dry air or dry nitrogen on the hold space. Propylene. When carrying non-flammable products. Have large cargo cooling plant. With the intermediate valves open. Ammonia is transported from The Black Sea to USA and the Far East. one can discharge the entire cargo tank with one pump. This gas carrier type carries a lot of LPG from the Persian Gulf to the Far East and USA. Fully refrigerated carriers are generally equipped with the same cargo handling equipment as Semi-pressurised carriers.bulkhead is built to improve the stability on the carriers by reducing the effect of the free liquid surface when the tanks are loaded. Large tankers are more efficient (cargo weight). Fully refrigerated carriers with membrane tanks are without a centre bulkhead. Easier cargo tank construction than Semi pressurised tanker Tanks and lines are insulated. Naphtha. Normally there are two pumps in each cargo tank. the hold space or the inter-barrier space must have a content of neutral atmosphere with either dry inert gas or dry nitrogen. Advantages: • • • • • Transports large weight in proportion to volume because the cargo is at all times loaded and transported at atmospheric pressure. There are normally one or more valves in the centre bulkhead that is called intermediate valves. Some carriers also have coils in the pump sump that is used for liquid free the tank. hot gas is blown through the coils. Ammonia.

8.18% to 0. This indicates that this is too expensive. The largest LNG carriers are. Limited access on terminals and ports with limitations to draught. and the sea transport amount to about 5% of the total LNG transport. and are designed for LNG trade. contracted on basis of long cargo contracts over about 25 years. not possible to heat up cargo on route.These gas carriers are built from 20000 m3 to 125000 m3.Disadvantages: • • • • Not so flexible for cargo change as Semi pressurised tankers. and it is more appropriate to utilise the vapour boil off for propulsion. . The smaller LNG tankers on the other hand have a cargo cooling plant. Pressure limitation. This is because these tankers are very expensive to build. and they transport some in LPG/LNG/LEG trade. but to cool 125000 m3 LNG about 6000 kW/h is required. 3. Carrier without heat exchanger (cargo heater) can only unload at atmospheric pressure (fully cooled). The LNG tankers compete with gas transportation in pipelines on shore. the vapour boil off is between 0. Common for all these steel types is that they have a thermal expansion coefficient close to 0. at all times.25% of the cargo capacity per 24 hours. Fully refrigerated LNG carriers are either built with independent tanks type B Moss-Rosenberg patent with spherical tanks or French patents that utilises membrane tanks. For the large LNG tanker. French patents with membrane tanks are built either in stainless steel. These tankers are special in that the vapour boil off from the cargo is utilised as fuel to the vessels propulsion. 9% nickel steel or ferro nickel steel that have a 36% nickel content. It is possible to produce cargocooling plants for the large LNG tankers.2 Fully refrigerated LNG carriers These gas carriers are special as they are designed for loading gas at atmospheric pressure with a temperature down to –163oC. Spherical tanks of Moss Rosenberg patent are built in aluminium.

The tankers are equipped with a spray plant where Methane is pumped into the tank’s spray line (perforated lines). One must never begin to load a cargo tank before there is –136oC in the middle of the tank. or by the tank’s equator. Understandably. which is specified in the tanker’s operation manuals and certificates. which is installed inside the cargo tank.LNG carriers have a special procedure for cooling the cargo tanks before loading. . one must cool the cargo tanks a considerable amount of degrees to be ready to load.

04- FREIGHTING .

“Bill of Lading” convention was established. This is naturally because the activity over the world’s oceans is linking countries. 4. for instance to general cargo transporting.1.FREIGHTING The right to charter has an international colouring. In these days the owners of the ships had a limited responsibility due to miscalculations. Norway acknowledged the Haag regulations in 1938. The regulations in the “Bill of . in other words: the clauses liberating the ship owners responsibility due to miscalculations and negligence was not valid. called The Haag-Regulations. The ship owners themselves decided that something had to be done. Clauses were made to liberate the owners from almost everything. The Haag regulations was ratified of most maritime trading nations. American cargo owners had agreements in the American court of law saying that many of these clauses had no value. as well as the understanding of what a bill of landing shall contain and the responsibility connected to the information about the product. by the commitment in a freight contract. another protocol was developed with some proposals to improvements due to the Haag regulations. and in 1924 as a result of several maritime court conferences.1 The Conventions decisions Usually the parts in negotiations can request their desires concerning transport of a product or an entire ship cargo. nations and traditions closer together and creates a need of uniformity. but still there is a long way to go. But the participants can not make the deal totally as they want. 4.1 HISTORY In the last century the ship owners signed off any responsibility due to damages during the voyage. and to which extend. Still the need to improve existed and after the conference in Stockholm in 1963. the owner is responsible to the economical loss the cargo owner suffers by loss or damage on goods or by delay during the voyage while it still was in the ship’s owner custody. That is why common regulations concerning transporting products is so important. The Haag-Visby regulations represent no longer fully and updated international accepted regulations. Ship trading is risky. and in extreme cases this fact was recognised in the days of sail-ships. The rules concerning the responsibility during transport gives the answer to how far. and where held responsible the limitations to the area accounted for was the value of the ship and the freight. and this resulted in an almost united regulation of the most important conflicts concerning transporting of goods. A new conference was held in Hamburg and the purpose is that the Hamburg rules shall take over for the Haag-Visby rules when they are ratified by a satisfactory number of marine trading nations. The motion was against the hip owners both in USA and Europe. The convention changed in constitution and now called the Haag-Visby regulations.

and a little about technicalities during negotiations. Thereafter we will talk some about the partners involved. A Bill of Lading is a document confirming the acceptance of the cargo (product) to carry from one determination place to the other. and the shipping language with the expression habits.2 Freighting in General We shall now go through a little extra about the different ways of freighting. A number of the larger charterer have today their own charter party formula. On the other hand. In bill of lading the ship owner is described as the freighter of the cargo. These brokers have a wide information of ship types and companies and when the ships are available which is extremely useful and necessary. according to the responsibility rules and not a smaller amount. It exists a number of different charter party formulas due to load and trade. Two of the partners often mentioned in freighting are the charter one having the cargo and the freighter whom is the ship owner. In addition to the decisions by the court of law about the partner’s deal. When the partners implicated have come to an agreement. but first let us briefly say a little of what normally happens before the negotiations start. a number of expressions which is important to be fully aware the meaning of. As mentioned before a «charter party» is a contract about a transport mission. and the one who go cargo needed to be transported is called the charter. must be. When little activity in the market. there is no way to avoid the regulations due to the bill of lading and the transport responsibility according to the conclusions in the international Haag-Visby regulations. In a simple way. therefore look at the enclosure list with commonly used expressions in the end of this part of the compendium.Lading” has to be followed. This is not the case any more. it referred to . In freighting. Such a deal was in the past considered to be a quit simple document. the rate system. When it concerns shipping the free marketing mechanism is ruling. the freight market. the customary practice will play an important role when it comes to how a freight contract shall be understood. the mechanisms in the market. 4. This deal is called A «charter party». is used. and the amount the ship owner have to be responsible to.1. for example an oil company has a cargo and wishes this cargo to be shipped from the Arabian Gulf to SE Asia. It is quit obvious that a charter party for a load of cattle will have to consist of a number of regulations totally different from a ship carrying a cargo of gas or a ship carrying crude oil. the opportunity to commit the shipping company to be responsible to a higher amount is available. which is to be loaded in Al Jubail in the time 17-20th of May. For example. 4500 metric tons of propylene. a contract is established and ready to sign. Offer and demand control the whole scenario. So. The London broker will then send off a telex with this cargo information and send this telex to his broker associated in various countries. So the company then contacts their broker in London delivering a brief description of the cargo. When the product is taken on board a document shall be issued called a “Bill of Lading”. based on this brokers knowledge and considerations due to where hip owners with suitable tonnage is established around the world.

The freighting level will rarely be constant. so both parts can read through it and confirm the conditions agreed on. In a short period the owners may choose to sail with loss. The brokers then draw the contract. Later on we will. . Therefore the freight rate gets higher. usually on a standard formula called a Charter Party. When the partners have agreed. In a n active market with lively demand the freight rates increase. In world scale (World-wide Tanker Normal Freight Scale) is abbreviated to WS or W. Usually the charterer’s broker finishes the charter party and often signs the contract on behalf of the charterer.as quit and slow. and that ships want contracts. Similarly a quit market will lead the oil companies to acknowledge that there is no competition in market. Since the wars ended oil tankers have developed different rating systems. The shipping language itself is English. He will often as the negotiations is ending. and because there is shortage of tonnage. plus 5 metric tons in each port.5 knots. so we will try to get the most important ones with us. When the market is active. and since several is competing.3 Basic Rate The basic rate is calculated and intended a standard oil tanker with a loading capacity of 75000 metric ton. 4. the contract is written. The same is to be said about buying and selling «second hand tonnage». it is referred to as a lively demand. but what make it difficult to understand is all the abbreviations and special expressions. How far down the rate is pressed is dependent of the conditions. the oil company can press the market down and have a ship with the lowest freight rate signed up. will on the other hand the contracting increase. When the market is strong and active. It is really extremely expensive to lie up the ships and then break open again. and the one valid these days is called «World scale». and we find a number of basis rates for oil cargo voyages between typical disembarkation ports and receiving ports throughout the world. when viewing the different types of transport forms. Some of these special expressions will be found in the loading instructions. Further on the low rate over a longer period will lead to less contracting. and an average speed of 14. send a rundown with all the conditions agreed to. discuss the different shipping expressions. the oil company has no other alternate than to pay. The broker as a connecting link is extremely important and must be accurate and see that no mistakes are being made which can cause conflicts leading to claims for compensation.1. This due to the fact that both ship owner and the broker instantly read which way the demand is going. The owner’s broker usually signs the charter party according to received power of attorney after the owner have controlled a «working copy» of the charter party Common procedure is that the charter himself sign the document. reading the market and consider this as a temporary down period. Often the owner or his broker who is signing the charter party on the ship owners behalf. A ship owner will probably not choose to lay up the ship until the freight market is so low that the transporting income does not cover the running costs. and a day and night consumption estimated to 55 metric tons HVF (heavy fuel) and 100 metric tons to other purposes.

so the owner is ready to set up LPG «Seagull». The parts have start the negotiations. LPG «Seagull» which can load about 4500 metric tons of propylene and is found in the right position to be ready for loading at the requested time. and no especial time difference between London and Oslo. the order came ticking into the owners office around the world. The broker is the part negotiating a final contract between owner and charterer. These brokers passes on the request from the oil company to the different owner connections. The owner «Transporter Gas» has just the oil tanker available. Now a few words about the negotiations itself.4. The charterer is the part who has cargo to transport and need tonnage. not the negotiation form. The ship owner is the one offering the ship services due to transport of cargo 2. Let us go back to the oil company which had a cargo of 4500 metric tons from Al Jubail going to SE Asia: The procedure in the negotiations can vary. The owner work out the conditions and makes an offer which the Oslo broker send via London to the oil company. the picture above symbolise only the negotiation.(many owners have their own charterer sections). Naturally no deepen details is mentioned. 3. This offer stand on hold for . but in this case the English broker sent the order to several of his broker connections in countries which he meant had suitable tonnage in hand. among others several Norwegian brokers. Only few minutes after the Oil Company informed the market about the cargo.2 THE NEGOTIATION The parts in the negotiations 1. The owner is Norwegian and it is morning.

about half an hour in our example. English law to apply. DEM: USD 9000 PDRP . USD 14000 pdpr (per day pro rata) Haag-Visby rules. this ship is favourable to the charterer. May 17/20 1994. «subj. 8073 cbm. a ship with better equipment and position or a better previous cargo history. your order Ras Tanura .1m/17. 2.Europe pleased to offer you: Subj. Mostly of our offer is accepted and we receive the following telex: Subj. Propylene. Laytime. Details and C/P conditions». in our example. Max. (worldscale`s hours terms)-72hrs. so that a “counter” is received. Other shipping companies may have reacted even faster with a replay. arbitration) London. 1982/class GL/flag Norwegian. 2 grades within vessel’s natural segr. this is due to the fact that a new opportunity is likely to occur sudden in the market. 68 USD/mt. Ref. (followed by a short description of the ship). (general average. meaning a counteroffer. Rate: 62 USD/mt. Oslo time. The Owner (company) will now wait in excitement for replay. One safe port SE Asia. Load: Disch. on 8. May be nothing happens. Loa/beam: Blt: Tank cap: Last 3 cargoes: Cargo: Segregation. Replay here 1230 hrs. Min. LPG «Seagull». ASBATANK (Tanker Voyage Charter Party ) Sub further terms details. 4500 metric ton up to full cargo. 8250 metric tonn dwt. «subject reply within 1230 hours». Accept discharge range. Reply London 1245hrs. and rapid replays is necessary. that means what cargo the ship has been carrying on previous voyages. One safe berth Al Jubail. there is no negotiations yet. Such a primer offer is usually very short . It can also happen that another owner offers a lower freight rate. (98%). but it is a way to check the interest in the market for business. But any way. Laycan: Rate: Demurrage: Haag-Visby: GA/ARB: WSHT: TTL(total) CP form: 126.5% commission on FRT/DEM. Summer draft.2 mtrs.8m.

Further on it can be clauses concerning responsibilities damaging the cargo. These additional clauses is regulating the charterer special needs or other more practical conditions connected to the transport. the charterer send a rundown. but a Freight-bill is issued instead. A promise to transport the goods to a certain destination. This is called Combined Transports and the document is called a “Combined Transport Document. In special areas. Today a charter party is a extensive document with standard clauses which are supplied with several additional clauses (riders) which are fastened to the charter party. the cargo owners.” Along the Norwegian coastline no Bill of Lading is used. A bill of lading is defined as a document consisting of: A confirmation from the owner on the acceptance of specific goods. dividing expenses and other information about the ship. This third party is the one who owns the cargo and is the receiver. the ship captain or the vessel’s agent issues a Bill of Lading. The strict rules for Bill of Lading responsibilities do not apply to the Freightbill. This Bill of Lading is called a “Through” Bill of Lading. ship. the Bill of Lading will be an “Onboard” Bill of Lading. When the negotiations are completed. a Bill of . or railroad. and this is functioning like a contract between the owner and charterer. If the cargo is loaded on board a known and named ship. which will be of interest to the charterer. When the cargo is transported by an oil tanker. This will be handed over to the shipper so that the cargo can be delivered to the one holding the original Bill of Lading (the shipper or the buyer). Earlier this was a relatively simple document written in a few lines describing the ship. shut downs. A document for the whole transport can be issued. From time to time. clauses of war. but the regulations are the same. which confirms that the cargo is received for transport. cargo to transport (carry).Naturally. this “booking note” is skipped over. 4. deliver the cargo to the tank company’s “Warehouse”. The charter party is written later. The parts involved have committed themselves on the basis of negotiations and the rundown which have been read and accepted. We have different types of Bill of Ladings. when transport is executed by car. cargo. but there is always written a charter party . The tank company then issues a “booking note” referring to the company’s Bill of Lading conditions and this ensures that the Bill of Lading is issued when the cargo has been loaded. The cargo is then simply received with a confirmation of the Bill of Lading. A Bill of Lading can also state that the transportation may be executed with more than just the owner’s ship. freight and the voyage. and after negotiating to and from one agrees that the owner and the charterer commits to a rate on 62 USD/mt and a DEM 9000. A promise to deliver goods at a determinate place in return of the document “Bill Of Lading”. where the total contract is confirmed. after checking when the ship is ready to embark. After receiving the cargo.3 BILL OF LADING Choose to enlighten the document Bill Of Lading before going further into the other variants of charter parties. in the cards played one has to compromise. like the Northern Sea and in North Atlantic trade.

Upon arrival the buyer receives the cargo upon presenting the Bill of Lading. a document referred to as “Waybill” is used and this document is not enforced as a Bill of Lading. in no way avoid controlling the shipper’s information. nationality and location where the cargo was loaded. The buyer of cargo. but the number should be referred to in text and the wording should be similar. In addition. if the shipper demands. based on the shipper’s written task. The shipper is accountable to the owner for the accuracy of the cargo information regarding his task or as requested in the Bill of Lading. if there is any reason to suspect they are incorrect. Therefore.a document which represents the cargo (the cargo’s ID card) and which can be negotiable in form of buying and selling several times during the ships voyage. order or holder. the cargo will be held back until the correct receiver is found. has paid for the cargo and in return was granted the Bill of Lading. If more receivers appear and can legitimate themselves by presenting examples of the Bill of Lading. the day receiving the cargo. The person standing as a receiver can give this right to another who can demand the cargo be delivered to him. if the others are delivered to their right owners. This is because a Bill of Lading is a negotiable document . Protests from the owner to the shipper cannot be set in force if the Bill of Lading has been acquired from a credulous third person. The visible condition of the cargo. of course. The regulations concerning the Bill of Lading responsibility are very strict. (This will be viewed on the next page. which is under transportation or scheduled for transport. the following will be noted: The type of cargo and either the cargo weight measure or quantity of goods. . On the Onboard Bill of Lading. he must control the information himself to ensure accuracy. The size of the freight and the other terms related to the transportation and the cargo delivery. “Indemnity Clause”). On the receiver Bill of Lading. the shipper can in the Bill of Lading suggest a special person. Where to and to whom the cargo will be delivered. The Bill of Lading shall state the day and place where issued along with the shipper’s name. The shipper will deliver the necessary identification marks in writing. However. provided that the marks are clearly indicated on the cargo. before the loading starts. When the person at the receiver location shows a Bill of Lading. As receiver. If this is the case. An Onboard Bill of Lading will provide the ship’s name. Further. the information in the Bill of Lading must be correct. It is enough that one Bill of Lading is presented where several are issued. A Bill of Lading is issued in as many copies as the shipper demands. the day when the loading ended. he is regarded as the legitimate receiver of the cargo. A Bill of Lading functions as a certificate that the cargo is as described in the document.Lading is not always used. a recipient Bill of Lading will state the destination for cargo delivery. The owner must be critical and should.

between two flag states when: The Bill of Lading is issued in a country which has ratified the Convention. If an owner knew. The same regulations concerning responsibility is valid as long as a document is issued. The owner’s would have to face claims of responsibility as a result of delivering cargo without having accepted the necessary Bill of Lading from the receiver. the charterer will request that a Bill of Lading is issued.We already have mentioned that the Bill of Lading represents the cargo. trusting that the information stated is correct. the captain must ensure and control that the cargo is exclusively delivered to the one presenting the original Bill of Lading. as required by law. if a Bill of Lading is issued under a charter party. must be noted in the document before signing it. However. if the third party involved suffers loss when cashing in the Bill of Lading. the owner will be responsible. or: The contract contains information which confirms that the country. based on the Haag-Visby regulations for all Bill of Lading issued for transport of a cargo. Here the time charterer is important. If another receiver than the one presenting in the Bill of Lading appears. Here the same sort of difficulties as mentioned earlier can occur. but be careful and leave the decision to the owner. Law in its execution forces Haag-Visby regulations. it must satisfy the conditions set in the Convention. it necessary to . The owner. or someone he answers for. There is no way to avoid any responsibility for the conditions. or ought to have known that information about the cargo was incorrect.. there is no way to be free of responsibility. This is true when he has or should have realised that the information in this document was incorrect. The owner is also responsible to the third person if cargo damage or cargo lack has been kept hidden without being noted in the Bill of Lading. So. and could have caused misunderstandings for a third party. according to its Convention rules or laws. When delivering cargo. A large reputable company can accept a “Back Letter” or “Letter of Indemnity” as satisfactory. Be aware. and that this is valid as evidence -confirming. or: The transport is from one port in a country using the Convention already. Counter evidence cannot be produced if the Bill of Lading has been acquired in good faith from a third person. Also. even when the owner should have discovered this information. The Haag-Visby regulation’s Bill of Lading paragraph does not apply to freight contracts. therefore any remark concerning the cargo and its condition etc. The conditions in the Convention concerning responsibility for loss and damages is not an impediment for changes in the preserving of the cargo and the handling before loading and after discharging. that P/I companies do not cover the owner’s loss if something goes wrong.that the owner has accepted and loaded the cargo when no other information is available. is responsible for losses regarding his obligation to keep the ship in seaworthy condition at the start of the voyage. When a ship is time chartered. The situation will then be to judge. have agreed to use the Convention in the transport situation. The Bill of Lading must in such a case show that this information proved otherwise. A charterer will press a captain to issue a clean Bill of Lading regardless. the captain must make sure that no Bill of Lading is signed which could lead to claims of responsibility against the owner which was caused by incorrect description of the cargo.

This is nothing like a bank guaranty. A number of charter party formulas exist that are used. frequently there is a situation described as “take it or leave it”. the ship’s captain must respond similarly due to the Bill of Lading. 4. 4. If the market activity is slow. The central issue in any charter party is who the owner is and who is controlling the ship.1 Indemnity Clause This can cause some bother. be clauses in the document. broadly speaking. remember to follow the owner’s instructions. which is a written confirmation between the owner and a charterer about a commissioned transport. The best-known voyage charter party within the tank trade is “Tanker Voyage Charter Party”. in these cases. especially in short voyages. in some cases. especially the Bill of Lading. Some oil companies use this. follow each other. prospectively contact the owner’s charterer office for further information. Most of the oil companies have their own charter party formulas which.1 Voyage Charter Party Voyage chartering is probably the most common type of freighting. Here the shipping company (owner) watches out for this and makes an effort to improve the terms. Any doubt whatsoever. two organisations have been especially working hard to accomplish standard charter party outlines. Several standard charter party outlines exist concerning different types of freighting and their single type of cargo. Besides. 4. Whether this turns out to be a success is no guaranty. Be aware that the charter party outline also can be divided in sub groups. the owner or the charterer and in some situations this can be hard to determine.4 FREIGHTING FORMS A charter party is a document. the owner is responsible for the operating expenses including bunker costs. To get a more neutral charter party formula and better adjusted to the interests of both parties. the load/discharge port . There will. which almost completely favour of the charterer.3. In this freighting form (voyage charter party).4. and cannot always be considered satisfactory security for the cargo delivery. If the original Bill of Lading cannot be produced. That is The Baltic and the International Maritime Conference (BIMCO) in Copenhagen and the English shipping organisation Chamber of Shipping of United Kingdom in London. then better conditions can possibly be negotiated with success. then the owner has a duty to deliver the cargo in exchange for a “Letter of Indemnity” (a written guaranty from the charterer). with a shortage of ships available in the right location. But in an active good market.examine if the person involved is right according to the transport declarations (notes added on the back side of the Bill of Lading. both when on time charter party or travel charter party and in the owners regular trading. The owner’s instruction must. Large charterer usually have their own formulas with specific conditions added. The ship’s captain has to show the utmost of caution when treating the loading contracts. however this will not be viewed her. as well as. will confirm this). be followed by the captain in charge. the solution will be to accept the terms and be happy that the ship is in trading.

e. Europe. % MOLCO means “charter option”. An ordered port: for example Gibraltar for order. the written word is preferred over the printed. Preamble: Here is the information about the partners committed in this deal. but this can be described in different ways: A determined dock: for example berth 1. we have a so-called near clause which protects the owner from impediments which may arise after the charter party has been agreed to “or so near there to as she may safely get and lie always afloat”. if these should come in conflict to each other. PART I A: Description and position of vessel: The ship’s loading capacity for the cargo to be transported (on oil tankers it is smart to note the pumping capacity). it cannot demand to start loading before the lay days start. as described in Part I and Part II. the charterer may cancel the contract or renegotiate. We will view the most important facts in the charter party negotiations. If the ship arrives later than the cancelling date. Discharging port(s) range: The discharging ports can be agreed to as referred to in point “D”. Several ports: for example Rotterdam. The conclusions included in Part I have higher priority than the conditions in Part II. In one part of the charter party. B: Lay days/Cancelling (lay/can May 17-20 1994): Lay/can estimates the time frame (window) when the ship can arrive in loading port and be ready to load. Mongstad. It is then the owner’s duty to bring the ship to the determined port. We will look at a typical voyage charter party and go through the most important content. C: Loading port(s) Range: It is important to agree on the load and discharge place. Read the charter party. D. If the ship appears ahead of time. In voyage freighting. The loading capacity can be noted in i. Cargo description: It describes here how much and what kind of cargo the ship should load. The position of the ship and when it can be ready in loading port. and which ship this concerns.expenses which are specified in the charter party. this is divided in two. the charterer makes an agreement on the freight before each single voyage. in this example the 20th of May. in this example 17th of May. Here we should remember the expression: % MOLOO or % MOLCO. The ship is paid based upon the transported quantity. MOLOO & MOLCO are possibly used. unless other terms are agreed to. in other words. If several grades are to be loaded . the ship’s captain can adjust the amount of cargo as specified by a % up or down. According to common interpretations practice. E. Part I and Part II. A determined port: for example one safe port. m3 or in metric tonnes. % MOLOO means “more or less in owner’s option”. Mongstad. A determined area: for example one safe port. As you will notice. In the end of this chapter you will find a copy of a voyage charter party “ASBATANKVOY” which we use as the starting point here.

4500 mt x 65 USD/mt = 292 500 USD.94 06:00 NOR delivered 17. Lay time: Normally agreed lay time in loading/discharging port is 72 hours (agreed in World Scale).05. For cargoes based on price pr. as follows: (185000 x 62 x 16. . Demurrage: This is the compensation the owner can claim from the charterer if the charterer use a longer time for loading and discharging than estimated.g. Demurrage is agreed to when the charter party is negotiated and is likely to be set to a fixed cost per 24 hours. Paying currency is also noted. H.94 06:00 NOR accepted 17.06.550.05.892.94 07:00 Loading complete arm disconnected 18.94 22:00 Total hours used on loading 39 Timer Total hours NOR accepted to loading 40 Timer complete Discharge port Arrival anchorage discharge port 06. can appear.the expression “Within vessel’s natural segregation”.per 24 hours. We will look closer at this when some of the parts in Part II of the charter party is viewed. not only the ships. abbreviated to (WVNS).50): 100 = US dollar 1. F.05. We here show a demurrage calculation based on the information from a completed voyage charter party: Total laytime according to CP 72 Timer Agreed demurrage according CP 11 500 USD pdpr Loading port Moored at loading port 17. This time is also dependent on the capacity of the discharging port. Freight payable to: Noted here is the name and address of the receiver of the freight income. Freight rate: Here the freight rate is given in World Scale or prize pr unit either metric ton or cubic meter. I.94 06:00 Commence loading 17. metric ton as in this example 65 USD/mt. World Scale is viewed earlier in this part of the compendium.05. The freight incomes in our example should be based on the agreement in the charter party. G. We then multiply rate with estimate cargo as e. In our example we negotiated a demurrage of US dollars 11500.94 03:30 .05.

Until this is a fact.06.06.75 13.06.e. J. TOVALOP: It is now cancelled Special provisions: The amount of numbered additional clauses is given here. let us be enlightened on the issue “Subjects”!. before the affair is completed. The place of General average and arbitration: Here it is stated if London or New York rules have to be used to settle claims. Total hours on NOR in both ports 85.06. takes into consideration certain circumstances. This was Part I in the charter party. the owner is bound. that the confirmation is approved be the company’s management or that the cargo is being sold. we now know what the charterer has to pay the owner if all delays are to be claimed on the terminals. Before looking at Part II.g. Usually the agreement is a fact when the agreement is abandoned.94 03:30 NOR accepted 06. Commission of: Here it is written the percent owner has to pay e. that the shipper accepts the ship. Often the charterer.94 16:00 NOR delivered 06. We will take a further look at the clauses in Part II of the charter party.5) Moored discharge port Timer Timer Timer Timer Timer USD Based on these facts.5 Total laytime according to CP 72 Demurrage base 13.94 09:30 Commence discharging 06. . L.94 08:00 Total hours used on discharging 39 Total hours NOR accepted to discharging 46. i.06.5%.5 comp.5 Demurrage claim is then (11500 / 24 x 6468.06.94 17:00 Completed discharging arm disconnected 08. 2. K. Signatures: Here the owner and the charterer’s broker sign the charter party. the cargo can be delivered to the loading place (subject stem). M. If the cargo is abandoned both parties are free.

Full cargo is determined by what stands in the charter party Part I. Therefore. The dead freight base will be: (4725 . Now we will look at some of the clauses written in Part II of “ASBATANKVOY”. Received cargo is 4650 metric tonnes. The lay time starts to run 6 hours after NOR is sent. 4925 metric ton. If the owner has had advantages like less load/discharge expenses and shorter time in loading and discharging. The ship can load 4725 metric tonnes based the charter party. The charterer will not give the vessel more cargo than 4725 mt even if the captain say he can take e. Laydays: (clause 5) Commence of laytime does not start before the date and time stated in Part 1. For example. the captain has to deliver a written protest in the load port. bunkering port or when the charter party is signed. Notice of readiness/Running time: (clause 6) This is the message. if our cargo is described at 4500 metric tonnes 5% MOLOO. you must read the charter party very closely. The owner should not be better off than he would have been with full load. the maximum cargo the captain can request (4500 : 100 ) x 105 = 4725 metric tonnes. Naming loading and discharging port: (clause 4) Charterer have to name the load port 24 hours before the vessel readiness to sail from previous discharge port. the lay time starts to run even before the end of the first mentioned 6 hours. If the charterer does not deliver cargo at all. . A.PART II.g. but if he does not. which is given when ready to load/discharge. Dead freight: (clause 3) This clauses puts a claim on the charterer to come up with full cargo for the ship. and make the shipper aware of the ship’s capacity to load more. When not receiving cargo the ship is booked for. the freight received is called fault freight. NOR is not provided until the lay day (agreed to in Part I) starts. NOR is given when the ship arrives and is shown the waiting place.4650) = 75 metric tonnes. the owner will suffer a freight loss. we will find the dead freight claim based on the charter party. and at the same time calculate how much cargo is lacking. then this will be considered when calculating the dead freight. if the charterer does not deliver full cargo the charterer must pay dead freight costs. Warranty – Voyage – Cargo: (Clause 1) The vessel must have all certificates valid that is required according to PART 1. this is IMPORTANT. In our example. If the ship goes straight to port and starts loading/discharging. If the vessel has not delivered NOR before 04:00 PM the cancelling date the charterer have option to cancel the chart. iii. Dead freight is the freight which compensates for the difference between the cargo the ship could have loaded if the charterer had supplied full cargo versus the real cargo the ship actually received.

Pumping in and out: (clause 10). Read this text thoroughly. when the cargo is received onboard it is on the owners account. Oil and oily water should be collected in the ships slop tank while cleaning tanks. Cargo is loaded on the charterer account. Lay time: (clause 7). Oil pollution prevention: (clause 26) The owner shall ensure that the ship captain is performing the following: 1. Demurrage (clause 8): This is discussed on page 3 in this part. Quarantine: (clause 17).This will be specially noted in the charter party. particularly Regulation9/Chapter 2 of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships 1973. 2. The determined number of hours for loading/discharging is written in this clause. Delay in time caused by quarantine is counted as lay time. the time is counted. Running lay time is cancelled in the following situations: • • • From waiting place to load/discharge place. Everything based on MARPOL 73/78. etc. Note specially here “and all other Charter’s purpose whatsoever”. 3. The important point here is that the ship's captain follow the nominated ports at all times. The freight does not cover this. The company in the nominated load/discharging ports must use the charter agent. Ballast handling (when this prevents load/discharge). Time for stops which owner and ship causes. concerning sending and receiving of NOR. The charterer must cover running expenses. If an impediment is caused due to the charterer’s responsibilities. The lay time only counts as long as the ship’s loading/discharging capacity is fully used. There after the charterer should be informed of the amount of oil and water which is left on board in addition to details concerning slop left over from . Time for tugboat. Ice: (clause 14). It is important that all hours. strike. but the lay time continues to run. Agency: (clause 22). pilot. These agents should be considered to be the owner’s agent and is paid by the owner. The ship should not trade in ice or be forced to follow an icebreaker. if the quarantine was in force at the time the charterer nominated the port. Safe berthing/ Shifting: (clause 9) The charterer can rightfully shift the ship within the limit of load/discharging port. is correct. and after a maximum settling time the separated water is pumped over board as stipulated in MARPOL 73/78.

The type of charter party vary from company to company.) Bills of Lading: This clause is extremely important and comprehensive and has to be studied carefully. See the section of Bill of Lading chapter 3 in part 4 This was some of the printed clauses in Charter party ASBATANKVOY. called collected washings.earlier voyages. The charterer has the right to decide whether this slop will be delivered ashore or be kept on board to eventually be loaded on top of this (LOT. In addition to the printed clauses we have option to write specified clauses. .

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When it is a success you earn money. Usually the time charter will be determined due to the dead weight of the ship indicated by the summer marking. some will possibly be covered by time chartering available ships and the marginal need will be covered by voyage freight. or as regular rate per 24 hours if it is a short termed time charter. In the chartered period. it is important that the description of the ship is accurate. That will ease the business financing and offer security. for example 1month. In association with an expensive new building. 6 months. The owner is seeking . the charterer can cancel the contract and demand compensation. the time charterer can freely dispose the ship for his purposes within the frames which the charter party contract is drawn. The regular shipment of large quantities of goods. or the ship does not fulfil the description. This is likely to continue as long as time charters are involved. In situations where the error is essential. Time chartering is a way to take advantage of the market. He supplies cargo. There are several reasons for using the time charter.5 TIME CHARTER PARTY Besides voyage freighting. concerns the ships ability to load.e. speed and the consumption of bunkers. is shut off. and especially when it comes to talking about heavy cargo like oil. either at a certain freight rate per tonnes dead weight per month. If the ship is at sea. pays the variable expenses such as bunkers. The characteristics of the ship are of particular value for the time charterer. the time charter party is the most important form of chartering. load/discharge equipment. During a time charter party. Others can be covered by using own tonnage. The time period can vary. The owner is paid for the time the charterer uses the ship. running satisfactory. when you fail you lose money because you do not get covered for the time freight or the variable expenses. Just as in the voyage charter party. A charterer will usually watch closely and make sure the ship redeems the claims in the charter party. especially in the first years of a ships active time. can be one reason. An owner may also have faith in a rise in freight rates and charter a ship for i.4. or as a rolled-out sum per month or per fortnight. the owner will have secure income. a discussion most likely to appear. an owner is often interested in getting a long-term charter party for the ship. the charterer can demand a reduction or compensation for the damage he proves to suffer. In long-term charter parties it is common practice to have a clause protecting the owner completely or partly of rising running costs (Escalation Clause). With a time charter. if the freight income is higher than the time charter rent you are paying. but the principle will remain the same. So the ships speed and consumption is of great importance. The time charterer operates the ship and pays the bunkers expenses. The time charterer pays freight for the time disposal of the ship. canaland harbour costs in load/discharging port. and the time charter (freight) he will pay. Here the charterer hires a ship for a certain period of time. If it is discovered that the owner has given incorrect information concerning the ship. for a special oil company. 2years or 15years. but the opportunity to make large profits if the activity in the market suddenly explodes. One can say that time charter is not quite as exciting as voyage chartering. Over the years. the discussion has been endless concerning speed and consumption. the time charter party has many different formulas. instructs the ship. 6months.

The charterer will of course be interested in a quick load. The owner will be responsible for the following expenses: • • • • • • • • Salary and other crew expenses Food Ships insurance Deck-and machine accessories Lubricating oil Repair expenses/dock setting Classification expenses Interests. quick sailing. navigation and security. and therefore it is important to know whether the expense is put on the charterer or the owner’s bill. discharging and sailing. This relationship is very important. pay the incoming expenses while the charterer is paying the outgoing expenses. in a port or out at sea at a determined position and on a determined date. In voyage freighting the owner pays all expenses connected to the voyage. This is . The time charter is payable from the moment the ship is delivered. If the ship arrives at delivery port in ballast. The captain’s position on board can also appear difficult in this connection.the business and has. if nothing else is agreed to. The owner employs him for the responsibility of the ship handling. Upon delivery time. If the delivery is executed in a port the owner will. the usual procedure is to charge the charterer all the arrival expenses from the time the ship embarked the pilot on board. but since the charterer is paying he will watch the consumption from month to month. It is of extreme importance that the ships captain is not influenced by the charterer on behalf of the owner. part payments and administration The following expenses will be paid by the charterer: • • • • Bunkers Port expenses Load/discharge expenses Pilot and canal expenses The ship is delivered when the owner can present the ship to the charterer. The owner company is obligated to have crew and a seaworthy ship at the charterer’s disposal. therefore. but still within reasonable limits try to maintain a healthy relationship with the charterer. He also will take orders from the charterer concerning loading. described the ship as positively as possible. This can be a heavy load and interfere both with the safety and the conditions of the ship which may not always be in the interest of the owner. and quick discharging. In a time charter it is different. A time-chartered ship is rented fully crewed and equipped. and the time charterer shall operate the ship. it is important to check that all bunkers are surveyed on board. if nothing else is agreed to.

compensation can be claimed.e. as soon as the ship is delivered on time in the right place. the ship should be in the same condition as at the delivering time. have to be paid by the owner. The charter can be limited by geographical limitations. monthly or in 14 days termin. the time freight is due to be paid in advance. if the market freight is higher than the time freight. because of breakdown or other delays the owner is responsible. for 4 months freight in advance. When ordering a ship to areas where additional insurance are to be paid. The ship will appear in “off hire” and then the charterer does not pay freight until the ship is operating again. the charterer may use the ship as he wishes and may plan voyages wherever he wants. If the charterer cannot use the ship. The time charter has a set duration and is then returned to the owner. i. The owner will be very interested in this in order to plan further activities for the ship. When the charterer has kept the ship beyond the reasonable agreed time. normal fair wear and tear. which affects the use of the ship. The market is of vital importance regarding the choice. If the captain is instructed not to sign the Bill of Lading. 4. This can be done within the limits set by the charter party.1 Delivery Certificate During the charter party’s valid time period. A ship can be used for worldwide trade. The charterer should use the ship for its missions in the determined period. When overlap occurs the owner can claim market freight for the time lost. Usually the time of return will be noted.W. The payment is usually in advance. Some difficulties can arise. the charter party can add a clause saying “14days more or less in charterer’s option” or something similar to this. The off hire period is not added in the charter party unless expressively agreed. Therefore it is especially important to examine the time charterer’s financial capacity in long-term charter parties. it is called “overlap”. In extremely late re-deliveries. this is a successful way to pressure an unwillingly charterer. With this I hope you have got some understanding of a time charter party. because it is hard to schedule a ship to be delivered on date. At return a Redelivery Certificate is signed which will note the time.5. the owner should preserve these expenses to be charged by the charterer. if the charterer causes cancelled business. Usually both parties sign a delivery certificate. so a little room has to be allowed. . and fully equipped according to the charter party.L. to return as soon as possible or as late as possible. which would have earned profit above the market level. except from the usual.). date and remaining bunkers at delivery. For example. made by the charterer. A middle sized or middle solid charterer can be influenced to get a bank guarantee.the owner’s property and must be paid for by the charterer. which are consumed in an “off hire” situation. but with the enclosure “within institute warranties limits” (I. Upon re-delivery. ice conditions and wars. If not specially determined. Bunkers.

He can go in the market and include tonnage in time charters or voyage charters at a lower freight than he himself receives and be compensated by the difference in income. etc. Usually the loading dates are determined within certain marginal (windows) and then it is important to follow these and the determined quantity accurately. grain. what the freighting element will be. An example. where the renting contract says the charterer shall pay all expenses concerning. It is easy to realise that in a long-term transport contract many unforeseen situations may occur and the common procedure is. The charterer uses the ship in the chartered period as if he is the owner and pays all expenses and maintenance in the period including the crew expenses. 1. The charterer is obligated to deliver the cargo. within the limits of responsibility drawn in the contract. the freight is pre-payable per month in a demise charter. In addition. During such a transport contract the owner company is not obliged to use a special ship. 4. He knows that in the contracting period.7 DEMISE CHARTER The fourth charter form is demise charter. crew payments.tonnes oil pr year in a period of 2 years. maintenance and all running expenses. when selling the cargo. Very often the shipments are carried out regularly through the time period (fairly spread out).000. for example. the charterer can. but occasionally the activity in shipments vary with the season. in some situations.. and can in this way secure himself against down periods.6 CONTRACT OF AFREIGHTMENT (COA) The third charter form is the freight contract (transport contract) or the quantity contract which is almost similar to the voyage charter party. over an agreed period of time. is provided with the regulations commonly found in a voyage charter party. The afreighting contracts are often valid for a rather long period of time and large quantities.000. ore. Demise charters is. Just as in the time charter. but the owner accepts to make a suitable ship available. The advantage for a charterer is the covering of the shipping program with only one company or group.4. This form of charter lets the charterer rent the whole ship from the company. Furthermore. under a COA (Contract of Afreightment). negotiate a freight contract in a time when he expects the future rate to rise. So a freight contract stipulates no special ship and the owner can freely use any suitable ship to execute the transport mission. The ship owner however may believe that the activity in the market is sinking. if he is short of tonnage. The afreightment contract is usually an agreement between owners of big quantity cargo and transport companies as big ship owners. Every single voyage. In juridical sense a demise charter is an owner. to make clauses in the contract to protect against these unforeseen situations. and in this way he avoids having to find a charter for every shipment. This is a contract for the transport of large quantities of oil. etc. it is especially important to obey the reporting regulations at all times. . therefore. The crew is hired by charterer and employed by charterer and not by the owner.

and quality · Load/discharge equipment should be operative · Authority Regulations and Classification companies must be satisfied · Complete and fully qualified crew · No heating coil leakage.Occasionally. but other arrangements can be made. The following will illustrate “seaworthiness”: · (Cargo-worthiness) the ship is able to receive cargo at determined date and time · Sufficient amount of bunkers. and here we choose to enlighten you on the word “Seaworthiness” as a conclusive and very important part of negotiated contracts. but will then claim compensation for losses due to the lack of seaworthiness. the company reserves the right to insure the ship or at least the charterer. or in the worst case. When the voyage is started and lack of seaworthiness is discovered. cancel the contract. Still the assumption of delivering cargo from the charterer is that the ship is seaworthy. This has two elements . or leakage between cargo tanks · Seaworthy at the departure load/discharging ports If the charterer discovers lack of seaworthiness before a voyage he can demand this to be improved within reasonable time. With the demise charter.7. the charterer can not cancel the contract. Some times the charterer reserves the right to have some of their own senior officers on board the ship. Usually only the owner will pay the capital expenditures relating to the ship. the ownership passes to the demise charter. Often the charterer has an option to buy the ship at the end of the charter party period. The demise charter is usually a long-term contract. In other cases.a freight element and a buying element. If the charterer will arrange this before hand. the demise charterer has bought the ship. Now the charter party forms are viewed. paying the freight in monthly terms. 4. and often in combination with special finance and sales contracts. which is already included in the monthly hire. Seaworthiness cover many areas we do not have in mind daily.1 Seaworthiness The owner is obligated to make a completely seaworthy ship available. The expenses connected to this are agreed to before hand. it can be agreed that at the end of the charter party period. if nothing else is noted. The company has to make sure that the demise charter insures the ship responsibly and with a first class insurance company. then the terms must be accepted regarding the insurance amount and the conditions. .

2 Cargo samples Make sure that samples are taken of the cargo. Be quite sure that the samples are representative of the actual cargo. This is important. etc. samples of the cargo are delivered on board and then to be handed over to the receiver of the cargo.7.7. Usually. The samples should be kept on board at least 12 months. 4. Keep samples as evidence. and be prepared in case claims from the receiver should eventually come.3 Frozen in If the ship is icebound because of the charter’s orders to lay in this specific port..4 Maintenance The owner of the vessel pays for classification.7. in case of requests later on concerning the quality of the loaded oil.4. . the charterer pays the time loss. 4. (For receipt only). all maintenance like docking period and if the ship goes off-hire. before you sign any receipt approving the samples.

05.Chemistry And Physics .

The atomic models are illustrated as follows: Carbon falls under group IVA and has 4 electrons in the outer shell. The periodic table arranges the 106 elements in increasing number of electron shells. Protons and electrons form the atomic nucleus. 5.BASIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Organic chemistry mostly deals with chemical compounds containing carbon. The electrons move with high velocity around the nucleus. meanwhile the number of neutrons may vary. neutrons and electrons. The elements in the group IA have only one electron in the outer shell.1 THE PERIODIC SYSTEM The periodic system is built on the principle that the electrons in the outer shell determine the chemical properties of a material. The levels are numbered from K to Q and called electron shells. Two of the main elements in the periodic system are Hydrogen and Helium. . There are equal numbers of protons as electrons in an atom. and fall under group IA and VIIA. there can be 8 electrons in the outer shell. The number of electrons in the outer shell is always equal to the atom’s main group number. at different levels and orbital. An atom consists of protons. Each vertical column is one of the periodic table’s main groups. At maximum.

It is therefore easy to emit one electron to elements within group VIIA. Most inorganic elements are metals. Na + Cl Na+ + ClNaCl Sodium “emits” the only electron to Chlorine. which has seven electrons in the outer shell and is “short of” one electron to fill up the outer shell. The 7 periods indicate the number of electron shells. We also look at the electron shells as the electrons’ energy level. and they easily form alloys with one another. The atomic number also indicates the total number of electrons in the atom. Covalent bonding is common in both organic and inorganic chemical reactions. . The rows in the periodic chart indicate the periods. Noble gases occur only in atomic form. There are 8 side groups between the main groups IA and IIA. We call this mutual sharing of electrons. Chlorine “receives” the electron and is thereby negatively charged. covalent bonding. An example for such a bonding is when Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) bond with one another and form Sodium chloride or cooking salt. The elements in group VIIA are named noble gases. The metals form metal bonding where the atomic are organised close together. When two or more atoms bond together. All the elements in the side groups are metals. they form a molecule. The periodic system’s number is the element’s atomic number. The individual element has numbers from 1 to 106. Sulphur is located in row 3 (period number 3) and has thereby 3 shells. and is thereby positively charged. Such mutual sharing of an electron is called ion bonding.

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5. There are two natural forms of Carbon. Both reaction products are also gases. it will easily react with for example. Hydrogen is the smallest main element. The atomic number for carbon is 6. Carbon dioxide. CO is thereby first absorbed in the blood and seizes the absorption of oxygen. that means heat is produced in the chemical reaction. These relations are very important to notice. The result of this poisoning is a sort of suffocation at very low concentrations. Following sketch indicates an example of a natural gas’ composition: . which means there are totally 6 electrons divided between two electron shells with 4 electrons in the outer shell. is light and is flammable in air.1 Carbon You find the element Carbon in the main group IVA/period number 2. You must always check the cargo tank atmosphere for carbon monoxide before personnel are allowed to enter the tank. which is a reaction that produces heat. It is not reactive in room temperature. The combustion is exothermic. first of all in form of water and naturally compounds together with carbon. Oxygen.2 HYDROCARBON GROUPS Hydrocarbon is a common expression for all chemical compounds that includes carbon and hydrogen. Hydrogen is strongly widespread. We say that carbon is combustible. which has four electrons in the outer shell number 2.1. but different number of neutron in the atomic nucleus. CO2.5 O2 = CO + 113 kJ Both reactions are exothermic. The gas (H2). as graphite and as diamond. Carbon is the element that naturally forms most natural chemical compounds. The different products of the combustion are dependent of accent to oxygen. Inert gas produced in an inert gas generator or flue gas plant onboard will always contain carbon monoxide due to incomplete combustion. Poisoning of carbon monoxide occurs because the hemoglobin in the blood reacts much easier with CO than with oxygen. especially when the air excess is reduced. There are small quantities of hydrogen in free natural form on earth. Crude oil and natural gas consist mainly of a mixture with various unequal hydrocarbon compounds. C + O2 = CO2 + 393 kJ (at complete combustion) (at incomplete combustion) C + 0.5. Carbon monoxide is odorless and a very poisonous gas that always is present in a real combustion process. A partly incomplete combustion produces both less heat and more formation of carbon monoxide than a complete combustion. We say that the carbon is combustible. the oxygen in air. CO. Isotopes have the same number of protons. When you breathe a mixture of these two gases. When heated. graphite and diamond. and 2 electrons in the innermost. which is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon. but it will when heated up react more easily with. for example. Carbon is not particular reactive in room temperature. There are many isotopes of carbon. is the product of complete combustion of carbon and carbon monoxide. You find the element carbon in only two different natural conditions.

also called Acetylides · Alkadienes. also called Olefins · Alkynes. also called Paraffin’s · Alkyls · Alkenes. and all new hydrocarbon compounds that is created in the petrochemical industry. and creates hydrocarbon compounds. The most important hydrocarbon groups are: · Alkanes. To simplify the overview of these natural components. Some of the hydrocarbon compounds are naturally created. You may look at the four electrons as four “arms” that can connected to the hydrogen atom’s single “arm”.Carbon has four electrons in the outer electron shell that can be divided with others. the different hydrocarbon compounds are grouped dependent of how the “arms” or the chemical bonding are between the two atoms. other are only created in chemical controlled processes. also called Di-olefins · Cyclo-alkanes · Arenes · Alcohol · Aldehydes · Ketones .

) are different because the atom structure is different. Ethers etc. new alkanes are formed. When the number of carbon atoms increase. but different properties. Normal-butane and iso-butane are examples of isomers where both have the same molecule formula. C3H8. The gas methane is the smallest molecule. A methane molecule consists of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. 5.In addition to above listed hydrocarbon groups there are others like Carboxylic acid. Such bonding is called isometric bonding. but the properties (boiling point. The third component in the alkane group is propane. All alkane compounds have the ending “-ane”. The carbon atom’s four arms are united to the hydrogen atoms’ single arm and has this general molecule-formula: CnH2n + 2 where “n” is a positive integer. which is the next component in this group. Many materials may have the same molecule formula. and is the main component in natural gas. .2. You can arrange 20 carbon atoms and 42 hydrogen atoms in 366319 different ways. By adding carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. By adding one carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms to methane.1 Alkanes Alkanes are the simplest hydrocarbon compounds and is the major part of crude oil and natural gas. density. Esters. etc. and at the same time maintain the same simple form of binding. the number of possible bonding between the atoms increase. we get ethane.

C4H10 Chemical formulas and names are many times derived from each other. Name: Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane iso-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 Melting point o C -182. Other names like methane and ethane are not following this system.5 -0.and boiling point at atmospheric pressure. Pentane is derived from the Greek word “pent”.n-Butane.5 -11. some of the most common alkanes are listed with melting.6 -42. Note that melting point and boiling point increase by the length of chain for the straight-chained hydrocarbons. In the following list. C4H10 iso-Butane.6 -88.7 36 69 98 126 151 174 Number of isomeric compounds 0 0 0 2 3 5 9 18 35 75 .2 -189.9 -135 -145 -130 -95 -91 -57 -54 -30 Boiling point o C -161. it refers to the number of carbon atoms in the material.5 -183. That means “five”. These names are called trivial names.

an alkyl molecule is created. 5. butane or naphtha.7 -6. C3H6.2. ethane.5.7 -47.7 Number of isomeric compounds 0 0 4 4 . Name: Ethylene (ethene) Propylene (propene) 1-Butene cis-2-Butene Formula C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 Melting point o C -169 -185.2. and the alkenes may change back to (chemical reaction) alkanes. The alkenes are so-called unsaturated hydrocarbons.3 3.3 Alkenes You do not find alkenes in the natural forms. but with the ending “-yl” instead of “-ane”. C2H4. The double bonding may easily loosen up.2 -185. The next alkene is propylene. which is produced by cracking other hydrocarbons or naphtha.4 -138. Alkenes are hydrocarbons with a double bonding between two of the carbon atoms. The different compounds are named by the alkane. that is produced by cracking of for example propane.9 Boiling point o C -103. These compounds are produced in a cracking process within the petrochemical industry.2 Alkyls If one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule. The general molecule formula for alkanes is: CnH2n The simplest alkene is ethylene. The general molecule formula for alkyl groups are: CnH2n + 1 The compounds in this group are chemical products where the CH-group is attached to various alcohol and chloride compounds. “arms” that are attached to several hydrogen atoms released.

trans-2-Butene iso-Butene 1-Pentene C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 -105. 1-Butene Cis-2-Butene Trans-2-Butene . Notice the difference between a cis-bonding and a trans-bonding.9 -6. but different structure and thereby different properties.9 4 4 6 The number of isomeric compounds increase by the number of carbon atoms. Double bonding also gives additional possibilities for combination because the double bonding may be located on several different places inside the molecule.4 0.6 -140. The following molecules have the same molecule formula.

5 -4.5.2. The alkynes have the same general formula as for the alkadienes: CnH2n .9 Boiling point o C -34. .2 Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons.4 Number of isomeric compounds 0 Propadiene C3H4 1. The simplest compound within this group is etyne.2.5 Alkynes Alkynes are hydrocarbons with a triple bonding between two carbon molecules. C2H2.4 Alkadienes Alkadienes are hydrocarbons with two doubles bonding in the molecule. and form a homologous serial.5 -108.3-Butadiene C4H6 5.2 Propadiene 1. The general molecule formula for alkadienes is: CnH2n .3 Butadiene Name: Formula Melting point o C -136.

Name: Etyne (Acetylene) Propyne (Allyene) Formula C2H2 C3H4 Melting point o C -82 -102 Boiling point o C -84 -23 Number of isomeric compounds 0 0 5. which is very stabile and frequently used together with other products in the petrochemical industry. but unsaturated hydrocarbons because of its double bonding.2. is a well-known product within this group. and form a homologous serial. CnH2n The circular structure of the cyclo propane: Name: Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Cyclopentane Cycloheptane Formula C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 Melting point o C -126 -50 -93 6 Boiling point o C -34 13 50 81 Number of isomeric compounds 5.2. Benzene. but the molecules form a circular structure.7 Arenes Arenes are cyclic. The general molecule formula for the cyclo alkanes is. The compounds are saturated. The compounds are aromatic. .6 Cyclo alkanes Cyclo alkanes are hydrocarbons with single bonding between the carbon atoms.

2.3 Boiling point o C 64.9 Aldehydes Aldehydes have one functional group –CHO.8 -117. dependent of the form of bonding.8 Alcohol’s Alcohol are organic compounds where the functional group is the hydroxyl-group – OH.2 Number of isomeric compound .Name: Benzene Formula C6H6 Melting point o C 5.5 Boiling point o C 80. Name: Formula Melting point o C -118 -123.5 Boiling point o C -19 20.3 Number of isomeric compound 5. The different alcohol’s are divided in subgroups. All alcohol ends with “-ol”.3 Boiling point o C 56.1 Number of isomeric compounds 5.2 Number of isomeric compound Formaldehyde HCHO Acetaldehyde CH3COH Ketones 5.2. Name: Methanol Ethanol Formula CH3OH C2H5OH Melting point o C -97.2.5 78.10 Ketones are compounds where the functional group is the carbon-group. Name: Acetone Formula CH3COCH3 Melting point o C -94.

They can easily saturate the vacant valences in a chemical reaction.3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS New products are continuously made in the petrochemical industry by allowing hydrocarbon compounds participate in chemical processes and reactions. the bromine-coloured water will disappear.3.1 Unsaturated chemicals Unsaturated chemical compounds contain one or several double or triple bonding between the carbon atoms. If you combine ethylene and bromine. the molecules react with each other and form large molecules. so-called macromolecules. a catalyst is often used. and the plastic raw materials are used alone or together with others when producing plastic products. Other types of polymers are made of ethylene or together with other hydrocarbon. Benzol peroxide is an example of peroxide used as a catalyst for production of polyethylene. this chemical reaction will take place: When unsaturated chemical compounds are heated under pressure. A chemical reaction has appeared between two compounds. The molecular weight is controlled by temperature. The number of monomers taking part of a polymerisation may be many thousand. because the double bonding is opened and bromine appear in every vacant valence. others are considerably smaller. 5. are called monomers. Most plastic raw materials are produced like this. by increasing the temperature and pressure in the chemical compound. a solvent bromine and water can be used. To start the reactions or to increase the velocity of reaction. Molecules or mixture of molecules which is capable of polymerise. A catalyst is a material that increases the velocity of reaction in a chemical process without changing its own state. and a new compound is created. A chemical reaction may take place: · · by mixing unsaturated compounds with another product. which is a polymer of ethylene produced by polymerising ethylene with a peroxide catalyst. A linear polyethylene has a molecular weight of more than 6000. The properties are different. If you mix bromine (Br) with a saturated oil. . concentration of catalyst or amount of ethylene. alone or together with other compounds. This is called polymerisation.5. Linear polyethylene is a plastic raw material. To visualize an unsaturated compound.

an inhibitor is added to the individual cargo. The following list demonstrates some of the most common plastic materials today.2 Peroxides and inhibitors Peroxides are highly explosive.3. Humidity and water will reduce the effect of inhibitors. It is recommended that these parts of the system are checked regularly. Some types of inhibitors have the capability to react with radicals so that the velocity of reaction reduces or to cease up. To assure that all oxygen is removed. when the inhibited cargo is cooled. if the voyage lasts longer than the effect of the inhibitor • eventual temperature limitation The above mentioned inhibitors are only present in the liquid phase. Baekeland managed to control three-step polymerising with phenol and formaldehyde. it is recommended to circulate some inhibited liquid through the part of the system where “condensates” remains without the inhibitor. In 1907.3 Butadiene and VCM are examples of cargo that are added inhibitors.3 butadiene to prevent a polymerisation with strong heat generation. and how they are produced: Polymer Polyethylene Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) Polyvinylcloride (PVC) Polypropylene Polystyrene Monomer: (CH2)n (C2F4)n (H2CCHF)x (C3H5)n (C6H5CHCH2)n Polymerisation: Ethylene Tetrafluorethylene Vinylcloride Propylene Styrene monomer 5. Approximately 5 ppm hydroquinon is added to VCM to prevent polymerisation. An inhibitor is a material that itself. Further.It is not only the unsaturated hydrocarbon compound that may polymerise. as for example butadiene and VCM if oxygen is present. and has great significance even today. In all probability. To avoid such a chemical reaction. in low concentrations. the content of oxygen in the tank atmosphere is kept as low as possible. be handled with the utmost care. reacts with the oxygen. Most inhibitors are very dangerous to our health. Cargo that is inhibited must have a certificate with: • name and amount • inhibitor date and for how long the inhibitor is efficient • precautions. The formation of peroxides in butadiene can entail polymerising with powerful heat generation. 1. . dangerous peroxides will be formed inside the lines of the cooling plant’s “condensate” system. and must therefore. They can appear as powder in pipes and tanks and are very unstable and can easily explode. and can form into unsaturated compounds. The product “Bakelite” was the first synthetic polymer that was produced. US Coast Guard requires that one add 100 ppm TBC (Tertiary Butyl Catechol) to 1. in some cases water will accelerate a chemical reaction.

This is the heat theory’s O. the temperature will eventually be a specific average temperature. at all times. If multiple objects. Because of this. the temperature of the objects and the temperature in the room will eventually be the same. One calibrates thermometers by measuring the temperature at one or several fixture points. are placed in a room. which later acquired the name “Kelvin” (or K). ENERGY AND PRESSURE When you mix cold and warm water. 5. The following restriction of maximum outlet temperatures from the compressor is required: · maximum 60 oC for butadiene · maximum 90 oC for VCM 5. no heat exchanging can occur with the surroundings. Different temperature scales make its impossible to establish a uniform method of many thermal calculations. With a mercury thermometer or an alcoholic thermometer. If the barrier is totally heat insulated. If a material.Introductorily. Boiling water at 760 mm HG is one example of such a fixture point. Empirically.4 TEMPERATURE. for example. it is called adiabatic. Graduation on a mercury thermometer must necessarily be different from the graduation of an alcohol thermometer. the heat will. we have said that polymerising can occur if the temperature is high enough. adopted by the SI-system. it is sufficient to estimate the zero point of the Kelvin scale at – 273oC. is totally surrounded by adiabatic barriers. which will be used as conversion factor in this compendium. in all gaskets that can be in contact with propylene oxide be of PTFE or a similar approved material type. Measuring the temperature based on other material’s characteristics has its obvious weaknesses. The material must. law that forms the basis for measuring the temperature with a thermometer. which is defined to –273. In most thermal calculations. The temperature characterises a fixed stated condition of a material. and can only be measured indirectly by measuring another directly measurable size. begins at the absolute zero point. The Kelvin scale. . before loading and full segregation against other cargo. later ennobled as Lord Kelvin. William Thompson. that changes with the temperature.15oC. move from the warmer material to a colder material. He defined a theoretical temperature scale. This makes great demands for cleaning. Whenever cargo segregation is required. It is important that all materials are compatible with which the cargo can come in contact. but has the same graduation as the Celsius-scale. the individual materials change the volume differently at varying temperatures.3. One can prevent heat transmission by a heat-insulating barrier.3 Reaction with other cargo and materials Some cargo can react strongly with other cargo. or a collection of materials (a system). spool pieces must be used. HEAT. with different temperature. was one of many physicists that worked to find an absolute temperature scale independent of another material’s properties. the temperature can be determined from how the liquid changes the volume.

Mechanical energy. simultaneously the hotplate consumes electrical energy. If an iron bar is heated at one end. Mutually. 1 cal = 4. Conversion between the units calorie (cal) and Joule (J) is therefore. electrical energy. The heat (quantity) required to heat up one gram of water one degree Celsius at a temperature of 14.5oC.1855 J or 1 kcal = 4185. It is natural to conclude that heat transfer is also a form of energy transfer. If we switch on the hotplate.5oC. Heat is often defined as the energy that is transferred from one system to another. which compresses the gas. the temperature rises. chemical combined energy falls as the temperature rises.A temperature difference has the same measured value in Kelvin as in the Celsiusscale. is defined as one calorie (cal). The temperature on the brakes rises simultaneously. The heat will spread through the material and we say that the heat occurs as stationary thermalconductance. or heating energy. chemical energy.50oC 0oC +50oC = (273 + (-50))K = (273 + 0)K = (273 + 50)K = 223 K = 273 K = 323 K When a car decelerates.5 J One can transfer heat from one place to another in different methods. are all expressions for energy that can be summarised as: “Energy is the capability to perform work” We will mainly go into two forms of energy in this compendium. We measure heat with the same unit as all other forms of energy. for all these phenomena is that a temperature increase is in progress simultaneously as we copy energy in one or another form. . the kinetic energy is reduced. When oil burns. but consumes electrical power simultaneously. The SI-system uses the unit “Joule” for heat. potential (position) energy and kinetic energy. the temperature will rise 1K. An electric driven compressor. the whole bar will gradually be warm. Converting from Celsius to Kelvin is: Temperature in Kelvin ⇒ 273 + temperature in Celsius degrees . If 41855 Joule is supplied to 1 kg water at a temperature of 14. A temperature increase can take place by transfer of heat from one material to another at lower temperature. increases the temperature of the gas. the velocity of the car delerates. because of difference in temperature.

The speed of the thermal conductance is a temporary dependent of the material. who measures it and how it is measured. When above mentioned energy forms are measured or calculated during a stated period. one can feel the heat at a long range.At thermal conducting. work or energy is always with the SI-unit J (Joule). the sides that face into vacuum are silvered. A practical example is in a thermos. To eliminate this. the heat is. Emission or emanation is also a form of radiation. Metals are good heat conductors. the easier the radiate absorbs and converts to heat. The radiate is slightly enervated in air. In liquid and gases. When heat conductance takes place by movement in the material. Double walls with vacuum alone does not prevent transfer of products. The heat alters the density. In the vicinity of a heated material in cold surroundings. which is the same as Watt (W). in spite of fact that thermal conductance in vacuum is zero. The engineer reads the pressure in a system on a manometer. We say that the material radiates heat or emits heat rays. gases the inferior. because as you hold a shield against the heat source. the expression absolute pressure is used. and different density provokes flow that takes the heat ahead. you have to stop it with a material. You can express the relation between absorption and emission as the absorption capability of two materials that has to conduct to each other as emission capabilities. the molecules move by heat conductance. The influence of heat radiation is often underestimated. To produce heat from radiation. . The mate reads the atmospheric pressure on a barometer or a mercury column. deducting from a location with higher temperature to a location with lower temperature. at all times. One measures and describes pressure in different ways independent of what is measured. Stationary thermal conductance or heat flow through one level is defined as: F = l/d x A x (T1 . You can not lead the heat you feel through the air. Some heat is transferred by radiation between walls. Heat can also be transferred by radiation. Understanding this type of heat transfer is important in the work of reducing heat transfer.T2) where: l = specific thermal conducting ability or thermal conductivity with unit W/mK δ = the thickness of the material in m A = the area of the material in m2 T1 = temperature on the warmest side in Kelvin T2 = temperature of the coldest side in Kelvin General expressions for heat flow. In thermal technical charts and diagrams. This reduces the heat radiation to a few percent. the heat is gone. the measuring unit is always in J/s. The faster and darker the material is. we say that the heat is transferred by convection. heat quantity.

1 x 9.One can easily describe the different “pressure” by help of a diagram.1 kg/m3 g= the gravity of shaft ration (9. On can use a mercury column or a water column.81 x 0. the logical choice is to show pressure dependent values as a function of absolute pressure. The lowest possible pressure that can exist is vacuum. The gravity of or the pressure that a liquid column of 760 mm Hg amounts to can be calculated in this way: p=r xgxH where: p= pressure in N/m2 (Newton per square meter) r= the density of liquid (The density of mercury 13595. both to indicate atmospheric pressure and excess pressure. The pressure of the manometer is pressure above the atmospheric pressure. Therefore one estimate absolute pressure from this starting point. A normal atmospheric pressure is defined as 760 mm Hg. like for example in thermal technical charts and diagrams.76 meter) p = (13595. As the atmospheric pressure will vary.81 m/s2) H= height of the liquid column in meter (760 mm = 0.76)N/m2 = 101359 N/m2 1 normal atmospheric pressure define as = 1013 mill bars 1 atmosphere = 105 N/m2 = 100 000 Pa = 100 kPa = 1 bar .

The scriptures describe hot springs and that oil lamps were known and in use. To be an educated and qualified “Ship Officer”. The force being used corresponds with the force binding the molecules together. the English founded «AngloIranian Oil Company». The oil consumption and development increased dramatically from this time on. atoms and molecules. the oil’s physical properties are reviewed. the oil was transported in barrels by ordinary liners. about 2500 years ago. An example: When splitting a piece of wood the molecules separate along the split area. However. In this part of the compendium. tank tonnage has increased enormously. 5. Rockefeller founded the «Standard Oil Company» in 1870. Physics is the learning of different substances and property forces and their energy form. The Dutch « Royal Dutch Oil Company» was founded in 1890. These tankers have since then changed dramatically through a radical process up to today’s technically advanced tankers. is called intermolecular force. The theory about atoms and molecules understands that substances are able to divide into smaller parts. 5.5. fluid and gas form conditions must be seen in connection with the understanding of molecule forces. Cohesion and expansion summed. centuries went by before the oil was in common use. John D.2 Aggregate States Solid.5. The second power in use will be called the force of expansion. At the same time. The personnel (crew) operating the ships provide a wide range of knowledge regarding ship operations and its specific cargo. . physics and chemistry improved. Due to the world’s oil demand. oil was mentioned in scripts from Asia. In USA. The oil tankers today were first used at the end of the last century. In 1909. along with the average size of ships.1 The Oil Transportation As a start.5 OIL PHYSICS – AGGREGATE CONDITIONS History Back in the antiquity. it is necessary to have a basic theoretical knowledge and a lot of practical experience on board the ships. This development has continued up to this day where these companies operate around the world. As a matter of fact danger of fire was one reason which prevented utilisation of oil. which today is rich in oil sources. The first well was drilled in USA in 1859 and supplied 1500 litres oil every 24 hours. a certain power has to be used. The need for oil increased at the same speed as the oil discoveries increased. If you now wish to force the two pieces together again. The first power in use will be called the force of cohesion. Chemistry is the learning of the substance’s composition and the substantial or permanent changes these substances may under go.5. did not take the oils in common use until the midst of the last century. At first the oils were used in medical treatment then to heal such as rheumatism and pneumonia. knowledge about oil’s nature.

and will therefore fill the room. Liquid will always be shaped based on where the liquid is stored. The expansion force is equal as in solid substances. This is because the cohesion and expansive force is very large. We therefore have the same nature as the force of gravity. the tank and so on. Similar to the molecules in solid substances. To squeeze water in a cylinder with tight-fitting piston is hard without using large power. the molecules in a liquid substance have a certain mutual distance between each other. It decreases rapidly when the distance between the smallest parts increases. The expansion is due to the fact that the molecules in all substances. the gas will be compressed.3 Solid Substances A solid substance has a fixed form and fixed volume.5. An iron bar is resists being lengthened or pressed together. where the gas is stored. and the same applies to the substance’s volume and form.5 Gases Gases have no fixed volume or fixed form. The molecules in the iron bar will try hard to keep a certain mutual distance to each other. the force is still strong enough to maintain the distance between each of the fixed molecules.5. A gas will always try to fill as great a volume as possible.The cohesion is due to the fact that all substances (elements). In solid substances the molecules have fixed places according to each other. The expansion force gets free scope and the gas expansion is total and unlimited. The cohesion force in gas is too small to prevent the molecules from changing both the distance and the position in accordance with each other. The iron bar is resistant to rubbing and bending. The liquid molecules on the other hand have no fixed positions according to each other. fluid and gas forms execute movements or vibrations and therefore fill-up an entire room.5.4 Fluids Fluids have a fixed volume. The cohesion force in liquids is not powerful enough to prevent the molecules from moving freely according to each other. but do not have any fixed form. 5. 5. 5. By exposing gas to forces greater than the expansive force itself. However. execute a mutual back sweep on each other. both solid. including the smallest parts in a substance. .

the temperature in the water will rise. Ice. which is melting point of the ice. The heat supplied after the melting point is achieved will have no effect to any temperature rising. pure crystal substance is continuously supplied with heat. water and water vapour are the same substance in different forms. liquids and gases. 5. The transformation between cohesion and expansion with water molecules goes through these three phases solid substances.6 Phase changes Any substance can be transformed from one condition to another. the temperature is invariable. the amount of heat supplied to 1 kg of the . When all the ice is melted. For example: 1 kg of ice with a temperature of -20oC exposed to heat (the pressure is 1 atm). So. the substance will melt. by means of temperature changes or varying temperatures and pressure.5. During the melting. A thermometer placed in the ice will show a rise in temperature up to 0oC.7 Melting When a solid.5.5. as long as the ice is present. and the heat supplied during the melting process is consumed in melting the ice.

is called the “melting heat”.8 Enthalpy A substance’s total energy consists of the external energy (work) plus the internal energy. abbreviated as (r).solid substance.5. Water is heated in normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm). Other liquid substances evaporate very slowly.10 Boiling Boiling is steam formed internally in the liquid. The heat needed to transform a solid substance at a given temperature.5. 5. is called the “specific melting heat”. This is explained by some of the liquid’s surface molecules being sent into the air. some parts of air are always . abbreviated “r”. This enthalpy is an expression of how much energy is tied up in one kilo of the substance. which is strongest at high temperatures. 5. Some liquids evaporate very quickly. Evaporation is vapour formed out of the liquid surface and occurs at all temperatures. The heat necessary to evaporate one kilo of a certain liquid is called “specific heat of evaporation”. into a liquid substance with the same temperature. in an open container. To achieve evaporation. The specific temperature calls the amount of heat needed for one kilo of liquid with fixed temperature to form into one kilo of steam with the same temperature”.5. The unit for enthalpy is Joule/kg. or condenses.9 Evaporation A liquid change to gas is called evaporation. The heat from evaporation is set free when the steam forms to liquid again. in order to reach the melting point where the change from solid to liquid form occurs. The unit for specific melting heat is Joule/kg. Enthalpy is an expression for a substance’s internal energy abbreviated “h”. The comparison of enthalpy to temperature change of gradients shows how much energy is needed to be supplied to bring ice through the three different stages. The unit for specific evaporation heat is J/k. In common. called “the boiling point”. dry air and fresh wind. heat of evaporation is needed. The heat necessary to evaporate one kilo of a certain liquid substance is called “specific melting heat”. 5. This may happen by evaporation or boiling. such as in crude oil. The unit for specific heat of evaporation is J/kg. such as gasoline and ether. The boiling occurs at a certain temperature.

dissolved. The rise in temperature is read from a thermometer placed in the liquid’s surface. When the temperature has reached 100oC, steam bubbles will form inside the liquid substance, especially in the bottom of the container. With continuous heat supply, the bubbling will rise like a stream towards the surface and further up into the air. The water is boiling. The formation of bubbling steam can be explained as follows: During the heating, the water molecule’s kinetic energy increases, consequently the molecules demand more space. During the boiling, as long as there is water in the container, the temperature will be 100oC. The boiling point is dependent upon the pressure. If the steam or the atmospheric pressure increases above liquid substance, the boiling point will also rise. If the surface temperature is just below the boiling temperature, then the water steam will evaporate on the surface. The evaporation point and the boiling point will be the same accordingly. The pressure from the surrounding liquid is the total amount of pressure above the liquid, Pa, plus the static liquid pressure. P = Pa + (ρ x g x h ) P = pressure in Pascal (100 000 Pa + 1 bar) Pa = barometer pressure ρ= the liquid density in kg/m3

g = force of gravity acceleration (9,81m/s2) h = liquid column in meter.

When reducing the pressure above the liquid, the boiling point will also be reduced. A practical use of this characteristic is the production of fresh water on board (fresh water generator).

5.5.11 Condensation Condensation is the opposite of evaporation. If a gas is to be changed to liquid at the same temperature, we must remove the heat of evaporation from the gas. A gas can be condensed at all temperatures below the critical temperature. By cooling a gas, the molecule speed decreases hence the kinetic speed. The internal energy decreases, as well as, the molecule units and liquid forms. 5.5.12 Distillation Distillation is a transferring of liquid to vapour, hence the following condensing of vapour to liquid. Substances, which were dissolved in the liquid, will remain as solid substance. With distillation it is possible to separate what has been dissolved from the substance which was being dissolved. When a mixture of two liquids with different boiling point is heated, will the most volatile liquid evaporate first while the remaining becomes richer on the less volatile? On board, for instance, seawater is distillated by use of an evaporator.

5.5.13 Saturated, Unsaturated or Superheated Steam Let us imagine boiling water, releasing vapour from a container, leading the steam into a cylinder that is equipped with a tightening piston, a manometer and two valves. The steam flows through the cylinder and passes the valves, whereon the valves are closing. There now is a limited and fixed volume of steam in the cylinder. Around this cylinder a heating element is fitted. Vapour from the container is constantly sent through this heating element to ensure that the temperature is maintained constant. The piston is pressed inwards, and now the manometer should show a rise in pressure. But, the manometer shows an unchanged pressure regardless how much the volume is reduced. What’s happening is, the further the piston is pressed inwards, some parts of the steam is condensed more using less volume. The vapour from the heating element removes the condensed heat, which is liberated during the condensation process. We find that the amount of steam, which is possible to contain per volume unit, remains constant when the steam’s temperature is equal to the condensation point at the set pressure. The room cannot absorb more vapour, it is saturated with steam and called “saturated”. If the piston is pressed outwards, the pressure will still show constant. The conclusion is: · With temperature equal to the condensation point by set pressure, steam is saturated. · Steam above boiling water is saturated. · Saturated steam with a set temperature has a set pressure. This is called saturation pressure. · With constant temperature saturated steam cannot be compressed.

This also concerns vapour as saturated steam of other gases. Using the same cylinder arrangement as before. The cylinder contains saturated steam, no water. The piston is drawn outward. When no water exists over the piston no new steam will be supplied underneath. The manometer will now show reduced (falling) pressure as the steam expands. When saturated steam expands without supplying new steam, it is called unsaturated steam. The room has capacity to collect more steam. 5.5.14 Unsaturated steam contains lower pressure than saturated steam at the same temperature. The unsaturated steam in the cylinder can be made saturated again in two ways. Either by pushing the piston inward to the originated position, or let the unsaturated steam be sufficiently cooled down. When the temperature is reduced, the saturation pressure will reduce. Unsaturated steam will, in other words, have a too high temperature to be saturated with the temperature it originally had. Therefore, this often is referred to as superheated steam.

5.6

THE GAS LAWS

The gas laws are laws that describe the basic facts for ideal gases. Many actual gases under pressure and temperature that we normally get in touch with can not observe as ideal gases. Calculations based one-sided of the gas laws, will therefore necessarily often depart from reality. The gas laws are meanwhile important by that the laws establish simple and clear connections by the condition changes of the gases. 5.6.1 The Boyles law Boyles law, of Mariottes law establish that when the gas quantity is confined and the volume varies under constant pressure, the pressure will vary so that the product of pressure and volume is constant. The law can also express as: p x V = constant One illustrate the law a by thinking a cylinder filled with gas. A well-adjusted piston closes the gas inside the cylinder. The pressure in the gas is p, by a volume V, before changing. If the piston is removed so that the volume alters to V, the pressure p after volume change is: p1 x V1= p2 x V2 p2 = (p1 x V1) / V2

A change of state in the gas where the temperature is constant is called an isotherm alteration. The Boyles law agrees to good approach for air and hydrogen up to about 100 pressures of the atmosphere. For other gases as carbon dioxide, the law is only for lower pressure. If the pressure is 1 bar and the volume 1 litre before alteration, after reducing the volume to half, the pressure will be: p2 = (p1 x V1) / V2= (1 x 1) / 0,5 = 2 bar

5.6.2 Gay-Lussacs laws Gay-Lussacs 1.law establish that the gas volume varies proportionally in condition to the absolute temperature of the gas when the pressure is constant. The law can also express as: V1 / T1 = constant The law can illustrate by thinking a cylinder filled with gas. A good adjusted piston that moves free shuts the gas inside the cylinder. The pressure in the gas is constant and determined by the weight of the piston. If you heat the gas so that the temperature alters from T1 to T2, the volume alters from V1 to V2. The new volume is: V1 /T1 = V2 /T2 V2 = (V1 x T2) / T1

An alteration of state in the gas under constant pressure is called an isobar change. Gay-Lussacs 2.law establish that the pressure of a gas quantity is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas when the volume is constant. The law can also express as: p1 / T1 = constant One can illustrate the law by thinking a cylinder filled with water. The piston is locked so that the volume stays the same. If you heat the gas so that the temperature is altered from T1 to T2, the pressure will alter from p1 to p2. The new pressure after heating will be: p1 /T1 = p2 /T2 p2 = (p1 x T2) / T1 A state of proportion in the gas with unaltered volume is called an isochor alteration. 5.6.3 The absolute zero point. Gay-Lussacs experiment is used to decide the absolute zero point. If you heat a small glass tube in water where a small mercury droplet fences an air column, the state between the air volume and the temperature is plotted in a diagram when the temperature changes. When the temperature rises, the volume increases. The read off values for temperature and volume is close to a straight line. The differences are so small that they are inside the accuracy. The line that emerges shows how the volume varies with the temperature under constant pressure. The pressure will at all times during the experiment be the total amount of the atmospheric pressure and the weight of the mercury droplet.

The Avogadros law The Avogadros law says that equal volumes of two gases with the same pressure and temperature contains the same amount of molecules. A conclusion of this statement is that the state between two gases density (p) at the same pressure and temperature, has to be equal to the state between the masses of the individual molecules in the gases or the state between the relative molecule masses (M). r1/r2 = M1/M2 The Dalton Law The Dalton law say that the total pressure in a gas mixture is equal to the total amount of the partial pressures (part-pressure), that each of the gases will alone in a room with the same temperature as the mixture. The law expresses as: ptotal = p1 + p2 + ………….pn The Dalton law is logical. Every gas fills all the volume, independent of other gas molecules that are present. The molecules itself obtains itself an utmost small part of the volume. Therefore every gas will have a pressure that responds to this. One can also see the restriction of the law from this explanation. It has no longer any existence when the pressure is so large that the molecules occupy a perceptible part of the volume. It has also no accuracy when the gas molecules has influence on one another, and also not if the gases has a chemical reaction against one another. The Joules law The law of Joules say that the inner energy in a precise amount of ideal gas only depend of its temperature and is independent of the volume. If pressure and volume is changed in a process, the inner energy will remain constant if the temperature is constant. According to the kinetic gas theory, the inner energy in an ideal gas is equal the complete kinetic energy that the molecules have because of its disordered movement. This can express, as the inner energy in a precise amount of ideal gas is proportional with the absolute temperature. A conclusion of this statement is if an ideal gas expand (gets a larger room), the temperature and with that the inner energy will remain unchanged after expansion. Indirectly, the law is demonstrated by experiments with actual gases. These experiments indicate that the inner energy of an actual gas is dependent of the gas volume, but this dependence decreases the more the gas approach to become an ideal gas. In an actual gas the force of attraction works between the molecules. The force of attraction between the molecules by usual pressure is small, but is not equal zero. It is therefore necessary to perform work to increase the distance between the molecules and expand the gas volume. If the expansion is adiabatic, that is without heat exchange between the surroundings. This work can only be because in expense of the molecule kinetic energy and the temperature of the gas sink.

Joules-Thompson effect The Joules-Thompson effect describes the divergence from the Joules law of an actual gas. According to Joules law, the temperature will not change if a gas expand freely without working. Practical the temperature will fall freely for most gases of hydrogen and helium that is heated during expansion. When air expand from about 50 bar to the atmospheric pressure, this is cooled with about 13K. It is the result of this effect one can observe or feel when air or another gas is let out from an air bottle and the delivery valve (expansion valve) is noticeable colder. Cooling plants that are used on board expand the vaporisation of the gas. The Joules-Thompson effect in such plants is insignificance and therefor not calculated with. Diffusion Bromic gas that has a brown colour is well suited to demonstrate diffusion between gases. If you fill a glass with bromic gas and a glass filled only with air on top, one can after a while se that the content in both glasses is gradually brown-coloured. Diffusion has taken place. In despite of that bromic gas has five times as large density as air diffuses that gas up in the top glass with air. All gases can mix at diffusion. As the molecules in the gases are accidental and unorganised, a precise gas molecule will over time come any where in the room that is available (according to the kinetic gas theory). From the kinetic gas theory it is natural to draw the conclusion that the diffusion velocity is faster the larger velocity the molecules have. At experimental experiments the Englishman Graham reached following connections: The diffusion velocity for a gas is converted with the square root of the density of the gas and directly proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature. These can mathematical express as: v1/v2 = √r2/√r1 As equal volume of two gases contain, at the same pressure and temperature, that same amount of molecules (Avogadros law), the state between the density of the gases (p) and the masses of the individual molecules and the relative molecule masses (M) be: r1/r2 = M1/M2 From above mentioned two expressions, gases diffusion velocity can express as: v1/v2 = √M2/√M1 This formula can be used to find how fast gases diffuse in proportion to one another. When the molecule mass to nitrogen is 28 and the molecule mass to hydrogen er 2, we find the relative diffusion velocity for nitrogen to: v1/v2 = √M2/√M1 = √32/√2 = 4 that shows that hydrogen diffuse 4 times faster than nitrogen.

and the air is cooled. The process of evaporation is the process that is used at the most in modern cooling technique. The thermodynamics 2nd main sentence say: “Heat can only be transported from a body with low temperature to a body with higher temperature by converting of mechanical work. To transport heat from a lower temperature to a higher or likewise. Since the compressor secures a continuous high pressure and temperature in the heat exchanger. It is here the cooling medium evaporation heat that is utilised to transfer heat from one place to another. Without this valve it is impossible to maintain the condensation pressure and keep the cooling process up. work has to be done (by help of a pump) of the water. A thermostatic expansion valve is not regulated by the liquid level in a liquid collector before the valve. How can then heat transfer from the relative cold Freon gas that is sucked back to the compressor and transfer to the relative much warmer seawater? To elevate water from a lower to a higher level. (ref. For this to be possible one must perform a work on the gas by the compressor compressing the gas to a higher pressure and temperature than the seawater. Joules-Thompson effect). the cargo in the cargo tanks will at all times be in its boiling point. As the temperature difference between the cargo and . On ships that transport condensed gases in bulk. The heat is taken from the surroundings that thereby are cooled. Equal that water flows from a higher level to a lower because of that the gravity will heat from a higher temperature to a lower. Heat is transferred from the relative cold cargo gas to the relative much warmer seawater.” It is this law that is utilised in any cooling plants or condensation plant for cargo on gas ships. but by the overheating temperature inside the evaporator. The job of the regulation valve is to secure a liquid lock for thereby to maintain a high pressure in the condenser. For a liquid to evaporate one must supply heat to the liquid. and to distinguish between the low-pressure side and the high-pressure side in a condensation plant. One must here emphasise that there is always in speak of transport of heat from a warmer media to a relative colder media.BASIC REFRIGERATION There is seven different principals for cooling. the heat from the air is transferred to the liquid that evaporate. The gas condenses and is allowed back by a regulation valve and back into the tank. Regardless of the valve is a regulation valve or a thermostatic expansion valve. In many cooling plants thermostatic expansion valves are used at this purpose. Freon liquid is lead into an evaporator. In an air condition plant on board. and heat can thereby transfer from the gas to the seawater in a heat exchanger. the job is the same and the valve has no “cooling technical” qualifications in itself. both the supplied heat quantity under compression and the evaporation heat transfer to the seawater. but we are to concentrate about the process that has been known the longest and that has the largest distribution.

the surroundings are partly very large. This can be done in three different ways. As mentioned earlier. With exception of fully pressurised gas carriers. it is necessary to remove the supplied heat. there is no gas ship with cargo tanks that is constructed to resist such a pressure. there is unqualified necessary to cool a compressed gas under its critical temperature to condensing this. we can use the vapour as fuel or we can blow the vapour out in the atmosphere. It is here drawn a reflected boundary line at a condensing temperature of 37oC. heat will transfer from the surroundings to the cargo. only reducing this. If the cargo is propylene and the surroundings ambient temperature is 27oC. We can condensate the vapour back to the cargo tank. We then suppose that the seawater temperature in the area the ship is trading will be maximum 32oC and that the highest condensing temperature thereby is 37oC. the cargo gas is condensing at a cooling media as for example R22 Indirectly cooling plants. . the pressure in the cargo tank will gradually build up to about 11 bar. The diagram shows a saturation curve and the critical point for the most actual gas cargo. This process will unprevented be in progress until the temperature of the cargo is equal as the surrounding temperature. How the cooling plant is constructed depends of the size of the ship and what kinds of cargo the ship is built to carry. we can set a cool technical limit for what can be condensed against seawater. the cargo is cooled or condensed against a cooling media or a without compression of the cargo gas. Roughly the cargo cooling plant is divided into in three main types: • • • Direct cooling plants. Cascade plants. LNG ships use the vapour in the propulsion machinery and that is a part of the chart. To maintain the tank pressure less than the pressure the cargo tanks is designed for (MARVS). the cargo condensing directly against seawater. Isolation will never prevent heat-transfer. The heat to the cargo will lead to temperature increase with thereby following pressure increase. As the condensing temperature normally is no lower than 5oC above the seawater temperature.

06- Cargo Handling Equipment .

This may result in damage of bearings and then the shaft. The unloading pumps are located down in the cargo tank’s swamp or as close to the tank bottom as possible. the number of revolutions on deepwell and submerged pumps lie on 1300 – 1800 RPM. This is because the centrifugal pumps do not suck. It is very important to follow the user manual supplied by the pump manufacturer to ensure what to do before we start a pump. When using the pump. because the routines vary some from different manufacturer. Deepwell pumps are pumps with a long shaft between the driving motor and the pump. and are thereby dependent upon good drainage. The motor that drives the pump is either electric or hydraulic. The discharge pipe is a solid pipe that goes up through the tank and out to the flange on the tank dome to the liquid line. Electrically driven pumps normally have a stated number of revolutions. There is a mechanical sealing device between the motor and the discharge pipe in the cargo tank. Pumps driven with hydraulics have the advantage that the number of revolutions can be adjusted. and what routines to follow at overhaul and inspection of the pumps. The shaft goes inside the tank’s discharge pipe from the pump up to the tank dome. It is important to closely read the pump’s user manual about the routines before discharging.1 DEEPWELL PUMP Deepwell pump is the pump type that is often used on gas tankers. but lately they are delivered with a variable number of revolutions.6 CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT Centrifugal pumps are utilised as main unloading pumps on gas tankers. Booster pumps normally have revolutions from 3500 – 4000 RPM. The bearings are lubricated and cooled down by the liquid that is pumped from the tank. It is very important not to run the pump without liquid. we must have at least one bar higher pressure on top of the mechanical seal than we have in the tank. . The discharge pipe is constructed with several lengths with pipes. for example 1370/800 RPM. Normally. submerged type or booster pump. 6. and there is a shaft bearing on each flange. The pumps are either the deepwell pump type.

One must at all times check the resistance of the cable insulation before starting the pump. Submerged pumps are also installed as portable pumps. At the bottom of the discharge pipe it is a non-return valve that opens when pump is lowered and shut when the pump is taken up. The motor and pump are submerged down in the tank sump or as close to the tank bottom as possible. . The motor is connected directly to the pump with a short shaft on this type of pump. The liquid that is pumped lubricates and cools the pump’s bearings. the cable and engine must be sheathed with a thin layer of stainless steel. and we must avoid a sharp bend on the cable to protect the stainless steel sheath.1. The discharge pipe is then the steering pipe for the pump. It is important that the stainless steel sheathing is kept unbroken. The liquid is pumped up through the tank’s discharge pipe and up to the liquid line. Before opening the discharge pipe it must be gas freed.6. If copper is used in the cable. this is done either with inert gas or Nitrogen.1 Submerged pump Submerged pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps that are often used as discharge pumps on large LNG and LPG tankers. When transporting Ammonia. This type of pump is equipped with electrical motor. The cables to the electric motor are either made of copper or stainless steel. It is therefore essential that the pump is used only when there is liquid in the tank. the cables must be sheathed with stainless steel to prevent damage on the cable from corrosive cargoes.

1. and the flanges are blinded off when the bilge system is not in use. It is very important that the motor and the pump are aligned according to the manufacturer manual. The drain system could be submerged pumps.3 Hold spaces and inter barrier spaces In hold space and inter barrier space there is requirement of drainage system separated from the machinery drain system. deck tank supply pump or heater feed pump. auxiliary discharge pump.1.6.1. .3 6. Generally. These pumps can be used to drain water or cargo spill from the bilge. It is important that the booster pumps are blended off on LPG/LEG tankers when carrying cargo with lower temperature than –50oC. be turned by hand once a week to prevent destruction of the motor and pump bearings. there are spool pieces (short pipe pieces) that are produced especially for each hold space and on each side and fit both to the cargo system and the seawater system.2 Booster pumps Booster pumps mentioned here are auxiliary pumps for cargo handling. 6. as a good rule. The booster pumps are driven with electric or hydraulic motor. The booster pumps on gas tankers are used either as a main discharge pump. It is important that the spool pieces are disconnected. Booster pumps that are regularly utilised should. Booster pumps are rarely designed for temperature lower than –50oC. The engine and the pump are connected together with a short shaft with coupling in between. and the clearances specified inside are followed. deepwell pumps or ejectors. The pump is one-staged centrifugal pump and is often installed on deck near the pipe manifold.

Example of ejector in hold space .

2.2 LOADING LINES. This involves liquid lines. To prevent cold cargo spill on the hull plates. condensate return lines. All lines that are thermally insulated from the hull must be electrically bonded to the hull with steel wire or steel bands. All loading lines outside the cargo tank must be produced by material with melting point no less than 925oC. there must be electrical bonding with steel wire or steel band from flange to flange. PIPES AND VALVES 6. vapour lines. This to prevent the ship hull to be cooled down to below design temperature. The safety valves must be tested and sealed by the ship Class Company. All loading lines with an outside diameter of 25 mm or more must be flanged or welded. The loading lines on gas carriers are mostly produced of stainless steel. pipes inside the cargo tank and seawater pipes to the cargo cooling plant. lines with an outside diameter less than 25 mm can be connected with treads. . All welding on pipes exceeding 75 mm in diameter and 10 mm wall thickness or more must be X-rayed and classed by the class company. lines to vent mast. gas lines and lines to vent mast have the same requirements as pressure vessels regarding of temperature and pressure they are meant to handle. Vapour from the safety valve outlet must go back to the cargo tank or to the vent mast. but low temperature nickel steel is also in use. The safety valve’s set point is dependent upon the pressure for which the line is designed. If the return goes to vent mast the pipe must be equipped with a liquid collector to prevent liquid to the vent mast. Loading lines designed for cargo with low temperature. The same regulation do we have on flanges and spool pieces also. The hull has to be protected against cold cargo spill under spool pieces and valves on all liquid lines. a drip tray must be placed under the manifold flanges. less than –10oC must be insulated from the ship hull.6. All loading lines on gas carrier: liquid lines. On all cargo lines where it can be liquid it is required with safety valve.1 Loading lines and pipes The loading lines and pipes mentioned here refer to gas carrier’s cargo handling system. On each flange on lines and pipes where gaskets is used. This is done with wood planks or plywood. Otherwise.

particles are left between the valve ball and the valve house. and they are also approved for chemicals. If the pressure is equal on both sides of the valve.2 Valves The most common valves used on the cargo handling equipment on gas carriers are ball valves. 6. Frequently. All valves used on cargo lines have to be installed with flanges.2. and these particles can easily cause damage to the valve seat and the ball. The valve seats and sealing devices are produced in Teflon. The valves must from time to time be opened and the ball and seat have to be cleaned especially the manifold valves. On some types of ball valves the ball is fastened to the spindle. The ball valves tolerate high pressure and large thermal variations. With the ball fasten to the spindle it is pressed aslant towards the seat and the valve seat can be damaged and the valve will leak. and the valves must be electrically bonded to the line either with steel wire or steel bands. liquid expansion and wreckage of the sealing devices around the spherical occurs.3 Ball valves On semi and fully refrigerated gas carrier’s ball valves are often used on the cargo lines and cargo cooling plant.2.6. . The ball valve principle function is the pressure on one side of the ball forces the ball against the seat and the valve is closed. the ball and spindle is produced in stainless steel. butterfly valves and seat valves. This prevents large pressure inside the ball. leakage may occur. There is a drain hole on the ball itself. and the ball is pressed even toward the seat. other types of ball valves have floating ball. It is of importance to ensure that when the valve is closed. With a floating ball the pressure is equal all around the ball. the drain hole pointing where it is least natural pressure. then the liquid inside the ball can be drained or boiled off.

and have costly spare parts. Advantages: This type of valves has more reasonable price than ball valves. Butterfly valves should be moved at regular intervals to prevent the seat from fastening and be damaged and cause leakage valve. oil cooler. Disadvantages: The valves are expensive. seawater condenser. 6. the compressors etc. Seat valves Seat valves are frequently used as one-way valves (check valves) on loading lines.4 Butterfly valves Butterfly valves are often used on the seawater line on gas carriers.Sketch of operation of drainage hull: Advantages: Ball valves tolerate large pressure and thermal variations due to the shape of the ball. Ball valves are unfavourable as regulation valves. where there is not such a large pressure or thermal difference. They are less suitable at low temperatures than ball valves. They have lower weight than ball valves to corresponding pipe diameters. Tolerates both gases and chemicals. on condensate return lines back to the . such as water to heat exchanger (cargo heater). They are better than ball valves for regulation of flow. They can be difficult to shut at temperatures down to –90oC and colder (this can be relieved by adding a thin packer between the to parts of the valve house). as it is difficult to adjust to low flow through the valve. as the pressure valve on the discharging pump. Disadvantages: They are exposed to cavitation damage on the valve seat and flap when too high liquid flow through the valve.2. Butterfly valves are also often used on lines with large diameter as cargo lines. Easy to maintain and overhaul.

must be overhauled at regular intervals. the seat is lifted up and the valve is open. the valve seat will drop down and shut the valve. Example on seat valves: Sketch on spring-loaded seal valve: Seat valves that are used as check valves.cargo tank and on the inert gas lines. and especially the seat and contact faces must be polished/grounded as they are expelled for mark and wear and tear when the valve operates often. Seat valves are opening by turn the spindle anti clockwise and the valve seat can wander freely on the spindle. Opening or choking the valve regulates the amount of flow through the valve. . The seat valves must also be moved regularly when they are not in use for a long period of time. When the pressure increases in the line under the valve seat. When the pressure ceases under the valve seat or the pressure increases above the valve seat.

Needle valves Needle valves are used for regulation of cargo cooling plants. Seawater became ice at about 0oC and starts to free out salt at about 50oC. Disadvantages: Require strict inspection. So with operating . Reasonable to maintain. super heaters and oil coolers for compressors. as heat exchangers (cargo heater). Have few wearing parts. Heat exchangers that are used for cargo handling are considered as pressure vessels. vapour risers. All heat exchangers that are used for cargo handling must be pressure tested and certified by the gas carriers Class Company. The heat exchangers that are used for cargo handling must be designed and tested to tolerate the products the gas carrier is certified for. The needle valve is the valve type that empirically is best suited for regulation of low flow volume. HEAT EXCHANGER Heat exchangers are utilised in several different parts of cargo handling on gas carriers. Have large range of utilisation. In most of the heat exchangers seawater is used as the medium on gas carriers. both air regulation and for regulation of Freon in cascade cooling plants. Start leaking if wrongly operated. Heat exchangers where water is used as the medium and are utilised for heating have little or no effect with water temperature less than 10oC. and IMO requires one safety valve if the pressure vessel is less than 20 m3 and two safety valves if it is above 20 m3.Advantages: The seal valves are reliable and simple to operate. condensers for cargo cooling plant. which the products are cooled or heated against.

It is of importance to ensure that the water out of a heat exchanger is never below 5oC. ensure that the gasket is correctly placed. The tube bundle is made of stainless steel. copper-nickel alloy. Tube heat exchangers must at regular intervals be cleaned to prevent particles from settling inside the tubes in the tube bundle or in the end covers. One must closely check for cavity damage when cleaning the heat exchanger. to prevent cavity damage in the tube bundle or the end covers. These prevent the water in the heat exchanger from freezing and eventually damage the heat exchanger. Ensure that the gasket is produced in a quality that tolerates the products and temperature one operates it with. where seawater is used as medium. Which choice of material one decides to choose. Some terminals do not accept water as medium in heat exchangers. In tube heat exchangers. at all times. the product to be heated goes in the tube bundle. Tube heat exchangers Tube heat exchangers are produced with tube bundles either as straightened pipes or u-formed pipes placed into a chamber. It is. Also.temperatures with a larger variation than from 10oC to 45oC. therefore one must either heat the cargo on route at sea or the gas carrier must have heat exchangers that do not use water as medium. one ought to use another cooling medium than seawater. . There is a cover installed on each end of the chamber to clean the pipes more easily and maintain these. The pipes in the tube bundle have an inside diameter on 10 to 20 millimetres. This prevents remaining seawater from freezing or prevents remnants of salt deposits inside the tubes. depends on the product one will operate and the costs associated with the investment and maintenance. carbon steel. important to ensure that the velocity of the liquid that is being pumped through the heat exchanger is not too high. aluminium-brass alloy or titan.

The cooling medium and product are pumped each way in the channels to achieve the best possible cooling or heating. Seawater or oil is used to heat the cargo in the cargo heater. The plates are installed with the flat side toward each other. Plate heat exchangers are built with thin plates with double liquid channels. A cargo heater is also used when loading a fully pressurised gas carrier with cargo with temperature less than –10oC. and they normally don’t have cargo cooling plant. and that one uses gaskets that tolerate the medium and temperatures one operates within the heat exchanger Different heat exchangers utilised onboard gas carriers for cargo handling Cargo heater: A cargo heater is used to heat the cargo when discharging to an ambient shore tank. Fully pressurised gas carriers are carriers that are designed to transport condensed gases at ambient temperature. Plate heat exchangers must be cleaned at regular intervals to prevent the channels from clogging with salt deposits or particles from the medium or the product.Plate heat exchangers Plate heat exchangers are more utilised in cold storage plants on shore. that the gaskets are properly placed. It is of importance to remember that the cargo heater is full of water and have good flow out with water before letting cold cargo into the heater. Water or oil is used as the cooling medium and is dependent upon the temperature of the product that is to be cooled or heated. One must ensure. after cleaning. . for example in the fish industry and the meat industry. Plate heat exchangers are also used as condensers on newer cargo cooling plants aboard gas tankers.

Cargo condensers in a direct cargo cooling plant can on some gas carriers also be used as cargo heaters and are designed in low temperature steel that tolerates a minimum of –50oC. Freon or other medium as propylene after it is compressed in the cargo compressor.CARGO CONDENSER: Cargo condensers in a direct cargo cooling plant condensate the vapour against sea water. The condensate inside the coil came from the cargo condenser and is under cooled by the liquid in the intermediate cooler before it is pressured further back to the cargo tank. Intermediate cooler An intermediate cooler is used in a 2-stage direct cargo cooling plant and cascade cooling plant. Vapour from the first stage on the cargo compressor is pressed down on the bottom of the intermediate cooler and is condensed against the cargo liquid in the bottom. Sketch of intermediate cooler . The cargo compressor’s 2nd stage sucks simultaneously from the top of the intermediate cooler to keep the pressure down. Floaters or D/P-cells regulate the liquid level in the intermediate cooler.

and cools either directly on the tank steel or as a cooling medium for ethanol or other mediums. The liquid is pumped from one of the cargo tank. The condensate is then pumped in pipe coils. Vapour riser: A vapour riser is used to produce vapour from the cargo liquid. The oil coolers must hold the oil temperature on the different compressors within the specifications determined by the manufacturer of the cargo cooling plant. Steam or heated oil is used to heat up and vapour rise the liquid. The liquefied Freon is used to condensate the cargo in the cascade cooling plant’s cargo condenser. deck storage vessel or from a shore tank and into the vapour riser. Liquefied Freon is also used in indirect cargo cooling plants. . Oil coolers: The cargo cooling plants oil coolers use water as a cooling media. The vapour is used to gas up or maintains the pressure in one or several cargo tanks.Freon condenser: Water is used to condense Freon in the Freon condenser in a cascade cooling plant.

four. Piston compressors are either built with cylinders in line. In the first stage. We will now look at the different types of compressors and starting with piston compressors. The compressors in the cargo cooling plants are produced either as piston.1 Compressors Compressors are used as vapour pumps in all modern cargo cooling plants. . This to prevent pollution to the next cargo from the previous cargo.3 Double-acting compressors Double-acting compressors are normally oil free and compress the vapour above and under the piston. eight or twelve cylinders and are single acting. This indicates that each cylinder has two suction valves and two pressure valves. Compressors are also used to compress or pump cooling medium as Freon vapour on indirect cargo cooling plant and cascade plant. All cargoes we are cooling demand a high rate of purity. and thereby contamination of the cargo.CARGO COOLING PLANT 6.4. There is no oil lubrication of the piston itself. Small amounts of leakage between the cylinder and crank will at all times occur. With an oil free piston compressor.4. Compressors with cylinders in line are built with two or three cylinders either single-acting or double-acting. screw or centrifugal type. v-form or wform. Check the user manual for the cargo compressors and the marginal values for the pressure difference with oil and suction. It is important to change the oil in the crank when changing cargo. 6. six. the oil pressure in the crank is checked and compared to the suction pressure and the cargo tank pressure. it cannot be mixed with oil or be polluted by other products. It is of importance that the sealing device between the cylinder liner and crankcase is intact. The vapour is compressed on top of the piston when the piston goes up and vapour is sucked into the cylinder below the piston. Oil free compressors are used to prevent pollution of oil into the cargo.4. 6. Piston compressors that are used against Freon normally have oil lubrication of cylinder liners. The vapour is compressed below the piston when the piston goes down and is sucked into the cylinder above the piston. either to compress or pump cargo vapour. we mean that the cylinder liners are not lubricated or cooled with oil. V-form compressors are built with two. so the oil in the crank contains some of the product that is cooled. The pistons are equipped with compression grooves and are not equipped with piston rings. This type of compressor is used as cargo compressor onboard gas carriers. Consequently.2 Piston compressor Piston compressors used directly against cargo are of oil free type. but there is oil in the crankcase on the compressor.

which prevents the liquid from being carried with into the compressor. Single-acting compressors are used both as Freon and cargo compressors on gas tankers. The cylinder top is spring-loaded as a safety precaution against liquid “knock”.6. then often as v-form or w-form. Piston compressors are operated by electric motor with direct transmission or strap transmission with a constant number of revolutions. The drawback of piston compressors is that they are vulnerable when the cylinder liner is filled with liquid and they also have relatively low capacity for cooling. . The liquid receiver is equipped with a level alarm to control the liquid level. six. Onboard many gas tankers. there is a liquid receiver on the vapour line between the cargo tank and the cargo compressor. eight and twelve. A suction valve and pressure valve is then installed in the top of the cylinder.4. four. The number of revolutions is between 750 to 1750 rpm. Unloading of the compressor occurs by hydraulic lifting of the suction valves. The compressors are built with the cylinders in pairs: two.4 Single-acting compressors Single-acting compressors compress and suck the gas on one side of the piston and then normally above the piston.

The advantage with screw compressors is that they wear few parts and have low weight in proportion to cooling capacity. Please also refer to “cargo cooling process” for more information. . Oil free screw compressors are operated by electric motors with a constant number of revolutions and have a gear transmission for the compressor. The principle for screw compressors are two rotating screws. the screw that operates has convex threads and the operated screw has concave threads which rotates them in different directions.6. The type used on the cargo side must be of oil free type for the same reason as the piston compressors. The high speed prevents leakage between the pressure and suction side. One can also use electric motors with direct shaft transmission.5 Screw compressor Screw compressors are either oil free or oil lubricated. Vapour is screwed through the threads and with rotation on the screws. the confined gas volume decreases successively resulting in compression. about 3500 rpm.4. Screw compressors with oil injection in the rotor house have a lower number of revolutions. 12000 rpm. which has approx.

as we find with piston compressors. Either to blows hot vapour or to be used as ventilation fan. When a centrifugal compressor is used to feed the cargo compressor. and have a gear transmission. On the Freon side. The compressor has a number of revolutions from about 20000 rpm to over 35000 rpm. Cargo compressors with motors that are installed inside a deckhouse have two parts. Screw compressors are not destroyed if they suck liquid. The centrifugal compressor can also be used when changing cargo. it is important that electric motors and compressors are aligned according to specifications from the manufacturer of the compressor and motor. The use of centrifugal compressors depends on how flexible the piping system to the compressor is. it creates a higher suction pressure on the cargo compressor. Centrifugal compressors are operated by electric motor. 6.6 Centrifugal compressors On gas tankers. Another area of operation for centrifugal compressors is pumping vapour back to shore tank while loading. one room for the compressors and one room for the motors. To prevent bearing breakdown. the power to the electric motor room will be shut off and the cargo cooling plant stops. This compensates for the temperature difference inside the compressor. and thereby gives better cooling capacity. The shaft from the electric motor room to the compressor room is rendered gas-tight. the centrifugal compressor is mounted on deck close . when we reduce the capacity the excess gas flows back to the suction side. A mechanical seal device with automatic oil lubrication is normally used. The centrifugal compressor is built on the same principle as a centrifugal pump. The room where the motors are installed is gas safe with a constant excess pressure of air preventing flammable gas from flowing in. On gas tankers. However.4. This high number of revolutions sets large demands on accuracy and tolerances at aligning motor and compressor. If the excess pressure is too low. The oil causes a film on the outside of the rotors that prevents leakage between the pressure and suction side. hydraulic motor or with steam. centrifugal compressors are used to deliver vapour to shore or to supply the cargo compressors with vapour from the cargo tanks. which is inside the compressor. The capacity of screw compressors is adjusted by a slide.Oil free screw compressors are used on the cargo side. compressors with oil injection are used.

ethanol is then pumped round in the coils and Freon is used to cool down the ethanol. . 6. A third indirect cargo cooling plant also uses a Freon cooling plant where cold Freon liquid is pumped to a coil installed inside the top of the cargo tank or is welded around the outside of the cargo tank. This indirect cooling requires less energy than if one also uses discharge pumps.4. This method is energy demanding as we have to use discharging pump. The capacity of the centrifugal compressor is from approximate 2000 m3 and upwards. On this type of cooling plant the discharge pump should be of submerged type. as they either polymerise or start chemical reactions. mixed propylene oxide and ethylene oxide and chlorine. Freon cooling plant and seawater pump to control the cargo temperature. One type of indirect cargo cooling plant use the discharge pumps and pumps the cargo liquid through a Freon heat exchanger and back to the cargo tank. One can also use ethanol in this cooling system. ethylene oxide. There are some different methods for indirect cargo cooling.8 Indirect cargo cooling plant with utilisation of discharge pump Another indirect cargo cooling plant resembles the first a lot. Instead the cargo vapour is condensed in a Freon heat exchanger and the condensate is pumped back to the cargo tank with a small pump. The Freon compressor sucks Freon vapour from the Freon liquid collector then presses the vapour to the condenser where it is condensed against seawater.to the cargo manifold. deepwell pumps can also be used but we must try to avoid running those while at sea. but the discharge pumps are not used. 6.4. Typical cargo that uses indirect cooling is propylene oxide. Deepwell pumps with revolution regulation can be used if the ship is not rolling or pitching to mush.7 Indirect cargo cooling plant Indirect cargo cooling plants are used on cargoes that not can be compressed or exposed to high temperatures.

. Ammonia and some chemical gases like VCM. the condensation pressure will be approximate 9 bars.6. The pressure needed in proportion to the temperature is located in the density table for the actual cargo. It is the seawater temperature and the type of cargo that decides which condensation pressure is achieved provided that the cargo is pure. Propylene and Butadiene. Common for all direct cargo cooling plants is that the cargo vapour is compressed directly in the compressor.4.9 Direct cargo-cooling plant A direct cooling plant is used to control temperature on cargoes as LPG. If one for example has loaded Propylene and the seawater temperature is 20oC. Isobutane.4.9 Indirect cargo cooling plant with utilisation of Ethanol in coil round the cargo tank 6.

The pressure in the liquid collector is equal to the pressure in the cargo condenser. vapour is sucked by the cargo compressor from the cargo tanks. the cargo and the temperature on the seawater. . and is at all times higher than the cargo tank pressure. To use one-stage cooling. Some direct cargo cooling plants are delivered with intermediate cooler (inter cooler). The vapour is then pressed to the condenser and assembles in the liquid collector. dependent upon the type of compressor. The liquid level in the collector is regulated either by two floaters or the differential pressure above the liquid level in the liquid collector. The condensate is pressured back to the cargo tank from the liquid collector via a regulation valve and in the condensate return line. With 2nd stage direct cooling without an intermediate cooler the cargo compressor sucks from the cargo tank with the 1st stage cylinder. 2nd stage direct cargo cooling plant is delivered with or without an intermediate cooler. Most gas carriers that are designed for LPG have direct cargo cooling plants that can be operated as a one-stage or multistage operation.SKETCH OF TWO-STAGE DIRECT COOLING PLANT Direct cargo cooling plants are operated as one or multistage. With one-stage direct cooling. The vapour is thereby pressed to the compressors 2nd stage suction side and then to the cargo condenser where the vapour is condensed against seawater and collected in the liquid collector. the pressure difference between tank pressure and condensate pressure must be less than 6 bars. These cargo cooling plants are used on semi-pressurised LPG carriers and atmospheric pressure LPG/ NH3 carriers. The liquid is pressured back to the cargo tank via a regulation valve and the condensate return line from the liquid collector. this achieves lower temperature and pressure on the 2nd stage suction side.

Some cascade cooling plants are constructed for use as a . The vapour is sucked from the cargo tank and into the cargo compressor’s 1st stage.4. The Freon plant have to be started first. regulation valve and pump. Ammonia and Propylene. and the Freon condensate is pumped from the separator to the cargo condenser where the cargo is condensed. The cargo compressor sucks vapour with the 2nd stage from the top of the intermediate cooler and press the vapour to the cargo condenser where the gas is condensed against Freon. This type of cargo cooling plant is used on semi-pressurised LPG and LEG carriers. but can also be used for Propane. and back to the cargo tank. Freon separator. cargo condenser. The Freon cooling plant contain of a compressor. The vapour is then pressured to the intermediate cooler where it is condensed against the liquid in the bottom of the intermediate cooler. intermediate cooler. Freon are condensed against water. Sketch of cascade plant In a cascade cooling plant there is a Freon cooling plant in supplement to a direct cargo cooling plant. so the condensation and circulation of Freon in the cargo condenser is normal. On the cargo side in a cascade cooling plant there is mostly 2nd stage direct cargo cooling plant equipped with compressor.11 Cascade cooling plant / direct cooling Cascade cooling plant is basically a direct cargo cooling plant where the cargo is condensed against Freon and Freon is condensed against water. Freon liquid collector.6. oil collector. When the Freon plant operates normally. liquid collector and regulation valve. There must be accuracy in the start-up to prevent oil from leaking with Freon and removing the condensation effect. The condensate is then pressured against a coil in the intermediate cooler and further through a regulation valve to the condensate line. A cascade cooling plant must be used for condensation of Ethane and Ethylene. and on large atmospheric pressure LPG carriers. one can start the cargo compressor.

because carbon dioxide reacts chemically with Ammonia. 6.5 INERT GAS PLANT On gas carriers inert gas is used for different purposes. seawater temperature is higher than 35oC. . If the gas carrier does not have an inert gas plant or nitrogen plant. it must have a storage vessel with inert gas or nitrogen with capacity of 30 days and nights consumption. inert gas or nitrogen in the spaces. seawater temperature has less influence on the plant. The definition of consumption here is the leakage in the vents and manhole. It is difficult to cool regardless of the kind of cooling plant’s if the surrounding temperature e. some are requirements other is to maintain the ships hull and spaces: · · · Have neutral atmosphere in hold and inter barrier spaces Elimination of cargo vapour from the cargo tank when gas freeing Eliminating oxygen from the cargo tank before loading · Drying up hold spaces or inter barrier spaces to achieve a neutral atmosphere and to prevent corrosion in the spaces · Placing a neutral vapour above the cargo if required When carrying flammable cargo on fully refrigerated gas carriers there is a requirement to have a neutral atmosphere in the hold space or inter barrier space either with dry inert gas or nitrogen. Butadiene or VCM one can also condensate Propane and Propylene directly if the seawater temperature is low enough. only dry air or nitrogen.g. The larger volume of Freon. Generally when cooling Butane. It is always beneficial to keep spaces around the cargo tanks dry. If the cargo is Ammonia.two or one-stage direct cargo cooling plant. This type of cargo cooling plant has a lower dependency of the seawater temperature than a direct cooling plant. If the cargo is not flammable we can have dry air. one must not use inert gas that contains carbon dioxide.

diesel oil or light fuel oil. The fuel oil is injected into the combustion chamber. mixed with air. The inert gas is blown through the scrubber where carbon particles and sulphur is washed out with the water. scrubber. combusts and flue gas or inert gas is formed. O2 analyser. dryer and heater. Water is condensed out while the dew point is reduced and we have to avoid temperature to sink below 0oC so we do not clog the inert channel with ice. A rich oil/air mixture gives a lot of carbon. The O2 content in the inert gas adjusts by quantity of air added to the oil that is injected into the combustion chamber. With use of Freon dryer the dew point will be minimum 5oC. The air/oil mixture is produced manually or automatically on the control board. very good combustion is required. 6. After the scrubber the inert gas is cooled in a dryer to reduce the dew point. The O2 analyser measures the O2 content against the stated limits before the inert gas is blown further into the dryer.5. IMO makes demands for maximum content of 5% O2 by volume. Inert gas produces by consuming gas oil. Inert gas is produced on gas tankers by their own inert gas generator. There is two types of dryers for inert gas plants either Freon dryer or absorption dryer.The inert gas generator is built up with a combustion chamber. In an absorption dryer the inert gas is compressed with a compressor and pumped through a material that absorbs water and the dew point sinks to minimum –80oC. high content with Carbon monoxide and low O2 content. Strict demands are made regarding inert gas plants on gas carriers. The most common is the Freon dryer. A lean mixture (more air) gives higher O2%.1 Sketch of inert gas plant . To achieve as pure inert gas as possible. less carbon and less carbon monoxide.

but the inert gas volume that is delivered for consumption decreases.0013 gram water pr m3 at a dew point of –60oC. for example 1% by volume. tanker).5 Absorption dryer With use of absorption drier the inert gas is then pressed through a medium that absorbs water. The result of temperature increase is that the compressor compresses the inert gas. for example silica gel or Aluminium Oxide.3%. The temperature on the inert gas after the scrubber is about 5oC above the seawater temperature. . The inert gas has a temperature a bit above seawater temperature when entering into the dryer blower. The inert gas contains 0. O2 content is set to the required O2 volume. 6.4 Freon dryer Freon dryer are frequently used and require less space in proportion to an absorption dryer.6. The inert gas temperature should be higher than the atmosphere that one will inert. 6. depending on the required dew point.5. The inert gas that comes out of the Freon dryer has a dew point of about 5oC and a water content of 6.3 Drying The inert gas is saturated with water when it comes out of the scrubber. The limit value is set manually between 5% by volume O2 and the minimum value for the inert gas generator for example 0.5.2 O2 Control O2 analyser is connected to a two-way valve where the inert gas either can be sent to a ventilation mast or to a consumption unit (dryer.025%. The principle with the Freon dryer is that Freon flows through small pipes in the inert gas channel.5. hold space or inter barrier space to prevent condensing of water into the tanks or spaces. The inert will then go to the dryer and is consumed when the O2 content is between 1% and 0.3% by volume. The inert gas then automatically goes to the vent mast if the O2 content reaches more than 5% by volume or below 0. The temperature of the inert gas is higher when it emerges from the dryer. 6.3% by volume O2. Inert gas with temperature of 40oC and dew point at – 60oC has a relative humidity of 0. The Freon is condensed in its own cooling plant. The inert gas therefore must be dried before it is sent to the cargo tanks.75 gram per m3 inert gas.5. that means 100% humidity. from 30oC to 60oC. The inert gas is cooled down and thereby condensate the water from the inert gas when it passes the Freon pipes. One can have an inert gas dew point down to –80oC with an absorption dryer. The temperature of the inert gas after the Freon heat exchanger must not be less than 5oC. Inert gas dryer is a Freon heat exchanger. absorption dryer or a combination of both.

The inert gas dryer and heater can also be used in connection with venting tanks and spaces with air.13%. generally once a week and preferably several hours each time. The relative humidity is 28. and thereby heats the inert gas so it can absorb more humidity. The dried inert gas can absorb more humidity when it is heated. It is of importance that one first removes humidity. the relative humidity will sink down to 8.6.72% at a temperature of 25oC with Freon dryer and an inert gas dew point of 5oC. If the inert gas is heated to 50oC. .5. Heating reduces the relative humidity on the inert gas. To maintain the function of the inert gas generator to specification. one must run it regularly.6 Inert gas heater An inert gas heater is a heat exchanger where steam or an electrical coil is used for heating the inert gas. which are not used. This is a good opportunity to refill spaces and lines.

7 Sketch of thermal drier A B C D E F S Drying tower Tower that is dried Heater Cooler Fan Water separator Solenoid valves .6.5.

5.6.8 Sketch of pressure swing drier .

spaces and cargo lines where cargo liquid residue may remain. Spring-loaded valves are normally used on .5.9 Composition of inert gas and dew point AFETY VALVES Gas carriers must have safety valves on all cargo tanks.6. Cargo tank’s safety valves are either pilot (pressure loaded) or spring loaded valves.

The cargo tank’s safety valves must be tested within the IMO limits +-10% for 0 to 1. When the cargo tank pressure sinks again. two valve seats. The safety valve contains of an adjusting spring. The distance should at least B or 25 meters from the nearest air inlet or opening in the accommodation. the boost membrane will lift.6. the boost membrane will sink and the pilot seat will go to the shut position.1 Cargo tank safety valve’s function Safety valves used on cargo tanks have one or more pilots to hold the valve closed. There are also demands that there is a safety valve on all kinds of pressure vessels below 20 m3. The pilot valve is connected to a pipe on the highest point on the cargo tank. 6. There must be two safety valves on all kinds of pressure vessels on more than 20 m3. All safety valves on cargo tanks must be prototype tested and approved by IMO and the gas carriers class company. B is the ships breadth. for example 0. The pilot is adjusted by a pilot spring in order to get the needed pressure. The pressure loaded valves are normally used on atmospheric pressure tankers and semi pressurised tankers.5 to 3 bars and +-3% for 3 bars and higher pressure.6. MARVS is maximum allowed safety valve set point. This distance can be shortened for gas carriers of less than 90 meters in length. pull the pilot seat up and the pressure above the main valve membrane is ventilated to the atmosphere. The pressure above the main valve membrane .fully pressurised tankers and semi pressurised tankers with a tank pressure above 0. There is the same pressure below and above the main valve seat and on the below the boost membrane when the pilot valve is shut. When the pressure in the cargo tank is higher than the pilot valve’s setting. +-6% for 1. The cargo tank safety valve must be located on the tank’s highest point above deck.7 bars and on cargo lines. an exhaust pipe and an equalising pipe. The pilot main valve seat is attached to the main valve membrane.5 bars. The pressure will now be higher above the main valve seat than below and the valve is open and vapour is ventilated to the vent mast. The pressure required by MARVS is located in the gas carriers IMO Certificate of Fitness.1 6. but the flag state authorities.5 bars. Each safety valve must be connected to vent mast without impediment or valves. The tanker’s class company has to seal the safety valves after authorised personnel have tested and calibrated the safety valves. must approve it. for example Norwegian Maritime Directorate. The pilot valve’s seat is attached to two membranes and the pilot spring. The maximum set pressure on a cargo tank’s safety valves depends on the cargo tank MARVS. three membranes. The vent mast’s outlet must be at least B/3 or 6 meter above weather deck or gangway.

the pilot seat is pressed back and shut. The principle is the same as with seat valves.6. When the pressure is higher than the pilot setting. the valve shuts again. When the valve is shut there is equal pressure under and over the main membrane and under the boost membrane. .3 bars. The extra weights are mounted on top of the pilot and increases the set point with approximates 100 to 150 grams.increases to the same pressure as in the cargo tank. The setter consists of an adjusting spring with spring tension equal to the pressure.2 Example of a tank safety valve There are extra setters that are installed on the pilot valve to achieve the right set point on fully pressurised tankers and semi-pressurised tankers. The main valve seat will then be closed and the valve shut. When the tank pressure sinks below the spring tension. for example 2.6. An adjustment screw is attached on top of the valve that is used for calibrating the spring tension. The valve opens when the tank pressure exceeds the spring tension. the set point will be at 2. When the pressure sinks. the boost membrane in the pilot will press the pilot seat up and the valve start to open.8 bars. The cargo tank safety valves on atmospheric pressure tankers are normally the membrane type. 6. On fully refrigerated gas carriers there is often options to mount extra weights during loading or change of cargo.2 6. When the setter is screwed down on the pilot.

3 Safety valves on cargo lines/ pipes Seat valves are mainly used as safety valves on lines. The safety valves must be overhauled.3 6. Then sealed and by the ships class company. Example on safety valves on cargo lines/pipes .THE EXTRA SETTER IS NOT ALLOWED TO HAVE ON THE PILOT WHILE THE VESSEL IS AT SEA. pressure tested and calibrated by authorised personnel.6. 6. These safety valves are springloaded and must be according to the certified line pressure. The set point and the number of the different safety valves can be found in the gas carrier valve list.6.

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07- Monitoring and control .

On the counter. The liquid separator on the suction side of the compressor is an example of a tank equipped with this type of alarm. Other types of floats are connected to an arm with a switch. The float type can be controlled by a guide-wire or placed inside a perforated pipe. If liquid is carried away with the vapour to the compressor. The counter are normally local. The float in the liquid separator will at a stated level float up and actuate an alarm and then shutdown the compressor and liquid is prevented to came into the compressor. the liquid will assemble in the liquid separator on the vapour line.1 LEVEL GAUGES A level gauge for cargo tanks is normally of float type or radar type. 7. Control and necessary adjustments are made using these values. which sets off or on an alarm circuit when the liquid reaches a given level. The instrumentation varies from local instruments to remote instruments.7 MONITORING AND CONTROL All gas carriers must have a minimum instrumentation for control of cargo and cargo equipment. but on new ships it is also remote reading. there are marked values indicating the reading when the float is at the bottom and on the top. The float’s movements are transferred to a counter through a steel band. It is of importance to check that the counter is at the correct level. . The cargo control room or instrument room is located in a gas safe area. normally in connection with the deckhouse. This type is used as level alarms in cargo tanks and in small tanks as liquid receivers. it is of importance that the float is hoisted and locked when the ship is sailing. To avoid damage to the float and band.

the power circuit to the cargo plant is broken and compressors and discharge pumps will stop. one is high-level alarm the other is high-highlevel alarm. 7. with exception from pipes to the safety valves and instrument pipes. that is by loss of pressure or voltage. At least one of the locations must be located outside the cargo area or in a cargo control room. Adjustable closing time is a requirement from IMO to avoid over loaded cargo tanks or pressure surge on the terminal pipes. The high-high-level alarm is actuated at 98% or 99% filling. Most gas carriers therefore have the possibility to place an extra ESD release button on jetty. The liquid valves should fully close under all service conditions within 30 seconds.7 bars it is required that all pipes connected to the cargo tanks. the valves are shut. When the emergency shutdown system is activated. For gas carriers with MARVS above 0. . Gas carriers with MARVS below 0. To open the valves and start the pump again the 98%/ 99% circuit has to be reset and switched off. The connected actuators for valves in the pipe-system have an adjustable closing time.1. It closes the liquid valves in the cargo pipe-system. The high-level alarm is activated when the cargo tank is nearly full. The emergency shutdown system must be “fail safe”.2 Emergency Shut-Down System (ESD) All gas carriers are equipped with an emergency shutdown system that is manually activated from at least two locations onboard. On some gas carriers the fuses also activate the water spray system. The valve’s closing time can be regulated by adjustment of a needle valve on the actuator.1. normally at 95% filling. Thermal fuses (fusing plugs) that activate the emergency shutdown system are located on tank-domes and manifolds. The system is normally a part of the cargo valve’s control system and both pneumatic and hydraulic system is used. A pneumatic or hydraulic actuator placed on the valve operates the valve in the pipe system and can also be remote controlled.7. There are two separate floats that give the alarms. are equipped with remote-operated valves.1 High-level alarm To prevent over loading of cargo tanks high level alarms are required. Some terminals require that the ESD system onboard must be activated also from the jetty when handling cargo. the fuses have to melt at temperature between 98oC and 104oC. A spring or lack of pressure closes most of the actuators used in the ESD system. If fire ignites or temperature rise of other reason. Valves on the actual tank are closed and discharge pumps are automatically stopped when liquid reaches the actual level.7 bars only require such valves on the manifold.

Pneumatics is also used to control the water spray-system and regulate the cargo cooling plant. Regular control and maintenance of the air dryer. 7.7. For a satisfactory function of the control air systems it is of importance that the air is as dry as possible. is also of importance.4 Example of pneumatic ESD system .1.3 Pneumatic system In cargo control systems pneumatic is used to control cooling plants and valves. Poor air-treatment and humidity is the major cause of interruption in such systems.1. The emergency shutdown system can be complete or partly pneumatic. normally by the “heatless dryer” type.

what point is measured and from where the alarm is released. the alarm is released. Both audio and visual alarms should be activated. at all times. and activates an alarm if the concentration exceeds 30% LEL. The detector pump sucks the atmosphere from sample points to the sensor from selected areas around the vessel. The gas detector has a fixed connection for sample gas for calibration. It is required that the detector must measure all sample points consecutively and not exceeding 30 minutes intervals on the same sample point. The instrument should regularly be calibrated for the cargo carried onboard. If the concentration at a measure-point exceeds 30% LEL. An indicator panel on the instrument indicates.1. a precise time purges the instrument before measuring the next point. The fixed gas detector is normally located on the bridge or in the cargo control room. The next page illustrates a flow sheet for one type of gas detector. Calibrating and testing the equipment must be done regularly. When a point is measured.7. This is used to adjust the difference between the span gas and the cargo onboard. but only one point is measured at a time. The pump sucks continuously from all points. a “flow-failure” is released. in the engine room and in the forecastle. It is of importance that calibrating and testing is logged. If restrictions or similar in the suction-line take place. This is normally a routine that is executed once a week.5 Fixed gas detector system It is required that all gas carriers are equipped with a fixed gas detector that continuously measures the concentration of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The following areas are specified in the IMO’s Gas code and must be monitored by this type of equipment: • • • • • • · Compressor room · Electric motor room · Cargo control room unless designated as gas-safe · Airlocks · Hold spaces for all cargo tanks except for independent tanks type C · Other areas in the cargo area where flammable mixtures may accumulate • · Sample points at ventilation inlets to the accommodation. .

6 Fixed gas detector .7.1.

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. dual-fuel engines and gas turbines. The cargo temperature is -160 0C. For an 85 000 m3 tanker this covers about 60% of the fuel need. We find specific heat of vaporisation for methane in the heat technical table to be 506.2 kJ must be supplied to evaporate one kg methane. Strict regulations are made for control and security when we use LNG as fuel.2 LNG CARRIERS AND VAPOR BOIL-OFF A re-condensation plant for LNG is both complicated and expensive.25% per day and night.5 MT per day and night for propulsion. Example 1: A loaded LNG carrier of 87 000 m3 has a heat transfer to the cargo tanks of 700kW. The ballast journey to the next load port must be planned thoroughly when we use the boil-off as fuel on the boilers and machinery.2 kJ/kg = 119. This indicates that 506. How much vapour boils off per day at unaltered cargo temperature? The size of the heat transfer to the cargo tanks determines how much methane that is boiled off. especially regarding ventilation.7. It is required that at all times we must use about 5% fuel oil on the pilot burner. Boilers and engines are both made for oil and gas. For a large LNG carrier the boil off covers a larger share of the fuel needed.2 kJ/kg at -160 0C.500 kg/day = 119. The amount of boil-off from a LNG ship lies at about 0. The total amount that evaporates at a heat transfer of 700 kW is then: (heat transfer x time ) / specific vaporisation 700 kW x (24 x 3600)s / 506. This corresponds to 0. With a stop of the plant.33% boil-off per day. The amount of boil-off from the cargo tanks is regulated with the spray pumps. This secures that all vapour in the pipe to the boiler is continuously set on fire. the vapour line is flushed with nitrogen. It is therefore more moderate to utilise the boil-off from the cargo as fuel. The quantity needed of cargo for propulsion and cooling of cargo tanks must be calculated before commence discharging. The boil-off can be utilised as fuel in boilers.5 MT/day The ship can during the existing condition consume 119. Emergency shutdown and double shut-off valves are essential on the vapour line.

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zone 1 includes the remaining part of a gas hazardous area and zone 2 includes the remaining part of the cargo area. Explosive gases are present in periods during normal operating conditions. compressor room and other rooms where gas appears.3. The areas are clearly specified in the regulations. Normally this is arranged with the suction pipe for the ventilation to the rooms are located outside defined flammable areas and the room has always an overpressure. Access to the room is through a airlock. Precautions must be made to exclude spark sources from areas where flammable gases may appear. . • · A radius of 4. and the room is made “dead” in case of a failure in the ventilation system. zone 0 includes cargo tanks with cargo handling equipment. These rooms are considered as safe in all circumstances provided that the ventilation system prevents flammable mixtures penetrating into the rooms. for example. as you found in the following table: 7. GAS HAZARDOUS AREAS ARE SPECIFIED IN THE REGULATION ARE. On shore one operates with different zones of explosive areas.1 Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Explosive gases are present continuously or in long periods. Explosive gases are rarely present and occur only in short periods.7.5 meters around ventilation outlet from the compressor room and pump room. at all times. The electric motor room or the control room is an example of a gas safe area.3 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN GAS HAZARDIOUS AREAS Electrical equipment should be of a type that eliminates the chance of fire or explosion when carrying flammable cargo. AS FOLLOWS: • · All cargo tanks and rooms containing cargo tanks or pipes.2 Gas hazardous areas Gas hazardous areas are defined onboard as the areas in the cargo tank area that have no approved arrangement ensuring that the atmosphere has.3. cargo compressor rooms must also be treated as zone 1. • · Pump room. 7. no content of flammable mixtures. Areas outside the specified gas hazardous areas are considered as gas safe. Rooms containing cargo-handling equipment. If applying these criteria to ships.

This is normally arranged by a DP-cell (differential pressure cell) that measures the pressure difference inside the room and the surroundings.• · A radius around the ventilation outlet from cargo tanks at 9 meters. Special rules exist for pump room. These rooms must have a mechanical positive pressure system. the maintenance is often more complicated. . pipe tunnels and pump rooms must be equipped with explosionproof lights. Compressor room. the rooms automatically render “dead”. Class Society and IMO rules apply. electric motor room and the area on the forecastle. is posted around the vessel for the crew to familiarise themselves with these hazardous areas. • · A zone on open deck in the cargo tanks area up to 2. Explosion-proof and independently secured equipment are approved to be used in gas hazardous areas on deck. “Hazardous Areas”. Cargo control. the consequences of fire or explosion are very seriously. and none the less. pipe tunnels. All vessels are issued with a drawing that indicates these areas. The doors must be equipped with alarms and if both doors are left open too long and the pressure drop. The drawing normally named. Ashore there are individual national rules. compressor room.4 meters above deck and 3 meters ahead and aft of the cargo tank area. monitoring and automation equipment must be independently secure in a flameproof enclosure. control room in the cargo tank area. Terminals and charterer also have individual rules that have to be followed. and all switches and protection equipment must be placed in a gas-safe area. For gas carriers and other ships the Flag State. The light arrangement disperses over at least two switchers. The equipment onboard is exposed to hard strains. Access to electric motor room and cargo control room occurs through an airlock. Electrical cables are not allowed to be open exposed throughout the room. Automation and communication equipment must on the other hand be of independently secure enclosure. and the rules are more restrictive than ashore. • · A radius of 3 meters around pipe lines for cargo. The conditions onboard and around operation of gas carriers are special.

The nipple that is used to direct the cable inlet for explosion proof motors consists of many parts that must be installed right to maintain safety. Manufacturing longer openings with the help of threads and fissures constructively solves this. it can be used in all flammable areas onboard. and that warm gases and flashes maintain a long enough distance to be chilled. . As we can see. The equipment with threads and fissures are especially exposed to corrosion and salt deposit. Ex e. One must not fail to believe that if the equipment is “explosion proof”. automations and communication equipment must be Ex ia Cargo tanks Open deck area General demand for Ex ia Ex d. The above-mentioned different types of electrical equipment characterise “explosion proof equipment”. each of them approved for its stated area. If the small passages are blocked or corroded.3 Flameproof proof enclosure English: Flameproof enclosure American: Explosion proof German: Druckfeste kapslung CLC symbol: d Flameproof equipment does not secure against penetration of vapour. The weakness in this type of equipment is also here. Ex ia and Ex ib are all approved. the safety of this equipment depends upon whether the equipment can resist an interior explosion or not. The enclosure must be mechanical and strong enough to resist the inner pressure that can arise because of an explosion.3. This equipment is divided into three groups. 7. Eventual spurt of flame and warm gases will be sufficiently chilled to prevent ignition of the same gas mixture outside the equipment. the safety is lost and the equipment can not be used. Two different types of methods are used for cable inlet to explosion safe equipment direct or indirect inlet. Equipment for high effect.THE FOLLOWING LIST GIVES A SUMMARY OF APPROVED ENCLOSURES WITHIN THE SPECIFIED FLAMMABLE AREAS: Area: Approved enclosure: Pump room and compressor Electric motor and lighting fixture must room be Ex d. Alarm . has this design. like for example electric motors for pumps.

because the replacement must be the same type as the exchanged.3. as such a modification may weaken the strength of the enclosure. The special conditions onboard limits the user areas some for this equipment. At the indirect cable inlet to explosion proof equipment a connection box of an intrinsically safe design is used. There are big problems in locating the right compensation. Bulkhead pipes from a flammable to a gas proof area must be compressive. Increased safety can be used in some flammable areas.4 Increased safety English: Increased safety German: Erhohte sicherheit CLC symbol: e This design secures against high temperatures and formation of flame/sparks in the equipment during normal operation. Special cable boxes filled with a special expanding type compound must be used for this purpose.5 Intrinsically safe English: Intrinsically safe German: Egensicher CLC symbol: i . 7. The design is mostly used on illumination and connection boxes and in combination with other types of enclosures.This type of cable inlet is mainly used on English or American equipment. This is approved for zone 1 ashore. if the nipple need to be changed. This type of equipment is delivered finished bored and threaded. It is not allowed to make adjustments for a new nipple.3. 7. Explosion proof electrical motors of type d are normally equipped with an indirect cable inlet of increased safety type.

This recommendation is published as IEC Recommendations. To secure misconnection or interference of the equipment. prevents penetration of the surrounding atmosphere with help of a protective gas with higher pressure than the environment. The standardisation of flameproof equipment will in time ease the work by choosing the . appears in combination with another design. A complete electrical plant with this design is not relevant. Installation of the equipment must be executed with care. Intrinsically safe enclosure divides into two categories: ia Equipment not capable of causing ignition of flammable mixture in any combination of two imaginable errors with the equipment. Equipment classified and marked by this standard will be approved in all of EU. is an assembly with the task to make standardised recommendations about electrical equipment. their own terminal blocks and preferably of blue colour. Ex s. Only the barrier is approved. Intrinsically safe relays and barriers must be placed in a gas proof area. Excess pressure design.6 Other designs On installations ashore other explosion proof designs are used. The whole circuit is approved. Test equipment that produces high voltage can not be used on intrinsically safe areas. This type of equipment is marked Ex o for oil and Ex q for sand. International Electro technical Commission. Current and voltage limits by transistor relays or zener batteries maintain the safety. The European Committee for Electro technical Standardisation. But the principle use. the cables must lie in their own canals. Special design. The distance to other cables should be at least 50 mm to protect the intrinsically safe circuit. 7. Intrinsically safe equipment only uses voltage of 8-12 V and current of about 5 milliampere. an intrinsically safe enclosure will not be able to produce spark or heat by such a character that ignition of a flammable gas mixture is operative. CENELEC. as for example. Ex p.During normal operation or by error. has the task from IEC to make a standard for electrical equipment in hazardous areas. 7.3. Equipment can be filled with oil or sand to prevent penetration of flammable gases. The circuits can be destroyed and at worst form sparks in the hazardous area. All intrinsically safe equipment must be delivered with certificate from an approved test institution.3. Ex s is not a pure intrinsically safe design. ib Equipment not capable of causing ignition of a flammable mixture regardless of what simple error arises. for an electric motor on a gas vessel. If the pressure falls below a precise limit the equipment dies. Such equipment requires surveillance of the pressure.7 Classification of Ex equipment IEC.

spontaneous ignition temperature and explosion progress are the primary factors. The different flammable gas mixtures have different spontaneous ignition temperatures. D Methane (industrial) II A 1 Gr. The other equipment is for use in the industry. The gas ignition energy. plus execute necessary control on installed equipment. B Carbon disulphide II C 3n Gr. D Methane (pit gas) II A 1 Gr. C Ethylene II C 3b Gr. the equipment is marked with a temperature class. which comes in contact with the relevant gas mixtures and has a surface temperature lower than the gas mixture spontaneous ignition temperature. D Petroleum gases II B 2 Gr. A All gases Equipment marked explosion group “I” is used in mines. The equipment in use today is marked by a number of different standards.right equipment at installation and replacement. We will concentrate on the three most relevant: CLC VDE USA that signifies the European standard that signifies the former West-German standard that signifies the USA’s standard Flameproof equipment is tested and classified considering the different gases. D n-Pentane II A 1 Gr. . To secure electrical equipment. THE DIFFERENT GAS QUALITIES ARE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING EXPLOSION GROUPS: CLC VDE USA Example of gas: I 1 Gr.

3. A table indicating what the different protection extents imply: . A normal demand is that the equipment must bear the effect of 1 kg that falls down on the equipment from a height of 0. a gas that falls under the temperature class G1 is allowed a maximum surface temperature of 360oC. The surface temperature is stated a bit below the spontaneous ignition temperature. The equipment falls under explosion group IIB The equipment is tested and will at maximum have a surface temperature of 200 oC. for example Eex d IIB T3 where: EEx d IIB T3 The equipment is tested and classified according to the European Standard for utilisation in hazardous areas. the maximum surface temperature follows the spontaneous ignition temperature of individual gas. 7. The enclosure is flameproof. As an example.7 meters. If the equipment is on open deck and lacks resistance to sun and rain. Normally electrical equipment is constructed to bear a surrounding temperature of between 40oC and – 25oC. Demands are made on the equipment from classification companies. From the European Standard.8 Protection of electrical equipment Installation of electrical equipment must be of a precise strength and resistant to the environment it is exposed to.Spontaneous ignition Temp: >450 oC >300 oC >200 oC >135 oC >100 oC >85 oC CLC T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 VDE G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 USA T1 T2 T2 D T3 T4 A T5 Example of gas: Acrynolitrile (481 oC) n-Pentane (309 oC) Acrolein (278 oC) Acetaldehyde Carbon disulphide For CLC-classes. a cover must be installed above. Tests are also executed regarding chemicals. The former West-German VDE-classes operate with both a spontaneous ignition temperature and a maximum surface temperature of the equipment. all electrical equipment in hazardous areas must be marked.

IP 55 Against contact Against damaging with tools. Repair of flame splits must not be executed. As it may be difficult to obtain all electrical equipment with this protection. be repaired onboard. Runny water. exception for equipment used ashore is made. protection. 7. The best way to look after. Water spray. One must not be tempted to make new and larger wards. Flameproof electric motors where end covers or bolts are wrecked by rust.3.Grad: Physical contact: Protection against dust and foreign objects: IP 00 No protection No protection IP 20 Against contact Against constant with fingers. IP 41 Against contact Against constant with tools particles larger than 1 mm in diameter IP 43 Against contact Against constant with tools particles larger than 1 mm in diameter. IP 54 Against contact Against damaging with tools dust. Water jet. particles larger than 12 mm in diameter. This equipment must be covered with. are not safe and will entail duty of replacement at inspection. External protection against corrosion is of importance. Water jet. Most classification companies require that equipment on open deck must have a protection that corresponds to IP 56. dust IP 56 Against contact Complete with tools. Protection against water penetration: No protection No protection. for example. There is no control of the mechanical strength of the enclosure after such a repair.9 Portable electrical equipment Demands on portable electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas are the same as for fixed installations. A minimum protection of IP 44 is required. The flame splits are opened for cleaning and application of special “grease” that protects the surface against corrosion. A flameproof enclosure with damaged wards must be scrapped. is regular inspection. as a rule. and thereby to extend the length of life for this expensive equipment. Rejection of large electric motors often occur in connection with the ordered 5-year control where the flame splits are so corroded that it is no longer proper to repair these. Water jet. a tarpaulin when the vessel is sailing. 7. .3.10 Maintenance and installation Ex-material must not.

Pay special attention to the accumulation of water in such equipment in regions with large temperature variations. and thereby water. Parts of the suction side can get down to –60oC while the warm outlet side can be more than 100oC. Choose Ex e in cable insertion to Ex d equipment if possible. A “cooling system” for such a compressor has the duty to both warm the cold areas and to cool the warm areas of the compressor. • · Cooling/ heating of glycol in a heat exchanger. easier to maintain. A normal PG nipple is then sufficient and installation/control/maintenance is much easier. All electrical equipment must be grounded. 7. Indirect cable insertion forms no problems. • · Condensing of Freon in Freon condensers. Deck light in hazardous areas is flameproof. from penetrating into the equipment. Dedicated pumps are normally used for the individual groups of utilisation areas. Glycol is utilised in systems where the danger of seawater freezing is large.A flameproof enclosure does not prevent gas. since all earth connection takes place inside the connection box. • · Heating of cargo in a heat exchanger during discharging/ loading. Water from the cooling plant is normally put out through hold space amid ship on both sides.4. If the equipment is removed from its area. Electrical motors that are coiled normally must have new certification. . and easier to control than a flameproof lighting fixture. A cargo-cooling compressor has both cold and warm areas. If these are placed in hold space. The seawater wires to the users should be on deck. When dismantling equipment. The valve is operable from deck over board. which increases safety. the consequences of leakage may be expensive.1 Glycol system Enclosed is an example of a glycol system onboard a gas vessel. LPG-pumps deliver water to heat exchangers in the cooling plant and cargo equipment. the same rule is regarded. Seawater for the above-mentioned purpose is delivered from pumps in the machine room. the cables must be disconnected at the feed line end’s connection box or the exposed ends should be terminated temporarily at the connection box of the same design as the dismantled equipment. This equipment is cheaper. • · Fire fighting in a deluge system. the freezing point is let down to about –55oC. 7. By mixing 60% glycol in water. New installation or changes of electrical equipment demands approval from classification companies. All vessels have dedicated pumps for fire fighting.4 SEAWATER SYSTEM Seawater is utilised for the following purposes in the cargo tank area: • · Cooling and condensing of cargo in heat exchangers and condensers for cooling plant. Another good glycol quality is that it’s not as corrosive as water.

4.7.2 Example of a glycol system .

3 Example of Water spray .7.4.

08- Safety and environment .

Both conventions are valid in Norway and are included in the required inspection of ships. It was 68 different nation at this conference. stability of the machinery and electrical installations. 1996. with which we have to comply. in particular. The Safety convention and all rules are in the “SOLAS 1974” with supplement 1 and 2 were translated to Norwegian. One is the “International Convention on Load Line.. It is this convention that establishes firefighting arrangements etc. The other is the “International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea” as Amended/SOLAS 1974. . international as well as national.1 FIRE FIGHTING IN GENERAL There are two conventions in particular that deals with safety at sea.st November 1974. as quickly as possible. where the purpose was to come to a decision. study what involves oil tanker and gas tankers in this part of the compendium. We will. fire discovery and fire extinguishing and of life saving equipment. national authority and classification companies will include further requirements of equipment and arrangements. In addition to “SOLAS 1974”. protection.8 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT 8. The Safety convention is a comprehensive convention that intervenes in many areas regarding safety of human life at sea. This international convention was signed in London on the 1. that was adopted at an IMO conference in 1996. There are detailed rules for fire. There are regulations to consider. It starts with the construction of the ship to maintain a as high level of safety as possible due to divisions.

It is important to prioritise when dispersing the tasks. in any case. the management will be confronted with a lot of problems that all seem to be equal in importance.2 Fire onboard .Organisation and management. For most of the people. The leader of the fire fighting must.Training and practice. This means that those tasks that seem to be most important must be delegated to the most competent unit or team in the emergency squad. training and practice must be fulfilled. . 8. The squad will have to do their best to solve the problems in a satisfactory way.2. . · Organization and management are essential factors. will promote the feeling of fear and insecurity among the crew.Sufficient and adequate equipment. activate the different teams in accordance with the fire instruction plan.1 · · · MANAGEMENT TASKS & TACTICS – FIRE EMERGENCY PREPARDNESS Fire Emergency preparedness onboard is comprised of the following: . The ship’s . Any hesitation from the management about which approach to use. the first decisions must be made based on few and uncertain pieces of information about the situation. In many cases. as soon as possible. If a fire should occur. Fire resistance arrangements onboard the specific vessel should be utilised to the fullest extent. a quick and determined effort from the whole crew on board is needed. Since the crew has been trained in relevant practical skills. it is the management’s first duty to.Management’s duty: A fire burst onboard represents a threatening and critical situation. To prevent disaster. Essential to this.8. fire is an unfamiliar event and it is therefore natural that such a threatening occurrence can lead to unpremeditated actions and panicky contributions to the situation. consider the situation and depending on a number of circumstances execute adequate initiatives. the management must also be prepared and trained for the problems they are expected to solve. which deserves a great deal of attention. The leader of the fire fighting should be able to take care of his/her responsibilities in the best possible way.2 8.2. When this happens.

fire brigade. Even though you have worked through a lot of imagined situations. As this. consider imagined fire situations and at leisure find out how to handle the situations. There is nothing that can really replace the valuable experiences you will get by managing extinguishing operations in real fire situations onboard. at least mentally. On the other hand there will most likely be a situation similar to something you had been through before. use the resources you have available. there will never be a situation similar in detail to one of the imagined situations. In any case you will be better prepared. so that the management of the ship can prepare their fire fighting duties. is practically impossible to accomplish as part of a training programme. other methods have to be tried out.fire instructions must be considered as a tool. civil defence) will need to make quick decisions and judgements of the situation. By using similar methods onboard. The benefit and effect that this tool will give depends on how the management decides to utilise it. . and one day there is a fire. This is one way to manage a situation. first aid teams. This type of responsibility requires special training. you have to be aware that in a real situation.g. Typically the standby crew (e. as best as possible. Imagine a situation and try to picture the conditions and based on that try to find out how you can. However. the approach to the problem cannot be changed to fit your own perception. to manage the situation. of course.

The management group together should work out the plans for the actions for different kinds of fire situations.4 Tactics By tactics we really mean line of action. the crew will get familiar with the plans in addition to variations in training. the better the chance for a successful response. Successful fire fighting is a result of good planning. the managers will be informed about the plans. . In hectic situations. it will be easier to change an existing plan rather than making a new plan from scratch. with as little mess as possible. Realistic and well-planned training exercises are good practice. good leadership and a well-trained standby crew. The Chief Engineer and The Chief Officer) is fully aware of the existing plans. You have to be aware of what you want. as well as. Therefore it is of urgent importance that the management group (The Captain. it should be easy to conclude that you want to extinguish the fire. In a fire situation. When considering these imagined situations where you find the best solutions. 8. if more people know about its contents. If training is arranged according to appointed plans.3 Plans of Action The more people know the main guidelines for fire fighting situations onboard each particular ship.2. as a fire. several point of views will improve the plans. what is the result you aim for. which will make it easier for them to manage accordingly. The intention with tactics is to reach the goal you have set. as soon as possible.2. without any risks to the fire fighters. The plan will be easier to execute. it is interesting and instructive. It is a calculated way to act out a plan of action where we want to use the crew available.8. in such a way that maximises the effect achieved. Therefore.

and how quickly it has to be effectuated. To be able to perform their duties.2. With the evaluation of the situation as a basis the disposals of resources are being made. Meanwhile. . The extents of the contribution depends on how important the effort is. as there could be parts of the fire that has to be stopped no matter what. knowledge of how the particular equipment works. This also includes practical skills. how demanding the work to be done is. methods of practice and routines. You should always be prepared to change tactics if unforeseen difficulties occur. Extinguishing technique covers the correct use and handling of the particular parts of the extinguisher equipment and the fire technical installations. Based on the information known. or many and detailed at any stage. Material/Force Techn.8. Wellprepared tactics considers all known factors whether there are only a few. The next step in the planning process will be the evaluation of the situation. The following estimate can be put up to show the connections in an action of extinguishing onboard: Personnel + Officers = Equipment + technical arrangements = Training + Practice = Reconnoitre + Evaluate situation + = disposal Instructions + communications = Crew. the easier it is to evaluate the situation. try to clarify the situation first (reconnoitre). In a critical situation. The more details you know about the situation. decisions have to be made quickly.5 Select an Action When planning a line of action. effect./resources Tactics/action Management/effect A crew organised in fire protection and with sufficient and adequate equipment forms the force. you have to try to determine how the fire will grow.2. 8. There are may be some parts that can be temporarily disregarded. choose tactics. other things have to be held off. Technique is to use the equipment in such a way that a maximum effect is achieved. as long as possible. the force has to master the necessary skills.6 Conditions for actions One condition for actions is that you have resources available. capacity and limitations. Here it is important to prioritise.

8. you will find some situations listed where you will have to consider the influence these situations have on the actions to be taken.8 The site of the fire It might be difficult to get access to the site of the fire. chemicals etc. 8. such as where and in which directions the fire can spread. while waiting for backup.7 Extinguishing Tactics Extinguishing tactics make use of resources available so that maximum effect in an action is achieved.11 Mobility A well-trained force. Alternative extinguishing methods might cause large damage to the environment.12 Communication It is very important to have a good communication because it will make it easier to manage the operation. it means that you will use all resources in the fight to win back the terrain and to get the situation under control. avoid loss of terrain. .13 What is on fire? There may be combustibles in the fire zone that can produce poisonous gases when heated. element of risk in the fire zone.2. 8. 8. Offensive tactics is a well-known expression. as well as it might be unjustifiable to send people in there. the fire-technical arrangements intact. which can quickly attack the fire. oil tanks. e. 8. We will further mention other situations. Fire fighters must be well protected.g. try to hold the position. Defence tactics are when you use the whole force to last as long as possible to prevent being forced to back out. which is familiar with the use of the equipment and the facilities.2.2. transportable gas holders. changing the ship’s course to achieve the best possible conditions.9 The extent of the fire The extent of the fire can be so large that the possibilities for extinguishing with available equipment are small.10 Force available A well-trained force. The force can easily be re-directed and there is a quicker determination of how the situation is developing. 8. will be an advantage in a difficult situation. 8. The risk of loosing lives should be considered more important than avoiding a large loss of materials.2.2. has a greater chance for success. In the following. It also makes a sufficient effort at the right place at the critical moment. as long as possible.2.2. An extinguishing effort with the capacity available might reduce the opportunity to successful back out.

In connection with the distribution and the instructions for the individual units in the fire protection organisation. 2. The purpose of the instruction is to allow the first effort’s execution without waiting for special orders. plus another special distribution. The ship’s alarm instructions provide the emergency plan if there is a need for a united and systematic effort of the crew. 8. It is therefore very important that realistic and varying exercises are exercised on board. change course and speed. Emphasise the importance of knowing the alarm instructions well. To manage a fire situation. for example man-over-board. for the officer on duty in port. set pressure on the fire lines. tank accident. 8. 4. for the extinguishing leader. 3. The technical will cover the quality of the “tool” at disposal. if preparations for abandon the ship become a reality. . 4. Fire preparedness is the result of a number of arrangements and different efforts.3 FIRE PREPARDNESS Fire preparedness is the capability the crew has to fight a fire with the help of the equipment available on board. training. for the engineer on duty. 5. starting the pump. There can also be other situations that can be covered by the preparedness organisation. Remember the preparedness is not stronger than the weakest link. for example fire protection organisation. prepare for manoeuvring. Practical (technical) exercises are meant as a test to see if the crew has the necessary skills. Main features in the emergency plan should include special distribution of the crew. in utilising the main extinguishing plant.1 Alarm instructions Central part of fire preparedness on board is the safety plan part on the fire fighting organisation. switch off the electrical plant in the fire area. on board your specific ship. instructions.3. 1.2 Layout of the instructions The layout of instructions for the individual team in the fire preparedness organisation offers the same challenge as splitting up the crew into teams. At the outburst of fire. close ventilation to the fire area. exercise. there are a number of other instructions that needs attention: 1. Tactical exercises will reveal the management’s capability to evaluate situations and delegate the right effort at the right time.3. preparedness promotional efforts are done.8. stop the fans. Instructions Instructions Instructions Instructions Instructions for the navigator on duty. All emergency plans organise the crew into practical teams or units. there are a number of duties to execute regardless of the site and situation of the fire’s location. duties when fire fighting. For example: starting of auxiliary engine. The practical and technical skills together will contribute to an effective force. maintenance of equipment. and personal injury and helicopter preparedness. 5. plus instruct of the duties that everyone has when the organisation is active. 3. clarifying the extinguishing equipment etc. 2. The exercises are also designed to train in the skill of being prepared. strategic placing of equipment. while the tactical will cover what capability one has to utilise the strength at his disposal.

In addition to instructions for the individual fire protection organisation. which gives all of the crew practical advice and directions of how to react if you are the person discovering the fire. first aid team. it must be ascertained that no one is in the area that the plant covers. 7. This is regarded to the captain. security team. 6.6. provided this is possible and without risk. The individual links in the fire protection organisation approach by the instructions on board. We will pay particular attention to the advice upon fire discovery. engine room team. technical team. The principal points. in such an instruction. All instructions must overlap one another so that all conditions are covered. The purpose with the instructions is to eliminate doubts of who does what. bridge instruction. Get to know the fire alarm on board and follow your instructions when this sounds. instruction for engineer on duty. It is important for all those who will operate a CO2 plant that they follow the instructions clearly and categorically. One can compare the fire protection organisation to machinery with many wheels that all must overlap one another in such a way that the machinery is functioning. and get to know the CO2 alarm and follow the instructions. . . · First try to extinguish the fire. even before the fire alarm. radio station. . evacuation team.Instructions for helicopter landing. extinguishing team. life boat team. At the same time secure that what is being done is rational and in right time. instruction for navigator on duty. The symbol for teamwork characterises a well drilled fire crew. because before triggering of the plant can take place. there are also instructions for special situations. one should act as though the fire alarm has sounded. The instructions are the force that will run the machinery.Instructions for the person who detects fire. If the CO2 alarm sounds. are: · Immediately shout of alarm in order to call on more people. 7. extinguishing leader. instruction for officer on duty in port.

the number of crew members. · The area is restricted. limited retreat possibilities and the great chance of blocking off the rescue units in a fire situation. 8. · The most flammable areas are covered by fixed fire fighting equipment.3. · Simple checks if someone goes missing.3 Some important guidelines: · The entire force on board is available and able to be on the spot rapidly. that could be overwhelmed by smoke. or in bed. as much as possible. · Try to inspect rooms nearby the fire area where personnel might be. · Alter the course in favour of the fire fighting. This will avoid time loss resulting from unnecessary searches. crew distribution. to state if someone is missing. plus other relevant conditions. · The crew/force is naturally experienced with the surroundings. · Mobilise maximum force immediately. Because of the extraordinary conditions on board. Be very strict in having all present at their post.· Close doors and try to prevent. layout and content of the special instructions will vary by the type and size of the ship. Alarm instruction layout. When onboard during fire. As the conditions on board are extremely special compared to ashore. · Realise the element of risk. an influx of air to the area. the manager must treat the retreat as a very important point in his procedural duty. Further the fire control officer must observe the four following main tasks: . · Equipment and facilities are nearby. it is similar to being “on the roof of the burning building”. extent of equipment. · The retreat possibilities are very restricted.. as much as possible. Those who don’t show up are basically missing. The escape routes are limited and few. such as toxic gas. · If fire bursts out in port. · Upon alarm the significance of all to show up at their post. immediately try to call the local fire department. · The amount of equipment is limited. as quickly as possible. · Organise in the normal procedure to put fight the fire when there is fire in port. · Because of continuous duty. fire is detected at an early stage. and where escape equipment is possibly placed. have a flexible preparedness plan that gives the possibility for all to contribute his best in the management of a number of different situations. it is natural that retreat route security and clarification of these routes has high priority. explosions etc. Common for all alarm instructions is the desire to.

Notice that this search involves risk for the rescue crew. plus it directly delays the extinguishing activity because of impaired capacity and conditions that may have vital importance to the outcome. . the manager must be informed so a search can be carried out. 2. as quickly as possible. and that missing personnel are immediately revealed. It is therefore an unalterable requirement that all the crew show up at their posts according to instruction.1.3. 8. smoke and the damaging gases that develop cause most deaths. It effects fire fighting and the security work drastically when a delay is caused by the search for personnel who not are in any danger. 3. 4.4 Rescuing of life In most cases. it is not direct contact with the fire that causes the loss of life. 4. - Rescuing life. 3. As soon as someone is determined missing. Restriction of fire. 2. 1. In a fire. Executing the retreat. Extinguishing fire.

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Any manual combating involves a large risk for the extinguishing force.1 8. Some of the criteria follow: · It should give optical and acoustic alarm at fire. it is important to notice that the plant should have two independent power sources.4 FIXED FIRE FIGHTING PLANS & FIRE FIGHTING REMEDY 8.8.3.5 Extinguishing of fire The faster the extinguishing activity is effectuated. please refer to the regulations regarding complete approval. 8.6 Securing the retreat Due to the limited possibilities on board. If one “falls out” the other will operate the plant with full power. In some parts of the vessel. · The central unit automatically goes over to reserve power to supply upon voltage failure.3. accordingly all requirements in accordance to the documentation claim. procedures for routine testing on board. Permanent equipment should be used in an area where the fire risk is large and has a large risk of spreading. · Positive indication on the panel by interruption of functions. quencher remedy and capacity. Otherwise according to the approval companies. alarm organs. · It should indicate where fire breaks out. it is very important that the psychological effect will influence all of the crew in the knowledge that the retreat is prepared and protected in case of ending the fire fighting. function description. connection of detector loop. . However. · It allows for fault warning. discovery and alarm equipment should be installed on vessels that are regulated by SOLAS. On parts of the ship. One must also consider the amount of damage the extinguishing agent will cause to the area. In addition. Approval type for these detection’s plants takes place according to a determined procedure by posting the plant’s documentation. put out the fire before causing any larger damage. The fire may block the access to rescue units.4. one can choose between permanently installed extinguishing equipment and manual efforts. fan failure. This documentation should contain user instructions. fault location procedures. the goal must be total elimination.1 Manual call point plant Fixed fire detection’s plants. it is natural upon securing the retreat will involve clarifying if is necessary to abandon the vessel. The decision about what to utilise in a specific situation must be well substantiated. The plant is tested to determine if it fulfils the regulations required. In choosing an extinguishing method. assembly work. However. door magnet. a manual effort is the only alternative. power supply information. the greater the chance of a successful result. 5. The manual call point plant should at all times be according to the regulations in force.

on the draft is a list with an explanation of the different symbol. It indicate zones with isolated bulkheads and fire doors. and from where one can remote operate these are also indicated.3 Fire pumps A fire pump in the engine room is connected to the fire pipeline network. Valves to stop engines. for at least 12 hours of running power. protection equipment and utility equipment appear on the draft. and where on the vessel the equipment is kept. All portable extinguishing equipment. the other from two hose lengths. have knowledge of the preparedness plan. The pipeline network is divided into sections with a cross over. the “safety plan” illustrates the safety installations and equipment on board. it can be hydraulically driven or electrically driven by power from the emergency power unit. 8. it is possible to bypass the damaged part by help of hoses from hydrant to hydrant. are at all times equipped with a safety valve. and from an early stage. Also. One can either operate the emergency fire pump by its own diesel engine. rooms. the fixed main extinguishing plant and where on board these can be remote controlled. thorough knowledge of the individual plants is required. manual call point plants with detectors. Symbols for marking equipment are utilised to make the draft well arranged.4. If anything occurs during the stay and local help is required. ducts and damper is and from where one can stop the plant. Oil.4. To effectively utilise the different fire technical installations. This draft is available for all on board.hose connections with valves. the local fire department can quickly approach the plan. All are advised to thoroughly study the “safety plan” in detail. In addition. The gangway during the port stay should keep a copy of the safety plan. alarm buttons and alarm bells. Hydrants are placed such that two water jets at the same time can reach any part of the vessel.2 Safety plan The fire control draft or as called on board.4 Fire pipeline network The fire pipeline network branches all over the vessel and has a number of hydrants . plus how to use them.4. Properly study the pipeline network on board to understand how the network is divided. It also displays all decks. are supplied with non-return valves. On the main . which are able to produce more pressure than the pipeline network is designed for. the damaged part is shut off without shutting off the entire pipeline network. for instance. All centrifugal pumps. arranged in a way that if damage occurs on a part of the system. is kept nearby the emergency pump. and all emergency exits. 8. one jet from a hose length. It indicates where the ventilation plant with fans. plus where the shut-off valves are placed. Colouring is often utilised to keep the symbols apart.8. If parts of the network are damaged. Fire pumps. The draft shows the vessel sidewise and a sketch of each deck top wise. there is a separate fixed emergency fire pump installed in a distance from the engine room. machinery. in addition to oil for the fuel tank itself in case it a should be filled at any time.

The plant’s powder capacity should be of the size that utilises all posts.5 Main fire extinguishing plants (For gas and chemical carriers) 8. It opens the valve of the powder tube that proceeds to the powder post being released. as the powder together with the propellant gas must be able to “float” as a liquid through the pipe system and the powder jet. of course. This is.6 Dry chemical system Powder is elected as extinguishing remedy on the tank deck of gas carriers and chemical tankers. The riser’s gas taps are very important.. painting etc. Stationary dry powder systems are normally delivered with powder (NaHCO3 – .5kg/second. Dry powder systems utilise N2 (Nitrogen) or CO2 (carbon dioxide) as propellant gas. acetone. “hand hoses”. The extension should be at a minimum of 10 metres for both stationary and hand based equipment. The delivery of powder should progress at a minimum of 45 seconds.calcium hydrogen carbonate) for natrium hydrogen carbonate or KHCO3 extinguishing fire in class B or E. The length of a hand hose should not exceed 33 m. One or several powder containers are placed with a capacity calculated for the specific vessel with accompanying pressure bottles in the powder central unit. Several posts can be utilised at the same time. propane etc. That is all types of liquid like: petrol. fitted to the size and type of the vessel.4.4. The gas is lead into tubes to the releasing mechanism of the pressure bottles in the powder central unit. oil. butane. and different types of gases like methanol. but not too large for one man to operate. The gas is kept in pressure cylinders. but each post must be triggered in the same way. A gas pressure regulator reduces N2 –gas or CO2 – gas (200kg/cm2) to 20 kg/cm2 before it goes via the riser in to the powder aggregate. The stationary powder post (monitor) should have a capacity of at least 10kg/second. alcohol.line of the tank area there should be one shut-off valve for each 40 metres. . should have a capacity of at least 3. Manual equipment. 8. It is very important that the hose is pulled out to its full length before setting the pressure. methane. The plant can be released from each powder post by opening the valve of the releasing bottle. A number of minor stationary powder aggregates can be placed on deck or a powder central unit with pipes forward to a number of powder monitors and hose stations on deck.

x min. 8. point 11./s x min. We refer here to the IGC-code. The plant onboard the specific ship is designed according to this. based on the plant on the specific vessel.spray system (Gas and chemical carriers) In addition. x min. = 630 = 2430 8. a waterrepellent material is added usually silicon.7 Technical description The powder type NaHCO3 and KHCO3 has an extinguishing effect based on a reaction inhibitor along with some cooling of the fuel surface and the gas face. (This is part of the fire drill onboard).Below is an example of this with the following data: 4 stationary and 4 hand stations: Stationary: (4 pcs. in 45s) Hand based: (4 pcs.1. To avoid humidity in the powder.10kg.4. . Everyone must memorise maintenance routines and test routines./s x min. chapter 11. pipe system and jets.3. Dry chemical systems consist of a mechanical part that includes a powder aggregate with valves. in 45s) kg. = 1800 kg. what areas the plant should cover.3. release mechanism.8 Water .4. Powder is not electrically conductive in dry conditions. certain ship types should be equipped with a “water-spray system”. Minimum powder capacity: kg.5kg. fire preventive and crew protective effect. as an object for a cooling.

This is operable by shutting off the line to the damaged area. The foam is shaped when gas/air is mixed into the foam/frothing liquid and into the water by help of mechanical equipment. There has to be a possibility of remote start of the water delivery pumps. plus remote control of the plants shut valves from a place outside the cargo area. The plant should contain a material that is resistant to corrosion. such as pumice stone. 8. and a non-flammable gas mixed with the solvent.4. you need: water. 8. where the remote control is. 8.1mm to 1.11 Producing foam In order to produce foam that will extinguish fire. Normal equipment produces bubbles. After this. is called foam. sprinklers and foam pipes are used. the air is mixed in by mechanical means./m2 pr minute on vertical surfaces. a frothing material that dissolves in water in anatomised condition.4. Different types of floating foams are used for fire extinguishing.9 Main extinguishing plant (oil tanker) 8. If parts of the line are damaged.10 Foam in general A system consisting of gas or air bubbles bound in a water coating (membrane). how it is operated.4. plus the inclusion of this in the fire drill executed onboard.4. When the wall has a coating. .5mm. which have a diameter of 0. The result is mechanic foam. we are talking about floating foam. such as soapsuds. shut-off valves must exist on the main line so that the line can still be utilised. On new gas and chemical carriers we also find foam utilised for fire extinguishing. We recommend studying the plant on your vessel. The delivery pumps should have such a capacity that they can deliver simultaneously with full capacity to the whole plant. The foam liquid is dissolved (or emulsified) in the water.The system should have the capacity to cover the designated area with at least 10 ltr.12 Mechanical foam Different types of pumps. The alternative is that the system is devisable into several sections that can be operated independent of each other. gas concrete and foam rubber are examples of constant foam. Constant foam is when the wall/membrane consists of a constant material./m2 pr minute on horizontal surfaces. and 4 ltr.

If the vessel has an inert gas plant. foam pump that is also connected to an emergency generator. When the foam cover has spread outward across the liquid’s surface. is not able to penetrate through the area covered with foam.4. the foam capacity must have a volume that can deliver foam for a minimum of 20 minutes. The foam line going to each monitor has a delivery valve installed to supply . Foam plant 8.13 Foam is chosen as the main extinguishing agent for the tank area. the cooling effect is the dominating force. A foam plant consists of a foam central unit with a foam tank. evaporation ceases and the fire dies out. The main foam line from the foam central unit to the monitors should contain shutoff valves within determined requirements. and a pipe system connected to fixed monitors on the tank deck. The suffocating or the cooling effect can be more or less the dominating effect. foam jets. The capacity of the plant should be big enough that the whole tank area could be covered with foam. a differentiation effect. The demand is at a minimum of 30 minutes if the ship is not equipped with inert gas plant. above all. in order to bind the line in case of damage. the heat rays from other. automatic valves. By extinguishing a burning liquid with a surface temperature higher than +100o C. the extinguishing effect is connected with the heat-insulating foam and. combustible gases are no longer formed. distribution manifold.Extinguish effect Foam has a suffocating effect and acts as a cooling extinguishing agent. This is caused by evaporation of the liquid that penetrates into the surface’s layer of the burning material as the foam collapses. still burning parts of the liquid surface. Therefore. but depends on what material is burning and what sort of foam is used. By extinguishing fire when the temperature in the surface is below +100oC.

or as “Object Protection”. releasing mechanism. scentless. Mobile foam equipment is also available on many ships. This equipment (the foam plant) is mandatory for oil tankers.foam. a foam ejector. corrosion free. non-electrical leading gas with qualities that extinguish fire quickly and effectively with a recommended gas concentration. Study the plant installed on your vessel. a small hose for the transmission of foam from a foam container to a foam hose pipe.14 The engine room and pump room are protected with a bar plant that utilises CO2 as an extinguishing agent. and protection equipment.15 CO2 has a suffocating extinguishing effect in that the oxygen content in the air is reduced to the point where combustion becomes impossible. CO2 plants consist of CO2 cylinders with valves. The room on vessels with “Total Flooding System” is filled with a CO2 -content corresponding to 40% by volume. Extinguishing effect 8. A foam jet pipe is attached to the monitors. CO2 plants are delivered either as a “Total Flooding System”. the extinguishing agent must be properly suited for the actual situation. which does not damage electronic equipment and requires no clearing/cleaning after use. This consists of a fire hose with a foam nozzle unit. pipe system and jet. accumulating manifold.4. small foam containers (20 litre). gas and chemical carriers also. foam liquid is sucked (ejector function) from the foam container via hose connection between the foam container and ejector. The extinguishing agent should: . non toxic. CO2 – plant 8. and understand how this plan is operated. where a part of the room is filled with gas.72 kg/m3 with gas. Water pressure is established. Familiarise yourself with your vessel’s plant. where the entire room is filled with gas. This equipment is prepared for use with fire hoses and a foam nozzle unit connected to the fire line.4. CO2 (carbon dioxide) is a colourless. Choosing extinguishing agents 8. that is 0.16 If an active extinguishing method is chosen. A foam ejector with a tap for supplying foam liquid is installed between the fire hose and foam nozzle unit. a cylinder rack. The valve can also be used to regulate the amount of foam supplied in order to achieve the right mixture condition between foam and water.4.

8. In utilising spot extinguishers.4.extinguish the fire. the water must have as large surface as possible when hitting the heat zone. To obtain an extinguishing effect.4. One must utilise total flooding. Powder 8. With a drop size of 0.4. Drops with 1 mm diameter have a surface of 0. the vapour displaces air and consequently the oxygen. Light foam contains less water than heavy foam.not harm the environment. the smaller the drop. In sensitivity instruments and in electronic equipment.126 cm2. Evacuation of the area is necessary. or is used as a spot extinguishing agent. the powder must be lead down to the fire object. A scattered jet obtains this. . the water comes in shape of drops. The gas has little cooling effect. the shorter the air throw is needed. The smaller the drops are. the larger the surface.4. . By throwing. One can . Since water does not evaporate. and before releasing the plant.not cause the fire object any additional damage.26 cm2 surface. . 8.2 – 0. as much as possible. powder has a disturbing effect on the functions. The powder has no direct damaging effect on the object. Water takes heat from the fire via evaporation. . Danger of re-ignition is therefore large until the temperature is brought down below the self-ignition temperature.20 Foam has both a cooling and suffocating effect. one must reach a position from where the powder can reach the fire itself. The powder works partly by suffocating and partly by poisoning the flame. it also has a little bit of a cooling effect.not cause damage to the user. the most practical proportion between air throw and surface is obtained.not demand risky operation.3 mm. as quickly as possible. so that re-ignition is a danger.19 Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide is utilised either as a “total flooding” agent where the whole area on fire is filled with CO2 in large concentration. The effect emerges when water changes to vapour.1 mm in diameter have a 1. .give protection to the user. it can add to the object’s damage. the thermal effect may cause damage to sensitivity instruments. one must check that no one is missing. the largest effect is obtained. Foam 8. atomised water into the warmest part of the fire zone. The gas has no damage on the environment. To obtain maximal evaporation. the same water amount in drops of 0.18 To have any effect. as early as possible. and thereby the extinguishing agent causes less damage.· · · · · · .17 Water Water must be in direct contact with the fire to gain an extinguishing effect.

One can also utilise foam as secondary remedy to prevent re-ignition. 10 litres is a very limited amount. danger of re-ignition (need of cooling). or glow and flames.utilise light foam to cover larger areas and thereby suffocate the fire. · fire in alive. relatively low temperature in the liquid itself. When selecting an extinguishing agent. glow fire and glow/flame fire is extinguished by cooling (damp extinguishing remedy). · one extinguishes a flame fire by suffocating. · only flames (fire in liquids) where gas vaporised from the surface is on fire. where the fire core has high temperature. · one extinguishes an electrical fire with a dry extinguishing remedy. The main rule when choosing an extinguishing agent is: · a. These apparatus are marked by symbols on the vessel’s “safety plan”. painting. protection of the fire squad (protect the users). explosives. . One must also evaluate the practicality of utilising a combination of mutual extinguishing remedies. special material (chemicals. One must also consider the surroundings (as little extinguishing damage as possible). at first extinguish the flames with powder. dangerous goods. special circumstances (alive plants). or prevent ignition from oil leakage. Knowledge of placement and use is introduced in the fire exercises onboard. Portable fire extinguishing apparatus 8.4.21 There are a number of transportable fire extinguishing apparatus (handextinguishing apparatus) placed in different places onboard. and possibly cover with foam to prevent spontaneous ignition. electrical components (glow/flame fire in isolation materials.). Some types have a united jet. thereby cooling with water. lubricating oil etc. while others alternate between united and spread jets. etc. one must consider the type of fire: · only a glow. and has a period of use lasting approximately 60 seconds. For example. swelling). WATER Normally there are 10 litre apparatus placed in different locations onboard. (fire in solid material). The placement and type of apparatus is in accordance to the regulations based on the specific vessel.

except for where something else ahs been determined. Carbon dioxide There are carbonic acid apparatus of 6 kg stationed on board. and will provide the user good protection. . These apparatus are suited for spot extinguishing of relatively small fires.Powder There are mostly 12 kg powder apparatus onboard. The protection for the user is poor. a well-drilled technique is demanded. a 50 kg apparatus has a period of use of approximately 60 seconds. One should have high goals regarding knowledge in utilizing. 50 kg or 6 kg. of function and capacity of the fire extinguishing apparatus on board your vessel. These apparatus have a very limited capacity and no air throw. This is clearly found in the “safety plan” onboard. To utilise powder extinguishing equipment at full effect. A 12 kg powder apparatus has a period of use lasting approximately 20 seconds. Add this to the training exercises onboard. for example 25 kg. The apparatus has good air throw. The period of use is approximately 20 seconds.

The requirement for the air content in bottles is minimum 1200 litre clean air. apparatus.5 minutes to abandon the area. for light or heavy work and the bottle size. Protection suit including boots and gloves. and must fulfil the requirements in accordance to the regulations.2 THE BREATHING APPARATUS BA SET The breathing apparatus onboard must be of an accepted type. and leaves us with (40x7) = 280 litres air for retreat. are 4 sets of fire fighter equipment. : 20 min. The equipment is specified in SOLAS. as follows: · · · Min. Spare bottles are required for each apparatus.) = 6 bottles Totally (1200 litre x 6 bottles) = 7200 litre air pr. Frequent training exercises on board will familiarise you with the apparatus and use of a breathing apparatus. We then have 4. one obtains. This is of course considered for each vessel and the equipment is at all times in accordance to existing requirement and rules. minute.5. . Safety lamp.5.66 minutes.1 FIRE FIGHTER EQUIPMENT The requirement onboard oil tankers. a minimum of 5 sets of fire fighter equipment is required. rule 17. National. minute (equivalent to hard work) is assumed. and classification companies requirements may come in addition. Disposal time will then be (7 x 200): 60 = 23. time unit. The apparatus has an audio signal that alerts the user that it’s time to abandon the area. If a consumption of 60 litre air pr. This audio signal is released at approximately 40 bars.8. The time for retreat is (280: 60) = 4. minute = 20 minutes pr. Fireman’s axe. A compressor is also required to fill up the breathing bottles after use. chapter 11-2. as well as onboard gas tankers less than 5000 m3. The period of use for the apparatus is dependent upon the consumption of air pr. Each set consists of: · · · · · One breathing apparatus (BA) with an air capacity of minimum 1200 litres. Assume that heavy work is to be carried out with a consumption of 60 litres pr. EXAMPLE An air bottle of 7 litres and a pressure of 200 bar give (7 x 200) = 1400 litres clean air. 8. 1200 litre: 60 litre pr. Onboard gas carriers of more than 5000 m3. bottle.5 PERSONAL SAFETY EQUIPMENT 8. Fire resistance safety line with belt. 2 hours (120 min.3 minutes. so that each apparatus has a period of use of 2 hours minimum.

It is recommended to train in the use of the apparatus in order to learn the special breathing technique for such an apparatus. The definition of breathing technique is a rational way of utilising the air to obtain a maximum safe user time. The user is dependent upon the state of the apparatus when residing in smoke or gas filled rooms. Before entering such rooms, the user himself must control the apparatus. After strapping the bottle on his back, a special routine must be followed regardless of the duration and regardless of others. The procedure varies with each apparatus. It is of great importance to knowledge of the apparatus onboard your vessel. The control will mainly be, as follows: 1. Bottle pressure: Open the bottle valve 2-3 shifts and read the manometer pressure. Then put on the mask, the panorama mask is put on with all straps extended. Set the chin in the mask and lead the straps behind the head. Tighten the lower strap, then the upper straps and finally the top strap. 2. Retreat signal: Shut the bottle valve and breath carefully until the retreat signal appears. The manometer indicates approximately 40 bars when the signal appears. If there is a change over valve on the apparatus, ensure that this is in the right position. The change over valve is activated when the retreat signal appears and has an opening effect for spare air to release. 3. Mask’s seal ability: Suck the mask empty of air. The mask will then be pressed against the face, if not, tighten the head straps. If it is airtight, open for air again. 4. Pneumonic automatic: The bottle valve is set fully open, breath a few times to make sure that the pneumonic automatic unit is working. 5. Flushing button: The button on the pneumonic automatic unit is activated and air will flow into the mask. Sometimes extra air in the mask is needed. 6. Bottle pressure: Control again the pressure manometer to make sure that the bottle is full. Place the manometer back in the clip. All tests must be repeated for each exercise, or change of bottle, to make sure of satisfactory operation at all times. 8.5.3 FIRE STATIONS The fire stations are marked on the safety plan, and also the content of all required equipment at the stations. In addition to mentioned fire fighting equipment, the content must include personal protective equipment, fire hoses, jet nozzles that can switched from jet to fog dispersement, keys to hose coupling and an extra fire axe. Other equipment included is an electrical drill with 5/8” drill steel together with an extension cord. It is smart to obtain a smaller drill steel to drill a pilot hole, if this is a matter of necessity. A portable oxyacetylene torch that renders it possible to make a quick carving of a manhole or other openings to ease access is also included. This equipment is marked on the safety plan, where it is placed onboard and at the right number according to type and size of vessel.

Everyone is encouraged to know the seriousness of exercises onboard, being prepared in a realistic and objective way can be, as a matter of fact, very interesting and informative. Anxiety is relieved because confidence leads to safety. 8.5.4 INTERNATIONAL SHORE CONNECTION SOLAS chapter II-2, rule 19, deals with the international “land coupling” that is required onboard all vessels in accordance to this rule’s specification. The existence of this is shown in the safety plan. It must be readily available during harbour stay. It is used as connection between the vessel and harbours equipment, in case of fire during the stay. Familiarise yourself with the escape and protection equipment onboard the gas tanker/chemical tanker, masks with filter for all onboard, appropriate protection equipment placed for easy availability. This protection equipment contains large aprons, special gloves with long cuffs, appropriate footwear, coveralls made of chemical resistant material, tightened glasses or face shields. Clothes and equipment must protect all body parts. An escape apparatus with oxygen mask that makes the carrier independent of the oxygen in the air at a minimum of 15 minutes must be available on all vessels. This is only for use of escape. Specifications state how much of this equipment exists onboard. The safety plan informs where it is located. 8.5.5 BOARDING TANKS Before boarding tanks and closed spaces, one must take measurements, make sure that dangerous gas is non-existent and that the oxygen content is satisfactory. After tank ventilation, take great care in the measuring and the certainty of the atmosphere before entering. Ensure that the pump room is well ventilated by running the fans for awhile before entering. There is monitor supervision of the pump room atmosphere onboard many vessels today. This takes place by automatically testing the pump room atmosphere at different sampling points. Then it is analysed and indicated on the control room monitor. This is also equipment you need to be familiar with. 8.5.6 PERSONNEL INSIDE TANKS When entering tanks, it is very important to prepare equipment and make it easily available in case of emergency. Preparation includes a complete set of fire fighting equipment (also an extra fresh air mask in case it is needed for a rescue action), lines, communication, and crew on deck for supervising. The knowledge of the number and names of crew in the tank at all times is very important in order to be as prepared as possible for any rescue action.

8.6 IN GENERAL
What is health? In short, it is when the physical is in balance with the non-physical, and the harmonisation here has a natural function. The result is good health. To maintain this, knowledge about harmonisation is the vital factor in health. Health is different for each one of us based on individual tendencies and external/internal influences that mark (or chooses to mark) our life. All crewmembers that sign on a vessel should have been through a medical check in order to have a regular status of his/her health condition. Life at sea is a special place to work, it is important that the general health condition at all times is good. What can be done to maintain a good general health condition on board? The answer is built into the safety and protection of personnel on board. You can also take care of one another in a good manor by being aware of the risks that may have direct and external effect on health, regarding the special cargoes carried onboard your vessel. Primarily, you can take good care of your own machine, the body, by paying attention to the “fuel”, which contains the nutrients the body needs. It is very important that the “chef” onboard has basic knowledge about anatomy/physiology, in order to assemble the right raw material into the right article of food, in the form of nutrient rich meals. Together with good cleanliness and comfortable surroundings in the galley, the best basis is given. If the meals are “spiced-up” with a nice atmosphere, in addition to existence of an inter-human working environment and well-being, the result is solidarity, well-being at work, increased efficiency, less sickness absence and saved costs. A positive mental attitude toward life is also important and, at the same time, improves or maintains health. This is an important factor of the human’s total health. For example, one can turn a “I will not, cannot” behaviour pattern into a “I can, I will” attitude. This will increase co-operation between the people onboard. With an attitude change based on positive thinking, the result is noticeable onboard, due to well being, solidarity, better performance, and a healthier atmosphere for the whole crew. The human resource is the only resource. 8.6.1 THE BODY The doctrine of how the body is built is called anatomy. The doctrine of the body’s function is called physiology. This will be roughly illustrated to achieve a synopsis of how the “machine” functions. 8.5.2 The cell This is the smallest, independent unit of the body and the basis for all living organisms. All the processes in the body are caused by the chemical reactions that take place in the cells. Cells in different tissue and organisms co-operate in their duties. The cell has a water content of approximately 70% in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fat and inorganic material. All the cells have the same basic structure and a number of mutually basic qualities. Simultaneously each part of the cell has its function. We all utilise nutrients both to achieve energy and as “building stones”. In

new cell components, glucose (grape sugar) is the most important energy source. It is important to have nutrient rich and varying diet. 8.6.3 TISSUE Cells that look alike remain lying to form tissue. All surfaces of the body are covered with epithelial tissue (type of tissue that mainly covers all surfaces, the cavity and channels of the body). Connective tissue and support tissue forms the tissue network in the body and keeps tissue and organs together. There is an innumerable of tissues, for example osseous tissue, muscular tissue and nerve tissue. The cell cooperation is controlled by chemical signals. These signals consist of two types, nerve signals and hormone signals. These two systems co-operate for an appropriate reaction. This is fully necessary for our survival. The hormone system controls the activity of many internal organs, the nerve system controls muscles and glands. Several organ systems co-operate to keep the composition of tissue fluid constant. The blood renews this tissue fluid. The blood must circulate the whole time. The duty of the lymph artery is to drain excess tissue fluid. 8.6.4 THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS These demolish and absorb nutrient material. It is very important that the nutrient content satisfies the body’s need. 8.6.5 THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS These absorb oxygen and partly carbon dioxide. Respiration is an exchange of gases between the blood arteries and the air in the lungs. The blood absorbs oxygen into the body’s cells and partly the excess carbon dioxide that arises. The respiratory organs consist of the bronchia and the lungs. Gas exchange between blood and air takes place in the lungs. 8.6.6 THE URINARY ORGANS These regulate the composition of the tissue fluid. The urinary organs consist of the kidneys, urinary tract, bladder and the urethra. The kidneys' most distinct duty is to separate water from waste. The resultant urine is processed in the urinary tract and bladder then empties via the urethra. 8.6.7 THE BLOOD CIRCULATION The blood circulation carries materials between the organs in the body. The tissue fluid is constantly renewed from the blood in the capillaries. The heart is a pump that makes blood circulate. “Heart valves” help the blood run in the right direction. The heart musculature sends blood through the coronary artery (the heart’s arteries). The heart is the most persevering muscle in the body. The blood flows from high pressure to lower pressure. The pulse is thereby a regulator in the blood. The blood pressure is the pressure inside the artery, which is part of the blood circulation. The blood acts, as a sort of, transportation system. Blood sends tissue circulating through

the artery system. This contains blood cells floating in a protein rich fluid – blood plasma – with two main types of cells, red and white. The red cells are important for transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the different body tissues, while the white, in different ways, participates in the body’s defence against disease. It is important to remember that one cannot mix different blood types. Blood cells are formed in the bone marrow. 8.6.8 THE HUMAN ORGANISM AND THE SURROUNDING WORLD Our senses tell us about the surroundings. The main senses are sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste. There are also important senses in the muscles, the joints and the equilibrium organ in the inner ear. Each sensory organ has its best reaction to a certain type of stimulation, but has a different reaction to long lasting stimulation. 8.6.9 THE SKIN The skin forms an essential boundary to the surroundings, and is the body’s largest “breathing organ”. The skin consists of different tissue with different qualities and covers the body surface, like an almost impenetrable protective film. The skin is an important sensory organ with large adaptability. 8.5.10 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

This system protects the body and consists of several parts. There is no possibility of living a normal life without this defence, as its duty is to render harmless infective agents or other strange material. In addition to combating infection from outside, this defence system also fights against any internal cell changes. 8.6.11 THE BODY’S MOTION APPARATUS

This consists of skeleton and muscles. The skeleton is the body’s framework, consisting of almost 200 large and small bones tied together by link and ties. The muscles can move the bones by shortening (contracting) using an impulse from the nervous system. This was a short description of the “human machine”. When experiencing something exciting, frightening, unexpected, stressing, surprising or likewise, energy runs through us like an electrical blow. In such situations, one experiences the effect of endocrine hormones. The part of us that consists of feelings, thoughts, vibrations, intuition, ergo not physical parts of us, are also an important part of us (in many cases a decisive part). It is very important to provide stimulation and nutrients to these parts, as discussed below. 8.6.12 THOUGHT, ACTION, RESULT, FEELING

Positive thoughts and attitudes together with a healthy diet form the basis for good health. We can do a lot ourselves by choosing the right things, as we are free to choose.

We now take a look at your work place, onboard a vessel, and the influence this has on your health. We will also discuss what external influences can be found in the atmosphere and the injuries/incidents that may occur on board. Onboard different types of vessels carrying different types of cargo, danger to health from external influences are considered regarding the vessel’s protective equipment and routines. This protective equipment is placed practically and can be utilised, as necessary. Familiarise yourself with the equipment onboard your vessel and use it! With a sudden injury or illness on board, medical advice and guidance can be gathered from Radio Medico – the radio medical service for vessels at sea. It is important to have all the important information when help is needed for a serious condition onboard, such as: · Age · Sex · Weight · Duration of the illness · Extent of the injury · Symptoms · Patient's comments (complaints) · Clinical findings (sign of a specific illness) · How the injury happened · Character of the pain (grumbling, stabbing, squeezing) · Whereabouts of the pain · Face colour, limpness, drowsiness, temperature, pulse, breathing trouble, nausea, blood, mucus, urination, etc. All of the above is important. There is a “hospital” onboard containing ordered equipment for treatment and medication. The ship medical directions regarding the ship’s hospital deal with the maintenance, supply, inspection, etc. It is important to know how to protect oneself against harmful skin contact, skin absorption and respiratory absorption of dangerous gases in the atmosphere surrounding us, such as entering tanks and closed spaces. Help given in the first minutes of an emergency situation is crucial. All must endeavour to have respectable first aid skills. 8.6.13 FIRST AID

First aid is used with sudden unconsciousness, stopped breathing and lack of air. (Call for help, but do not abandon the patient, immediately start helping.) A Air: Try to free the air flow, lie the patient on a flat surface, bend the head backwards, remove any dentures, vomit, etc. B Breathing: If the patient is not breathing, start resuscitation with 3-5 breaths/insufflations. Use the “Pocket Mask” as an option. Hold the head curved backward, check the pulse on the neck. If pulse is felt, continue with 12 respiration’s per minute C Circulation: With deadly paleness and no pulse, give 2-3 powerful knocks over the heart. If this has no effect, start external heart compression once per second.

8.6.14

ONE RESCUER

Alternate 2-3 respirations and 15 heart compressions. 8.6.15 TWO RESCUERS

One respiration for each heart compression. When compressing; press the breastbone down 4-5cm. 8.6.16 ABC

The method stands for air, breathing, and circulation. The priority of first-aid training and practice is of great importance. The better you are at first aid in an emergency; the chance of a good outcome is greater. 8.6.17 HEART PROBLEMS

Heart problems can be suspected if sudden, strong pain behind the breastbone is experienced. For cardiac arrest, use the ABC. 8.6.18 SHOCK INJURIES

Description of shock is acute circular failure. This may be caused by reduced blood volume from bleeding, shock by drop of blood pressure or reduced pump functions from a cardiac infarction. If a big incident occurs, shock must be calculated. The symptoms are fast pulse, coldness, pail and difficulty in breathing. Supply oxygen, warm blankets and fluids. 8.6.19 HEAD INJURIES

All knocks against the head must be taken seriously. The symptoms are headache, nausea and dizziness. Flat bed rest for 2-3 days. Limited fluid intake and be sure to supervise. 8.6.20 POISONING AND ETCH INJURIES

Refer to the IMCO’s book “Medical First Aid and Guide for use in accidents involving dangerous goods”. This refers to the data sheets on the different cargo onboard. (This is illustrated later on in this part). Poisoning and etch injuries appear in connection with cargo contact, as air absorption, swallowing or skin absorption (skin contact). The symptoms are pink coloured skin, smell of almonds on the breath, headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Remember that in connection with cargo contact, the emergency squad should efficiently use protective equipment, gloves etc. Supply oxygen and follow the instructions on the data sheet for the cargo in question.

6. Check the medical box for proper use of medication and bandages.8. and have their pulse checked.21 FIRE INJURIES In fire injuries. By doing so. Important: Frozen hands and feet must not be warmed up actively with warm water.stands for compression bandage or compression. as the proper first aid. Quickly cool for at least 20 minutes.6. 8. This may cause unconsciousness. in such injuries. Blood is most important. The patient mustn’t freeze. Confer with the patient regarding the tightness of the bandage. which carry strongly cooled gases. Refer to the material’s data sheet regarding treatment. etc. then ascends to white spots on the skin.6.6. 8. the bleeding is reduced in the underlying tissue.23 BONE. If cooling the injury is not sufficient. Careless handling of pipeline and cranes onboard vessels. dust). Supply oxygen and fluid. JOINT & SOFT PART INJURIES A lot of injuries are sprains. Cover frozen skin parts with a soft woollen garment. By inhaling small concentrations. To decrease the blood pressure and reduce the seepage of blood on and around the injured place. It helps a lot to warm up frozen skin with warm skin 8.25 INTAKE OF POISON MATERIALS Poisonous materials can be taken in by inhaling (gas. 8. different reactions will occur depending on the kind of material.6.22 FROST INJURIES Localised frost injuries on the skin’s top layer begins with a prickling feeling. raise an injured arm or foot to approximately heart height and rest for 1-2 days. Use the ICE method. Ice the injury in order to lower the injured spot’s temperature. be under supervision. E – stands for elevation and rest. if possible. since it is the higher brain centre that is first affected from lack of oxygen. can lead to localised frost injuries. at worst death. I – stands for ice. fracture and soft part injuries. compression around the injured spot is recommended in order to counter the pressure from haemorrhage and reduce swelling and pain. ICE means ice. Estimate the extent of the injury. Do not massage or rub. The patient should rest. Provide warm blankets and abundant fluid. Swelling and pain will also be reduced. how much. C . A poisonous material emerges quickly to the brain cells and deprives them of oxygen. ensure a stabile lateral position for the patient. With fire injuries. . skin penetration. quick help is double the help. and elevation. compression and bandage. skin absorption (gas and liquid) and swallowing (gas and fluid).24 INFECTIONS Refer to the vessels medical cupboard regarding remedies for infection. If any of this occurs.

There are such sheets for all types of dangerous cargo. There is also information about health hazards. reaction data. explosion. chemical data.we are exposed to localised effects (nasal. With all injuries and illness it is of the utmost importance to administer first aid and contact competent medical help if any doubt of the outcome exists. and lung) or poisonous gas absorption into the blood. It is of utmost importance with a very fast first aid and abundant rinsing with water. the velocity of the penetration and poisonous elements. There is normally irritation. gases and fluids are quickly absorbed into the blood and the effects depend on the characteristic of the material. If material is swallowed. which illustrates the layout and the content of information. fire. the emergency procedure for a cargo fire or cargo spill.26 THE EYES The eyes are very exposed to any spill or contact to cargo. Through skin penetration. 8. physical data and the condition of the material in freight. burns and tears from harmful exposure. throat. . Enclosed is a data sheet for Propane. this is easily absorbed by the mucous membrane in the mouth. which are made readily available and visible onboard. The data sheets tell us about the cargo’s character.6. Information regarding the quality of material is required with the freight of the material.

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The local environment was extremely loaded because of this. the difficulties in getting rid of garbage and so on. . both cause and result of these uncontrolled outlets almost immediately appeared. 8. the reasons for these damaging effects on the environment are questioned. dead animals and so on.8. however. A media focus on oil pollution disasters. They exist. Even today. people really have become aware of the environmental effects this pollution causes. This can be directly connected to large epidemics and disasters. the first attempts were made to make simple constructions of drain arrangements and some kind of garbage removal arrangements. volcano eruptions and the like. In some cases. Around year 1800. in areas where the environment is burdened. and so on. such as radiation due to natural radioactivity in the earth.1 POLLUTION IN GENERAL AND ITS EFFECT ON ECOLOGY Note that pollution is usually related to human activity. During this period of time the rate of illness and disease showed to be higher in the crowded small towns compared to the countryside. as time went by.8 EFFECTS ON ECOLOGY 8. When the Industrial Revolution ended large crowds of people gathered in proportionately small areas. When people settled down in small towns and gathered in communities they experienced. are not usually considered as pollution.and lack of knowledge concerning the effect and damages to the environment due to these new substances and so forth led to free flow of the new substances both into the sea and the air. in open ditches just outside the small towns. industrial leakage. there is still a long way to go. has contributed to the development of very strict regulations and demands to preserve security that protects us from environmental pollution. garbage. The development of new substances and materials increased rapidly . Civilisations dumped all sorts of waist.7 ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION History Pollution is not a problem recently discovered. This is nature’s own way to balance and renew itself. In later years. Phenomena. which have arisen during different époques throughout history.8. However.

Accurate balance and stability is obtained and smoothly functioning. quicksilver. nickel and vanadium. which is the third tropic level. water and carbon into plant tissues. The energy loss caused by transmission from the first level to the second level is calculated to be at approximately 90%. and further on in raw materials used by Industry. Plants turn solar energy.3 HEAVY METALS AND ITS INFLUENCE IN NATURE: Heavy metals are basic elements. The most effective way of spreading pollution is through air. The demolishing link in this process is the carrion eaters and small organisms.8. but faced with artificial factors and synthetic substances spread by human actions. Many factors contribute to pollution. An even greater loss appears at the next level. Some of the most polluting heavy metals are lead. through the atmosphere. This system is an everlasting process and is continuous throughout time and space. The reason is simply that no natural mechanism exists to keep the process active and in balance. which survive by eating animal meat. through human activity. which demolish dead plants and animal materials into simple organic and inorganic compounds. sea. such as the chemical. directly to water and spreading on the ground. Therefore pollution of heavy metals can influence and lead to direct malfunctioning . partly by natural flow. Every part is equally important in obtaining the ability to function as a whole unit. An Ecology System appears as a result of developing and adapting to each other as a species in nature throughout millions of years. these unwanted non-natural substances are spread throughout the nature process creating disharmony and malfunctions both geographically and ecologically. This level includes the humans and the animals. The herbivores (vegetable-only eating animals) cannot exploit solar light directly in their growth or tissue change. Life on earth is dependent on solar energy.2 DEFINITION OF POLLUTION: Substances and materials spread through air . These elements exist in some relation or another in nature. physiological or biological characteristics. This is called the first tropic level.8. Compare the human body with its own immune system to the environmental system (Eco-system). and you will find that all basic “building blocks” are linked together in some way or another with the same influence and with the same purpose. which the plants need to grow. 8.sea . but the problems appear because this pollution almost without restrictions has free flow to pollute sea and waters. But eventually the pollution always falls to the ground and into the sea. 8. In numerous cases. An Ecology System can endure huge changes and variations in nature. important parts (areas) in this process can be demolished.and soil that cause damage and malfunction due to human activity. and soil. cadmium. The earth is most resistant to pollution as a receiver. Heavy metal is supplied to water. This is called the second tropic level.Any pollution has a main source and a receiver. The main receivers are air. These heavy metals affect not only single organisms. but also the Ecology System using their ability to function with the other organisms to obtain and keep harmony and balance. Herbivores use the plants to produce tissue.

Sulphur and nitrogen oxides in outlets (pollution) cause huge destruction of soil and sea.5 Carbon monoxide CO 11.75 Sulphur dioxide SO2 12. the heat radiation from the sun is easily received and is harder to let go. Nitrogen oxides are also formed by combustion of fossil fuel.2 THE FIGURES IN THIS INVESTIGATION REPRESENT ONLY NORWAY AND ITS COASTAL TRADE.35 8. clean and nutrient-rich water demonstrates a well-adjusted and balanced Ecology System.9 POLLUTION OF AIR AND SEA AND THE INFLUENCE OF SHIP TRADE 8. The following shows the consumption of fuel in domestic waters: Marine Fuel 514 000 tons . This is the hothouse effect in a nutshell.57 Hydro carbons HC 7. The consequences of this are recognised in areas where the forest is dead and fishing lakes are empty.and cause changes in the composition of a species.9. Carbon mono oxides formed by uncompleted consumption of organic material can further react to air and transform into carbon dioxide. Below are some figures.1 VIEW OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AIR POLLUTION: Burning sulphurous fossil fuel forms sulphur-dioxides and compounds of this gas. a number of gases are released with the gas freeing of cargo tanks and cooling plant. In accordance to the investigations performed by the Governmental Pollution Inspection and representative figures were presented in 1985: Air pollution Chemical names Amount in 1000 tons Nitrogen oxides NOx 85. This creates disharmony in the Eco-system. Carbon dioxide and CFC .59 Various particles 1. which represents just one of the many members of nature.gases function as a glass roof in a hothouse. The gas responds to air and transforms into sulphur acid. Protect and preserve all parts of our Ecology System. These are CFC – gases (chlorous fluor carbons). well worth fighting for. which again transforms into nitric acid and nitrogen oxides. 8. Further. which show the outlet/pollution from internal combustion engines in the Norwegian coasting trade. Below is a bird. and release nitrogen mono oxides.9. Natural.

Concerning economical views.4 kg/mt 43.9. In order to reduce outlet along the Norwegian coastline. 8. This causes tragic consequences to animals.9.1 % . 4) Other technical methods as better shaped hulls and alternative propulsion systems. 2) Fuel technical methods as a use of alternative fuel and higher graded demands to the compounds of the fuel. The Ocean has.9.0 kg/mt The outlet of NOx from the coastal trade represents 45% of the outlet from the mobile sources and 38% of the total outlets/pollution in Norway. If life at sea comes to an end. fish and all life at sea.4 POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROPULSION In all these fields with intense investigation.9% regarding the cargo trade.3 WHAT CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE THE OUTLET FROM MACHINES? Through International Conventions. the investigation has shown increase in costs calculated to be 0. The world’s great oceans are continuously exposed to pollution. The consequences for mankind will be just as tragic.1 kg/mt 5.Heavy Fuel Total 163 000 tons 677 000 tons The average sulphur content in different bunker types: Gasoline Marine Fuel Heavy Fuel Heavy Fuel in the fishing trade 0. 3) Purifying technical methods as catalyzer and absorbents. Norway made a commitment to reduce the outlets of nitrogen oxides by 30% within the year 1998.7 kg&mt 44. The Norwegian domestic trade represents approximately 40% of our total outlet.0. this will of course lead to the . which concern construction improvements of engines and the engine equipment. efforts in following areas were made: 1) Engine technical methods. 8. unless this development is reversed.5 WATER POLLUTION: The total pollution from the fleet world wide is enormous and represents one of the greatest threats to the environment today. is and will always be an important food supply and reservoir for human life. new solutions in future engines and maximisation of already existing engine types is put in priority. 8. when the actual reducing actions are executed.

These disasters influenced the public opinion and led to new laws and regulations. which influenced public opinion. 3. This presentation made a strong impression.10 MARPOL 73/78 The IMO Convention to prevent pollution from ships of 1973. 5. Demand of double hull. section 21 (page 757 and in 1996 edition). . 8. OPA90 regulations are in force for all kind of ships. Various species are threatened of extension as a result of the pollution.Companies. American lawyers developed the OPA90 and the Congress supported the proposed Act. In USA. with The Amendment Protocol of 1978 . 4. Use of pilot in sensitive waters. 8. Congress realise that the existing International Conventions had to be reviewed and bettered. The most “significant” oil disasters caused by oil tankers that caused damages and destruction of coastlines and the oceans are: “Tory Canyon” (Southern England 1967). Higher graded demands meant for the crew regarding narcotics and alcohol testing. in case of indemnity due to accidents. 8. Direct access to the means in P & I .came in force October 2nd. The media distributed pictures of the rich animal life and the magnificent coastline in Alaska covered with oil and showing the suffering of dying seals and seabirds. This resulted in the OPA90.S. The drill (training) should be logged and reported due to the ship owners/operators policy.9.7 THE MAIN ITEMS IN OPA90: 1. in order to protect and take care of the American interests. “Amoco Cadiz” (Normandy 1978) and the “Exxon Valdez” (Alaska 1989). The Convention is named MARPOL 73/78 and is introduced in the Norwegian Shipping Control Regulations. Entering American waters OPA requires drill (training) according to OPA90 regulations. OPA.6 OPA90 THE AMERICAN “OIL POLLUTION ACT OF 1990”.9. The threat of unlimited responsibility. 2.increase in lack of food and then starvation for millions of people. 1983. which made the U. the accidents involving “The Exxon Valdez” and “Mega Borg” were in focus and were well covered by the media and press. The last mentioned accident was the direct event leading to new strict American regulations.

Ships older than these can pump as much as 1/15 000 of the loading capacity. These areas include among others.12 1979). is set to be 1/30 000 of the loading capacity for all “new ships” (ships contracted later than 31. the Black Sea.8 MARPOL 73/78 CONSISTS OF TWO PARTS -MARPOL-73. The Convention consists of 20 articles. the Mediterranean.if a maximum limit 30 litres pr nautical mile is in compliance. The MARPOL Convention is extremely important to be familiar with.Sewage Enclosure V . which is The International Convention about preventing ship-pollution. there are some areas regarding Prohibition Law for Oil Pollution. which is a 1978 Protocol to MARPOL -73 (Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention 1978). nautical mile during the voyage. 2 Protocols and 5 Enclosures: The 5 Enclosures are as follows: Enclosure I .Damaging elements in wrapped form. The following information referred to is from MARPOL 73/78. tanks. barrels. 8.9. which should be on board all ships. Nevertheless . (Marine Pollution 73).Enclosure I (Oils).9. 8. Several exceptions exist other than the before mentioned dates. As mentioned before a “new” ship of 200 000 dwt could legally discharge a total of (200 000 : 30 000) = 6. containers and so on. the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea and have the definition as follows: .Chemicals Enclosure III .67 tons of oil during a ballast voyage. Enclosure IV . -TSPP-78.Oils Enclosure II .9. you can find a complete definition of what “new” and “old” ships are.Garbage MARPOL 73/78 .12 1975 or delivered later than 31.9 DISCHARGING CRITERIA The amount of oil pumped from an oil tanker on a ballast voyage in open sea. the Eastern Sea. but it is too extensive to view in this text. enclosure I: 8.This is the most important pollution agreement ever adapted and it has been of great significance contributing to pollution prevention regulations from ships. In the MARPOL regulations 73/78.no rule allows discharging more than 30 litres pr.10 SPECIAL AREAS In respect for the maritime environment.

The system is known as LOT. has the attitude that the presented environment regulations allow for too large sulphur outlets. After seven years of negotiations. Load On Top.5`.2%sulphur. The same proposition will be requested concerning the Northern Sea area.“The Baltic Sea” area means the Baltic Sea proper with Gulf of Bothnia. Norwegian dealers believe realistic limits to be around 4%. “The Mediterranean Sea” means the Mediterranean Sea proper including the gulfs and seas therein with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the N41o parallel and bounded to the west by the Straits of Gibraltar at the meridian of W5o 36`.5%. E059o 48`) and Ras al Fasteh (N25o 04`. The ship owners will then have the opportunity to select for themselves what type of oil to use that contains low sulphur values or rinse purifiers for the outlet of sulphur. for instance. E061`). “The Red Sea” area means the Red Sea proper including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba bounded at the south by the rhombi line between Ras si Ane (N12o 08. The term for this to happen is one of the disagreements yet to be resolved. E043o 30. The definition of clean water means a content of maximum 15 ppm (parts pr. This “clean water” can be pumped over board even in the special areas. During the negotiations the Baltic countries suggested that the Baltic should be a special area and should have even stronger demands and regulations to sulphur pollution than these presented by IMO regulations. it will still be an open question when these regulations will be set in force. The dispute will concentrate on how restricted these regulations will be. Here. Keep yourself updated in this field concerning air pollution and the regulations enforce in the nearest future! . Average level is 2. Sulphur contributes to acid rain. “The Gulfs” area means the sea area located north west of the rhombi line between Ras al Hadd (N22o 30`.8`.2`). but not the stringent demands of the rules. IMO probably will adapt regulations concerning pollution from ships in the autumn 1997.7% sulphur. million) of admixture consisting of water/oil. The NO pollution will be evaluated in this conference as well. Oil tankers should be equipped to load a new cargo on top of the saved oil deposits after tank washing and so forth. the Gulf of Finland and the entrance to the Baltic Sea bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at N57o 44. An analysis done by DnV proves that bunkers for sale worldwide contain hardly more than 4. Even if IMO in autumn should vote for enforcing pollution regulations. A limit of5% has been proposed and Norway has proposed a limit of 3.11 AIR POLLUTION IMO agrees tithe commitment of air pollution regulations for ships.9. This will mainly concern the introduction of upper limits in the sulphur content in bunkers. E043o 19. the sulphur limits in air is suggested set to 1. “The Black Sea” area means the Black Sea proper with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the parallel N41o.5%.6`) and Husn Murad (N12o 40. 8.4`. Norway.

Ships without have CBT (clean ballast tanks) where the cargo tanks are used both for departure and arrival ballast. a discharging plan including crude oil washing should be worked out and it should also contain departure condition that shows the loaded departure ballast. classification companies are elected to evaluate the documentation and reports after inspection and testing of the equipment on board. Study this manual for the specific ship and note that the manual must to be available at all times. 1982 with 40 000 dwt or more) have to be supplied with crude oil washing equipment. After departure and in waters allowing water washing of tanks used for arrival ballast. The water . To operate headmen some information has to be manually programmed. When it comes to COW. These demands are noted in the MARPOL protocol of 1978 to MARPOL 73/78 and are useful in reducing oil pollution at sea. The amount. A sampling pipe from the high over board line.9. month.9. This departure ballast is called dirty ballast. This procedure is done at the last discharging port. Arrival ballast tanks must be crude oil washed beforehand according to the regulations in force. A control unit that calculates the received information and records this on a printer. The Norwegian Maritime Directorate will perform inspection on the Norwegian trading fleet to control that these regulations are executed.6. day and time.8. Before arrival at discharging port. year. The National Governments have the obligation to put this in force and check that the regulations presented by IMO are in compliance. A flow meter on the high over board line. flow rate. 8. this washing operation should be executed according to regulations in force. which analyses the content of oil in the ballast water before pumping it over board. Existing ships between20 000 dwt and 40 000 dwt do not need to have this washing equipment. This is the ship’s speed. The equipments simply described: An analysis instrument.9. (COW). described as COW (crude oil washing). 8.12 TANK WASHING WITH CRUDE OIL All new crude oil tankers (20 000 dwt or more) and already existing ships (ships delivered before 1. IMO’s regulations on the tanks used for departure and arrival ballast state that the tanks must be crude oil washed. but should have inert gas equipment for use in cargo tanks during operations. the quantity and where the departure ballast is placed are viewed in part 10 in the compendium.13 ODME On board all ships carrying oil there are demands for the installation of Oil Detection Monitoring Equipment that will survey all pumping of ballast and slop water over board.14 BALLAST HANDLING Ships constructed for SBT (segregated ballast tanks) have the advantage of already minimised oil pollution.

The arrival ballast is the so-called “clean water”. To finish water washing of arrival ballast tanks. the clean water is pumped over board via ODME. Via the balance line. This arrival ballast is pumped over board via ODME.9. line washing and slop handling is completed. bunkers. The dirty ballast is pumped over board via ODME. This way the ship arrives at the loading port with slop in one of the slop tanks. where the clean ballast is pumped over board. the ship contains only the arrival ballast. At last the secondary slop tank is pumped into the primary slop tank. This is available if it is requested from the charter. Here the same washing procedure from primary to secondary slop tank is performed and pumped over board via ODME.15 THE OIL RECORD BOOK This is an extremely important book and must be recorded with accuracy. All ships should have one oil record book or more in order to record operations.washing is performed using the specialised washing system on board meant for crude oil washing . The oil record book must be available at all times to show authorities when arriving at any ports. Now it is time to change ballast. clean ballast should be pumped in arrival ballast tanks. Note: The line system has to be properly cleaned before arriving at the loading port. any kind of cargo handling whatsoever. Remember to keep this book updated and in necessary order at all times. slop handling.the only difference is that the medium now is water. while dirty ballast should be pumped out from departure ballast tanks. This saved slop contains the oil deposits from stripping and water washing and the load on top. Be environmentally conscious in all aspects on board . 8. All items mentioned must be recorded in the oil record book. The last oil deposits are stripped into the primary slop tank and after a settling time (when oil and water separates completely). in order to comply with the regulations in force. arrival ballast tanks are water washed. ballast handling. Set pressure on the line system with water from the sea. Supplied water is stripped from the actual tank and into the primary slop tank. When the ballast changing. which is a mixture of water/oil containing a maximum of 15 ppm. the liquid is transferred over to the secondary slop tank. and via crude oil washing machines. This is specified in the charter party for the present voyage. transferring. lines and pumps have to be thoroughly washed. which involve pumping. and further the separated water is pumped over board via ODME. In other words.

09- Gas Measurement .

it liberates gas into the space above it. RVP is useful for generally comparing the volatility of a wide range of petroleum liquids.8oC and at a fixed gas/liquid ratio. The volatility is characterised by the vapour pressure. mainly because the measurement is made at the standard temperature of 37. The true vapour pressure (TVP) or bubble point vapour pressure is the equilibrium of vapour pressure of a mixture when the gas/liquid ratio is effectively zero. the Norwegian Maritime Directorate in the Regulation of December 3rd1979 uses 61oC as limit value for flash point and 2. As the temperature of a petroleum mixture increases.8oC. The oil referred to in this regulation is: .1.1 PROPERTIES OF PERTOLEUM 9. The pressure exerted by this gas is called the equilibrium pressure of the liquid. which is heated to 37. that is. The boiling points of the compounds range from –162oC (methane) to well in excess of +400oC.8oC (100oF). As mentioned. in some cases. The vapour pressure of a pure compound depends only upon its temperature. usually referred to simply as the vapour pressure. Measurement of the RVP is conducted at 37. 9. With a mixture of compounds. Then the container is sealed and immersed in a water bath.2 The Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP) Testing is a simple and generally used method for measuring the volatility of petroleum liquids. However. The greater the RVP value. If the TVP exceeds atmospheric pressure. A sample of liquid is put into the test container at atmospheric pressure. the more volatile is the oil. Because the liquid’s vapour pressure is at 37. Normally crude oil has a RVP of between 0. For this purpose TVP is much more useful. The container is then shaken in order to mix the liquid properly and the rise in pressure due to vaporisation can be read on the attached pressure gauge.8kg/cm2 for vapour pressure at 37.1. elements and the volume of the gas space in which vaporisation occurs. The TVP of a petroleum mixture gives a good indication of its ability to give rise to gas. For safety measures against fire on ships.9 GAS MEASUREMENTS 9.80C. When transferring a petroleum product to a gas-free tank it begins to vaporise. This gas has also a tendency to re-dissolve in the liquid. The highest vapour pressure is possible at any specified temperature.8oC. and the volatility of any particular mixture of compounds depends primarily on the quantities of the more volatile elements. its TVP also increases. but unfortunately it is a property which still is extremely difficult to measure. it has. small value as a means of estimating the likeliness of gas evolution in specific situations. the liquid begins to boil.1 True vapour pressure (TVP) All petroleum products and crude oil are essentially mixtures of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds. RVP and temperature. The volume of liquid should be one fifth of the container’s total volume.1 and 0. This pressure gauge gives a close approximation in bars.8kg/cm2. the vapour pressure depends on the temperature. correlation exists between TVP.

If the temperature is increased further beyond the flash point. This test is called “Closed cup Flash Point”. open cup test figures.8oC.8oC. In this test the space above the liquid is kept closed except for the brief moments when trying ignite the liquid’s surface. The condensed gases referred to are: · Chemicals with an absolute vapour pressure of 2. which give off flammable gases when heated. For this reason. thereby indicating the presence of a flammable gas. lubricating oil. groundnut oil. When we do the test with the liquid surface permanently open to the atmosphere.. such as marine gas oils. such as whale oil.1. Determination of the flash point is done with a special apparatus and according to specific rules. still may be found in the registration of various national administrations. · Oils and fats of animal or vegetable origins. in classification society rules and other such documents. the result of such a test is called “Open cup Flash Point”. The restricted loss of gas in the closed cup apparatus also leads to a much more consistent result than can be obtained in open cup testing. diesel oil. gasoline and crude oil or other flammable liquids with a flash point below said limit.· Mineral oils with a flash point below 61oC. 9. benzene. The liquid chemicals referred to are: · Chemicals with an absolute vapour pressure lower than 2.3 Flash Point The flash point for an oil product is the temperature at which it is possible to ignite the vapour above the liquid. the flammable gas concentration above the liquid is close to the lower explosive limit. This is called “The Burning Point"“. fuel oil. such as kerosene. · Mineral oils with a flash point of 61oC or higher. . A sample of liquid is gradually heated in a special pot and a small flame is repeatedly and momentarily applied to the surface of the liquid. Because of the greater loss of gas to the atmosphere in the open cup test the open cup flash point is always a little higher (about 6oC) than the closed cup flash point.8kg/cm2 at 37.8kg/cm2 or higher at 37. the closed cup method is generally favoured. In other words. The temperature is recorded when a small flame initiates a flash or flame across the liquid surface. which give off flammable gases when heated. linseed oil etc. However. the liquid will obtain a temperature so high that the evaporation will take place fast enough to support a flame.

1. Crude oil from various sources may have quite different flash points. 9.oil (motor oil) Propylene Ethylene Burning point in degree Celsius +204 -50 -11 -35 -10/+30 +70 -125 +38 +54 +65 -28 -175 +193 +320 -40 -105 -149/+232 -108 -150 Naphtha (mixtures) +38/+60 For refined products. for gasoline it is about –50oC and for kerosene over +60oC. it is the gas that is burning and continuously being replenished by the liquid. The flash point for liquids is used in rules and regulations for transportation and storage.5 Flammability The burning process means that hydrocarbon gases react with the oxygen in the air to produce carbon dioxide and water.6) Hexane Methane (LNG) Mineral oil Paraffin wax Pentane Propane Lub. the heat that is produced is usually enough to evaporate sufficient fresh gas to maintain the flame and the liquid is said to burn.1. usually between –10oC and +30oC.4 Burning Point of some hydrocarbons Product Asphalt Benzene Benzene Butane Crude oil Diesel oil Ethan Fuel oil (no.4&5) Fuel oil (no.6 Flammable Limits A hydrocarbon gas mixture and air cannot be ignited and burned unless its . This reaction gives enough heat to form a flame which goes through the mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air. 1&2) Fuel oil (no.9. When the gas above a liquid hydrocarbon is ignited. 9. the flash point increases from light to the heavy hydrocarbons.1. In fact.

volume % % 5. The upper limit of the range known as the “UEL” (upper explosive limit).5 1.3 3.4 14.5 1.5 7.5 1.8 0. volume UEL. The “LFL” (lower flammable limit) is also used. the mixture is flammable and results in a fire or explosion.9 5.5 9.6 .0 45. The mixture is “too lean”.5 1. it is usually assumed that the upper explosion limit lies at about 10% by volume of hydrocarbon gas-in-air and the lower explosion limit at about 1% by volume of hydrocarbon gas.0 4.5/2. known as the “flammable range”.3 12.0 8.0 0.4 75.0/11.0 74. PRODUKT Methane (LNG) Ethan Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Hepthane Octane Nonthane Dechane Hydrogen Hydrogen sulphide Carbon monoxide Crude oil Benzene LEL. This level means that the hydrocarbon concentration has an insufficient amount of air to support and propagate combustion.composition lies within a range of gas-in-air concentrations.1.2 1.5 9. This level means that hydrocarbon concentration has an insufficient amount of hydrocarbon gas to support and propagate combustion.1 2.7 3.2 2.8 7.0 12. Between these two areas.8 4.5 6.1 1.0 7.2 1.7 Explosion limits in % flammable gas in mixture with air. The mixture is “too rich”. 9. or also known as “UFL” (upper flammable limit). With hydrocarbon gases from crude and sediments. if ignited. The lower limit of this range is known as the “LEL” (lower explosive limit).

A Other gases AIR 78. TEMPERATURE -200C 00C 200C 400C WATER VAPOUR CONTENT 0.1 2 2. the instrument has to be calibrated with clean air from time to time. For example.0/6.8 Air The mixture of gases found in the atmosphere is given the name air.1 volume % 0. To compensate for the changes in atmospheric pressure.03% There may be a significant amount of water vapour in the air.93% 0.09% 20.3 volume % . The air is saturated with water vapour when the air contains a maximum amount of water vapour at a certain temperature. which the air may contain.5 4 6. O2 Argon. N2 Oxygen. the reading will increase as the atmospheric pressure increases. there will be a reduction of oxygen and other gases that is caused by the increased water vapour content. except for the water vapour content. The ratio of mixture between various gases is the same. independent of time and place. will depend very much on the temperature. The amount of water vapour. ELEMENTS in air Nitrogen.02% 100% Carbon dioxide.Naphtha Propylene Ethylene VCM 0.9/1.3 volume % 7. The instruments used for measuring hydrocarbon gases will also be influenced by the atmospheric pressure.7 12 34 31 9. which can have great variations. when using a portable oxygen analyser that is calibrated to read 21% oxygen by volume in clean air at atmospheric pressure. Different results are measured depending on whether water or moisture is removed or not. At high humidity and high temperature. The atmospheric pressure will influence the measurement result when using gas measure instruments. CO2 0.9 volume % 2. depending on the instrument’s measuring principle.93% 0.1. Saturated air being cooled will release the excess water in droplets.

“Spiked crude oil” (also called “enriched” or “tailored” crude) is crude oil. Butane. When reducing the pressure. but even stabilised crude oil will give off hydrocarbons from the surface. Ethane gas has approximately the same density as air.600C 800C 1000C 19.9 Hydrocarbon gases Crude oil is formed from plants and animals residues and contains several thousand different chemical compounds. The spiked crude may contain rather large amounts of added hydrocarbons and therefore emit heavy gasses under certain conditions (during loading.7 volume % 100 volume % The risk of fire or explosion is drastically increased if air is replaced by pure oxygen. The crude oil is called “stabilised crude”. added in gas or liquid form. When the crude oil is taken out of a well. C4H10 means that this gas contains a total of 4 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms.7 volume % 46.8% by volume. propane and ethane are also composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms and they are all called hydrocarbon gases. From 5 to 16 carbon atoms the hydrocarbons are liquids. As known. Hydrocarbons with up to 4 carbon atoms are liquefied gases at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. when reducing the oxygen below 21% by volume. fire and explosion cannot take place even though both hydrocarbon gas and ignition sources are present. Most of these materials consist of only the element hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) called by the common name hydrocarbons.1. Until such gas mixtures have been mixed with air inside inert gas. oxygen leakage during welding has resulted in several fatal accidents. The gas mixtures given off from crude oil. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane. When reducing the oxygen content to below 10. For example butane. the highest hydrocarbon concentration will appear near the bottom. The gases butane and propane from higher hydrocarbons are heavier than air. crude oil washing. gases will bubble out. Methane gas is lighter than air. However. To separate these liquefied gases the crude must pass through one or more processing units (stabilisers). discharging). 9. sludge and sediments are all heavier than air. and above 16 carbon atoms. which is the main element of natural gas. which has had hydrocarbons. the fire and explosion hazard is reduced. hydrocarbon gases and solid materials are dissolved in the oil. the hydrocarbons are solid materials such as wax and asphalt. .

List of TLV (PEL) are adjusted from time to time.9. we find that 1% by volume = 10000 ppm. Compared with a value quoted in percent by volume. The PEL is usually expressed as a Time Weighted Average. normally averaged over an eight hour period. The values are expressed as parts per million (ppm) by volume of gas in air. TLV (Threshold Limit Value) has been in use within the industry for a number of years. The use of the term “PEL” (Permissible Exposure Limit) is becoming more commonplace and refers to the maximum exposure to a toxic substance that is allowed by an appropriate regulatory body. Keep the list up to date at all times.2 TOXICITY HAZARDS The toxic hazards to which personnel are exposed in tanker operations arise almost entirely from exposure to various kinds of gasses. . 1 ppm corresponds to one-millionth part by volume pollution in air. or as a “Short Term Exposure Limit” (STEL). normally expressed as a maximum airborne concentration averaged over a 15 minute period. so take into consideration the experience gained. and is often expressed as a “Time Weighted Average” (TWA).

but must not be used for gas mixtures containing benzene or hydrogen sulphide. Higher concentrations may lead to paralysis.9. Liquid petroleum may be drawn into the lungs during vomiting resulting in serious consequences. (1. A TLV of 300ppm.0% vol. 70% Symptoms as of drunkenness within 15 minutes.1% vol.2. Oil can also cause serious skin disorders from repeated and prolonged contact. Irritation of the eyes.000ppm) 0. Paralysis and death occur very rapidly .000ppm) 1. dizziness and 20% unsteadiness within half an hour. but if swallow it causes acute discomfort. nose and throat. leading to dermatitis. reduced sense of responsibility and dizziness similar to drunkenness. (7.0% vol. (10. For a short period of time the human body can tolerate a somewhat higher concentration than the corresponding TLV.2. The effects of a gas mixture from crude oil include headache. Rapid onset of “drunkenness” which may lead to 100% unconsciousness and death if exposure continues. (20. 9. eye irritation.3 Petroleum gases The toxicity of petroleum gases has a wide variation depending on the major hydrocarbon constituent of the gas. corresponding to about 2% LEL is established for gasoline vapours. Such a figure may be used as a general guide for petroleum gases.7% vol. Toxicity can greatly be influenced by the presence of some minor compounds.2.1 Ingestion There is a very slight risk of swallowing significant quantities of liquids during normal tanker operations. (2. such as benzene and hydrogen sulphide. The following are typical effects found at higher concentrations: Concentration 0.000ppm) % LEL 10% Effects Irritation of the eyes within one hour.2% vol. To avoid direct contact. numbness and death.000ppm) 0.000ppm) 2. always wear appropriate protective clothing and equipment!!!!! 9. The oral toxicity from petroleum is low.2 Skin contact Petroleum products cause skin irritation and remove essential oils from the skin.

death occurs a few minutes later.700 ppm 700 . it is absolutely essential to check the tank(s) atmosphere for hydrogen sulphide before entering. which is like the smell of rotten eggs. special boiling point solvents. use the described operation procedures for this kind of hydrocarbon. 200 . Benzene can be absorbed through the skin and is toxic if ingested.4 Benzene Aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene. The nose has no trouble detecting the smell from hydrogen sulphide at low concentrations. but is usually reduced by a stabilisation process before the crude oil is delivered to the vessel. naphtas. For handling cargo that contains benzene. Within 15 minutes. A lot of crude oil comes out of the well with high levels of hydrogen sulphide. This stabilisation may. however. Dizziness.2.900 ppm 1000 . toluene and xylene. as follows: Concentration Effects Eye and respiratory tract 50 . 9.5 Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) If the vessel is carrying sour crude. These substances can be found in varying amounts. Benzene primarily presents an inhalation hazard. headache.9.2000 ppm .100 ppm irritation after exposure of one hour. The effects of the gas at concentrations in air in excess of the TWA (Time Weighted Average) are. substitutes. Instantaneous collapse and cessation of breathing 500 . but the sensory cell in the nose is immediately put out of function if higher concentrations are inhaled.300 ppm Marked eye and respiratory tract irritation after exposure of one hour. in many typical petroleum cargoes. loss of consciousness and possible death after 30-60 minutes exposure. such as gasoline’s. It has poor warning qualities.2. turpentine. white spirits and crude oil. nausea etc. decrease over time. Rapid unconsciousness.

causing a chemically induced form of asphyxiation. 9. It is insidious in its attack. Symptoms indicating that an atmosphere is oxygen deficient may not give adequate notice of danger. either in a steam boiler or in an inert gas generator. When the available oxygen decreases below 21% by volume. Most persons would fail to . Follow the precautions to protect personnel against toxic hazards. This is because when gas that is freed from a tank.7 Nitrogen Oxides Flue gas contains approximately 200ppm (0. restricting the blood to absorb oxygen.8 Sulphur Dioxide Flue gas produced by the combustion of high sulphur content fuel oils typically contains about 2.2. the hydrocarbon gas concentration is about 2% by volume to 1% LEL. 9. Also it can be due to a lack of oxygen based on chemical reactions. Until there is a steady 21% by volume oxygen reading. Inert gas system water scrubbers remove this gas with an efficiency. contains a various amounts of toxic gases. which may increase hazard to the personnel exposed to it. but at abnormal combustion conditions and slow running it can give rise to levels in excess of 200ppm. 9. For handling cargoes containing hydrogen sulphide follow the operation procedures described for such a cargo. breathing tends to become faster and deeper.6 Toxic Elements in Inert Gas Inert gas’s low oxygen content is the main hazard.9 Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in flue gas at a level of only a few parts per million. The adverse effects of H2S can be reversed and the probability of saving the persons life improved. Nitrogen dioxide is even more toxic with a TLV of 3ppm. it is sufficient to dilute these elements to below their TLV’s.Persons over exposed to H2S vapour should be taken to clean air. nose and throat and may also cause breathing difficulties in sensitive people. 9. Inert gas produced by combustion. These precautions do not include the requirements for direct measurement of the trace flue gas element’s concentration. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is generally removed in the water scrubber in the inert gas plant. which depends upon the design and operation of the scrubber. On oil tankers the most obvious one is that the space is in an inert condition.02%) by volume of mixed nitrogen oxides. It has a distinctive smell at its TLV of 2 ppm. This gas is an odourless gas with a TLV of 50ppm.10 Oxygen Deficiency For several reasons the oxygen content in enclosed spaces may be low.000 ppm of sulphur dioxide (SO2). giving inert gas with sulphur dioxide content usually between 2 and 50 ppm. such as rusting or the hardening of coatings. if prompt action is taken.2.2. 9. Sulphur dioxide produces irritation of eyes.2. as soon as possible.2. The NOx gas is colourless with a weak smell at its TLV of 25ppm.

Entry into spaces with oxygen less than 21% by volume must never be permitted.5% vol. 0. 2 . expressed as a percentage by volume: Inert gas Nitrogen. NOX Sulphur dioxide. H2O vo Carbon monoxide. 40oC: approx.02% vol. 14% Approx. Approx. Inert means inactive and the primary requirement for an inert gas is low oxygen content. 0. SO2 Ash and soot Density CO Approx. the oxygen in the air reacts while the nitrogen gas is inert and does not take part in the reaction. 9. 0. On a crude oil tanker. 300mg/m3 1. 2% vol.3% vol. Approx.044 When hydrocarbon gas burns in air.3 INERT GAS In principle. vol.5% vol. N2 Carbon dioxide. 5% vapour. 80% Approx. This is especially so when escape involves the exertion of climbing. Approx. before being transferred to the cargo tanks. carbon dioxide or combustion gases. Approx. 14% vol vol. Nitrous gases. The flue gas being produced. Oxygen. CO2. The following table provides an indication of typical inert gas components from flue gas. Approx. Examples of inert gases are nitrogen.005% vol. the production of inert gas is done with flue gas from the ship’s boilers or by a separate inert gas generator. 20oC: approx. 0. 30mg/m3 1. inert gas is used to control the tank atmosphere in order to prevent the formation of flammable mixtures.02% vol. Approx.recognise the danger until they were too weak to be able to escape without help. 0. 0.01% vol.01% vol. is first cooled and cleaned of soot and . 7% vol. 80% vol. The composition of inert gas can vary.044 Water Approx. O2 Before scrubber After scrubber Approx. 2 .

but is reduced to below 30mg/m3 after passing the scrubber.corrosive gases. than in the inert gas. The concentration of sulphur dioxide in the inert gas depends on the sulphur content of the oil being burned. The main problems are in the flue gas measuring with greater reading and guarding against instrumentation error. after the scrubber. before passing the scrubber. Some ships use the same fixed instrument for measuring the oxygen content in the flue gas. The concentration of nitrogen in inert gas will more or less be the same as for the concentration in air. Flue gas contains soot as high as 300mg/m3.01% by volume. broadly speaking. . A small amount of Nitrous Gases (NO and NO2) is formed. before the scrubber. the concentration of carbon monoxide could increase significantly. This is done by providing a choice of sampling lines from two different places into the same instrument. After passing the scrubber.02% NOX by volume. The figure to below shows an example of design of a scrubber for cooling and cleaning of the flue/ inert gas. about 80% nitrogen by volume. Approximately the content of carbon dioxide in the inert gas is 14% by volume depending to some extent on quality of the oil being burned and on the air supply. It will be approximately 0. The carbon monoxide contained in the supplied inert gas is approximately 0. It will be approximately 0. The oxygen concentration in flue gas will be different.3% by volume in the flue gas.005% by volume. This prevents fire and explosion. The maximum permissible oxygen content in the inert gas delivered to the cargo tanks is 5% by volume (all kinds of tankers). following the reaction between nitrogen and oxygen in the air at higher temperatures. the content is reduced to approximately 0. after the scrubber. and the inert gas. depending on the efficiency of this. after the scrubber. It is strongly recommended to have a separate oxygen-measuring instrument for inert gas. but if the excess air is reduced too much in hopes of reducing the oxygen content. When recalculating inert gas through the scrubber beware of the oxygen content increase due to the evolution of oxygen from the seawater.

which corresponds to an inner volume of about 7cm3 per meter length. instruments and pumps before use. which belong to another instrument. 2. The number of strokes depends on the hose length. Follow the procedure check for the instrument being used. When ordering a measuring hose make sure you are getting an approved one. See the illustration to your right. If there is a built-in pump. Always ask the deliverer for a certificate. in order to detect any leakage. as well as. the flow indicator gives an alarm.4 Leakage.2 Pumps The hand pumps used are often in a rubber form with a volume of 40cm3 or more. anti-static. plugging or contamination. This hose is marked: “Tanol” . If the hose is not properly chosen. If the hose is dipped by accident in oil and oil is drawn into the hose.4 GAS INDICATORS 9.3 Cleaning of hose If the sampling hose gets dirty with oil on the outside. . 9. Teflon inner hose.9. contamination Always check the hose. It is very important to -m 9. it is likely that a poor quality hose will absorb hydrocarbon gases. discard the hose because it is very hard to clean it. Make sure that the quality of hoses being used on your ship is approved and in good condition. which shows the authorisation. Note: In an enclosed container use adequate electrical bonding. 9. Place a finger on the hose opening and check that the hand pump remains squeezed together for about 1 minute. depending on the inner diameter.4.synthetic rubber sampling line. The inside diameter is 5mm corresponding to an inner volume of about 20cm3 per meter length. immediately clean it with a dry cotton rag. Examples of hoses which have proved acceptable: 1.4. Follow the user instruction for such a pump. and that correct use and maintenance are important. Some types of instruments are fitted with built-in pumps. This hose’s inside diameter is 3mm.4. Do not mix hoses with hoses. “Tanol” (Trade mark of MSA). plugging. low solvent absorption. neoprene outer hose.4. The numbers mentioned are based on a pump volume of 40cm3. it is important to know the number of pump strokes from the sampling point that are necessary for the gas to reach the instrument.10 Sampling lines and pumps It is very important to realise that the quality of the sampling hose has influence on the measuring result. When using long hoses. The number of strokes may vary from 6 to 15 for a hose length of 30 metres. the inside diameter of the hose. Always follow this rule: Each gas measuring instrument has its own hose only for using with the specific instrument.

Carry out measurements with and without the sampling hose to check that the hose does not influence the measurement by absorbing or releasing gases. For this purpose use clean air and a calibration gas, depending on the type of gas measuring instrument being checked. Also carry out a leakage test on the instrument, and if applicable, on a drop catcher or other optional equipment that has been fitted. See the illustration to your right.

9.4.5 Maintenance
Make it a rule to always purge the hose by pumping clean air through it after use. And blow the measuring hoses with compressed air from time to time to remove water droplets and dust. As the analysers are of vital importance, they must be carefully maintained and tested strictly in accordance with the manufacturer instructions.

9.4.6 Filters
Normally used in hydrocarbon gas meters are cotton filament type filters, catalytic or non-catalytic. Additional filters are not normally needed. In extremely moist or wet conditions, for example during tank washing, excessive water can be removed from the gas sample using materials that retain water, but do not affect the hydrocarbons. Materials for this purpose are granular calcium chloride or sulphate. If required, soda asbestos will selectively retain hydrogen sulphide without affecting the hydrocarbons. However, it also retains carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide and must not be used in tanks, which are inerted with scrubbed flue gas. The use of water retaining filters is essential when using an oxygen analyser, especially the analysers based on the paramagnetic principle. This is because the presence of water vapours in the sample can damage the measuring cell. Use only manufacture recommended filters.

9.4.7 Calibration gas
Always have the appropriate calibration gas for the instruments on board. This calibration gas has to be the right type and the availability has to be good. Also, knowledge how to use the different types of calibration gas must be properly understood. Always follow the manufacture's recommendation when ordering calibration gas. Also demand a certificate on the ordered calibration gas to be sure that you are receiving a gas of high quality. Explosimeters use a mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air, approximately 50% LEL or lower, as a calibration gas. (It is important to have a certificate on the specified hydrocarbon gas, showing the exact percent of LEL). Various types of hydrocarbon gas measuring instruments may have different requirements of calibration gas. Make sure you have the right one on your vessel. Oxygen analysers used at low concentrations usually use nitrogen as the calibration gas in order to get a zero adjustment and dry air is used for the 21% O2 by volume adjustment.

Those using the measuring instruments on board must have sufficient knowledge about the instrument, and all such instruments must have the operating instructions attached to the instrument. Also keep a log for each instrument, where records are made of the calibration performed, replacement of parts or other repairs, faults and irregularities. Always have additional spare parts in supply, which may have to be replaced from time to time. If the instrument not is in use for a long period of time, remove the batteries; even the leak proof ones. Warning For the sake of safety, all instruments must be operated and serviced by qualified personnel only. Read and make sure you fully understand the instruction book before using or servicing the instrument.

9.4.8 Attention

9.4.9 Volume % hydrocarbon gas measuring instruments

We are going to discuss various principles for the measurement of hydrocarbon gases given off by crude oil. In order to measure hydrocarbon gases in a mixture with other gases, for example inert gas, an instrument is used, which measures the absorption of infrared light. Such infrared absorption instruments are found both as laboratory instruments and as instruments for fixed installations on board ships. In the early 1970’s, when trying to find portable gas measuring instruments for the determination of % by volume HC in a tank atmosphere, there were few commercial instruments, which appeared suitable. An interferometer was modified and the Riken

Interferometer Type 17HC, with the measuring ranges 0-5% by volume and 0-30% by volume HC, was developed in collaboration with Riken Keiki Fine Instrument Co., Japan. At this time, only a few ships had an inert gas system on board. The instrument was used for measuring hydrocarbon concentrations in air, which were higher than the lower explosive limit, to check for freeing gas with air before tank washing in a “too lean” atmosphere. Later on, the instrument also came to be used for the measurement of hydrocarbon gas concentration in an inerted atmosphere.

9.4.10 Riken portable indicator Model 17HC 9.4.10.1 Operating Principles
This instrument measures volume by percent of hydrocarbon gases above crude oil using an optical registration at the speed of light, which passes through the air and gas/air mixture respectively. The gas in question is sucked into two chambers that are placed in sequence and equipped with glass end walls enabling the light to pass through. The volume percentage is registered on a double scale that is graduated 05 and 0-30 and is read through an adjustable lens. With Riken 17HC one can measure concentrations of hydrocarbon gases by utilising the difference between the speed of light through air and the gas. The difference increases with increasing hydrocarbon gas concentration. The refractive index for a gas is an expression of the ratio between the speed of light in vacuum and in the gas. The speed in the gas will depend on pressure and temperature. The refractive index is normally quoted at a pressure of 1 atmosphere and either 0oC or 20oC. Compared with the refractive index for the various hydrocarbon gases, the hydrocarbon mixture index used by Riken is closest to butane. The instrument is tested for working within a temperature range of +113oF (45oC) to –22oF (-30oC). Hotter gases should be cooled down to come within this range. The interferometer was originally chosen to determine hydrocarbon gases in air. The conditions become more complicated if the interferometer is used for measuring hydrocarbon gases in inert gas. There will be a difference between the zero adjusts for air without hydrocarbon gas and inert gas without hydrocarbon gas. Oxygen and nitrogen have rather similar refractive indexes, but there will be a positive deviation in relation to air when the oxygen content decreases from 21% by volume. If the oxygen content is reduced from 21% by volume to 5% by volume, the reading on the interferometer increases from 0% by volume HC to 0,5% by volume HC. Carbon dioxide has a higher refractive index than air, so the reading on the interferometer for 1% by volume CO2 is approximately 0,15. Inert gas, which contains close to 14% by volume CO2 and approximately 5% by volume O2, will therefore give a reading on the interferometer of 2,5. (Approximately 2,0 is due to carbon dioxide and about 0,5 is due to low oxygen content). When the interferometer is used for measuring hydrocarbon gas in inert gas, a correction is therefore necessary for the difference between zero setting in clean air and zero setting in inert gas.

Previously a method was used whereby carbon dioxide was removed from the gas mixture before the introduction to the interferometer. The gas mixture was passed through a tube filled with soda lime, as an absorption material. Experience has shown that the absorbent often is not very efficient, so that measurements with the interferometer have given too high values. It is therefore recommended to correct for the difference between zero setting in clean air and in inert gas by using a method, which does not include the use of the external filter. Inert gas contains 1214% CO2. To remove such a large concentration by means of the external filter has proved difficult. Instead of using the filter the measurement is read directly and the values read are reduced by 2,5%. If there is a risk of sucking in water vapour/condensate, one can use a moisture collector (which usually accompanies the instrument) and install it between the suction hose and the instrument. When measuring hydrocarbon gases in an inerted tank atmosphere with an interferometer without the soda lime, the reading must be corrected by subtracting 2,5 from the values read. For example, the correct value will be 2,5% by volume HC for a reading of 5,0. Optical diagram

9.4.10.2 How to use the instrument
Function of parts: 1. Inlet port to which the sampling tube is connected. 2. Outlet port to which the aspirator tube is connected. 3. Push button switch to illuminate the scale. 4. Screw off cover to protect zero setting from any disturbance in handling the instrument during tests. 5. Zero adjusting knob for setting interference fringe to zero position in fresh air. 6. Cock to change the sampling route either HIGH RANGE or LOW RANGE. 7. Eyepiece lens and protecting push on cover (on chain) to the right. The lens can be focused for personal vision by turning in either direction.

8. Aspirator bulb. 9. Screw on covers, replaceable moisture absorbent cartridge and single cell flashlight battery. 10. Cover for electric bulb for the light source.

9.4.10.3 Preparation:
1. a) Secure auxiliary filter in leather strap. Connect rubber tube to gas inlet port (1) through auxiliary filter. 2. b) Connect rubber aspirator to gas outlet port (2). 3. c) Place cock (6) in position 5 and squeeze aspirator (8) at least five times in fresh air to clean gas chamber. 4. d) Press the switch (3) and observe interference fringe through eyepiece. 5. e) Remove protective cover (4) of zero setting knob (5). Adjust the right one of two black lines, just on the zero position of scale, by rotating the zero setting knob. 6. f) Put the cover back on, in order to protect the knob from any accidental movement. Reading: 1. Suck the gas to be examined into instrument by squeezing aspirator about 5 times or more if extension tube is used. 2. Press the switch and examine amount of shift of marked black line through eyepiece, which gives percentage of gas on 0 - 5% scale. 3. If the marked black line or fringe is beyond scale, gas concentration is higher than 5%. In such case, change cock position to 0 - 30% scale. 4. Suck clean air into instrument by squeezing aspirator 3 to 5 times. 5. Press the switch and examine amount of shift of marked black line through eyepiece, which gives percentage of gas on scale 0 - 30%. After reading: Place cock position to 5 and clean gas chamber with fresh air.

9.4.10.4 Taking readings:
In gaseous atmosphere draw in test sample by squeezing bulb at least 4 times for each meter of sampling hose in use. Press the switch (3) and observe new position on scale of RIGHT HAND EDGE of INDEX STRIPE. The reading indicates the percentages of hydrocarbon gas. Repeat for further gas tests.

9.4.11 Percent LEL measuring instruments & Explosimeters
Most types of instruments giving concentration of flammable gas in air in %LEL use catalytic combustion as the measuring principle. Such instruments are usually called exsplosimeter. A catalyst is a substance, which helps a chemical reaction to take place. Exsplosimeter normally use platinum metal or platinum alloyed with other metals as a catalyst. To make the reaction take place, the catalyst has to be heated to a high temperature. Certain types of Explosimeters use a platinum wire as a catalyst and the reaction between flammable gas and the oxygen in the air takes place on the surface of the metallic wire. The temperature of the wire may then be 1000oC. Other types of Explosimeters have a coating on the outside of a heated metal wire, and it is the coating which catalyses the reaction. The reaction takes place somewhat easier on this coating, and a temperature of 500oC may be sufficient. The part of the instrument where the reaction takes place is normally called a sensor or detector.

pentane. it is recommended to use butane in air or alternatively propane in air. The most frequently used calibration gases for commercial explosimeters are methane. and the lighter molecules move faster than the heavy ones. For example. This applies only to a lean mixture below the lower explosive limit. It should be marked on the instrument. the methane molecules move faster than the propane molecules. Finally. Then the atmosphere that should be measured is sucked into the instrument where the sensor is located and a reading is made. Theoretical calculations of the sensitivity of an explosimeter for various flammable gases show that the reading for 100% LEL of the gas mixture is proportional to the heat of combustion. and the value for hydrocarbon gases are given in the table below: .The flammable gas to be measured is burned on the surface and the heat generated results in a temperature increase. hexane or nonane. The diffusion coefficient is an expression for the speed at which the molecules can move to the catalyst surface where the reaction takes place. The electrical resistance of the metallic wire increases with the temperature. and many manufactures of instruments quote the correction factors for various gases other than the calibration gas. To some extent the explosimeter will also be suitable for measurement of other flammable gases. for example butane. The instruments are usually designed in such away that they first have to be adjusted to zero with clean air. Theoretical calculations of sensitivity have been performed for nearly 100 different flammable gases. For ships carrying crude oils. butane. to the diffusion coefficient of the flammable gas and to the gas concentration at the lower explosive limit. clean air is sucked in again and the zero setting checked. which gas is used for calibration gas. The change in resistance is proportional to the increasing temperature and to the concentration of flammable gas in the air. Explosimeters are calibrated with a certain gas. propane. Some types of instruments are intended for monitoring and are designed so that the sensor is located at the spot where the measurement is to be performed.

This is because the gas mixture given off by crude oil contains relatively small amounts of methane gas and the gas given off from sediments and oil residues contain quite negligible concentrations of methane. hexane and the other heavier hydrocarbon gases. Be aware that the exsplosimeter will give somewhat misleading low values for the hydrocarbon gases that are heavier than the calibration gas. From what we have seen so far. alternatively propane. an exsplosimeter calibrated with propane will theoretically give a deflection for 100% LEL of hexane which is (37:55) x 100 = 67% LEL. however. On the market there are some types of explosimeters with low sensitivity for methane and several types of explosimeters which have been investigated showing that the sensitivity to methane may drop after a short period of time of using the instrument. which is greatly dependent on how good of a control the manufacturer has over own production. some difference between theory and practice. explosimeters calibrated with butane should show higher values for methane. There is a complicating factor. butane is recommended to be used as calibration gas. As an example. 59 n Butane. since the details of how the instruments are designed are of great importance. lower values for pentane. 46 n Hexane 37 Heptane 38 Octane 38 Nonane 31 The above figures are given in arbitrary units. In practice there will not be the same conversion factors for different types of Explosimeters. There is however. 52 i Pentane. which requires a more efficient catalyst and/or a higher catalyst temperature. it still gives a correct reading for the heavier hydrocarbon gases. However. . Explosimeters to be used on ships carrying crude oil. There may also be a large difference from one instrument to another instrument of the same type.Type of Sensitivity HC gas Methane 100 Ethane 68 Propane 55 Butane. methane must be used as the calibration gas. in that methane is a gas. For explosimeters being used on board LNG-carriers.

Certain gases may poison the catalyst. never use the explosimeter at concentrations of flammable gas higher than 100% LEL. and never at lower oxygen concentrations than approximately 10% O2 by volume 9. . A built-in meter indicates combustible gas content in units of explosibility. portable combustible detector. and it is known that hydrogen sulphide from sour crude may act in this manner.12. High concentrations of flammable gas and/or low concentrations of oxygen give misleading. pipe lines and other closed systems. manholes.4. A probe and extension hose permit sampling from remote locations and the instrument fits in a compact leather case with an over the shoulder-carrying strap. It is a valuable aid to safety of operations whenever combustible gases or vapours are handled. the reading will instead depend on the concentration and diffusion coefficient of oxygen. Power for operation of the instrument is provided by built-in dry cells. A poisoning will lead to the properties of the catalyst being temporarily or permanently damaged so that the sensitivity of the instrument to flammable gases is greatly reduced or vanishes altogether. in relation to oxygen.1 General description The model GP-204 hand held portable gas detector is a compact battery operated portable instrument used for taking an air sample and indicating the presence and concentration of combustible gas. the regrettable characteristic that the sensitivity is reduced. at the catalyst surface may result in the combustion reaction being completely prevented. lose its ability to bring about combustion. and all types of explosimeters have. Very high concentrations of flammable gas. which give a solid deposit on the outer surface of the catalyst. We have mentioned that the reading of the explosimeter depends on the concentration and diffusion coefficient of the flammable gas.12 Riken. All explosimeters must therefore from time to time be checked with its calibration gas. vessels other spaces to determine presence or absence of combustible gas in pressure cylinders. Samples of the air under test are drawn by means of a rubber aspirator bulb and analysed for combustible gas content on a heated platinum filament in a Wheatstone bridge measuring circuit. to a greater or lesser extent. For high concentration of flammable gas. when used gradually. This only applies when we have a lean mixture of flammable gas in air. The bestknown catalyst poisons are silicones and vapours from leaded gasoline. so that the explosimeter gives reading of close to zero for such a high concentration. Therefore. ambiguous readings and may also damage the catalyst in that a sooty layer is formed.4.The catalyst will. The model GP-204 is suitable and recommended for testing tanks. model GP-204 9.

The content of flammable Gases effects a heated platinum filament (D = detecting element) which forms part of a Wheatstone bridge measuring circuit as shown in the circuit diagram on the right hand side. are sucked through the instrument by means of a suction bellow.”D” is exposed to the gas. The resistance ”D” increases during catalytic combustion. . Samples of air . this circuit includes a compensating filament “C” and two fixed resistance’s “R1 & R2”. ”C” is isolated from the gas. Besides the measuring filament “D”. which may contain flammable gases or vapours.

squeeze bulb several times to flush out any remaining gas from the instrument. Make it a rule that a specific measuring instrument has its own sampling hose. Couple the sampling hose to the instrument’s inlet pipe. hence the lowest concentration which can produce an explosion. bring the instrument to a safe area before changing taking place. 9. and the evolution of heat causes a change in the resistance of the platinum wire which gives rise to an imbalance in the Wheatstone bridge. Do not attempt to use instrument at all if reading cannot be set up to the mark or beyond the mark. continue with the next steps of preliminary adjustment. Meter should read close to zero. 9. zero adjust if necessary. Hold probe within space to be tested. Turn the instrument to ON position. If the voltage is satisfactory. Turn the instrument to VOLT ADJ. and also connect the probe to the end of the hose. If not.4. This quantity is also spoken as the LFL – Lower Flammable Limit. lift and turn the “ZERO” knob to bring the reading exactly to “0”. Flush the instrument with fresh air and turn it off. 4. put the switch in “VOLT ADJ:” position. Squeeze bulb several times (4 times for each metre of sampling hose being used) while watching the meter and observe maximum reading.3 Interpretation Meter readings are taken on a scale graduated 0 – 100% LEL. The abbreviation LEL stands for Lower Explosive Limit and represents the lowest concentration which can be ignited by a source of ignition. position. Meter should rise to the “check” position near top of the scale. adjust voltage if necessary 2. To run a gas test. remove probe from test space. If the needle cannot be set beyond the VOLT ADJ mark. This corresponds to the content of flammable gases in the sample. To check the voltages. 2. Check zero setting by turning the switch in “ON” position. Confirm operating of pilot light/meter illuminating lamp. The sampling hose being used for this instrument should not be used for sampling with other instruments.The flammable gases or vapours in the air are oxidised and burn at the surface of the measuring filament “D”.4. Do not replace batteries in a hazardous area.12. which is located on the left-hand end. 3. Control clockwise to determine maximum voltage setting. Admit a sample of some combustible gas to the end of probe and confirm that the meter rises upscale. After completion of test. Now it may be turned off and carried to the job area. 4. .2 Operation In a gas hazardous area the instrument should always be in the carrying case and strapped to this. as follows: 1. Instrument is adjusted and ready to use. With sample inlet in fresh air. proceed as follow: 1.12. Lift and turn VOLT ADJ. 3. batteries need recharging or replacing for full capacity. check the battery voltage. 5. Before taking the instrument to the hazardous area.

9. while sampling a known concentration of combustible gas.4 Maintenance Calibration and adjustment .8% by volume will produce a reading of 100% LEL and lower concentrations will be read in proportion. This curve is delivered together with the instrument. This curve is drawn in terms of percent LEL for both co-ordinates. Element replacement . Turn clockwise to increase meter reading. The calibration potentiometer is a slotted-shaft control located above right upper corner of meter. Calibration potentiometer . This 1. See the table below. the following auxiliary controls are available.4. Other combustible gases will read approximately correctly in terms of explosibility. but for the maximum accuracy a calibration curve for various gases has to be used.The element assembly. In the GP204 the top plate must be removed by taking out the screws in each corner.In addition to the normal operating controls found on the top of the panel. consisting of an active filament and a .This adjustment is used to set meter reading to the desired level.The mode GP – 204 is calibrated before shipment to read directly in percent of LEL of iso-butane in air. based on the known LEL for iso-butane of 1.12.8% by volume.

Take the instrument out of the leather case. using calibration potentiometer. Check occasionally by holding finger over hose inlet. black and white wires.12.”. With switch off.similar but enclosed reference filament. Be sure that the active (black wire) filament is in the cavity with the flame arrestor. Flame arrestor The active filament is installed within a sintered bronze porous metal cup. should be replaced if zero cannot be set within range of “ZERO ADJ. 1. Meter Lamp The meter lamp is on whenever the instrument is on. be sure that the reaction chamber cavity and incoming lines are clean and dry. These dry cells (UM-1/1.4.5 size D/R 20 Maxell 100) will give 3 hours (maximum) of operating time. Before re-installing flame arrestor in instrument. oily or corroded. When meter cannot be set as high as the “Check” line with switch in “VOLT ADJ:” position and “VOLT ADJ. The flame arrestor may be removed by taking out the four screws that hold the plate in which the elements are installed. and provides illumination to permit reading meter in dark places. 2. 5. 6. 9. Remove bottom plate. Extension hoses in various lengths are available. Observing polarity as marked on holder. If lamp fails. Check that gaskets are in place on element before installation. remove and invert top panel. or if reading cannot be set high enough on a calibration gas. Turn instrument on and adjust zero. Bulb should remain flattened after squeezing if there is no leak.” knob all the way clockwise. and loosen the coin slotted captive screw found in centre of bottom plate. replace it as follows: . Remove the two Phillips head screws holding cross-shaped element retainer in place. Pull old batteries out and install new ones in the same position. To replace batteries.12. Loosen the two panel hold-down screws. which acts as a flame arrestor to retain explosions that may occur when sampling explosive gas/air mixtures. 4.6 Sample system Hose The hose used is Teflon lined synthetic rubber jacketed and immune to absorption or attack by any combustible vapours or solvents. If flame arrestor is dusty. remove instrument from hazardous area.5 Batteries The model GP-204 is furnished with two standard size “D” dry cells. it must be cleaned or replaced. Keep hose clean and are sure that couplings make airtight contact. Preferred cleaning method is by washing in detergent solution. 9.4. and drying thoroughly in air. wet. loosen (do not remove) the three screws holding the terminals for red. exposing batteries in their spring contact holders. If a calibration gas is available reset span. rinsing from the inside out. 3. Pull out both filaments and replace with new ones in same position. Install wires on terminals as before. Pull wires from terminal. batteries require replacement or recharging.

Do not attempt to .1. A convenient calibration accessory is available and described under “Accessories”. which lock lamp wires to terminal and pull the lamp out.When sampling spaces such as hot tanks that are warmer than the instrument remember that condensation can occur as the sample passes through the cool sample line. 4. The most commonly encountered catalyst poisons are the silicone vapours.Samples. samples containing 10% oxygen or more have enough oxygen to give a full reading on any combustible gas sample up to the LEL. This heat may cause damage to the filament or tend to shorten its life. These substances are termed “Catalyst Poison” and can result in reduced sensitivity or in failure to give a reading on samples containing combustible gas. especially if the possibility exists of exposure to silicones. they should be avoided because the flame arrestor used is not dense enough to arrest flames from combustible gas in oxygen. especially those above the LEL. As a general rule. When sampling rich mixtures. Heated samples .7 Precautions and notes on operation 1. and samples containing such vapours even in small proportions should be avoided. 9. 3. which do not have the normal proportion of oxygen. Oxygen deficient mixtures . they may also condense in the sample line and fail to reach the filament. Occasional calibration checks on known gas samples are necessary. the meter is sent to the top of scale. A calibration check on a known iso-butane gas is the most dependable as an indication of normal sensitivity. Install new lamp in the same position. which can be much more intense than those in air can. · Mixtures above UEL – When a sample is introduced. so sustained testing of samples beyond the meter range should be avoided. considerable heat is liberated at the filament. depending upon concentration. · Mixtures between LEL and Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) readings at top of meter. A water trap can be used to control this.When high concentrations of gas are sampled.Certain substances have the property of desensitising the catalytic surface of the platinum filament. If heated hydrocarbon vapours of the heavier hydrocarbons (flash point 90oF or above) are present. Water vapour condensed in this way can block the flow system and corrode the flame arrestor. and is available as an accessory.Samples having more than the normal proportion of oxygen will give a normal reading. 5. Oxygen enriched mixtures . Rich mixture . · Mixture up to 100% LEL reading on scale. then comes back down on scale or below. However.4. the following instrument action may be expected. Remove four screws holding top plate to the top panel. as it could otherwise be with a simple indicating instrument. Take off top plate exposing lamp. Element poisoning . The alarm circuit thus insures that a very rich sample will not be overlooked. may tend to read low if there is not enough oxygen to react with all combustible gas present in the sample. Loosen set of screws. Thus an erroneous low reading may be obtained. Very rich mixtures will give a zero or negative reading. 2.12.

relevant standards and codes of practice. hydrogen. Seaworthiness . Instruments up to serial no. In case of doubt contact Servomex or their agents. 9. Certificate BAS No. 6. Report 25243 dated August 30th. This glassbodied trap. Inspect trap periodically while in use.Additional lengths of extension hoses may be used for sampling from deep tanks and spaces. and gasoline vapours.13. Regular sample hoses connect to inlet of trap when it is installed on the instrument. 1975 applies. 9. Accessories . Batteries are not supplied with the analyser.Lloyds has approved the analyser as suitable for shipboard use. The oxygen content of the gas is indicated directly on a 70mm scale taut band meter after suitable zero and span adjustments. and 0-10% are selected by a rotary switch on the front panel. marine and laboratory applications. The polyurethane hoses are satisfactory for most samples including natural gas. Failure to do so may invalidate the certification. a water trap should be used. Any modification to the standard analyser. 2983 are approved by “Factory Mutual” for use in class 1. couples to the indicator inlet and will collect water that is drawn into or condensed in sample hose. SFA 3009. or repairs or servicing using parts that are not specified or approved by Servomex.13. groups B.For hazardous areas the 262A is certified by BASEEFA as intrinsically safe code Ex ia s IIC T4 to SFA 3012. The front panel controls are symbolic. All analysers are supplied with a hand aspirator and silica gel dryer.4. .1 General description The Servomex portable oxygen analyser type 262A is a robust lightweight instrument built for industrial. 74149.13 Servomex. 0-100. and empty or clean bowl and filter whenever visible water or dust accumulate. with sintered metal filter.4. 0-25. C and D hazardous locations. will invalidate certification. The analyser is supplied with a filter. The ranges.4. oxygen analyser.use the model GP-204 on samples of combustible gas in oxygen. Where there is danger of water being drawn into the instrument. elements of which are and simply replaced from the front of the instrument.2 Hazardous area and shipboard use Hazardous area . division 1. the analyser must be used to comply with the conditions of certification. 9. type OA 262 WARNING! To ensure safe operation in hazardous applications. The 262A is powered by dry cells batteries which are housed in a waterproof compartment at the rear of the analyser. such that engineers from many different nations can understand them. Battery checks are also selected with this switch. This analyser is used on marine applications throughout the world.

409515.010% O2. (Reference letter A-44140/75. +/. +/.3% F. The analyser will operate between the temperature of –10oC to 50oC (14 to 122oF). 3kg. 0-25%. Polypropylene. The accuracy will be maintained for a temperature change of +/.574 applies.S. Selected by front panel switch. (6. Specification Specification 0-10%.D. Glass micro fibre.10. Nickel.0-25% O2.Certificate Lon. Maximum inlet pressure.AGR/MI dated 24. depending on sample. Quartz Oxygen ranges Effect of ambient temperature .3% F.3% F.5Ib). 0 to 3 I/min. Acetal copolymer. Range: Accuracy 0-100% O2. Pyrex glass. 2 psi.01% oxygen per degree. Platinum. 0100% O2. Indication on front panel meter. (14kPa).S.D.75 applies).S. +/. The Norwegian Maritime Directorate (Sjøfartsdirektoratet) has also approved the analyser for use on board ship.10oC (18oF) of the calibration temperature 0. Effect of tilt Weight (net) Sample pressure Flow rate pressure Materials contact with sample gas .D.

3 How the Servomex oxygen analyser works The physical property. Stainless steel 316. Drying tube.13. Polypropylene. Synthetic rubber.glass. forming a . Faraday discovered this in 1851. In portable oxygen analysers. provided the sealing gaskets around the front panel and battery compartment are in good condition. Viton. The case is splash proof and sealed against ingress of water.4. who demonstrated that a magnet attracted a hollow glass sphere at the end of a horizontal rod supported by silk fibres when filled with oxygen. Waterproof case with shoulder strap. Span on clean dry air or high purity O2 if desired.5 and 3mm). which distinguishes oxygen from most other gases. Calibration gases Accessories Case material 9. is its paramagnetism. Zero on O2 free nitrogen (N2). the convenience and sensitivity of Faraday’s arrangement are increased by having a sphere at both ends of the bar. Two hexagon wrenches (2.

The heart of the Servomex analyser is a measuring cell using these principles. the dumb-bell spheres are pushed further out of the field by the relatively strongly paramagnetic oxygen. The only common gases having comparable paramagnetic susceptibility are NO. is balanced by a restoring torque.“dumb-bell”. . The strength of the torque acting on the dumb-bell will be proportional to the paramagnetism of the surrounding gas: it can therefore be used as a measure of the oxygen concentration. NO2 and CO2. and has all the inherent advantages of this type of system. It is important to note. due to the feedback current. The output from the photocell is amplified and fed back to a coil wound on the dumb-bell. but having a rare metal suspension in place of the delicate materials used in earlier designs. so that the torque. due to the oxygen in the sample. it takes up a position away from the most intense part of the field. When the surrounding gas contains oxygen. and being slightly diamagnetic. A magnetic oxygen analyser cannot therefore be used where these gases occur in the mixture other than in trace amounts. The measuring system is thus “null-balanced”. The dumb-bell is suspended in a symmetrical non-uniform magnetic field. however. that in the direct method of measuring susceptibility no other physical property of the gases has any significant effect. The “zero” position of the dumb-bell is sensed by a split photocell receiving light reflected from a mirror on the suspension. which seals the gas surrounding it.

accurate calibration is obtained by using nitrogen for zero and air for setting the span at 21% 9.4 Operating procedures Installation and changing of the batteries.5V Type IEC LR6 (HP7) 1 of 9V Type IEC 6F22 (PP3).13. and various ranges can be obtained by means of a switched attenuator. a proportional output voltage can be developed.4. It is recommended that alkaline batteries be used.Because of the extremely linear relationship between the feedback current and the susceptibility of the sample. For example. The following batteries are required: 3 of 1. Linearity of scale also makes it possible to calibrate the instrument for all ranges by checking at two points only. .

Change the 9V battery if the reading is low. Set Zero . Stop the gas flow. due to variance in atmospheric pressure. If there is a large difference in ambient temperature between the point of measurement and the last calibration. The reading should be greater than 60 on the 0-100 scale.13. One minute with the standard hand aspirator should be enough. (7 to 14 kPa). Introduce dry air into the instrument at a pressure between 1 and 2 psig (7 to 14 kPa). Introduce oxygen free nitrogen into the instrument at a pressure between 1 to 2 psig. Various resistors are potted into a recess in the battery compartment.5V batteries if the reading is low. . ensure that the filter. Select switch position “B2”. Adjust the screw for zero adjustment so that the meter reads 0% oxygen.5 Battery checks Check that the batteries are fully operational: Select switch position “B1”.7 Span Switch the control to the 25% range. These batteries will not make contact if fitted the wrong way round. A battery strap is provided for easy removal of old batteries.The batteries are housed in a waterproof compartment at the bottom of the analyser.4. With long sample lines a pump is recommended. Do not replace batteries in a hazardous area 9. The batteries must be installed with the correct polarity. remove the batteries. Change the 1. The reading should be greater than 60 on the 0-100 scale. Adjust the screw for the span adjustment so that the meter reads 21% oxygen on the 0-25% scale. Care must be taken. The stud of a 1.13. When using the instrument for higher concentrations of oxygen it is recommended that pure oxygen is used on the 0-100% range for optimum accuracy. it is advised that calibration should be rechecked. not to damage the gasket sealing the edge of the battery compartment. The hand aspirator and a drying tube are convenient for this. cell and sample lines have been purged thoroughly.4. 9. When changing from air or oxygen to nitrogen or vice versa.signs moulded into the plastic holder.Check the zero adjustment weekly. The span adjustment should be checked daily when in use. Under no circumstances should these components be removed or tampered with.5V battery is “+” and the base “-”. This compartment is opened using the 3mm-hexagon wrench supplied with the analyser.6 Calibration Frequency of calibration . Stop the gas flow. as indicated by + and .Switch the control to 10% range.13.4. 9. If the analyser is to be stored for a longer period of time. when fitting new batteries. The 9V battery has a terminal clip that can only mate when the battery is correctly positioned.

CAUTION. Never substitute a hard surface for a hand. 9. the crystals can be regenerated by removing from the drying tube and drying in an oven at about 110-1200C. Ensure that sufficient sample gas has been taken to flush out the sample lines. 9.4. Unscrew the nuts on the cell supporting the gas connections (use non-magnetic spanners). .4. This will prevent the chassis falling out accidentally. 4. bring the analyser sharply down on the flat of the hand. However. Check the battery voltage. 9. Set switch to range required. The drying tube must always be used.To prevent possible damage. Remove the two hexagon socket screws. Remove the six hexagon socket stainless steel screws holding the front panel into the case and keep them in a secure place.4. Replacement parts should be to the quality specified by Servomex in the part lists. Should the chassis not come out very readily. The analyser will be damaged if water or liquids are allowed to get into the instrument. which is situated between the inside of the lower magnet space and the chassis wall.8 Measuring sample gas Connect the hand aspirator to the sample inlet by means of the drying tube. and turn the analyser upside down. 5. The use of inferior replacement components may degrade the performance of the analyser and invalidate any certificates. which may apply. 2. Apply minimal heat to the pins on the cell. Remove the chassis by placing one hand over the front.9 Maintenance WARNINGS Only qualified personnel who are familiar with good workshop practice should do maintenance of the analyser. Connect sample tube to the aspirator and place in space to be checked.13. it is not recommended that air or pure oxygen be put into the analyser when it is switched to the 0-10% range. which retain the cell and slacken the third retaining screw. Pump the hand aspirator until the reading is steady. which is guarding the front. 3. unless the sample is known to be dry.13.13. Unsolder the electrical leads.10 Replacement of measuring cell 1.

3. 4. 7. which fix the retaining plate to the photocell mount. When fitting a new cell. Tighten the remaining screws in the reverse order described for the removal of the cell.6.11 Replacement of photocells 1. 10. . For circuit diagram. 7. 8. which gives a reading with air between 20 and 22 % oxygen. 8. 8. 2. 3. Release the two screws. in this case change R23 on the printed circuit board 00262905. The photocells are located to the side of the magnet assembly. 7. Replace the cell. Allow the photocell assembly and mount to lay away from the magnet. Should the analyser not zero or the adjustment is at one end of its travel.13. Remove the screws and plate and manoeuvre the photocell mount through the springs of the support. Tighten the screws and make a final zero adjustment. It may not be possible to span the analyser. which is nearest to the cell window. readjust the photocells. Unsolder the leads. which hold the photocell mount to the control magnet assembly. is nearest the front panel. just in front of and above the measuring cell. Remove the two screws holding the LED mount. Withdraw the LED and mount and unsolder the leads to the LED. filter block and circuit description do confirm with the instruction manual. Replace the new photocells on their mount in reverse order. 9. Remove the two screws.13. Replace the LED and secure the retaining strip. Adjust the zero and span. Ensure the zero adjustment is at the centre of its travel and move the photocells until the analyser reads as near to zero as possible. For replacing the amplifier board. Replace the photocell assembly and mount. 6. Reconnect the cell gas connections. 5.4. 9.4. contact the manufacturer or any of the manufacturer's agents. Leave the two retaining screws slack and pass nitrogen into the analyser. Replace with new LED and sleeve and solder the leads. Adjust the zero and span of the analyser. 10.12 Replacement of LED 1. 2. see the instruction manual. Any doubts about the analyser or its equipment. 6. 5. 9. to a value. Adjust the span. Remove sleeving from old LED and discard lamp. Black to the pin with a black spot near it and yellow to the pin with a yellow spot. Solder the electrical connections to the solder pins on the cell. 9. 4. Withdraw the measuring cell and replace it with a new cell type 286. Confirm with the analyser’s instruction book. meter. ensure that the ball of the dumbbell. Confirm with the analyser’s instruction manual. 9.

4. vessels and other spaces to determine safety from the standpoints of oxygen deficiency before entering and while work is in progress. a change in oxygen concentration on this electrode produces a proportional change in the cell’s output voltage. This Teflon membrane serves two functions simultaneously.Turn the control switch (1) to “Batt” zone and check the meter needle marks inside of “Batt” zone. These models are most suitable and recommended for testing tanks.9. Model OX-226 and OX-227 provide a quick. Therefore. lowering the output voltage. with good readability from 0 – 25%. b). manholes.14 Riken portable oxygen indicator.Connect the sampling hose (6) to the gas sampling probe (7) and then connect it to the gas inlet of the instrument. Preparation . and a decrease in oxygen concentration will “slow down” the process. 3. The instrument is routinely calibrated on normal atmospheric oxygen concentration (21%). Under a test where one electrode is exposed to the atmosphere. the . The centre electrode is exposed to the atmosphere by means of a Teflon membrane placed directly in contact with the polished top surface. it keeps the electrolyte contained in the cavity between the two electrodes. If the case of model OX-226. thus placing the electrode in direct contact with the atmosphere and secondly.226 1. an increase in oxygen concentration will “speed up” the electro-chemical process. Voltage checks of battery . Model Ox . Summary Riken portable oxygen indicator. Measurement procedure a). producing a higher output voltage. It is intended primarily as an indicator of oxygen deficiency. convenient method for determination of oxygen content of any atmosphere. Principle The oxygen cell operates by an electro-chemical process in which a voltage is set up between two electrodes. it has the ability to pass oxygen molecules freely. 2. First.

When making span adjustment of Model OX-227. Span adjustment . Introduce the sampling probe to the source and start measurement. c). this is the sign to replace the sensor. Turn the sensor to left and adjust . Replacement of sensor. 5. and plug the charger into AC 100V. c). Measurement After finishing the above procedure items 1. In the case of Model OX-226. 2 and 3. When the replacement of batteries is finished. Pull out the whole battery box and replace the batteries with new ones. take off the bottom screws of the instrument and remove the cover. The cover comes off by sliding it sidewise. When the meter needle can not be adjusted to 21% by turning the span adjusting knob and the indication of meter needle gets unstable. the instrument is ready to run. a).battery drop can be heard as a buzzer sound. 3.Turn the control switch (1) to “25” and make span adjustment by spanning adjusting knob so as to bring the meter needle to 21%. Take off the leather case from the instrument and turn the battery box knob (11) to “open” position. detach the label (12) of charging inlet and insert the exclusive charger to the charging jack. In this case. when the oxygen concentration is less than 18% by volume. Replacement procedure (Ni-Cd battery). 2. alarm light (4) illuminates and it gives us the warning of oxygen deficiency by buzzer sound. Check the flow pump by the flow monitor during operation. 4. b). The replacement of batteries and recharging procedure must be done in nonhazardous areas. When Ni-Cd batteries are used for the instrument. Caution 1. Operate the instrument in leather case when in use. The recharging takes 15 hours. put back the battery box in correct position and turn the battery box knobs (11) to “Lock” position with finger press. try it with 0-25% range.Maintenance procedure The replacement of batteries and recharging procedure.

.. Insert the new sensor and turn it in clockwise direction to the mark “lock”. Replacement of filter The filters are filled in the gas-sampling probe and in instrument.the mark to “open”. Now the sensor can be removed. Pull out the filter holder (10) of the instrument’s flank and take out the filter. Replace it with a new one. when it is high sensitive type instrument such as Model OX227A with 0-5 and 0-25% etc. When they appear dirty. Zero adjustment As the zero adjustment is factory set. But. make zero adjustment. there is no need of zero adjustment procedure in normal operation. Place the cover back. replace them with new ones. Take off the tip of the sampling probe by turning the metal part of roulette and replace the cotton filter with a new one. Induct 100% clean nitrogen and turn the adjusting screw to bring the needle to zero.

A more detailed description is given in the instruction book for “Dräger Multi Gas Detector”. In some versions of these instruments. a hand operated injection syringe is used instead of a bellow pump.9. and a prescribed volume of gas mixture is drawn through the tube at a rate fixed by the bellow’s expansion rate. It is also important that the manufacturers’ operating instructions are carefully observed. A colour change occurs along the tube and the length of the discoloration. detector tubes and metering pumps made by “Dräger” are the most frequently used. which is a measure of the gas concentration. It is not permissible to use a tube from one manufacturer with a hand pump from another manufacturer. The manufacturer should be consulted for guidance. Since the measurement depends on passing a fixed volume of gas through the glass tube. if an extension hose is used it should be placed between the glass tube and the hand pump. Under some circumstances errors can occur if several gases are present at the same time. Tanker operators should consult the regulatory authority appropriate for the ship’s flag. and several manufacturers make metering pumps and accompanying detector tubes for a great number of various gases.4. 9.15 Detector tubes for health hazardous gases Health hazardous gases may be detected through chemical colour reactions. The tubes are designed and intended to measure concentrations of gas in the air. To use the device. For each type of tube the manufacturer must guarantee the standards of accuracy laid down by national standards. . as one gas can interference with the measurement of another. should be reliable.16 Dräger Multi Gas Detector In our experience. Thus measurements made in a ventilated tank. It is important that all the components used for any measurement should be from the same manufacturer. These tubes consist of a sealed glass tube containing a proprietary filling which is designed to react with a specific gas and to give a visible indication of the concentration of that gas.4. the seals at each end of the glass tube are broken. in preparation for tank entry. the tube is inserted in a bellows-type fixed volume displacement handpump. is read off a scale integrated with the tube. Probably the most convenient and suitable equipment to use for measuring very low concentrations of toxic gases on board tankers are chemical indicator tubes.

The detector tube is placed in the suction of the hose. sealing the opening with an unused detector tube does this.1 Opening of the tubes Both ends of the tube are opened in the hole. A breaking socket accompanying the apparatus can also be used for this.2 Installation of the tube in the pump The opened sampling tube is inserted into the pump head so that the arrow on the tube points toward the pump. To avoid corrosion. so that there are tubes for measuring very low concentrations and for measuring larger concentration ranges. according to the instructions accompanying the instrument may usually eliminate any leakage that has arisen. which is provided for that purpose in the pump.16. Cleaning the valves.16. the pump must be purged with air by performing a number of pumping strokes each time after use. To perform measurements with difficult accessibility. The tube must be attached firmly and tightly in the pump head so that false air is not sucked in. . For some gases there are several types of tubes. In some cases two scales will be marked on the tube. The bellows should then use more than 10 minutes to expand for the pump to be satisfactory. depending on the gas to be analysed.Various chemical substances are used for tube fillings. 9. It is important that the pump is checked to see if it is tight before it is being used. 9.4.4. an extension hose may be used. This prevents glass fragments from falling down. corresponding to different numbers of pump strokes.

e.25 seconds. which accompany each packet of tubes. The time will depend on how tightly the powder is packed in the tube. give i. The pumps are constructed with a shaft-guided compression system for a more consistent and replicable flow rate and volume per stroke than may be available with hand-guided pumps. Description SA’s Kwik-Draw and Kwik-Draw Deluxe Pumps can be used with an assortment of MSA detector tubes to spot-test the atmosphere for a wide variety of toxic substances. MSA offers detector tubes for measuring more than 150 gases and vapours. The suction movement comes to an end when the distance chain is tight once again. Kwik-draw pumps offer accurate one-handed automatic stroke counter and unique end of stroke indicator on deluxe version. The air (to be measured) flows through the sampling tube and into the bellow while this again expands to its original volume. 9. 5. A reliable method of testing more than 120 hazardous gases and vapours. 4.4. indicated in the operating instructions. Kwik-Draw Detector Tube Pumps Kwik-Draw Pumps allow detection of gases and vapours with the squeeze of a . During the compression the air is squeezed out of the bellow through an exhaust valve.4. the approximate time for each pump stroke. The operating instructions.17 MSA – Detector Tubes and Kwik-draw Pump Features 1. Kwik-Draw Pumps are designed for one-hand operation and consistent delivery of a sample draw volume of 100 millilitres (ml).16. should be used for each sampling tube.9. The specified number of pump strokes. 2. 3.3 Suction of a gas sample The bellow is pressed together completely and is then released. Specialised kits are available for use in HAZMAT work and underground storage tank applications. for example 15 . The suction action of the pump takes place when the compression springs inside the bellow expand after the compression. and at this stage 100cm3 has been sucked through the tube. Tubes are printed with easy-to-read scales. Quick and inexpensive to use.

The characteristics of the pump. An internal easy-to-read stroke counter shows the exact number of strokes performed and provides a positive stop when the stroke is fully compressed. As long as a pump meets the following criteria. 3. For ordering information. The Kwik-Draw Pump is designed to measure concentrations of gases and vapours when used with AUER/MSA Detector Tubes. Detector tubes. After air is drawn through the tube by the pump. To obtain a precise (100ml) sample volume. 2. · AUER's Gas Tester II H Pump. Tube Holder . Controlled Interchange ability of MSA/AUER Detector Tubes and Pumps with Other Manufacturers’ Tubes and Pumps.handle. Sampling Pump Operation and Maintenance. manually operated bellow pump of 100cc capacity. A second model. remote sampling . MSA/Auer detectors are made of glass.This rubber part permits mounting of detector tubes. Pumps meeting these criteria are interchangeable. the user would break off the tubes’ end tips and attach the tube to the sampling pump. The detector tubes must have an outer diameter of 7 mm and be factorycalibrated with a pump that meets the criteria of (1) above. see the Detector Tube Summary Chart which follows the Detector. the Kwik-Draw Deluxe Pump has a unique end-of-stroke indicator that “winks” after the precise volume of air is drawn. · Dräger's Accuro Pump. indicates the concentration of the gas or vapour in the air. the user simply grasps the handgrip and pushes the knob. the following pumps are interchangeable: · MSA's Kwik-Draw Pumps. it may be used with any detector tube designed for use with that kind of pump. Description . the chemical layer in the tube changes colour if the test gas or vapour is present in the air. The manufacturer of tubes and pumps must operate under a certified quality assurance program.The Kwik-Draw Pump is a one-handed. sampling time and flow – must be within the same accuracy range. After selecting the appropriate tube. 1. · Dräger's Model 31 Bellow Pump. The length or shade of the colour-change. A scale is printed on each tube for interpretation of data. have break-off tips and are filled with treated chemical granules for sampling a variety of substances. Most MSA/Auer detector tubes are packaged 10 in a box. The pump’s compression system provides the guiding action to drive a spring-loaded bellow pump.volume per stroke. confirming that enough air has been sampled for a successful reading. Based on these criteria.

follow the instructions provided with the detector tubes. Remote sampling Remote sampling is accomplished by putting the pump. the end-of-stroke indicator turns to high-visibility green. the indicator eyeball turns high visibility green. · As the pump re-inflates.Located under the valve cover. wait 30 seconds after full bellow inflation to ensure that all 100cc of the sample has been drawn through the tube. this valve closes as the bellow reinflates. the counter will only advance if a full pump stroke is taken. Note! Watch the stroke counter to ensure proper sample volume. Filter Disc .For convenience. The detector tube must be held in the sampling area during this period. depress the knob with your palm. and readily opens on the exhaust stroke so that blow-back through the tube holder is negligible. connecting tube. · With all four fingers on the handle.As the bellow begins to re-inflate. The stroke is over when the eye returns to the all black state. remote sampling line and detector tube together. the eye begins to roll back to black. Operation · Using the breaker on the pump. · Using a twisting motion. · Re-zero stroke counter. and after the knob is released. this pump should require little maintenance. Note! If your pump does not have the end-of-stroke indicator. · To evaluate the stain. in this order. break off both tips of the detector tube. insert the tube into the rubber tube holder. Maintenance Under conditions of normal use. a stroke counter is incorporated into the pump handle. Stroke counter . Exhaust Valve .lines or other detectors. As the vacuum decreases. Note! . 488543) does not have an end-of-stroke indicator. The stroke is over when the eye is all black.Kwik-Draw Pump (part no. The arrow on the tube should point toward the pump. End-of-stroke indicator . · Release the knob.This porous plastic disc mounted in the rubber tube holder protects the pump from dirt and dust particles. which may alter the flow or damage the pump. Depending on the frequency of use. periodic cleaning and checks for correct .

Warning! Use of a pump that leaks may result in the under-estimation of a hazard and could result in property damage. Valves 1. Deflate pump fully. Shaft If shaft becomes dirty or if bellow inflation is jerky. If the pump leaks check the tube holder and. typically flue gas. remove shaft by unscrewing. Remove dirt with a gentle puff of air or by using a soft brush. Read the instruction book following the Detector! 9. “Riken GP-204” is used for measuring combustible gas below LEL in air.performance as recommended.5 FLAMMABILITY COMPOSITION DIAGRAM In 9. 2. Replace disc so previously exposed surface is once again facing away from pump. then clean with auto wax. one for crude oil and one for propane gas. For measuring hydrocarbon gases in percent of volume the instrument. Gently tap or blow on the surface to remove any foreign matter. and an explosimeter. check the valves for dirt or debris. Filter disc . Plug pump inlet by inserting an unbroken detector tube into tube holder. Remove filter disc from tube holder by rolling flange part of tube holder down and away from the disc. and . 2. re-test for leakage. the “Drager Multi Gas Detector” is used for measuring low concentrations of toxic gas. the valves (see Maintenance). If filter is not clogged or cracked.Periodically remove the filter disc for cleaning or replacement. Pump performance test After extended idleness and periodically during use. Tube holder .Replace tube holder when it shows signs of wear or loss of elasticity. if necessary. Finally. is added to a hydrocarbon gas/air mixture. After repair. we saw that when measuring oxygen content we use the instrument “Servomex OA-262”. The effects illustrated on the following two diagrams. and wait 10 minutes.4. Replace valve(s) if necessary. we use the “Riken 17HC”. When an inert gas. release. save the filter discs for re-use in new tube holder. 3. the result increases the lower flammability limit hydrocarbon concentration in order to decrease the upper flammability limit concentration. should only be regarded as a guide to the principles involved. check the pump for proper performance with the following test: 1. injury or death. With the valve cover removed. The pump is leak-free if the distance from the bellow to the frame is ½ inch or greater after 10 minutes.

they have to be re-inerted. proper tank venting is extremely important.should not be used for deciding acceptable gas compositions. 10. The missing 2. and the amount of clean air in the atmosphere will be (100-2. Every point on the diagram represents a hydrocarbon gas/air/inert gas mixture. During discharging the cargo tanks where refilled with inert gas. The quality of the supplied inert gas was in accordance to the regulations in force.5% volume.5)= 97. For example when measuring the oxygen content at 20. the arrival ballast tanks are cleaned. The following example is based on a cargo of crude oil. . Also when measuring 21% oxygen.5%. 0. Note that 21% oxygen represents 100% clean air and. in order to avoid entering the flammable zone. Water washing takes place in an inerted atmosphere and before any tanks are vented with air. After discharging is completed the tank atmosphere contains a mixture of inert gas and “cargo gas”.5%. The bottom line of the diagram (horizontal) represents the oxygen content from 0% to 21%. So. The first flammability diagram is for hydrocarbon gas above crude oil where the UEL is 11% and the LEL is 1. During the ballast voyage. so the ratio will be close to one to five. as mentioned before.5% volume oxygen is still missing in the atmosphere in order to call it clean air. When multiplying 0. The left side of the diagram (vertical) gives the hydrocarbon gas value. the result will be 2. the atmosphere contains 100% clean air. specified in terms of its hydrocarbon and oxygen contents.5%.8% by volume of oxygen is the minimum oxygen content present in a mixture's ignition.5% from the clean air contain unknown gas concentrations.5% with 5.

because the content of hydrocarbon gas is above LEL. Also. the hydrocarbon concentration of .2%. This is the LEL value in this example. All measurements will follow a straight line from point “A” to point “C”. which the re-inerting is heading toward.5% by volume. to repeat. If we had started to vent with air at point “A”. all the measurements taken would have followed a straight line from point “A” toward point “B”. which measures hydrocarbon gas by volume until the HC-gas content is below 1. Where the line from point “A” crosses the line from point “B” the following measurements are found: HC= 2. O2=3%.5%. Point “B” represents 21% oxygen and 0% HC. In point “D” we stop the inerting and start venting with air.Follow example “1” on the this page: After water washing is completed the measurements in point “A” give the following values: HC=15%. through the flammable zone involving a great deal of danger. Avoid all contact with the flammable zone! At point “D” there it is still too early to use the explosimeter. point “D”.6% and O2= 4. Point “C” on the diagram is the point. Continue to use the instrument. These values are plotted on the diagram and give the point “A”. The inert gas that is supplied contains an O2 of 4. From point “B” a line is drawn against the left side of the diagram by keeping sufficient clearance from the flammable zone. All measurements taken from now on will follow a straight line from point “D” toward point “B”.

The tank is ready to enter. After some time purging with nitrogen. a measurement is taken at point “A”: HC= 12% and O2= 0%. nitrogen and air are used for tank purging and air venting. Example “2” .5% by volume corresponds to 100% LEL. The hydrocarbon gas concentrations are now below LEL and the explosimeter can be used. . After sufficient venting the measuring in point “B” will be HC= 0% and O2= 21%. the tank(s) must be re-inerted before arrival at loading port in order to achieve the required tank atmosphere according to the regulations in force.67% of LEL. the explosimeter in point “E” will show (1 x 100): 1. The above example is based on propane cargo. In point “E”. Continue to purge with nitrogen until reaching point “C” where the measurements are HC= 3.5 = 66. It is also possible to calculate the explosimeter reading ahead of the measuring by using the formula where measured HC gas is multiplied by 100 and divided by LEL. In our example.75% and O2= 0%.1. Just like in example “1”. After inspection/repairing. a line is drawn from point “B” toward point “C” on the left side of the diagram by keeping sufficient clearance from the flammable zone.3%. In the example. the measurements are HC= 1% and O2= 15. Follow the diagram for propane.

When the LEL for propane is 2. After sufficient dilution. At point “E”. Take a measurement at point “D” which is HC= 2.4% and 02= 8%. the tank must be treated according to routines and regulations.Stop purging with nitrogen at point “C”.1 = 48% of LEL. Start dilution with air. it is too early to use the explosimeter.. point “B” end up with measurements of HC= 0% and 02= 21%. the measurements are HC= 1% and 02= 15. . The explosimeter will in point “E” show (1x100) : 2.25%. All measurements will now follow the straight line toward point “B”. After inspection/repairing etc.1% by volume.

10- Cargo Pumps .

The capacity requirement is determined by the intended use of the pump. Each type has its own special quality and therefore certain advantages and disadvantages. Definition of capacity range is important. The customer has a special responsibility to clarify all conditions concerning the pump installation. installation and maintenance · Availability of parts and service · Suction terms · Characteristics for the liquid to be pumped Selection of the right pump for a determined purpose qualifies a close co-operation between the customer and the producer of the pump. the capacity of the pump and the liquid’s characteristics. The liquid’s properties and which other arrangements you have to consider. availability of parts and service now and over the next years. so the producer can choose the best pump from his product range with the best match. Demand for capacity or capacity range and expected discharge pressure must be specified. When you choose a pump you must find out how much the pump needs to deliver under a specific condition. The selection of pumps is determined by a thorough study of the capacity needs and under which operational conditions the pump will operate. Purchase and installation cost is important. is the essential. are also important and must be included in the evaluation of alternative pump supplies. Alternative installation locations of the pump are limited due to special demands from Class and Shipping Authorities and also from lack of space. The following factors are important when you evaluate these conditions: · Estimated back pressure · Capacity requirement · Capacity range · Requirement for installation and arrangement · Expenses for purchase.10 Cargo pumps 10. The discharge pressure is determined by various conditions where the pump’s delivery pipeline design. Future maintenance expenses.1 Classification and selection of pumps There are a number of different pump types. often .

An example is a piston pump where the piston is moving up and down inside a cylinder or when the screws revolve inside a screw pump. The different types of pumps are divided into two main groups. valves and so on. The displacement pumps displace the liquid by reducing the volume inside the pump. viscosity and boiling point are important properties to consider. The pump’s suction condition is determined from where the pump is located in relation to the liquid to be pumped. like the piston pump. A displacement pump. One should be aware of this difference for these two pump types. All kinetic pumps therefor have a designed or built-in limitation for maximum discharge pressure. either by help of a piston or screws.limits the options. displacement and kinetic pumps. The pressure rise on a kinetic pump is restricted by the increase in velocity over the pump. mechanically displaces the liquid in the pump. A kinetic pump like the centrifugal pump increases the liquid’s velocity in the pump by means of a rotating impeller. Kinetic pumps (kinetic energy is equal to “movement” energy) increase the liquid’s velocity through the pump. The displacement pumps limitation depends only on available power and the constructional strength. have the largest diameter possible and few as possible restrictions in form of bends. The diagram below gives a brief view of the different available groups and types of pumps. which is controlled by the pump design. The main principle is to minimise resistance on the suction side by decreasing the suction pipe length. The liquid temperature and corrosive properties are important factors when pump material is selected. In . The diagram would be more comprehensive if the pumps were divided in all details according to number of rotors. Resistance on delivery side gives a liquid pressure rise (pump delivery pressure). A given suction pipe creates a certain resistance that will have influence on the pump capacity. design of pump inlet/outlet and flow directions. Density.

which consolidate the free flow of liquid. without a non-return valve on delivery side. A centrifugal pump’s efficiency is high only within a small range. The differential pressure over each impeller is relatively low. This weakness is improved by constructional efforts and positioning. A centrifugal pump will. There are no immediate problems if the outlet of the pump is closed. give complete back flow at the time the pump stops. this relationship is important to know . increase the pump’s capacity to deliver against higher backpressure. can reduce the flow resistance. The most negative side of using a centrifugal pump is the lack of self-priming capacity. The same closed delivery valve for a kinetic pump will not bring any immediate danger. High viscosity liquids are therefore particularly difficult to pump due to this condition. Piston pumps and screw pumps have good suction capacity and are used where these characteristics are required.contrast to a kinetic pump. for instance below the liquid level. For all operators of centrifugal pumps. Centrifugal pumps are simply constructed with few parts and no valves. This is the reason it is especially important to have a clear understanding of what capacity range the pump will operate under. The weakness of these pumps is the complex construction and the relatively low capacity. A closed-delivery valve on a displacement pump is damaging. in connection with the selection of a centrifugal pump. Operation at high speed makes the pump small in proportion compared to the capacity and flexibility in relation to the pump’s location. Location of a pump. such a pump will operate against resistance with all its available power. These qualities result in relative low purchase and servicing costs. Using so-called multistage pumps where several impellers are mounted in serial.

Examples of various pump types Double-suction split-casing centrifugal pump .

The ejector’s efficiency is between 30% and 40%. The capacity depends on the friction force between the two mediums. delivery head and the propellant’s velocity. The ejector has no revolving or reciprocating parts and is thereby especially easy to maintain. The mixer tube is connected to an expanding tube. Another . plus the friction force between the propellant and the liquid. The propellant (driving water). The ejector has the advantage that it does not lose the suction capacity even if it sucks air or vapour. the diffusor.10. Due to the propellant’s velocity and direction. such as a centrifugal pump. Even if the propellant’s efficiency is up to approximately 70%. is forced through a nozzle into a mixer tube. the total efficiency for the whole ejector system is far less than compared to a pump system. The velocity of the propellant will naturally increase as it passes through the nozzle. suction head. the surrounding liquid will be sucked into the ejector’s mixer tube. Here some of the kinetic energy supplied to the liquid in the mixer tube is transformed into potential energy.2 THE EJECTOR The ejector design is simple and is used for stripping and as bilge pumps in hold and interbarrier spaces.

Tips · Be aware that the ejector has a limitation on the propellant’s pressure. The ejector is frequently used as a bilge pump in hold spaces. the liquefied cargo itself must be used as a propellant. Higher pressure than recommended by the supplier may result in reduced suction capacity. This implies that if the ejector is to be used in cargo transfer operation. Onboard gas carriers where the hull is the secondary barrier. The ejector’s suction valves should be opened last. A common arrangement for a hold space is as follows: The ejector is usually submerged in a bilge sump and the propellant is normally supplied from a seawater pump.drawback with ejectors is that the propellant is mixed with the pumping liquid. the cargo itself must be used as propellant liquid. and then adjust the correct propellant pressure. the ejector may also be used to pump cargo from hold space. In that case. which will prevent the propellant’s flow back into the tank that is to be stripped. · Start the ejector by opening all valves on delivery side first. · Stop the ejector by using the opposite procedure. .

You can find the capacity of the ejector by drawing a vertical line from 8 bars on the scale for a delivery head of 15 meters and up to the performance curve with a suction lift of 3 meters. The liquid level in the slop tank is 15 meters above the ejector and the propellant's pressure is 8 bars. The ejector’s suction lift in this example is 3 meters. From this point of intersection. Observe that this curve has curves for different suction lifts. In the performance curve the ejector capacity is set as a function of the propellant pressure. . draw a horizontal line to the left and over to the ejector’s capacity side. this specific curve shall be used.As the drawing shows the ejector is positioned 3 meters above the liquid level. The different performance curves are marked with different suction lifts. The ejector’s capacity can be found by use of the performance curve for the specific ejector. The found capacity in this case is 600 m3/h.

The ejector’s Performance Curves .

This force gives the liquid particle certain acceleration. we observe the liquid as an amount of small particles and see what occurs with one of these on its way through the rotor-blade wheel. When the blade influences a liquid particle. from the blade marked Fua. The energy works in the same direction as the velocity vector ua. which is toward the blade housing.1 The theory of the centrifugal pump The sketch below indicates a radial section of a rotor-blade wheel for a centrifugal pump. but in the opposite direction as Fua. w. We presume further that the rotor-blade wheel is filled with liquid when this is rotating. The inlet at the end of the blade will have a precise velocity and direction. at point A. marked ua.10. The velocity is causing the particle’s centrifugal force. the particle achieves a certain velocity.3 The centrifugal pump 10. For plainness. F. The connection between the sizes. which has a direction leading straight out from the centre. a.. The size of the vector is given by the angular velocity of the rotor-blade wheel.3. can be expressed as: ua = w x r when w = 2 x p x T The liquid particle will. be affected by power. the relation between proportions may be expressed as: . The direction is the key to the circle of the point. It means that the particle performs power F that is equal.

the relative velocity will have the same direction as the blade. In the point “D” the liquid particles leave the rotor-blade wheel. The rotor-blade wheel sets the liquid in motion. you see that the liquid’s absolute velocity can never exceed the rotor-blade wheel’s peripheral speed. an absolute velocity (Cd) has been achieved with direction and proportion. The connection between these energy forms may be expressed as: Kinetic = Potential energy = Pressure energy or: Wk = Ws = Wt . This energy is transformed to potential energy. Wt. The liquid particles are influenced by the relative velocity vector (V) and the blade’s velocity vector (U). When it is the blade that set the liquid in motion. Ws.e. The blade’s deflection will determine the relative direction of the liquid that comes out of the rotor-blade wheel. This vector (C) determines the particle’s track through the rotor-blade wheel. The relative velocity factor will try to accelerate the particle.Fsa = m x a or a = Fsa/m As we see from the sketch. When the rotor-blade wheel is rotating. The system is in balance and a certain relative liquid velocity is achieved. The resulting velocity vector gives the particle’s absolute velocity (C). but the liquid’s inner friction (viscosity) resists and reduces the centrifugal force influence. Since the blade governs the liquid. i. marked F. Wk. the relative velocity will achieve a certain proportion when the inner friction compensates for the centrifugal acceleration. the liquid is supplied with kinetic energy. If the only consideration is the liquid’s viscosity. and/or pressure energy. the energy forces Fsa and F1 to produce energy. the liquid particles will move lengthways along the blade because of the centrifugal force. The relative velocity is a direct expression of the flow through the rotor-blade wheel (the pump). As a result of the relative velocity vector (Vd) and the rotor-blade wheel’s velocity vector (Ud).

all the kinetic energy will be transformed to pressure energy. for the pump will be: Ht1 = Cd2/2g when Cd = Ud. If a centrifugal pump is running against a closed valve. All kinetic energy is transformed to potential energy. If we are placing a number of rotor-blade wheels in serial in order to prevent energy loss. The centrifugal pump’s lifting height. the liquid will stabilise at a certain level. Ht1. we will obtain: Ht1 = Ud2/2g . the pressure after the pump is proportional with the liquid’s density. H. The pressure after the pump is then: ½ mv2 = mp/r p = ½ v2r Also. The theoretical maximum lifting height. The liquid’s absolute velocity out of the pump will be to equal to the peripheral speed. is then: ½ mv2 = mgH H = v2/2g The pump’s lifting height is dependent on the liquid’s mass and consequently.If the pump is connected to a high riser. the liquid’s density.

But in our example. which are theoretically set at: h2 = k2 x (Q . The liquid’s absolute velocity will be less than the peripheral speed. is shown on the diagram to you right (marked QHt2). In addition. which emerged. will be linear.Qs)2 Out of the above formula: h2 = 0 when Q = Qs . The friction between the liquid. the rotor-blade wheel and deflection loss can be empirically set to: h1 = k1 x Q2 k1 = an invariable determined by the specific rotor-blade wheel. When the lifting height is at a minimum. In all pumps a certain loss will always occur. the volume flow will be at a maximum.The volume flow is determined by the liquid’s density. we only have one rotor-blade wheel. which has adapted real velocity. The theoretical pump characterisation. it is entrance loss and shock loss. QHt1. A new pump characterisation.

and will be lead through the “blades” due to the centrifugal force. . The liquid inside the impeller is affected by the “blades”. 10. New liquid is constantly lead into the impeller and put into rotation.This will occur when the liquid’s relative velocity into the blade has the same direction as the inlet blade. If the delivery pipeline from the pump is open to the atmosphere and has sufficient height. all kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy. h3. 2 and the resultant loss curve. From the theoretical pump characterisation QH1. marked QH.3. Energy in forms of kinetic energy (velocity energy) is added to the liquid. the liquid will adjust itself to a precise level given by the energy.2 The centrifugal pump’s mode of operation A centrifugal pump consists of a rotating impeller inside a pump casing. The loss curves h1 and h2 give a resultant loss curve. A flow through the pump is established. Here. a theoretical calculated pump curve emerged. h3. which was added to the liquid through the impeller.

H2. . However. Net delivery heads (H1.81 bars One can see from the previous example that the delivery head of the pump is obtained from the pump itself. It is therefore natural that the centrifugal pump’s capacity always is given as a function of the pump’s delivery head. H3) will be equal for the same pump provided that flow disturbance does not occur on the pump’s suction side. The capacity curve (Q-H curve) will. From the previous taught experiment. The delivery head here is the static height or the static backpressure. but the curve is not linear due to loss of energy in the pump.81 m/s2 x 100 m) pm = 981000 Pa = 981 kPa pm = 9. in practice. If the level in the tank is lowered. the manometer pressure (pm) after the pump will be read at: pm = r x g x H = (1000 kg/m3 x 9. and that the delivery head is independent from the pump’s position or location. follow this assumption. A pump’s delivery head is dependent on the individual pump’s construction. like the illustration below. the pump’s delivery pressure is dependent on the liquid’s density and delivery head. The rest of the energy is still in the form of kinetic energy. one can predict that the capacity of a centrifugal pump will be highest at minimal delivery head. If you ignore the pipe resistance. In this case.The difference in liquid level is called net delivery head. Only a part of the added energy in the pump will “lift” the liquid. the liquid is water with a density (r) of 1000 kg/m3 and the head (H) is 100 meters. If you bend the discharge pipe from the previous example. the capacity Q in this situation is determined by the delivery head (H). the liquid will flow out of the pipe. the liquid level in the delivery pipeline will be correspondingly lower. which the liquid has to lift.

due to too high pipe resistance and/or too high viscosity. The total pipe resistance. The liquid’s viscosity may ensure a continual flow into the pump. meaning that the pump is not able to suck liquid from a lower level. is called a system characteristic curve. composed by the static and the dynamic backpressure. the pumping process will be able to continue without this equipment. Additional vacuum equipment connected to the pump will. improve the pump's self-priming qualities. . The intersection point between the system characteristic curve and the capacity curve is called the actual operation point. If the flow into the pump is less than the outlet flow. It was previously mentioned that disturbances on the pump’s suction side would have influence on the capacity. these factors will have considerable influence on the pump’s capacity. A centrifugal pump has normally no self-priming qualities. bends and valves will create a resistance due to friction against free liquid flow. When the inlet pipe and impeller is filled with liquid. The conditions on the inlet side are very important for the centrifugal pump’s operation. and is called the dynamic backpressure. This resistance varies with the velocity and viscosity of the liquid. Too high resistance in the inlet pipe will cause the same operational disturbance.In a real pipe system. however.

the liquid starts boiling and a large quantity of vapour is created in the pump.If you start a pump. The output from the pump become irregular. The gas bubbles created in the liquid on the pump’s suction side will collapse when the pressure rises inside the impeller. But cavitation will always cause damage to the pump. at a specific height. and will stop at huge vapour volumes. submerged in water like the sketch indicates. To ensure limited or non-generation of vapour one must make sure that the liquid at the pump inlet has sufficient overpressure to avoid evaporation. the cavitation is destructive and must be avoided or controlled. The resistance at the pump inlet side should be made as low as possible. A centrifugal pump operates satisfactorily with approximately 2% gas in the liquid. have a perceptible reduction in the capacity. The increased resistance creates constant negative pressure on the inlet side of the pump. The liquid that accelerates from the centre of the impeller and out to the periphery increases this negative pressure. When this occurs. We say that the pump cavitates. If you gradually lift the pump. The explanation of this phenomena is that when the pump is lifted up out off the water. The consequences of cavitation are: · Vibrations and noise · Reduced efficiency · Pitting or cavity erosion inside the pump house As we have observed. the pipe length and the resistance at the inlet side increases. This can be . the pump will have a specific capacity at a specific delivery head. the pump will. the height of the pump above liquid level is called Net Positive Suction Head or NPSH. When the negative pressure reaches the liquid’s saturation pressure.

The capacity may also be adjusted by changing the revolution on the pump. When the flow increases. Reduction of the revolution moves the curve parallel downwards. the negative pressure generated inside the pump increases. an increase in revolution. Adjustments of the pump’s revolution move the capacity curve up or down. A reduction of the flow will reduce the negative pressure. 10.3. upwards. Note that these relations are valid only if the flow conditions are unchanged. Reducing the pump’s capacity may therefore control and reduce the cavitation. A pump’s NPSH is variable and dependent on the flow. A centrifugal pump’s capacity is adjusted by throttling the delivery valve.3 The Pump performance diagram All manufacturers supply a pump performance diagram with the pump delivery. limiting the number of bends and selecting a maximum diameter on the pipeline. The pump should be positioned at the lowest possible level. Throttling increases the pumps discharge pressure (backpressure) which causes reduced capacity. and preferably below liquid level at the suction side. The curves in the diagram are results from practical tests in the manufacturers workshop and specifies: .done by constructing the pipeline as short as possible.

A pump’s condition is of course vital for the curve accuracy. . power consumption and development of these is obvious. It is important to be aware that the pump’s diagram is made for a special liquid with specific properties. simultaneously within the pump’s predicted capacity range. The capacity curve will be real for all liquids. There are a lot of methods to check the centrifugal pump’s condition. Detection of many minor operational disturbances may be difficult and not necessarily observed. capacity. provided the free flow to the pump inlet is not restricted due to for example too high viscosity. The power consumption curve will of course depend on the fluid’s density. Monitoring the pump’s delivery head. Establishment of routines ensures continuous control of vibrations.· Type of liquid used in the test (generally water) · Number of revolutions · Type and size of impeller · The optimal operation point The operation point is normally set at the best possible efficiency. Visual inspection of the pump and regular maintenance is important to prevent break down.

4 Example on pump diagram .10.3.

a double mechanical shaft seal. and mechanical seal. Shaft bearings are located between each stage in the pump unit and with even intervals along the shaft. The axial bearing is a roller bearing that holds the entire weight of the shaft and impellers. These bearings can be made of PTFE preservative carbon that have self-lubricating qualities.10. The bearing house is usually provided with cooling ribs to maintain an acceptable oil temperature. The deepwell pump’s main parts are the pump. The shaft is located in the discharge pipe from the pump to the mechanical seal and connected to the coupling. the pump has a limited rotation speed. and . and leakage of air into the cargo. Due to the length of the shaft. The pump is located at the lowest level inside the cargo tank pump sump. The oil in the seal lubricates the seal surfaces. coupling and motor. The top unit consists of an axial bearing. On top of the cargo dome the top unit with an electric or hydraulic motor are located. shaft. revision ring and an upper ball bearing. The purpose of the double mechanical shaft seal is to prevent leakage of cargo into the environment. The coupling connects the shaft and motor together.4 The deepwell pump Cargo discharge pumps onboard gas carriers are generally deepwell pumps. This leads to a reduced delivery head for a single stage pump. The pump is therefore built with multiple stages.

be lubricated by the cargo itself. must like the other shaft bearings. If the axial bearing nut is loose. Control of compatibility between the seal oil and actual cargo is therefore important. A second function for the revision ring is to prevent leakage of cargo vapour along the shaft when renewal of the mechanical seal. One can thereby not avoid contact between the cargo and the seal oil in the top unit. This chamber can be drained. the shaft will drop down and the revision ring will land on a seat below. The revision ring in the mechanical seal functions normally as a deflector that will lead a leakage of seal oil into a special chamber.“quarantee” an operation without leak or other problems. The seal oil should not pollute the cargo or generate hazardous reactions when mixed with the cargo. If we got a leak in the seal the oil must not came in contact with the cargo. The top carbon shaft bearing. .

Stop the pump immediately if this occurs. pressurise before the pump is started. · Always carefully check the cargo tank and sump for rags and other lose objects before the hatch is closed.4. · Check for lose bolts and nuts inside the cargo tank when possible.10. · Always regularly check the “anti rotation device”. · Always check lubrication oil level and seal oil level. · Check and adjust the pump’s safety device. if fitted. · Running of deepwell pump without liquid is the most common reason for breakdown. · These pumps are operating without vibration and related noise.2 General tips for operation of a deepwell pump: · Check pump unit guides clearances inside the cargo tank when possible. · Regularly check seal oil and lubrication oil levels when the pump is running. · Always turn the pump before start. . Wrong direction may result in shaft damage. Stop the pump when the tank is liquid free. do not force operation of the pump and do not run the pump against a closed delivery valve for too long a time. · Always check the motor’s running direction before the coupling is fitted.

10.3 Design of the double mechanical seal Example of pump parts .4.

The motor and pump are submerged down in the tank sump or as close to the tank bottom as possible. Submerged pumps are also installed as portable pumps. the cables must be sheathed with stainless steel to prevent damage on the cable from corrosive cargoes. One must at all times check the resistance of the cable insulation before starting the pump.10. It is important that the stainless steel sheathing is kept unbroken. the cable and engine must be sheathed with a thin layer of stainless steel.This type of pump is equipped with electrical motor. The cables to the electric motor are either made of copper or stainless steel. At the bottom of the discharge pipe it is a non-return valve that opens when pump is lowered and shut when the pump is taken up. If copper is used in the cable. . and we must avoid a sharp bend on the cable to protect the stainless steel sheath. It is therefore essential that the pump is used only when there is liquid in the tank.5 Submerged pumps Submerged pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps that are often used as discharge pumps on large LNG and LPG tankers. The discharge pipe is then the steering pipe for the pump. When transporting Ammonia. The motor is connected directly to the pump with a short shaft on this type of pump. this is done either with inert gas or Nitrogen. The liquid is pumped up through the tank’s discharge pipe and up to the liquid line. Before opening the discharge pipe it must be gas freed. The liquid that is pumped lubricates and cools the pump’s bearings.

Horizontally installed pumps have an axial inlet and radial outlet in the same centre line. . a booster pump is connected in serial with the deepwell pump(s) to increase the system’s ability to pump against high backpressure. There are normally two booster pumps installed on deck on gas carriers. installed horizontally or in vertical position. Vertically installed booster pumps have radial in and outlet “in-line”.6 The boster pump If the backpressure during discharging is too high for the deepwell pump(s).10. The booster pump is normally a centrifugal pump.

· Regularly check the seal oil level. They are constructed with focus on reliability. the liquid lubricates the inner shaft bearings. The following general regulations are existing for working a booster pump: · Turn the pump shaft regularly when the pump is not used for long periods. The bearing is lubricated by oil. .The booster pumps onboard gas carriers have mainly an individual and compact design. simple maintenance and long lifetime. · Turn the shaft before starting the pump. · Do never start the pump if the pump is not filled with liquid. is similar to the arrangement of the deepwell pump. The shaft seal. with double mechanical seal with sealing liquid. · Never run the pump against the closed delivery valve for more than approximately 30 seconds.

As both pumps are equal. may form the same condition. If there are no check valves after the pump and the backpressure increases further. If. The pump’s capacity curve (1) indicates the relation between the delivery head and the flow rate for one pump. the inlet valves should always be fully open. cavitation and variance of the pumps condition. two pumps in parallel will supply 200 m3/hrs and three pumps 300 m3 /hrs at the same head. If. asymmetric piping. the pump may be damaged. 10.7.7 Parallel operation of centrigal pump The capacity requirement is many times higher than the performance of one centrifugal pump. The diagram below indicates two equal pumps in parallel operation. variance in opening if valves. for example the operation point is altered by increasing the back pressure. If this situation occurs and is maintain. for example one pump has a capacity of 100 m3/hrs at a head of 100 meters. you will have a back flow trough the pump into the cargo tank. All available pumps are then lined up and run in parallel operation. this may lead to that one of the pumps are run without output flow. If the pumps are of different types or equal pumps are run at different speed. 10. Even though the type of the pump is the same in a parallel operation. We assume a symmetry pipeline for both pumps. Two equal pumps are run in parallel operation. The resulting performance curve of .2 Two equal pumps are run in parallel operation. When equal pumps are run in parallel the delivery head for the system will be equal the delivery head for one pump. The only indication on such condition is that the power consumption no longer is in agreement with the operation. This is no problem provided the operation point is outside the pumps’ individual operation point.· Adjust the flow by throttling the delivery valve. the pumps’ individual capacity curves are represented by the curve marked “1”. The capacity will meanwhile increase in proportion to the number of pumps.A deepwell pump is special vulnerable in this situation because these pumps are dependent of a liquid flow through the pump. variation in rotational speed. their individual performance curves will be different.

the capacity for the system increases to 140 m3/hrs against a head of 150 meters. We then see on this actual pump situation. The increase in capacity will however be relatively less for each pump added. When you start pump number 2. 10. The system’s capacity will increase if other pumps are started up in parallel operation. also-called booster pump. . The following illustration shows two cargo pumps run in parallel (1 and 2) in series with a third booster pump (B). Starting pump number 2 will not double the capacity because a higher volume flow creates higher dynamic resistance. a booster pump in series with cargo pumps will improve the capacity.8 Serial operation of centrifugal pumps If the backpressure while discharging is too high and the capacity hence too low.the pumps (1+2) is constructed like previous described. Some ship has a dedicated pump for this purpose. a pump alone will deliver 120 m3/hrs against a head of 120 meters.

The new operation point will appear in the intersection between the resulting performance curve. there is a risk that the supply of liquid to the booster pump became too low and will result in cavitation. The maximum head is the maximum head for one pump (1 or 2). If so occur. If one of the pumps in parallel stops. and with a density of 502 kg/m3. and the system characteristic curve. If the cargo is propane at a temperature of 20oC. The new capacity is calculated by constructing a new resulting performance curve for all three pumps. The capacity is 100 m3/hrs with a head of 160 meters.437 Pa » 16.1 and no.7 bars . cavitation can be reduced or stopped by throttling the delivery valve on the booster pump.2 must ensure sufficient flow of liquid to the booster pump (B). One must emphasise that there are made no special demands for a dedicated booster pump’s NPSH-performance. times maximum capacity for one pump.Notice that cargo pumps no.The system’s maximum capacity is the number of pumps in parallel operation. Two equal pumps run in parallel operation. The master and chief officer evaluate the operation and decide to line up for a booster pump in serial with the cargo pumps. The capacity will increase to 140 m3/hrs at a head of 340 meters.81 m/s2 x 340 = 167.2 Two equal pumps run in parallel operation.8. as previous described. 10. plus maximum head for the booster pump (B). the corresponding delivery pressure will be: r x g x H = 502 kg/m3 x 9.

the pressure inside the line very quickly increases to a hazardous high level. (ESD/Emergency Shut Down) Fast closing/opening of manual or remote operated valves. The consequence may be breakdown of the pipeline system and thereby high risk of pollution. faster than a common safety valve is capable to relieve. Fast variation of the volume flow resulting that a non-return valve starts hammering.9 Pressure surge and liquid pressure When a valve on a liquid line is closed too quickly. Pressure surge may appear if: The emergency shutdown valves are activated and closed too quickly. This type of pressure peak is generated very quickly in pipelines. fire and personal injury. This surge pressure can be recognised by a “knock” in the pipeline. Quick changes to the liquid flow in a pipeline may lead to a pressure surge resulting in a rupture in the pipeline system. .10.

the hydrostatic pressure. The kinetic energy of the moving liquid will immediately convert into potential energy by compression of the liquid against the valve seat. If the liquid is a condensed gas or crude oil. All personnel that operate valves or pumps must be observant of these phenomena and of the liquid pressure. vapour may be present. The above mentioned cases illustrate why it is especially important that the valves and pumps are cautiously operated so neither dangerous pressure peaks nor pressure drops are generated. The maximum pressure is at the pump outlet. It shows a normal cargo operation and pressure in the pipeline. The collapsed bubbles will generate pressure waves that will also be transmitted through the pipeline system. The hydrostatic pressure and the cargo tank pressure will mainly be constant and we will refer to these as “static pressure”. This pressure is the sum of the hydrostatic pressure and the pressure generated by the pump.3 meters/second. The liquid’s kinetic energy will convert into potential energy immediately when the liquid hits the valve seat. some of the pressure will unload through the pump. The pressure is rebuilt and reflected back towards the ESD valve again. A “knock” will occur each time a pressure top is generated against a “wall”. If the wave of pressure is allowed to move between two valves without pressure relief.When a pump is started or stopped. A pipeline of 250 meters and 150 mm in diameter is used for water transfer at a capacity of 400 m3/hrs. the liquid flow will stop quite quickly. If the flow suddenly is varying due to. The enclosed diagram on the next page is from ITC Tanker Safety Guide. These vapour bubbles will collapse when the pressure increases. When the wave of pressure reaches the pump. i. but the resistance here will also operate as a “wall”. If the ESD valve is activated and the valve is closed too quickly. the pressure will gradually decrease toward the cargo manifold. which may occur consequently. How fast the pressure peak is generated depends on the velocity and the density of the liquid. Due to friction in the pipeline. a volatile liquid will start boiling.e. The pressure surge may reach approximately 40 bars within 0. The total mass of the moving liquid inside the pipe is 4400 kg and moves with a velocity of 6. If a valve is closed very fast. In an opposite case where the pressure is decreasing rapidly. the moving liquid that have a specific velocity and mass will hit a “wall” inside the valve (the valve seat or the valve flap). the kinetic energy will convert almost immediately to potential energy. The progress and the length of the pressure surge depends on the system.3 seconds. The pressure in a cargo transfer system has three components. the cargo tank pressure and the pressure generated by the pump. . A new pressure peak is generated with additional increased pressure. a maximum pressure surge will be generated. A pressure peak is generated and will be transmitted at the speed of sound (the only way possible) back towards the pump. too fast valve closure.

The most vulnerable parts in the system are the shore connections and loading/discharging arms. The operative personnel normally work nearby the manifold area. A rupture in this area may easily lead to personnel injury. Always consult the terminal representatives about the required pipe line period and ESD time. Closing time of the ESD-valves. Maintenance and testing of the ESD-valves’ closing time is the most important of the above mentioned causes. (Please note that control of cargo hoses is dealt with in this chapter). which is too short. may lead to generation of a dangerous pressure surge. .

9. Necessary time for a safe closure of valves can be calculated based on the expected maximum pressure .1 Development of pressure surge The closing time of ESD valves should be as short as possible to prevent overflow and spillage.10. But not so fast that a risky pressure surge occurs.

so the closing time should at minimum be: 5 x 3s = 15 seconds 10. The normal procedure for yearly testing is: The hose is laid out on deck. Electric bonding is checked. in case a cargo hose is lent out to a third party or is used in transferring cargo between ships. bonding is okay and the linear expansion is less than the limitation set by the manufacturer. is corresponding to a level distinction of 20 m between the liquid in the shore tank and the cargo tank onboard. . The hose is pressurised with 1. 10. A cargo hose prototype is tested with the products. The operation point is in the intersection between the pump curve and the system curve. The static backpressure (H).2 Cargo hoses The cargo hoses are normally the weakest part in a pipeline system transferring cargo. the hose is approved. If the pipeline is 2 km.10 capacity calculation All centrifugal pumps are delivered with pump performance diagrams. The speed of the sound is set to 1320 m/s.and a dynamic curve. The hose is checked for leakage. If there is no leakage. Linear expansion for the hose is measured (measure for strength) The test result is logged. It is important to be aware of this fact. if you want to take care of the hoses as long as possible.5 times the working pressure.surge when the pressure wave has passed forward and backward through the pipeline. Poor cleaning and storage is generally the cause of damage and consequently replacement.5 times the maximum working pressure. It is assumed that the safe closing time is five times a pipeline period. the calculated time for maximum pressure surge at closure of the ESD valve is: T = (2 x L) / Speed of sound = (2 x 2000 m) / 1320 m/s = 3 s The maximum pressure surge will occur 3 seconds from closure of the ESD valve.9. This time is called a “pipeline period”. pressure and temperature for which the hose type is approved. The storage area should be dry and out of the sun. Enclosed is a pump curve with a drawn system curve for an actual unloading situation. The diagram is an important tool for insight in the factors that have influence on operation of pumps. Hoses for cargo should be cleaned and dried before storing. The cargo hoses should be tested yearly at a pressure that is 1. The system curve is composed of a static. The responsibility for the cargo hose condition on board lays with the ship. blinded off and filled with water. The dynamic backpressure is calculated from a stated differential pressure in the pipeline of 10 mlc at a flow rate of 500 m3/h.

2 bars at a temperature of –40oC. Observed delivery pressure (manometer pressure) is thereby approximately 7 bars. The pump’s delivery pressure is dependent of the density of the liquid pumped.If the backpressure increases. We then see from the diagram. the dynamic backpressure .4 kg/m3 x 9. that the pump delivers 80 m3/h at a head of 120 mlc.15 bars The cargo tank pressure is 0.031 Pa = 7. the pump’s delivery pressure (p) will be: p=rxgxH = 607. The system curve is constructed by adding the static.and the dynamic backpressure at the same flow rate.The pipeline resistance is dependent of the flow rate in the pipe. is calculated from above mentioned expression.81 m/s2 x 120 m = 715.15 Mpa = 7. by for example throttling of the manifold valve. The dynamic curve is a result of calculation of the dynamic backpressure at different flow rates with the same c-value. and the dynamic backpressure (pipe resistance) can be expressed as: H = c x Q2 (see “The Affinity Laws”)The constant c. If the liquid is propylene at a temperature of –44oC.

but gives sufficient means for most practical calculation.4 kg/m3 x 9. it is natural to focus on the whole system’s energies. and hence the capacity.1 An extended capacity calculation The method of calculation above is a simplified procedure.will increase. The operational point will move up along the pump curve.81 m/s2 = 134 m A delivery head of 134 m corresponds to a capacity of approximately 50 m3/h.10. In the following example we have a partly filled tank where a submission is working. the new delivery head will be: p=rxgxH H = p / r x g = 800 000 Pa / 607.When describing the centrifugal pump’s physical relations. and the liquid pressure.If the backpressure increases to 8 bar. The energy level on the suction is decided by the height of the liquid. which creates a flow rate through the pump. This is expressed as: (m x g x X) + (m x po/r) The energy supplied into the pump is expressed as: mxgxH where “H” is the lifting height of the pump. can be calculated without construction of a new system curve. The pump is supplying liquid a stated energy. must necessarily be more complex. An extended calculation of capacity where one considerate all factor influencing a pump’s working conditions. The system’s energy balance is then: Energy on the suction side + Energy added the pump = Energy after the pump. 10. The “new” delivery head. . The pump’s delivery head increases and the capacity is reduced. An increased dynamic backpressure is visualised by a more steep system characteristic curve. which is lifting the liquid into the tank and gives is velocity.

The energy level after the pump is compound of static energy (liquid are lifted a given value Y). The balance of the energy is then: (m x g x X) + (m x po/r) + m x g x H = (m x g x Y) + (m x p2/r) + 1/2 x m x c22 where the real pump head H is: H = (p2 . When the liquid level in the tank is lowered toward the end of the unloading.x) One can see how the tank pressure and levels affect the simplified calculation of the lifting height of the pump.p0)/(r x g) + (y . 10. . The equation can be used to calculate theoretic consequences of the changes on the existing centrifugal pump. this will influence on the rest.10. lifting height. kinetic energy (given backpressure p2) and velocity energy (velocity of the liquid c2). A higher tank pressure gives lower lifting height. the lifting height increases with hence following reduction in the capacity. effect and number of revolutions for a centrifugal pump.2 Affinity equation The affinity equation is an expression that demonstrates the proportionally relation between flow rate. If one of these element changes.The liquid is lifted out of the cargo tank. and with that larger capacity.

6 Equation 4 The theoretical need of power (P) for a pump is: P = r x g x Q x H where: = density of the liquid in kg/m3 Change of the operation of the pump gives the following connections: P1/P2 = (c1/c2)3 = (n1/n2)3 Peripheral speed (v) for a pumps impeller is: v = (p x d x n)/60 where: d = impeller diameter . This is defined as: Q1/Q2 = c1/c2 = n1/n2 where: Q1 = Capacity before changes Q2 = Capacity after changes c1 = velocity of the liquid before changes c2 = velocity of the liquid after changes n1 = revolution of impeller before changes n2 = revolution of impeller after changes 10. and can be defined as: c = Q/A where: c = velocity of the liquid in m/s Q = volume flow through the pump in m3/hrs A = cross section of the pipe in m2 10.10. is an expression for flow rate through the pump.3 Equation 1 The velocity of the liquid from a pump. the number of revolutions. Higher number of revolutions of an impeller gives larger velocity of the liquid.10.10.5 Equation 3 Lifting head of a pump are given by the following expression: H = c2/2g where: H = pump lifting head in mlc c = velocity of the liquid in m/s g = gravitation in m/s2 We then se that the pump lifting head is proportional with c2 and equation 2 can be changed to: H1/H2 = c12/c22 = n12/n22 10.10.4 Equation 2 The velocity of the liquid from a pump is dependent from the impellers velocity.10. which again gives larger capacity.

Screw pumps and piston pumps will be viewed further in this . In displacement pumps. which contains higher pressure than the surroundings. the pump also has to maintain the energy. the liquid’s flow has increased or as pressure energy. A pump’s purpose in transport of liquids.10. As mentioned. The pump increases the liquid’s energy. As an example. This is due to that the loss of the pump is not directly proportional with the flow rate.10.In addition to the mentioned increase of energy. only effect small changes of the rotor-blade wheels diameter. which is lost due to streaming in the system.7 Equation 5 Above mentioned expression can be summarised as: H1/H2 = (c1/c2)2 = (n1 x d1)2 / (n2 x d2)2 where the condition in the alteration of the pump effect is: P1/P2 = (d1/d2)5 x (n1/n2)3 One shall notice that the three last expression for flow rate. the liquid is transported from a low level to a higher level.8 Equation 6 A combination of equation 4 and 5 can the relation between lifting head and volume flow give the hydraulic operation of the pump as follows: H1/H2 = (Q1/Q2)2 = constant or H = k x Q2 10. usually are to pump from a low level to a higher level. Then a pressure increase occurs. lifting height an effect.11 Displacement pumps Pumps are very old machines. The increased energy is potential energy. Its purpose can also be to pump a liquid into a tank. if the liquid is pumped into a tank with a higher pressure than its surroundings. This is the kinetic energy. 10. lifting height an effect. The first types of pumps (screw pump and piston pump) are more than two thousand years old. kinetic pumps constantly have liquid streaming through the pump with pressure increasing simultaneously. Large changing of the diameter will give bigger effect of the flow rate. a certain volume of liquid is branched off and moved from the pump’s delivery side.When the impeller diameter and the peripheral speed is variable the following equation can be used: v1/v2 = d1/d2 = n1/n2 When the velocity of the liquid is proportional with impeller speed can we use the following equation: c1/c2 = v1/v2 = d1/d2 = n1/n2 = Q1/Q2 or: Q1/Q2 = (n1 x d1) / (n2 x d2) 10. the feed water pump to a boiler is working using these principles.

lines and cargo pumps are pumped ashore through a small diameter line. but have no metallic contact. etc. A common and well-known screw pump is the Swedish manufactured so-called IMO pump. A wide range of displacement pumps is available. where one of them is activated. When the screw rotates. The liquid does not stream in a smooth flow as in a centrifugal pump. the suction valve will close. the side screw rotates in the opposite direction of the middle screw. The liquid is not exposed to rotation. ring pump. The valve is a weak point. The screws tighten to each other and to the housing. such as the lamella pump. This pump consists of one active screw placed in the middle and two symmetrical side screws. They are sensitive to liquid pollution and they also increase the resistance against streaming.1 Piston pump The piston pump is used for relatively small amounts of liquid with large delivery heads. the pump must have a relatively slow piston speed.2 Screw pump The screw pump consists of two screws or more. In this pump. propeller pump. the limitation is the automotive power and the material strength. Usually. These oil deposits from cargo tanks. but are also used as a stripping pump on oil tankers.11. The screw pumps are used a lot as a lubricating pump. The piston pump does not have to be filled with liquid before starting. The screws are placed inside a pump house.chapter. The pump is self-priming. Because of the pump’s movements. This is of inconvenience with long pipelines. The liquid is displaced by axial through the pump. The piston pump may sustain almost unlimited pressure. 10. for instance. 10. the delivery valve is set open and the liquid sent out of the pump. which is used to pump cargo deposits ashore at the end of the discharging operation. These screws are working like an endless piston which constantly moves forward. The efficiency of piston pumps is higher than. The suction valve will then open and liquid streams into the pump. This is the pump. the piston pump is double acting. running almost soundless and with little exposure for wear and tear when pumping clean liquids. but accelerates and slows alternately. Make sure that all the valves on the delivery side are open before starting. centrifugal pumps. However. When the piston is pressed downward the pressure will increase. . the threads are filled with liquid.11. a vacuum occurs inside the pump housing. When the piston is pulled upwards. The piston pump is a well-known pump on board an oil tanker.

11- Cargo Handling Routines .

11. MARPOL 73/78. and STCW 78/95. Over time we can observe the various types of cargoes to see if there are any changes regarding health hazards or environmental pollution. ship and safety equipment. One example is VCM “Vinyl Chloride” that had a TLV of 50 ppm in the early 1980s. . which is the UN’s maritime division.Routines when cargo handling 11. As we gain more experience and knowledge about accidents.1 International rules There is three international conventions to protect the environment and those are SOLAS (1974) with protocol of 1978 and appendixes to 1991. In order to ratify IMO rules and legislation’s. and Safety Equipment Certificate. What kinds of cargoes we can carry and which types of gas carriers that may carry the various cargoes depend on the toxicity of the cargo. The various cargoes that is allowed for transport on gas carriers and the types of gas carriers that may carry the them is updated as we gain better knowledge about the products. a given number of the IMO member states must to abide by them. The toxicity ratings of the various cargoes will always change over time as we gain more information about their potential health hazards.1. and it is very seldom that new products came into the market with 100% guaranty that they are safe in all manners.1 LEGISLATION AND RULES All transportation of liquefied gas is controlled by international and national legislation. The IMO has set up a minimum of standards that all gas carriers must be constructed and classed according to. depends on what precautions have been taken in the vessel’s design and construction. All flag and port states may have there own set of rules and legislation that differ from the IMO rules. The international legislation is set up by IMO. to prevent cargoes from pollute the environment. the rules and regulations will be updated to avoid similar accidents from happening again in the future. the laws and rules will be revised to fit what has been learned. but in the 1990s the TLV had been changed to 2 ppm. SOLAS «Safety of Life at Sea» contain rules and legislation’s on safety certificates such as: Safety Construction Certificate. All new laws and legislations are renewed and updated when the old rules are no longer appropriate for it’s original intent. Some cargoes have changed TLV from 400 ppm to 1 ppm. Over time when as we gain more knowledge. The reason for this is the experience we have got with the cargo. What types of cargoes a gas carrier may transport. These three certificates cover the safety of crew. Safety Radio Certificate.

MARPOL defines clean water as water with less than 15 ppm of contamination. SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as amended by GMDSS amdts.3 special requirements for ships carrying dangerous goods Dangerous goods manifest or stowage plan SOLAS 1974 regulation VII/5(3) MARPOL «International Conference on Marine Pollution» contains rules and regulations that are designed to protect the environment from pollution on a short and long term basis.3 Certificates and documents related to MARPOL 73/78 required to be onboard according to SOLAS 92 appendix 3: International Oil Pollution MARPOL 73/78 annex 1 Prevention Certificate regulation 5 Oil Record Book MARPOL 73/78 annex 1 regulation 20 Dangerous goods manifest or MARPOL 73/78 annex III stowage plan regulation 4 .1.11.1. and also what equipment we must have onboard to prevent pollution of the environment. MARPOL specifies what we are allowed to pump or throw overboard. Minimum safe Manning document SOLAS 1974/89 Regulation V/13b Document of compliance with the SOLAS 1974 regulation II-2/54.2 Certificates and documents we are required to have onboard according to SOLAS 74/92 appendix 3: Intact Stability Booklet Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate SOLAS 1974 Regulation II-1/22 SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as amended by GMDSS amdts. 11. SOLAS 1974 Regulation I/2 as amended by GMDSS amdts.

4 Certificates and documents related to STCW 78/95. · IGC code International code for construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk. officers or STCW 78/95 article VI ratings IMO «IMO Gas Code» contains rules and regulations that are meant to make the transport of liquefied gases as safe as possible for persons onboard as well as the environment. 11. Part A contains the minimum standard requirements for qualification of all personal on various types of ships. The vessels Certificate of Fitness states which cargoes the vessel is permitted to carry.1. The gas codes contain requirements for the construction of gas carriers. In the gas code we also find a list of products that are classified as liquefied gases.STCW 78/95 «Seafarers’ Training. we are required to have onboard according to SOLAS 92 appendix 3 Certificate for masters. The gas code also covers toxic cargo and what types of safety devices are required to carry those cargoes. Especially important are instruments for atmospheric measurements and personal safety equipment. STCW 78/95 was implemented 1st February 1997 and is based on two parts. leakage after collision/ grounding and cargo compartments. Certification and Watch keeping» contains rules and regulations on qualification certificates of officers and rating onboard vessels. Part B contains the minimum requirements of what all personal need to know in order to receive a certificate for their various ranks on all types of ships. Code for construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk. as specified for in the vessels Certificate of Fitness. as well as the requirements covering how those cargoes are to be transported. We are required to always have onboard the personal safety protection equipment for the type cargo we are carrying. This includes requirements on stability. · · Code for existing ships carrying Liquefied gases in bulk. . There are three gas codes issued by IMO.

fire and safety plan. shore line pressure. if possible when the vessel is new. The vessels Class Company can issue the RINA certificate if it is approved by RINA. All countries try to protect own territorial waters against pollution. Then we have some local rules around the world that does not allow gas carriers to navigate after dark. In the USA the US Coast Guard issue a Certificate of Compliance on all gas carriers that are to load or discharge in US waters. The ship/ shore checklist must state if there are any restrictions on wind speed or the . Italy issues all vessels that carry gas in Italian waters an Italian safety certificate called “RINA”. The RINA certificate is renewed and surveyed together with the vessels IMO Certificate of Fitness. navigation after sunset etc. The Norwegian Maritime Directorate uses the Class Companies to issue certificates and to conduct surveys on those vessels.1. Those drawings and plans must be sent to the USCG in long before the vessels first arrival US waters. One main difference between IMO and USCG is that in US they have a higher standard of security regarding strength on pressure vessels. those rules are applicable for all vessels in NOR or NIS. Gas carriers that are built according to IMO gas code have no problem in attaining a Certificate of Compliance. Those rules cover for the most part measurements of vessels. That means that most of the gas carriers have one safety relief valve setting according to IMO and a lower one according to USCG. Local rules may be stricter on clean water. Some ports have regulations concerning the wind speeds. GA plan.5 Local rules Some port states have local rules that are stricter than the IMO rules and are designed to protect local waters. Japan has their own rules and certificates on gas carriers. all gas carriers that visit US waters are to be inspected by the US Coast Guard in accordance to the vessels Certificate of Compliance. There are three countries that have especially strict rules and have a large amounts of import and export of liquefied gases and those are: USA.11. Japanese authorities will survey all gas carriers that handle cargo in Japan. According to US rules and regulations. they can require that the vessel must go in dock for new measurements. Gas carriers that fail the US Coast Guard inspection will not be permitted to birth before the vessel has fulfilled the standards set by the Certificate of Compliance. That means there are other net and gross weights on the vessel in Japan than on the IMO load line certificate. Italy and Japan. If the documentation on the vessel is found unsatisfactory by the authorities. The owner of the vessel must send the USCG diagrams of the mid ship section. In Norway it is the Norwegian Maritime Directorate that makes all the local rules.

In the Exxon vessel inspection guide we can find references to all publications they require us to have onboard. and what temperature we are to discharge the cargo. Information about the terminals is found in the “Guide to port entry” or from the agents. the latest IMO gas code for the type of gas carrier we are on.2 LOADING ROUTINES Before we can commence loading we need a confirmed loading order from the owner. ambient or on a given temperature. It may also state what size there is on the terminal lines and flanges.height of waves. The cargo loading temperature is given either fully refrigerated. The most important publications we must have onboard are: SOLAS 74/92 latest edition. cargo handling. ICS. terminals or your own company. Ambient means the temperature is equal to the air temperature if . Vessels that are registered in either NOR or NIS must have the latest edition of the Norwegian Maritime Directorate rules.6 Publications We required to always have onboard the latest edition of publications related to cargo. MOLCO means that it is the charter that states the quantity. The quantity to be loaded is given in metric tons. Further we find information about the load port and discharge port.1. In addition we must have the guidelines and publications from SIGTTO. There are three different ways to state the quantity. represented by the captain that states the quantity to be loaded. STCW 78/95 latest edition. ship to ship transfer etc. at which temperature we will receive the cargo.5% MOLOO 4000 mt +. MARPOL 73/78 latest edition. 11. OCIMF and USCG. ICS Tanker safety guide liquefied gas. 11. In the loading order we will find the quantity to be loaded.5% MOLCO 4000 mt Then we can load from 3800 mt to 4200 mt on owners option Then we can load from 3800 mt to 4200 mt on charterer option Then we have to load 4000 mt MOLOO means that it is the owner. and ICS Ship to ship transfer guide for liquefied gases. either: 4000 mt +. SPM.

g. then we use the manifold for tanks 3+4. Taking out small pipes on the cargo lines does segregation. those pipe parts are called “spool pieces”. so try to keep your spool pieces orderly. The spool pieces are taken out of the lines and the main line is blanked of flange covers. When we are loading and we need to run the cargo plant. We need thermometers on the outside of the tank shell in order to achieve the proper temperature. then we must separate the cargoes from each other. the ambient temperature. and whether we do or do not have vapour return. All spool pieces are marked according to the diagram. cargo cooling plants and lines. we can calculate the temperature of the cargo from the absolute pressure. When we are loading a partial cargo we must try to use the manifold that is linked directly to the tank that we are loading. in this case 4 bar. To find the filling limit we can either use the operation manual for the vessel or the cargo density table. The maximum allowed filling limit when loading is 98% and it is the safety relief valve setting and the cargo temperature that give the filling limit. It also states what temperature the cargo is to be discharged at. It depends on the temperatures and the flexibility of the plant.g. It is stated in the Certificate of Fitness how the lines and compressors can be segregated. When we have the basic information on the cargo. and cargo lines and spool pieces must be readied. If we are set up to load two different cargoes e. If we have 4 cargo tanks there could be a possible segregation with cargo tank 1+2 and 3+4. and the arrangement of the lines to the cargo tanks. Before we arrive port the cargo tank shell must be chilled down. we must try to get the temperature on the outside on the cargo tank shell below –35oC before we start loading. there are various ways to run the plant.3 and 4.the shore tank is located on the surface. the time used for loading will be reduced. the optimal is less than 10oC above cargo loading temperature. the amount of cargo remaining on board. ethylene and propane. We then calculate the filling limit in each cargo tank and then plan the loading rate. . Before we can commence loading we have to cool down the tank shell as mush as possible. We also have to segregate the cargo cooling plant e. Only then will we be able to reduce the time used in port. two plants are used for ethylene and one is used for the propane. we must start planning the loading. When using the density table. Many of the spool pieces have the same diameter but have a different length. When the cargo tank shell is chilled down before arrival. If we are going to load fully refrigerated propane. so there should not be any problem keeping them organised. We call that segregation of cargo tanks. The loading rate is determined by three factors: cargo temperature. The resulting temperature of the tank shell depends on how much time is used. Normally the spool pieces are mounted on the cargo lines. If we are going to load on tanks 2.

and we must do our utmost to avoid uncontrolled venting. The hot gas is produced by the vessel’s cargo compressor or from the shore tank or terminal’s compressor. After completion of the loading. On some terminals we also have to connected a vapour line. the liquid is either pumped or pressured onboard from the shore tank. It is very important that we are familiar with both the vessels and the terminals emergency routines. When using this method we must keep a close watch so we do not get so much nitrogen into the cargo tanks. loading log. When we transfer cargo from other vessels. we need to free the loading hose/ arm of liquid by use of hot gas. only the liquid line is connected to the terminal. load planning. To avoid high pressure in the vessel’s cargo tanks we need to pressure control the cargo in the tanks. 11. but it is only for emergency use. The cargo tank vapour will then be led to the vessels vent mast. Uncontrolled venting happen when the cargo tanks pressures rise to the set point of the safety relief valves and they open. Read carefully the checklists and pay special attention to any notes about maximum pressure or minimum temperatures on the loading hose/ arm. the vessel’s cargo tank pressure must be lower than the shore tanks pressure.1 Loading without vapour return When loading without vapour return. If we are loading by pressure. On some terminals they use nitrogen to free the hose/ arm of liquid. This way of loading is mostly used on fully pressurised vessels.When loading. To avoid uncontrolled venting we have to reduce the loading rate or stop loading if we can not increase the cooling capacity. ship/ shore checklist and a time sheet.2. and goes directly to flare. To control the pressure we use the cargo cooling plant. When we are loading by pumps we must follow the cargo tanks pressure to hold it below the safety valve set point. All deviations from the planning have to be noted in the deck logbook and discussed with the loading master/ safety officer. During the entire loading process we must check the tank pressure. The cargo liquid is pumped or pressured to vessel’s cargo tanks through the liquid lines. so that we all know what to do if there is a cargo leak or uncontrolled venting. we must follow our company quality manual and the ICS Ship to Ship Transfer Guide. The vessel’s plans for loading have to be discussed and agreed to by the terminal loading master and safety officer. Before we commence loading cargo it must be issued a checklist. .

When we reduce the loading rate the cargo temperature from shore will increase. When we are sure that there is no leakage’s and the cargo tank shell is close to the same temperature as the cargo. it is important to check the cargo tank pressure all the time while loading.2 Loading without vapour return but use of cargo cooling plant When commencing loading.2. If we can increase the cooling plant capacity.3 Loading with vapour return The safest and fastest way to load is when we have vapour return. 11. and that can be done on all types of gas carriers. It is important for the vessel to load at the rate that is stated in the charter party or is agreed to by the loading master. we have to do it before reducing the loading rate. When we are loading with vapour return the liquid hose/ arm is connected to the vessel’s liquid manifold and the vapour hose/ arm connected to the vessel’s vapour manifold.2. if the cargo cooling plant is on maximum capacity. we will then have to clarify it with the loading master and it must be noted in the deck logbook. The cargo liquid is pumped or pressured onboard through the vessel’s liquid lines and to the cargo tanks that are to be loaded. On all types of gas carriers. we always start with a slow rate to check that there is not any leakage on the terminal lines/ arms/ hoses or the vessel lines/ valves. we can either reduce the loading rate or stop loading. . If we have to reduce the loading rate due to foul gas. The cargo tanks excess pressure is evacuated through the vessel’s vapour lines to shore.11. we can then increase the loading rate slowly to the agreed maximum rate. In order to avoid having too much pressure in the cargo tanks when loading. While we are increasing the loading rate we must watch the cargo tank pressure carefully. We have to do our outmost to avoid uncontrolled venting.

When vapour return exists. How mush vapour we can send to shore must be agreed upon with the loading master before commencement of loading.Before we commence evacuating any vapour from the vessel we must be sure that the vapour is returned to the shore tank and not to flare. if we load propane and the cargo tank pressure is taken down to near 0 bar. If we have a direct cargo cooling plant we condense the vapour in the cargo condenser and the condensate is pressured to the cargo tank. we cool down the cargo tank shell or the vapour phase in the cargo tank. Before we open the vapour manifold valve to send vapour to shore we must be sure that the vapour goes back to the shore tank and not to flare. we can increase or reduce the amount of vapour to shore by throttling the vapour manifold valve. in doing so the vapour return will help us great deal. the cargo temperature will be about -42oC. the terminal can develop problems with the shore tank pressure. While we are loading we must try to keep the cargo tank pressure as low as possible. If the vapour is sent to flare.2. 11. If the vapour is evacuated to flare. If we have an indirect cargo cooling plant. we use the vessel’s cargo cooling plant.4 Loading with cargo cooling plant and vapour return In addition to the vapour return. It is the terminal’s capacity to receive vapour that determines the rate of vapour the vessel can send to shore while loading. the vessel will be charged for the amount that is burned in the flare. We must be aware that if we evacuate more vapour than is agreed to. On fully pressurised gas carriers we must not send to shore so much vapour that the cargo is chilled down to less than –10oC. the vessel will be charged for the amount of vapour that is burned. . As an example.

11. will be contaminated if the content of oxygen is to high. As long as the cargo plants are running.After the loading is completed the terminal loading hose/ arm has to be freed of liquid. type of cargo. cargo tank insulation. we must minimise the amount of nitrogen to the cargo tanks. The maximum loading rate depends on the cargo temperature. 0. capacity of the cargo heater. If the terminal is using nitrogen. Try to blow the line into one cargo tank only. and maintenance cost will be reduced. If we get to much nitrogen in the cargo tanks. the ambient temperature and the length of the sea voyage. insulation on the cargo tanks and the length of the sea voyage. size of the loading lines and the ambient temperature. 11.1 Cooling of the cargo while at sea On fully refrigerated gas carriers we do not have any choice. that stops the compressor when there is to low suction pressure. In addition to the charter party. we have to watch that we don’t get vacuum in the cargo tanks. To evacuate the liquid from the loading hose/ arm we either use the vessel cargo compressors and blow hot vapour. and in the worst case we may have an uncontrolled venting. To avoid a vacuum in the cargo tank there may be a pressure switch on the suction side of the cargo compressor or on the cargo tank connected to the cargo compressor. the vessels cargo handling equipment performance is important. the shore tank liquid level and the cargo temperature will be reduced and the vapour phase increased. How to run the cargo cooling plants at sea depends on the plant itself. The fewer cargo plants and hours we are running the plants. the terminal can take more vapour from the vessel. temperature of the cargo tank shell before commence loading. When loading with a high rate. especially the capacity of the cargo cooling plant. We must try to maintain a positive cargo tank pressure e. Some cargoes are to be discharged fully refrigerated.01 bar or higher. .3 ROUTINES WHEN COOLING OR HEATING CARGO AT SEA Cargo procedures while the vessel is at sea depend on what has been stated in the charter party. while others at a given temperature. When the liquid level and the cargo temperature is reduced. we will develop too high condenser pressure and our cargo compressors may stop. When loading fully refrigerated or semi-refrigerated gas carriers we must try to evacuate as much vapour to shore as possible in order to get the lowest possible cargo tank pressure. cargo cooling plant capacity. this is to avoid air leaks into the cargo tank. the lower fuel consumption do we have. Some cargoes like ethylene and butadiene. or the terminal uses nitrogen and blows onboard.3.g. we must maintain a low pressure and temperature of the cargo.

We must also record when we have changed condensate and to which tank we have pumped the condensate. On fully refrigerated gas carriers there are no options for heating the cargo at sea. On fully pressurised gas carriers we can only control the cargo tank pressure if there is cargo compressor onboard. if not. than with a fully refrigerated gas carrier. If the vessel is equipped with cargo heater we may heat the cargo when discharging.g. capacity of the cooling plants. Try to cool down the cargo as mush as possible before you enter into bad weather. the ambient temperature. We will then be able to discharge the cargo earlier if we are sent to another port of call. That means we normally control the cargo temperature and pressure and do not lower it. We can also use indirect cargo plant and pump e. Read the charter party/ loading order carefully and run the cargo cooling plants as economically as possible. The number of cargo cooling plants we have to use depends on the cargo. The seawater temperature has a major influence on your cooling capacity. Pressure is defined as the movement of molecules. there are normally three different ways to heat the cargo.On semi-refrigerated gas carriers we have a few more options how we may handle cargo at sea. In the cargo-cooling log we must record the various pressures. Depending of the vessel’s cargo equipment. We may use the cargo compressor to blow hot vapour down into the liquid in the cargo tank. Higher seawater temperature results in reduced cooling capacity. . We can pump the cargo through the cargo heater to another cargo tank. and when a vessel is pitching or rolling the molecules will move faster and the result is higher cargo tank pressure.3. Always check the weather forecast and air temperatures for your voyage. This to avoid overfilling of cargo tanks and interrupt the cargo cooling process. temperatures and ampere for each of the cargo cooling plants. When the cargo cooling plants is running we must fill out the cargo-cooling log. depending on the charter party. We may either maintain the cargo temperature or cool down the cargo. 11. The cargo tank steel of fully pressurised gas carriers are normally designed for minimum temperature of –10C°. so we must be prepared to discharge the cargo earlier than planned. ethanol in coils either outside of the cargo tank shell or in the vapour phase inside the tank.2 Heating of cargo on the voyage The charter party or loading order must state if we have to heat the cargo on the sea voyage before discharging. we have to vent the vapour to the atmosphere. We must always keep in mind that cooling down the cargo demands a lot of energy. length of the sea voyage and the insulation of the cargo tanks. We must try to cool down the cargo to the discharge temperature as soon as possible and then maintain the temperature the rest of the voyage. As long as the cargo is onboard it may be sold to another customer.

The discharging plan must contain which cargo tanks are to be discharged. operation manual. When we can turn the shaft by hand we may then start the pump. All deviations from the discharge plan or checklist must be noted in the deck logbook and cleared with the terminal. the captain must get a written permission from the owner to discharge the cargo. and the sequence and rate of the discharging. fill out the ship/ shore safety checklist. When the discharge plan is agreed to. The discharge plan and all checklists must be signed and followed by the vessel and the terminal. When we check all the tanks while we are heating the cargo we can avoid overfilling any of the cargo tanks. If we have submerged pumps this is normally not a problem.On semi-pressurised gas carriers we may heat the cargo during the sea voyage if we have the cargo equipment for it. and size of the terminal lines and flanges. . The captain can receive this information either from the agents or directly from the terminal. either by pumps or by pressure. We must also prepare the correct reducer to fit the terminal flanges. The vessels discharge plan must be discussed with the terminal before commence discharging. When all the information is received we must make a discharging plan. If shore backpressure is very high we must use a booster pump in addition to the ordinary cargo pumps or cargo tank pressure. we must keep in mind of the shaft bearings and the shaft itself when the vessel is pitching or rolling. and record the cargo heating log temperatures and soundings on all tanks. As we pump liquid from one cargo tank to another we must check the sounding on the cargo tank we are pumping to. such as the discharge temperature given in charter party. If the cargo has to be heated and we need to use a booster pump. and they depend on the cargo equipment onboard and the facilities at the terminal. and agreement must be made with the terminal as to the minimum/ maximum cargo temperature and maximum backpressure. There are two main methods used in discharging a gas carrier. Then we pump the cargo from one tank through the cargo heater and then to another cargo tank. There are different methods for discharging a gas carrier. 11. The cargo pumps we plan to use have to be checked according to the manufacturer’s specification ref. The most effective way to heat the cargo is to use the cargo pumps and the cargo heater.4 ROUTINES WHEN DISCHARGING Before we may commence discharging any cargo. backpressure on the terminal. Check closely the oil and mechanical seals. Certain information is needed before arriving at discharge port. Check the sounding in the other cargo tanks also. If we use deep well pumps. When we use cargo pumps to discharge the cargo we must first check that the pump is free by turning the pump shaft by hand.

That means we have to compensate for the lost pressure. the tank that receives our cargo must have a lower pressure than our own. If the terminal asks the vessel to reduce the rate then we must comply. in the worst case the terminal will stop discharging and the vessel is charged for the delay. we start the process by using only one pump. Always while discharging we must record in the deck logbook if there have been any deviations from the discharge plan. to high temperature of the cargo.1 Discharging by cargo tank over pressure When we must discharge the cargo tank by pressure. or they can arrange a vapour return to the vessel. This way of discharging is the simplest. it is always the terminal that sets the rate and required the cargo temperature. When the line is chilled down we then close the valve down to the cargo tank and open the pressure valve a little bit more. and that is done either by hot gas from the vessel or shore. or by nitrogen from shore. The delivery valve on the pump is only slightly open as well as the one back to the cargo tank. To avoid increased cargo tank pressure it is best to stop the pump. If the vessel must use the cargo cooling plant while discharging. . If the shore tank pressure is to high the terminal must flare the excess pressure. Check that there is no leakage on the vessel’s lines and valves and as well as the terminal lines. or the cargo compressors on shore may have to small capacity. If we throttle the pressure valve. permission to do so must be stated in the charter party or agreed to by the receiver so that the vessel will be compensated for the extra fuel consumption.4. To reduce the rate we either throttle the pressure valve on a pump or stop a pump. This way of discharging can be done by semi and fully pressurised gas carriers.When the terminal and the vessel are ready to commence discharging. Reasons for the high shore tank pressure may be either a discharge rate that is high. we then generate pressure in that cargo tank. When both the vessel and terminal lines are chilled down we can increase the discharge rate according to the discharge plan and on the terminal advice. Do not increase the discharge rate more than what the terminal has asked for. 11. Onboard we must do the utmost to avoid any claims from the terminal. While discharging. the cargo tank pressure also decrease. but when the liquid level decreases. If the vessel refuses to reduce the rate the terminal can stop the discharging and then hold the vessel responsible for the delay or damage caused by the high discharge rate.

but watch the temperature of the liquid manifold.2 Discharging with centrifugal pumps The most common pumps on gas carriers are centrifugal pumps. All changes from the discharge plan or checklists must be reported in the deck logbook. Normally we can by-pass the heater with some cargo. Check the oil level and the mechanical seal when the pump is running. Never pump cargo to shore with lower temperature than the minimum temperature given in the checklist. the cargo heater may be damaged and start leaking. Record in the discharge log pump pressure and ampere and discharge volume every hour. either of deep well or submerged type. While we are running the cargo pumps we have to check that the pump is running the correct direction and the liquid level is reduced in the cargo tank.4. In the worst case the shoreline may be damaged.3 Discharging through the cargo heater Sometimes we may have to discharge the cargo with a higher temperature than we have in our cargo tanks. When transferring cargo from one vessel to another we must follow the company quality manual and the ICS Ship to Ship Transfer Guide. In those cases we use our cargo heater while discharging. 11. If we have to discharge against high backpressure then we also need to use the booster pump either onboard or at the terminal. The booster pumps must be used if the backpressure is higher than maximum pressure for the pumps in the cargo tank. Most of the pumps also have a non-return valve on the pressure side to avoid leaks if the pump has or are stopped. Most gas carriers have one pump in each cargo tank and they are also normally equipped with one or more booster pumps on deck. While transferring cargo either ship to ship or ship to shore there must be a good communication between the two parties. When discharging fully refrigerated and semi-pressurised gas carriers we normally only use the pumps in the cargo tanks. On new cargo pumps there is an anti rotating device to protect the pump from running the wrong way. depending on backpressure and the rate agreed upon. We must never increase the pump pressure higher than the pressure limit on the terminal discharging hose/ arm. Seawater or oil is used as a heating medium. Booster pumps can be set up either in a series or parallel.4. however some terminals do not accept water as heating medium. When using the cargo heater we must first check that the heating medium is circulating.11. If the water is freezing. When we have checked that the heating medium is circulating we may then pump cargo through the heater. . If we are using water as heating medium we must keep the seawater temperature from dropping below 5oC as it goes out of the heater.

we must heat the cargo tank shell 118oC. we only need to be liquid free. inert gas generator and the cargo fan. Less cargo through the heater will result in lower temperatures and higher flow “discharge rate”. toxic or neutral gases and the tank atmosphere is pure air. If the water temperature is 5oC or less we must not use the cargo heater unless we have facilities to heat the water before we pump it to the cargo heater. The tanks are gas free when they are free of flammable. It is always the heating process that takes the longest time when gas freeing. If we must discharge at a terminal that does not accept our heater type. Gas freeing is very expensive whether we gas free a single tank or the whole vessel. As an example if we start with –99oC in the cargo tank and the ambient temperature is 19oC. 11. To gas free cargo tanks we use the vessel’s cargo compressors. and we must try to avoid those unnecessary costs. such as propane and butane can be loaded on each vapour phase. Some terminals do not allow the use of cargo heaters that utilise water as heating medium. The time we need to gas free the vessel depends on the cargo ROB and what type the next cargo is. The manifold temperature is adjusted by bypassing the cargo heater. When we have to gas free cargo tanks.The cargo temperature on the vessel’s liquid manifold depends on the amount of cargo that is pumped through the cargo heater. The reason that those two temperatures are important is that we have to heat the tank shell the same amount of degrees as the difference between the two temperatures. they require oil as medium. we must discharge as much liquid as possible so that we can reduce the time used to liquid free the tank.5 ROUTINES DURING CHANGE OF CARGO All gas freeing operations requires a statement in the charter party or direct orders from the company operation. When we have received a confirmation from the charterer or owner that we are to change cargo. Normally we have to gas free all the cargo tanks when we are changing cargo and there must be visual inspection made of the cargo tanks. Other reasons for gas freeing cargo tanks are for example times when we have to repair anything in the tank or when we have to go in dry-dock. we must set up a plan for the cargo change. Those are the temperature of the cargo tanks when start the gas freeing process. Other products such as ethylene and butadiene require that we are gas free before gassing up with the cargo to be loaded. we then must try to heat the cargo at sea. There is two temperatures we have to keep in mind when gas freeing. Some products we may carry. and the expected air temperature when we commence blowing air. .

It depends on the type of gas carrier we are on and the pipes in the cargo tanks. While we are inerting. that way we will get the most effective purging. When we blow hot gas. The HC content will be .5. When there is no more liquid left in the cargo tank. As long as we have liquid the cargo tank pressure will increase as we blow hot gas. The purge tank is a small tank “pressure vessel” located either on deck or in a hold space. To liquid free the tanks we can either blow hot gas down in the pump sump or pressurise the tank and empty the tank through the empty blow line. If we blow through the pump we must check that the pump does not start to rotate.11.g.1 Gas freeing The first we have to do when gas freeing is to liquid free the cargo tanks. The inert gases have to be as dry and warm as possible before we send it to the cargo tank. empty blow line or the pump. 2% by volume. Then we have to vent off the cargo tanks pressure. we blow it either through the condensate line. either through the vapour manifold into the water or to the vessels vent mast. Displacements purging means the cargo atmosphere is pressed out by the inert gas. When we have reached atmospheric pressure in the cargo tank we can commence to inert or purge the cargo tanks with nitrogen. Continue to blow hot gas down in the cargo tank until we have about 5oC above the seawater temperature. During the whole inert operation we have to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for HC vapour content until we reach the planned content less or equal to LEL or the limit stated in the company QA manual. When we have difference’s in the density it is easier to achieve a good displacement purging. If we are using inert gas the oxygen content by volume has to be less than 5%. that is an IMO requirement. When the hot gas is blown down in the pump sump the liquid will be boiled off. On fully refrigerated gas carriers we must watch the cargo tank pressure at all times to avoid an uncontrolled venting. pressure will be stabilised and only the tank shell temperature will increase. Start the inerting with as low rate as possible. We must try to have as high pressure in the tank as possible when we liquid free the tank. We must try to hold as low cargo tank pressure as possible while we are inerting to avoid turbulence in the cargo tank. We then stop the cargo compressors when we have reached the planned cargo tank temperature. Read the temperature on both sides of the cargo tank shell. If the vessel is equipped with a heater on the inert gas line we must use it to make use of the density difference between the inert gas and the cargo vapour. Keep in mind that the cargo tank shell can have a thickness of 20 mm or more. the oxygen content will not be higher than the oxygen content we have set on the inert gas generator e. Just after we have commenced the inerting we have to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for HC vapour in the part of the cargo tank we have blown inn the inert gas. The differences in density tell us if we must blow the inert gas through the cargo tank vapour or liquid line. If the vessel is equipped with purge tanks or we have a gas recovery plant we can use the cargo compressors and condensate the overpressure to the purge tank.

The kinds of equipment we use depend on the vessel’s cargo equipment. cargo fan. the line for critical mixture with 2% oxygen by volume gives 4% HC content by volume. It is important that we also inert all liquid lines. When we have less HC content than LEL on the actual cargo we can commence ventilating the cargo tank with air. so we have to inert until we reach 1. While we are venting with air we have to measure the oxygen content and also check that the HC content is reduced to 0% by volume. to have a neutral atmosphere in them. .CO2 (Carbon monoxide . Before we stop the air ventilation we have to measure the cargo tank atmosphere for 0% by volume of CO . 11.5% by volume. As an example the LEL on propane is 2% by volume. condensers and cargo compressors before we stop the inerting. CO Carbon monoxide CO is a very toxic gas and extreme caution should be taken prior to entering a tank that has been previously inerted and ventilated.2 Example on displacement purging In the IMO regulations we must use a safety factor of 2 as the margin for error on measurement and instruments.reduced as long as we are inerting and we do not stop the inerting before we have reached the LEL for the actual cargo. If the vessel is equipped with a vent heater we must use it to get as warm and dry air as possible. That means that when we draw flammability diagram. Equipment we can use when venting cargo tanks with air are cargo compressors. booster compressor or portable cargo fans.5. We then have to inert until we read 2% HC by volume before we commence ventilating with air. inert gas blower.Carbon dioxide) and the oxygen content must be 21% by volume.

108. the air will condense on the steel and we will get water in the tank.30 g/m3 6. will produce 10.625 g/m3.75 g/m3 7.5 g/m3 and 75% humidity gives us then 17.20 g/m3 23.20 g/m3 23.50 g/m3 24. If we are venting with 10000 m3/h. Temp Water 4°C 5°C 6°C 24°C 25°C 26°C 6.625 g/m3 – 6.75 g/m3 7.75 g/m3 = 10. Temp.50 g/m3 24.22 g/m3 22.30 g/m3 6. If the cargo tank shell has a temperature that is much lower than the air. 4oC 5oC 6oC 24oC 25oC 26oC Water 6.The HC content in the cargo tanks can not be higher then when we started venting with air. The humidity and temperature of the air we use for venting gives us the necessary temperature of the cargo tank shell. At 5oC the maximum water content can be 6.75 g/m3 of water condensation.22 g/m3 22.75 g/m3 that give 17. unless we have forgotten to purge any lines or other cargo equipment’s.80 g/m3 At 25oC the maximum content of water is 23.87 g/m3 water.7 kg .80 g/m3 For example at an ambient temperature on 25oC and 75% relative humidity and an average cargo tank shell temperature of 5oC.

. the lower the consumption and time used is. At 30oC the maximum content of water is 31 g/m3 and we had 17. if a pump is damaged it is very costly to repair and gas free the tank. toxic or cargo atmosphere. We then understand how important it is to heat the cargo tank shell to same temperature as the ambient temperature and that we have to use dry and heated inert gas and air. Before loading ammonia we can gas up the cargo tanks directly with ammonia vapour if the terminal and charterer agree on that. Also check the oxygen content in the middle of the tank just after commence purging to be sure that it isn’t turbulence in the atmosphere. up to 60oC or more. If we get water into the tank while venting we have to use either an ejector or rags to dry up the water. Check that all bolts and nuts on the pump and cargo tank lines are tight. we must then use nitrogen to purge out the humidity and oxygen from the cargo tank.8% and we do not develop any problems with water. To heat nitrogen onboard we can use either the superheater feed by steam or an electrical heater. If we had heated the cargo tank shell to 30oC before venting with air at 25oC the relative humidity in the tank atmosphere will be approximately 57%.5. it can also be done at anchorage with a barge. While we are purging with nitrogen we must have as low tank pressure as possible.of water will be released an hour. 11. Normal method is displacement purging and uses the different density to push out the old atmosphere from the cargo tank. less than 0. Nitrogen vapour expands when it is heated and the warmer we have the nitrogen. Normally we purge with nitrogen alongside a terminal or jetty. Some new gas carriers have their own nitrogen plant onboard and can purge while they are at sea.625 g/m3 that gives us 17. we can then use inert gas to purge out the humidity and oxygen from the cargo tank.02 bar. If there isn’t any required limit to the humidity and oxygen content can be more than 1% by volume. Just after we have commenced purging we must measure the oxygen content in the part of the tank we blow in the nitrogen to see the reduced content of oxygen.625 g/m3 divided by 31 g/m3 = 56.3 Gassing up cargo tanks To gas up a cargo tank means that we change the cargo tank atmosphere from air to either a neutral. If the vessel is set up to load a cargo that requires low dew-point and a low content of oxygen. While we have a visual inspection of cargo tanks we must use that time to sweep and clean up dust and check that there is not any foreign substances on the tank top. Also check that the pump is in the correct position. There are different methods and ways to gas up cargo tanks and they are dependent on the specifications from the charterer and what type of cargo to be loaded. Before the nitrogen is blown down into the cargo tank we must try to heat it as much as possible. otherwise we have to use nitrogen. When we start purging we must start with a low rate to avoid turbulence in the tank.

For liquefied gases as methane. When the surveyor has. 11. Always start with a low rate and increase to maximum when we are sure that there is no turbulence in the atmosphere. We have to calculate for each purging what is the most economical. so what was the cheapest in one port could be the most expensive in other ports. The method that is most friendly to the environment is to conduct the operation in a place where it is possible to condensate the cargo and nitrogen vapour. either the lay time or the use of nitrogen. The charter party always specifies the maximum content of oxygen and the maximum dew point.5. it depends on where we are in the world and what type of cargo we are purging with. . Some gases as ethylene and butadiene require less than 0.The purging rate must be discussed and cleared with the loading master before we commence purging. we can then commence purging with cargo vapour. At some terminals we are allowed to do the operation alongside and send the cargo vapour to the terminal flare. Before we have completed purging we have to purge through all lines and all cargo equipment to be sure that we do not have any air left in the cargo systems. according to the specifications given from the shipper or charterer approved the cargo tanks and cargo equipment. The most common method is to load some cargo from shore and then do the operation out on the road. There is a big differences in harbour fees and nitrogen prices around the world.4 Examples on parallel purging Purging with cargo vapour is mainly done at a terminal or at anchorage.1% oxygen by volume. ethylene and ethane most shippers require a dew point of less than –45oC.

5 Example on nitrogen serial purging Which method we should use. the easier it is to purge and gas up the vessel. On one vessel it can be easiest to purge parallel. . the lightest vapour to be purged must go into the top of the cargo tank. That means on most vessels we must gas up using the parallel method.5. The more flexible the vessel is built. When we are gassing up we have to avoid opening any lines after the cargo tanks are completed gassed up. Then we take the vapour to be purged out through the bottom liquid line in the cargo tank. either serial or parallel depends on the experience and the lines onboard. 11.We must always use the difference in density while we are purging. another vessel get the best results from using serial purging.

.

18%) ln ( 115.2 Numbers of volume changed is ln (original O2 content/ desired O2 content) ln Original O2 content Desired O2 content Numbers of volume changed Natural logarithm The original content of O2 in the tank that we should purge The specified O2 content given in the charter party The number of times the specified tank capacity needs to be completely purged of nitrogen If we have one tank at 1000 m3 capacity and the O2 content.2%.11.3 Using inert When using inert we also use the formula with ln “natural logarithm” but we must calculate the O2 content in the inert gas also. The formula is a bit different.75 which equals 4750m3 nitrogen.2%. That means we should purge 21% oxygen from the air to a given maximum content of oxygen in the tank e. if we use inert versus nitrogen.1 Using nitrogen When we use nitrogen.2%. we start with air in the tank. The nitrogen consumption will then be 1000m3 * 4. 11.8% / 0. according to the charter party.75 The desired O2 content has been set to 0.6. . should be less than 0.g.56) 4.6. to be less than 0.6 Formulas to be used when changing atmosphere in an tank There are some formulas that we can use to calculate the consumption of nitrogen or inert for changing atmosphere in tanks and the time to be used for the same purpose. This is the minimum required nitrogen.6. 0. The calculation will be as follows: Number of volume changed = Number of volume changed = ln ( 20. 11. the oxygen content is 0%.18%. When ordering nitrogen add 10% to the minimum needed (5225m3) nitrogen. 11.

.5%) ln ( 13.4 Numbers of volume changed is ln (original O2 content/ desired O2 content) ln Original O2 content Desired O2 content O2 content in the inert Numbers of volume changed Natural logarithm The original content of O2 in the tank that we should purge The specified O2 content given in the charter party The O2 content that we set the inert gas generator to give.5 Use with allowed vacuum On vessels that have facility to have some vacuum on their tanks they can use their compressors to create the minimum allowed pressure in their tanks. it means a 0.61 We have to subtract the inert gas O2 content from the original and desired O2 content.8% .0. never above 5% The number of times the specified tank capacity needs to be completely purged of nitrogen Take an example with the same tank at 1000m3. 11. When we come alongside we pressurise the tanks with nitrogen to 1 bar absolute.6. we need 300m3 of nitrogen.7 bar absolute pressure. If we should purge one tank on 1000m3. When you have 30% vacuum you have already quit 30% of the oxygen. Number of volume changed = Number of volume changed = ln ( 20.8/100*70 = 14.5% / 2% .0. which means you have 20.11.61 = 2610m3.6. To pressurise the tanks to 1 bar absolute we need 30% of the total capacity of our tanks. Then we can continue the purge normally.56% oxygen left. We start with air in the tank. The charter party states maximum 2% O2 and the O2 content on the inert is set to 0.5%.53) 2. If your vessel can have 30% vacuum in the tanks. The total consumption of inert will be 1000m3 * 2.

12- CARGO CALCULATION .

When we load and transport liquefied gases there are some variables that we have to have in mind.4.3 570. we can load more than if the setting is high. the setting of the safety valve’s “relief valve”. the cargo temperature when loading and at which temperature we should discharge the cargo. What we always have to avoid is an uncontrolled venting. Uncontrolled venting is when we get such a high pressure in the cargo tank that the relief valve opens.5 bar ≅ 5oC bar Relief valve setting 0. propane and the first example relief valve setting is 4.5 bar + 1 bar = 1. we can increase the liquid volume loaded. we will take a look at the different methods in calculating cargo onboard.5 bar ≅ bar 32oC Cargo temperature – 35oC = kg/m3 = kg/m3 = kg/m3 523.7 .g. The time used for loading will also increase if we have a lower set point on the cargo tank’s relief valves.5 bar + 1 bar = 5. In chapter 15 of the IMO gas code.5 0.5 bar and the other example relief valve setting is 0. If we look at some examples e.1 CALCULATION OF MAXIMUM ALLOWED LIQUID VOLUME In this part.1 Maximum filling limit Maximum filling limit is the maximum volume liquid we are allowed to load in the cargo tank. we find that the maximum filling can be 98% of full tank volume. Filling limit depends on the set point of relief valve and the density of the actual cargo. If there is a possibility to take off one or more of the pilot valves. Relief valve setting 4. 12.5 4. Cargo temperature is – 35oC. The quantities of cargo we will load are specified in the charter party and this information is given directly from the charter or from the operation in the owner’s office.5 bar. We then have to calculate the difference between the pilot settings. Formula for maximum volume liquid is as follows: Filling limit = ρR / ρL * 98% ρR ρL Density of reference temperature on the relief valve setting Density for actual cargo temperature This means that if the relief valve setting is low.2 573. The type of gas carrier and the equipment we have onboard is also important in the flexibility of our transport.12 CARGO CALCULATION 12.

45 bar.45 bar ⇒ 5oC 5. we have to mark that on the cargo tank and also note it in the decklog book. When we reduce the set point on cargo tank relief valves. For the cargo calculations. If we are on a gas carrier on 10 000 m3 the loss of income will then be USD 36 510.5 bar. In all calculations we have to use pressure in kilo Pascal (kPA) that gives 1.25 bar and there are often facilities for putting one extra weight on the pilot. However. On semi-refrigerated gas carriers.2 bar. Relief valve setting is 4.6 bar and 5. we have to know the actual cargo temperature and we must use density table.259mt and with 0. normally the lowest relief valve setting is 0.3 bar. we use the nearest values in the table. When the vessel is at sea and we get a telex that we are to set up to load propane at –30oC in Fawly.0/567.013 bar ⇒ 101. We can then use density for propane at –30oC and for 6oC. In the thermodynamic table we find: 5. we can calculate more accurately. this only to get an overview of how mush we can load. we then have to take a rough calculation.5 bar. With 4. we use densities from thermodynamic properties edited by Ocean Gas Transport.45 bar and 5.61 bar ⇒ 6oC We have to interpolate between 5. On fully refrigerated gas carriers the relief valve setting is about 0.9 = 90. 3. normally 0. When we know the exact temperature of the cargo.In our example with 1000 m3 tank.013 bar gives absolute pressure 5.013 bar if nothing else is stated. as long as we do not know the exact cargo temperature. If we change the relief valve setting. we can see that the difference is about 45mt.5 bar and atmospheric pressure 1. At 6oC ρ is 522.g. In all cargo calculations in this compendium.07% To calculate the accurate filling limit.513 bar. The reference temperature is 5.79 kg/m3.3 kPa. That means we have a relief valve setting of 0. Our cargo tank relief valve set point is 4. There are two or more pilot valves e.0 kg/m3 and at –30oC ρ is 567.61 bar to find the correct reference temperature and the correct density.5 bar setting we can load 558.2 to 0. .900mt. the time used for loading and discharging will increase. If the freight rate is 80 USD/mt we then miss USD 3651. What we have to avoid is letting the cargo tank fill 100% with liquid.5 bar setting we can load 513.9 kg/m3 Then we get 98% * ρR/ρL ⇒ 98% * 522. The extra setter is allowed to be used only while loading or gas freeing. we use T0 = 273oC and atmospheric pressure to 1. To find out how mush we can load.39oC and reference density is 522.

2 Example 1 Cargo Propane Temp in oC -30 o Temp.9 522.79 kg/m3 kg/m3 relieve 5.18 4.013 C density o C density m3 bar bar bar 567.793 / rL x 98 % / 567.5 bar and the temperature in the liquid increases to 5. valve R 5.9 kg/m3 x 98% = 90. .513 rR 522.Then we use -30oC and we find density to 567.5 1.17% and higher if the temperature is above -30oC.39oC the liquid volume will be 98%.900 x 98.22% In this example the filling limit will be 90.9 kg/m3.4. reference rel. 12.17% when we load propane at a temperature on -30oC.17% we are then sure that if the pressure in the cargo tank increases to 4.00 % 90. Filling limit = ρR / ρL * 98% = 522. If the loading temperature is colder than -30oC the filling limit will be less than 90.39 Tank #1. When we have calculated the filling limit we can find the maximum volume of liquid that we can load.22 % When we have loaded propane on –30oC to the limit 90.79 kg/m3 / 567. 100% Volume Relieve valve set point Atmospheric pressure Absolute pressure valve Filling limit = Filling limit 1182.

943 When we do this calculation we use the formula: VL = 0.9 = After we have found the filling volume.517 m3 0.4.17 Volume to be loaded in m3 1065. .3 Filling limit Example 2 522.972 m3 1066. If we have a cargo tank on 1182.98 x V x rR / rL.18 m3 volume at 100%.216 % Filling volume = Filling limit * Cargo tank 100% vol.22 % Or Filling Volume VL= m3 = 1065. we find the maximum volume to be loaded by multiplying with 90. 12.793 / 567.VL = 0.18 98 % 90.17% filling limit.18 Filling limit in % 90. we find the ullage or sounding in the vessels ullage/sounding table. We have to find the cargo tank at 100% volume and multiply with the actual filling limit. Cargo tank 100% volume in m3 1182. Filling volume 90.18 x 522.900 x 1182. we can find the maximum volume to be loaded.98 * V * ρR/ ρL VL V ρR ρL Volume liquid 100% Volume of the cargo tank Density of reference temperature on the relief valve setting Density for actual cargo temperature When we have found the correct filling limit.793 / 567.98 x 1182.

the filling volume is 1065. Ullage is the level from liquid surface to deck level. .17 meters.4 Example 3 Filling volume = Filling limit * Cargo tank 100% vol. so we have to interpolate to find the correct sounding.36 m3 1065.Ullage Sounding Sounding is the level from tank bottom to the liquid surface.25 m3 1066. In the following examples. We have to do this calculation on each cargo tank before we start loading. In this example.1662 meters. 12.94 m3 When we have found the correct sounding/ullage we have to find which corrections we must use to get the actual sounding/ullage.17 8. we find the correct sounding to be 8.17 % 1182.4. Filling limit 90. The corrections can be found in the sounding/ullage table for each vessel.16 8. we use sounding.943 m3 sounding in m 8.180 m3 = 1065.943 m3 and that is in between 8. In this example.1662 volume in m3 1065.16 meters and 8.

with a higher density the float becomes lighter in the liquid. List and trim correction depend on how the vessel is in the water. correction on the sounding tape. we have to interpolate to find the correct correction.5 Corrections There are normally four corrections to be used: the correction on the float.4. We have to study the corrections carefully so we use the correct sign character. On the next page. All corrections we do. Example of a spherical float The table for float correction is calculated against different densities and when we have a cargo with density in between the table values. The float correction depends on the liquid density. The Float correction table Specific gravity (kg/dm3) Corrections in meter . we found an example of a spherical float. list and trim correction. Spherical floats have the highest corrections on float. The tape correction depends on the temperature in the vapour phase. Out of the table above we can see that lighter liquid will give a higher correction.12. we find in the sounding/ullage table for each cargo tank.

50 and 0. 12. we have to interpolate between 0.0318 Corrected sounding Trim correction from table List correction from table Sounding w.6 Example 4 8. Correction on trim is either a correction to be added or multiplied to the measured sounding/ullage or the volume table is calculated with the trim directly.021 0 8. in this case. Earlier in this chapter. The list corrections are highest on wide transverse tanks and small on narrow longitudinal tanks. Small floats will give the lowest corrections. we have to follow the tank pressure carefully to avoid uncontrolled venting.1662 meter. Normally the corrections are used directly on the sounding measurement. On vessels with relief valve setting of 0.1564 8. On semi-refrigerated or fully pressurised vessels. we found the corrected sounding to be 8.0318 meter. When we are completely loaded on this tank. low temperature and big vapour volume gives a higher correction.55 kg/dm3. High temperature and a small vapour volume give a small correction. we will have a sounding of 8.9 kg/m3 = 0. 20oC Correction for vapour temperature Float correction from table Read sounding To find the correct corrections we have to know the density of the cargo. we have opportunity to heat the cargo while the vessel is at sea.1872 -0.4. aft trim on 0. A tank equipped with spherical float will have higher corrections than tanks equipped with a flat float. When we are heating the cargo. .160 meter.5 meter zero list and –15oC in the vapour phase. How we should use the corrections are explained in each sounding/ullage table.If we have cargo density 0. A correction on the sounding tape depends on the temperature in the vapour phase in the tank.1662 -0. but when we calculate the other way we have to use the correction’s signs the opposite way. if the tank pressure reaches the relief valve setting.5 bar we do not have any possibilities to heat the cargo at sea. Correction on list is either correction to be added or multiplied to the measured sounding/ullage or the volume table is calculated with the list directly.001 0. This means that small transverse tanks have a trim correction near to zero and long tank has higher corrections. The 98% maximum filling is to prevent liquid getting in the relief valve.60 and the correction will then be 0.5679kg/dm3. We will now continue using this example to find the sounding that we will read on the sounding tape. propane at –30oC and density 567. The trim correction is higher on long tanks than on short tanks.

The sketch below shows how the filling limit changes with the cargo temperature.4. as we do in the crude oil trade. 54. we find the reduction factor to the actual cargo temperature compared with density at 15oC. Volume has either cubic meter (m3) or litre (lt) as unit. then we need tables or calculations to convert to weight in air at 15oC. For LPG cargoes and some chemical cargoes it is normally accepted to calculate the weight in air at 15oC. We then get either specific gravity 60/60oF or density at 15oC from shore and we have to use the ASTM-IP-API tables. as long as the relief valve’s set point is the same.5075. In table ASTM-IP no.7 Liquid calculation We start calculation of the liquid in air and then we look at the vapour calculation. In table ASTM-IP no. We then start to look at how we calculate weight in air at 15oC by using the correct tables. Unit for density is either kg/m3 ⇒ tonn/m3 or kg/dm3 ⇒ kg/lt. we find the factor to be used to find weight in vacuum from weight in air. we find density at 15oC when the gravity 60/60oF is given. 21. . If we take an example with propane. Density is mass divided by volume. In table ASTM-IP no 56. we will calculate the weight in air at 15oC.1 12. 12. liquid temperature is -25oC and specific gravity 0. Density and specific gravity is often given in vacuum. The tables we are using are the ASTM-IP-API tables for light hydrocarbons. The mass has either kilo (kg) or metric ton (mt) as unit.Vessels with a low relief valve setting can have a higher filling limit than vessels with a high relieve valve setting.1 CALCULATION OF CARGO WITH USE OF ASTM-IP TABLES In this chapter we will look at the tables and corrections we use when calculating weight of cargo onboard gas carriers. 12.

5063 0. In table ASTM IP no.505 and 0.5075.5078 kg/lt We have now find the density at 15oC to 0.5075.5078 kg/lt interpolate as follows 0.0005) that give 12.506 0.5075 that gives 0.507 and find density at 15oC to We then look in the column for specific gravity 0.507 0.We then start with table ASTM-IP-API no.0010 / 0. .54 to find the reduction factor to –25oC.510 columns.5078 kg/lt which is equal to 507.5083 Specific gravity 60/60oF 0.5073 kg/lt 0.8 kg/m3. The table is divided in three columns and we have to interpolate between the 0.5073 0.508 Example on table ASTM IP-API 21 API Gravity 60oF Density 15oC 0. which we use in table ASTM IP no.5083 kg/lt 60/60oF 0.4.001 x 0.508 an find density at 15oC to The density has now increased with 0.5073 + (0. We look in the column for Specific gravity 60/60oF 0.0010 kg/lt Our Specific gravity is 0. we then have to 0. we look in the column for actual liquid temperature –25oC.54. 21 to find density at 15oC from specific gravity 60/60oF 0.8 Specific Gravity 60/60oF 0.

we find the reduction factor to 1.9 Table 54C Observed temperature. 54 .505 0. we have an example on table ASTM IP no.510 C Factor to reduce volume to 15 oC When we do the interpolation.12.4. Below.500 0. When we have different temperatures on the different cargo tanks. o Example from table 54 Density 15 oC 0. we have to do this calculation on each tank.10432.

105 1.99879 0. -21 -22 -23 0. Only vessels with equal quality of steel and tank thickness have equal shrinkage factors.10432 The next correction is the shrinkage factor.109 1.103 3 3 3 3 2 1.fact.99997 0. but on one vessel the shrinkage factor is similar on all cargo tanks if they are made of equal steel. Shrinkage factor is normally 1 at 20oC and is less than one when the steel is colder than 20oC. which is a thermal factor on the tank steel.102 1. Sh.107 1.510 temperature.108 1.fact.101 -26 -25.106 3 2 2 2 3 1. 0.99759 0. -62 -63 -64 0.99756 0.104 1.500 o C Factor to reduce volume to 15 oC 1.99753 . 20 19 18 1 0. When we calculate cargo.5 -25 -24.11 Example on shrinkage factor at different temperatures Temp.12.99873 Temp. Aluminium and invar steel have a shrinkage factor near 0 and mild steel has higher factor.107 1.111 1. Shrink factor for a vessel depends on the material of the cargo tank.106 1. Sh.4. we have different shrinkage factors. The shrinkage factor is the correction for the thermal expansion on the cargo tank steel.4.5 -24 -25 0.108 1. we use shrinkage factor both on the liquid and the vapour.105 1. With different steel.103 1. Sh. It is the correction between 20oC and the actual steel temperature. There is a shrinkage table on each vessel.99876 0.99994 Temp.505 0.5078 1.10 Table 54C Observed Example on table ASTM IP-API 54 Density 15 oC 0. 12.fact.

From the cargo tank shrinkage table.5422 to 0.99870 0.99750 0. We have to note on all cargo documents that the mass is in air and also note the specific gravity 60/60F. 56. From table ASTM-IP-API no.99988 -24 -25 0.99868 -65 -66 0.5192 to 0. 21 we find the cargo density at 15oC to 0.99747 The last table ASTM-IP no 56 is used to find mass of liquid and vapour in air from mass in vacuum or vice versa. 12.4.5421 0. 54.556m3 propane with specific gravity 60/60F 0.99991 0. The calculation gives us 610 994 kg in vacuum at 15oC that gives us 609 619 kg in air.5078 kg/ltr. we find reduction factor from 15oC to –25oC to 1.5674 to Factor is 0. From table ASTM IP no. We must always use liquid density at 15oC on the actual cargo to find the correct factor. We have to multiply this factor with the mass in vacuum to get mass in air.99805 0.17 16 0.5950 Factor for mass in vacuum to mass in air 0. . which in this example is 0.5075 and liquid temperature is –25oC. ⇒ 507.5078 kg/ltr. If we have the mass in air we must divide with the factor.99775 We can look at one example where we have loaded 1089.99775. on the bill of lading and the other cargo papers we have to note if the loaded mass is in vacuum or air.5000 to 0.99775.99795 0.10432.5191 0.99785 0.12 Example on table ASTM IP-API 56 Table 56 Density at 15oC kg/ltr 0. When the cargo calculations are completed. and find the factor for propane to 0.5673 0.99775 0.8 kg/m3 From table ASTM IP no. we find shrinkage factor to 0. We have to use the liquid density at 15oC. we find factor from mass in vacuum to mass in air to 0.99868 at –25oC.

Molar volume of ideal gas at 288 K is 23.6382 m3/kmol.1 kg/kmol.3 kPa • · Ps = 101. 101. Then we use the actual cargo temperature and pressure.013 bar.4.99775 608815 kg kg/m3 kg 12.556 m3 Shrinkage factor for -25oC 0.3 kPa • · Mm = 44.013 bar · Mm is molecular mass of the product in kg/kmol · I is molar gas volume at 288 K and standard pressure 1.12.325 kPa ⇒ 1.630 m3 507. We also need molar weight of the actual cargo and for propane it is 44. We can take an example with Propane with vapour temperature at –18oC and cargo tank pressure at 1.8 610188 0.14 Calculation of vapour We will now calculate mass of the vapour in air at 15oC.5 bar. We always have to calculate the density of the vapour as the density change with the pressure.6382 m3/kmol . When we are calculating the mass in air on the vapour we need the following values. • · Ts = 288 K • · Tv = 273 + (-18) = 255 K • · Pv = (Ps + PT ) x 100 = (1.013bar ⇒ 23.4. 288 K which is equal to 15oC.118 m3 Reduction factor to 15oC Volume at 15oC Density at 15oC Mass in vacuum at 15oC Factor from table 56 Mass in air at 15oC 1.325 kPa which is equal to 1.99868 Corrected volume at -25oC 1088.1 kg/kmol for propane • · I = 23.5) x 100 = 251.013 + 1.6382 m3/kmol ρv = (Ts x Pv x Mm) / (Tv x Ps x I) kg/m3 When we insert the values in the formula we find the following vapour density. • • • • • • · Ts is standard temperature 288 K · Tv is average temperature on vapour in K · Pv is absolute pressure of vapour in kPa · Ps is standard pressure 101.13 Calculation of the liquid’s mass Volume loaded 1089.10432 1201.

12.99888 taken from the vessel’s shrinkage table. We have a vapour temperature on –18oC.4.227 kg/m3 When we have calculated the vapour density.6382 101.624m3. That gives us 1182.520 5.227 kg/m3. the mass of vapour is 484 kilos.18m3 – 1089.227 m3 kg/m3 kg m3 Mass of gas in vacuum at 15oC 484 . The cargo tank 100% volume is 1182. which is equal to 0. We continue with the calculation of propane loading. In this example. the vapour density is 5.16 Calculation of vapour mass at 15oC in kilo Cargo tank 100% volume Liquid volume Gas volume Shrinkage for .3 44.013 44.18m3 and we have loaded 1089. we have to calculate the vapour in metric ton also.180 m3 1089.12. If we use mass of liquid in metric ton. which gives us a shrinkage factor (cargo tank expansion factor) on 0.013 1.99888 92. The vapour density is in kg/m3 and the mass will then be in kilos.6382 m3/kmol 288 rv = 255 x 251. The vapour volume is then 100% cargo tank volume minus liquid volume.4.005227 mt/m3.3 101.18oC Corrected Gas volume Density of gas at 15oC 1182.556m3 = 92.5 251. we have to calculate the mass of the vapour.556 m3 92.556m3 liquid. we also calculate the mass of vapour in kilos. In this example. When we calculate the mass of liquid in kilos.1 23.1 23.3 1.15 Density calculation of vapour Ts 288 288 K Ps Pv Mm I 1.6382 = 5.3 x 44.1 kPa kPa kg/kmol 23.624 0.

99775 which gives us 610 102 kg in air.756 1 8.550 0.Grav.99775 610 102 kg We will take an example on a full calculation and find the total mass in air.1 -24 -20 1. Then we use ASTM-IP table 56 and find the conversion factor to mass in air.4.17 Calculation of total mass in air at 15oC Mass of liquid in vacuum at 15oC Mass of gas in vacuum at 15oC Total mass in vacuum at 15oC Factor from ASTM-IP 56 table Total mass in air at 15oC 610 994 kg 484 kg 611 478 kg 0.152 kg/m3 kg/m3 meter meter kg/kmol o o C C bar bar bar 1468.017 4.6 522.180 m3 3114 kg .99775. Then we multiply total mass in vacuum 611 478 kg with 0.60/60F Liquid density at -24oC Density at Relief valve setting Trim by stern Sounding 100 % Volume of cargo tank ROB before loading 44.5 1.5072 560. the cargo is propane and we have the following information: Molecular mass Liquid temperature Vapour temperature Atmospheric pressure Relief valve setting Cargo tank pressure Spes. we have to add mass of liquid 610 994 kg + 484 kg = 611 478 kg.To find the total mass of liquid and vapour in the cargo tank. 12.8 kg/m3 with a factor of 0. Cargo density at 15oC is 507.

98 x VT x ρR / ρL Maximum filling volume = 0. while we are loading.With a set point on the relief valve at 4.18 Example on a full calculation on mass at 15oC PROPAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Tank # 2 1468. as follows: Maximum filling volume = 0.5 bar we can load maximum 91.158 m -0.7 / 560.152 m 0.38% with liquid temperature –24oC.250 m 1341. 12. colder cargo gives a lower filling volume.6 = 1341.643 m3 1. we do the final calculation.059 m 8.4. We have to find the maximum filling limit on all tanks.001 m 0. Warmer cargo gives a higher filling volume.18 x 522.0 oC 8. This calculation is based on figures we got before we start loading. we have to recalculate the maximum filling volume. Maximum filling volume is.5 kg/m3 100 %Volume cargo tank Liquid temperature Sounding Float correction Correction for vapour temperature List correction Trim correction Sounding at 20oC Liquid volume at 20oC Shrinkage factor tank steel at –24oC Corrected liquid volume Reductions factor from table 54C Liquid volume at 15oC Liquid density at 15oC table 21 . If the temperature and pressure changes.102 1476. When the loading is completed.287 m3 507.98 x 1468.373 m3 0.000 m -0.69 m3 We always have to start with the calculation of maximum filling volume.99871 1339.180 m3 -24.

16 bar pressure and vapour temperature –27oC. The one we use in the Bill of Lading is the surveyor’s figure. Those two figures will be nearly equal or equal.017 bar 44.1 kg/mol -20. which is the one that the surveyor has calculated.657 m3 1.99775 ROB in air Total loaded in air at 15oC 749 215 kg 126. In this example. It must be specified on the Bill of Lading that the mass is in air at 15oC. It is important for the vessel to calculate which temperature and cargo tank pressures will remain when we finish discharging. we have a ships figure which is the one the chief officer must calculate and one shore figures. that means we are finished pumping liquid. we have loaded 745 096 kg in air at 15oC in the actual cargo tank. in this example 741 370 kg. When we load on an atmosphere from a previous cargo. we are allowed to discharge is 99.4 kg vapour left in the tank.382 kg/m3 682 kg 749 897 kg 748 210 kg 3 114 kg 745 096 kg After we complete the cargo calculation.807 m3 0. When the discharging is completed. We have blown hot vapour to shore and tank pressure. and vapour temperature is equal to what we estimated before loading. That means when we have calculated the total mass of cargo in a tank we have to subtract the ROB. In our example.99882 126.0 oC 5.5% of Bill of Lading.550 bar 1. we call that ROB (Remaining on Board) or heel.15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Mass of liquid in vacuum at 15oC Uncorrected vapour volume Shrinkage factor vapour phase –20oC Corrected vapour volume Tank pressure Atmospheric pressure Molecular mass Propane Vapour temperature Vapour density at 15oC Mass of vapour in vacuum at 15oC Total mass of cargo in the tank in vacuum Mass in air 749 897 kg x 0. . When we discharge the cargo. At a minimum. we must have maximum 0. we will have 311.

5% of Bill of Lading before we start discharging.458 kg/m3 5.4.249 kg/m3 Volume 12000 x 5.3 x 42. we do not have any problem with high tank pressure when we have completed discharging.3 bar on a 12 000 m3 vessel.19 pressures r v 0.08 23.5 bar. Tank pressure is removed with the vessel’s compressors and the condensate is sent directly to the discharge line.791 kg/m3 r v 1.249 kg/m3 29 492 kg Difference in mass With a difference of tank pressure at 1. If we are onboard a fully refrigerated gas carrier. .6382 33 490 = kg 2. we have to remove the tank pressure before we commence the calculation of the ROB.It is important to remember that the tank pressure has a big influence on the vapour density.6382 62 982 Difference in r = kg 2.3 bar and the other example tank pressure 1.020 bar vessels total volume is 12000m3. which we can have as ROB to reach 99. We can look at two examples on density calculation of a cargo with equal temperature but different tank pressures.08 kg/kmol.5bar = 288 243 x 252 101. We use propylene as example and vapour temperature is –25oC molecular mass 42.3bar = Example of calculations on vapour density with different tank 288 243 x 134 101. It is a good routine to always calculate the maximum mass of vapour.3 x 42.791 kg/m3 Volume 12000 x 2. we get 29 492 kg in mass difference. The first example tank pressure is 0. The atmospheric pressure is 1. If we transport an ambient cargo. 12.08 23.

When the calculation is completed. liquid temperature is –24oC.3 CALCULATION OF CARGO WEIGHT USING DENSITY TABLES When transport of chemical gases and also sometimes LPG cargoes.3 560. we have to note that the weight is in vacuum or in air.556m3 liquid propane.6 3 Maximum filling volume = 1081.5 bar ata. ethylene.5 bar is 523. we can use the density tables composed by SGS or thermodynamic properties of gases.98 1182. weight in air 604 115 kg. . On clean cargoes. cargo tank pressure is 1.18 m3.6 kg/m3.452 m We should calculate the weight of liquid propane. butadiene and VCM. 98% Vt m3 r SV kg/m3 r c kg/m3 Maximum filling volume = 0. We always have to calculate the vapour density because the vapour temperature does not match the cargo tank pressure. We should use the actual vapour temperature and actual tank pressure in the calculation of vapour density. we use density tables for the actual cargo. Liquid density at 5. We have to be sure that the density tables we are using are either in vacuum or in air and it has to be noted on the Bill of Lading. propylene. the shipper of the cargo or thermodynamic properties of gases. Maximum filling volume is as follows: Maximum filling volume = 0. We get the density tables from the surveyor. The only ASTM table we are using is ASTM-IP table no. Cargo tank expansion factor at -24oC is 0.98 x VT x ρR / ρL The cargo tank 100% volume is 1182. The density table we are using in the load port has to be used also in the discharge port.18 523.5 bar ⇒ 5.56 for converting weight in air to weight in vacuum or vice versa.12.1 bar.99870. First of all we have to find out the maximum filling volume on the actual cargo tanks that we have to load. Weight in vacuum will then be 605 477 kg. safety valve set point is 4. First we take a look at how we are calculating the weight of liquid. The weight of cargo is calculated by use of the actual cargo temperature and the density tables are either in vacuum or in air.6 kg/m3. density from density table and –24oC is 560.3 kg/m3 and density at –24oC is 560. We have loaded 1089. such as.

Vapour density at actual temperature formula: (Tank pressure in kPa + Atmospheric pressure in kPa) x Molecular mass molar gas constant x (T0 K + Gas temperature in oC) Tank pressure 1.1 Example on calculation of weight in air 1081. that means 1 bar is equal to 100 kPa.013 bar is equal to 101. x D T ( 140.99775 604 115 kg kg/m3 kg Loaded volume Correction factor for -24oC Corrected volume Density at -24oC from table Weight in vacuum at -24oC Factor from table 56 Weight in air at -24oC 12.052 m3 560.1 kg/kmol. The actual vapour temperature has to be in K (Kelvin) and pressures in kPa (kilo Pascal).3.16075 kg/m3 We can take another example with ethylene and calculate the vapour density. Atmospheric pressure is 1.4 bar and the atmospheric pressure is 1.2 kPa. We should now look at one example to find vapour density on propane with vapour temperature on –25oC. D P x Molecular mass Molar gas const.6 605 477 0.3 kPa.99870 1080.00 + -25. To find the pressure in kPa “kilo Pascal” we multiply the pressure in bar with 100. D P x Molecular mass Molar gas const.452 m3 0.4 bar is equal to 140 kPa and the atmospheric pressure 1.30) x 44.013 bar. x D T .35 bar ⇒ 35 kPa.31441 J/(mol x K). we use 273K as 0oC. Vapour temperature ∆T in K = 273 + .12. In all calculations in this manual.1 8.15K as 0oC.00) 5.05 kg/kmol. molecular mass is 28.3.3 kPa.012 bar ⇒ 101.31441 x ( 273.2 Calculation of vapour density and weight To calculate the weight of vapour.0 + 101. Another factor we should use is molar gas constant which is 8.25 = 248K Tank pressure plus atmospheric pressure ∆P is equal to 241. we first have to calculate density of the vapour on the actual temperature. When we do the calculations onboard we use 273. vapour temperature is –99oC ⇒ 174K and tank pressure is 0. Molecular mass on propane is 44. tank pressure is 1.

31441 x D T) – 210. liquid volume 1313.99648 x 2.20) x 28. Vapour volume Vapour density Vapour weight 99.5 bar Liquid volume 1313.638 kg/m3 Now when we have found the vapour density at the actual vapour temperature.020 bar.263367 kg/m3 = (D P x 28.60) m3 2.5oC.99648.3 Calculation of Ethylene set point 4.15 m3 and liquid volume is 1088.5oC Cargo tank 100% volume Vapour volume Shrinkage factor at -95oC Corrected vapour volume 0. relief valve set point is 4.15 bar and the atmospheric pressure is 1.5oC shrinkage factor at –99.832 0.26337 93. we can calculate the weight of vapour at the actual temperature.5oC Corrected liquid volume Liquid density at -100.99661 154.00) + 2.55 x 0. density 563. Liquid temperature is –100oC and vapour temperature is –99. which is equal to 1313. Tank pressure is 0.05 8.99 kg = 103.15 1088.05) / (8. We should calculate one tank loaded with ethylene.35 m3 Shrinkage factor at -100.0 + 101. We have loaded one tank with ethylene. 12.5 bar and atmospheric pressure is 1.31441 x ( 273.69 563.15 -99.55 m3 = at We have now seen how to calculate weight of liquid and weight of vapour and we should now calculate both liquid and vapour.18 154.63 kg/m3. tank 100% volume is 1182. -100.( 35.5oC (1182.014 bar.583 o Weight of vapour in vacuum at -95 C 399 TOTAL LOADED IN VACUUM 738009 .348 m3 with relief valve setting on 4. Total weight of cargo in the tank is 738 009 kg in vacuum.45%.345 bar.3.5oC 737610 Vapour density at -95oC 2.5 bar.308 m3 kg/m3 kg m3 m3 m3 kg/m3 kg kg Weight of liquid in vacuum at -100. After loading the vessel we have 1 meter by stern trim with the following values: Vapour Liquid -95oC and tank pressure 0.99645 1308.625 1468.5oC are 0.348 m3 Maximum filling limit is 89.6 m3.

581 113. We then get a total weight of cargo in the tank on 799 940 kg.99645 1 419.99661 43.127m3.0% that is equal to 1424.08 563.13 m3 Shrinkage factor at -100.00 % 1. atmospheric pressure 1.5 bar.520 bar -96. Ref.053 0. .87 kg/m3 Filling limit rR/rL x 98% 12. we have to calculate maximum allowed filling limit. had ROB before loading and we surveyed the tank atmosphere at –87oC and tank pressure 0.625 799 827 1 468. 97. First.3.When we change the relief valve set point to 0.5 bar the maximum allowable filling limit then increase to 97.53 oC 557.5 bar Liquid volume 1 424.02 bar. Ref.18 44. temp.5oC Corrected liquid volume Liquid density from table at -100.4 Calculation of Ethylene set point 0.5 bar Absolute pres. Total loaded will then be 799 940 kg – 2 758 kg = 797 182 kg in vacuum. the ROB will then be 2758 kg in vacuum.019 bar. Set point is 0.904 2. dens. If we.326 799 940 m3 kg/m3 kg m3 m3 m3 kg/m3 kg kg When we are loading on ROB from previous cargo. which is 61 931 kg more than with set point on 4.5oC Weight of liquid in vacuum at -100. the total loaded cargo is total weight of liquid and vapour in the tank minus ROB.5oC Cargo tank 100% volume Vapour volume Shrinkage factor at -95oC Corrected vapour volume Vapour density at -95oC Weight of vapour in vacuum at -95oC TOTAL LOADED IN VACUUM 0. in this example.

2/ r liquid) Weight in air = 797 182 .2 kg/m3 / 8100kg/m3)) In our example we will get a factor.18 m3 Weight of vapour 2 758 kg Shrinkage factor 0.(1.(Mass in vacuum loaded x r air / r liquid) When we use the values from our last example it will be.(Mass in vacuum x 1. The factor is. On the calculation forms.3.997985 = 795 575 kg in air On a full-loaded tank. The vessel has three twin tanks numbered as follows 1P. We should now do a full cargo calculation. With most chemical gases. 2S.12.(797 182 * 1.4 Weight of ROB before loading at temperature -87oC and tank pressure 0. 1S. as follows Weight in air = Mass in vacuum . 2P.2 kg/m3 / 8100kg/m3)) = 0.2 kg/m3 /563. as follows: (1 .2/ 563. Cargo tanks 2 and 3 are equal and tank 1 is a bit smaller. we have to be sure that the density given is in air or in vacuum. .625 kg/m3)) / ( 1 – (1. we calculate both in vacuum and in air. as follows: (1 – (ρ air/ ρ cargo liquid)) / (1 – ( ρ air/ ρ Brass) (1 – (1. 3P and 3S.885 kg/m3 Tank volume 100% 1468. Always note on the Bill of Lading that the quantity is either in vacuum or air. We start to calculate ROB before loading.997985 Then we have to multiply mass in vacuum with the factor: 797 182 kg x 0.99685 To find the weight in air we can either density at 15oC or we have to calculate a D T = 186 D P = 104 K kPa use table ASTM-IP-API 56 if we know the factor.625) = 795 kg 485 Before we commence with cargo calculations. we get the density on the actual liquid temperature in vacuum. we can use the following formula: Mass in vacuum loaded .2 kg/m3 /ρ cargo liquid)) / ( 1 – (1. Then we do calculations after we have completed loading.02 bar Vapour density 1.

02 0 Total mass of 0 Liquid Vapour Tank # !00% vol.18 1468.02 0 2S 0.02 0 3S 0.129 0. 1.18 Vapour volume in m3 1182. 1994 Vessel LPG Seagull Liquid Tank # Sounding Volume Temp.08 mass Atm.18 1468. in kg/m kg m3 1P 0.129 0.12.05.18 1182.112 0.18 1468.press.99868 3 097 Total mass of vapour 17 465 Total mass in vacuum 17 465 ROB Total loaded in vacuum Total loaded in air .18 1468. Pressure r liquid Shrinkage Mass of in meter from in in oC in bar factor liquid in 3 tab.02 0 3P 0.02 0 2P 0.99862 2 514 2. in oC 1P 1S 2P 2S 3P 3S -27 -27 -27 -27 -25 -25 r Shrinkage Mass of vapour factor vapour in in kg 3 kg/m 2.99862 3 122 2.02 0 1S 0.129 0.18 1468.18 1468.18 1182.5 Calculation of ROB before loading Loading report Cargo Propylene Molecular 42.015 Port Date Al Jubail 17.129 0.99862 3 122 2.18 1468.18 1468. in m3 1182.99862 2 514 2.18 Temp.112 0.99868 3 097 2.3.

99826 2P 8.6 601.76 1404.0 0.020 Port Date Skip Al Jubail 18.99829 3S 8.76 1125.6 600.99841 218 3.99835 231 3.99829 Total mass of Liquid Mass of liquid in kg 674 675 840 840 841 840 4 471 503 281 936 205 570 712 967 Vapour Tank # 1P 1S 2P 2S 3P 3S 100% Vapour Temp.35 -35 1182.11 -39 0.431 0.99841 222 mass of vapour 1 302 mass in vacuum 4 714 269 ROB 17 465 Total Loaded in vacuum 4 696 803 Total loaded in air 4 687 973 .99838 201 3. Press r liquid Shrinkage in meter from in oC in bar in kg/m3 factor tab.75 1403.99826 1S 8.07 -36 1468.431 0. in volume m3 in m3 1182.72 1400.6 Calculation of mass after loading Loading report Cargo Propylene Molecular 42.99826 2S 8.0 0.08 mass Atm.74 1123.98 -36 1468.6 601.63 -35 1468.2 0.2 0.18 64.6 601.55 -39 0.18 56.445 0.6 600.2 0.05.20 -39 0.3.445 0.83 -34 Total Total r vapour Shrinkage Masse of in kg/m3 factor vapour in kg 3.459 0.6 601. in m3 1P 8.41 -38 0.18 68.2 0. 1994 LPG Seagull Liquid Tank # Sounding Volume Temp.83 -39 0.77 -34 1468.73 1401.press 1.459 0.99838 195 3.99826 3P 8.35 -38 0.18 63.18 58.18 66.99835 235 3.12. in oC vol.

36 m3.812 kg/m3 = 4 283 kg. Our experience is that we need two times the tank volume for gassing up and commence cooling the tank. Liquid temperature on shore tank is –40oC and our cargo tank steel 20oC. If we don’t have any ROB or not enough. we can begin gassing up at sea if the tanks are surveyed and approved by a surveyor. propane butane and propylene.3. such as VCM. From the table thermodynamic properties for propylene superheated vapour.18 m3 x 2 = 2364. The formula is mass = ρ vapour x total volume.812 kg/m3 on 20oC and P=1 bar. the loss of cargo is near to 0 when gassing up correctly. 12. To minimise the consumption of cargo for gassing up. Calculation of volume liquid we have to order 12. which is the minimum we need for gassing up and commence cooling the tank.4 kg/m3 Number of changes 2 Total volume to be changed 2364. we need to heat the cargo.2 Cargo Propylene 100% Tank volume 1182.7 CALCULATION OF LIQUID TO BE USED FOR GASSING UP There are some parameters we have to have in mind to find out how much liquid we need to take onboard for gassing up our cargo tanks.36 m3 Mass volume = Volume x r for vapour Mass total volume = 4283. The first is the temperature of the liquid we will take onboard then the temperature of the cargo tank steel and what volume we should gas up. to minimise the cost we have to use all the available cargo equipment onboard in the most efficient way. Then we take the total volume 2364.12. For cargoes with a heavy vapour. The loss of cargo and number of changes is individual for each vessel and it is our duty to reduce the loss of cargo down to a minimum.18 m3 that we have to gas up.812 kg/m3 r vapour at atmospheric pressure from 20 table o r liquid from table -40 C 602.1 Volume of liquid to be used for gassing up We have a cargo tank with volume 1182.36 m3 and multiply with vapour ρ 1. To change cargo and gas up costs lot money. We then have to order the following amount cargo.18 m3 o C 1. we have to order liquid to gas up the rest of the volume to be gassed up.26 kg Volume liquid to be loaded = Mass volume / r liquid .4. measure and check when commence heating the coolant for gassing up. We have to be sure that the amount of liquid we order for gassing up is enough to gas up and to commence cooling down the cargo tanks. The amount of cargo lost when gassing up depends on the people onboard. cargo equipment and the time we use for gassing up. If we have some ROB in one tank. The only way to reduce the loss of cargo is to control tank pressure when loading coolant.4. We will take onboard propylene liquid for gassing up and it is two vital temperatures we must recognise. tank steel temperature and liquid temperature on the coolant. we find the vapour ρ to 1. as mush as possible. 1182.

Volume to be loaded =

7,110

m3

We have to load 7,11 m3 propylene at –40oC from shore tank to change the vapour atmosphere at 20oC two times. This was a calculation for one tank, if we gas up all tanks, the calculation has to be on the total volume of the vessel’s cargo tanks. After completion of the loading two Bill of Lading will be made, one for what we have used for gassing up and one for the quantity we have loaded. Number of changes with a given amount of liquid 12.4.3 To find the number of vapour changes with a given amount of liquid in either a deck tank or a cargo tank, we then have to know the liquid temperature and the temperature of the cargo tanks we have to gas up. Then we have to calculate the mass of the liquid we have. When we know the mass of liquid and the volume to be gassed up, we know if we then need to order more liquid or if we can complete to gas up and commence cooling tanks with the amount of liquid we have onboard. A cargo tank is completely gassed up when we have more than 97% hydrocarbons in the vapour atmosphere. We must remember that the tank we use for gassing up will have a given amount of mass vapour left ROB, which we are unable to get out. First, we have to calculate the mass of vapour we will have ROB in our deck tank/cargo tank after we have gassed up the other tanks. When we have calculated the mass of vapour we have left, we must subtract it from the amount of liquid we have. How many changes we need depends on the cargo, the cargo handling equipment we have onboard, temperature of the liquid and temperature of the atmosphere that we should gas up. If we are able to heat the vapour, we should have it as hot as possible to use as less liquid as possible. We can use an example on the calculation of vapour after gassing up. Average temperature on the vapour is –10oC, total tank volume is 2564,36 m3 and tank pressure is 0 bar. We then find the density of the vapour, either calculate the density or use the thermal property table to find it. When we have found the vapour density, we have to multiply it with the tank shrinkage factor and the tank volume. Mass of vapour after gassing up 12.4.4 Cargo Propylene Tank volume #1 P/S 2364,36 m3 o C 1,953 kg/m3 r for vapour at atmospheric -10 pressure Mass of vapour in the tank 4 618 kg We have now calculated that we should have 4 618 kg vapour left in tank #1 P and S when we are not able to get out any more from the tanks. Before we order any liquid, we have to subtract 4 618 kg from the amount of liquid we need to gas up the whole vessel. We can continue with the example and have 15 m3 liquid propylene at –10oC, vapour temperature 0oC and the pressure 3,3 bar in tank #1 P/S. Total volume of the vessel is 8237 m3 and atmospheric pressure is 1,015 bar. That means we have to gas up vessel’s total volume – volume of tank #1 P/S, which is equal to 8237 m3 – 2364,36

m3 = 5872,64 m3 with an average temperature of 25oC. Our experience is that we need 2,5 volume changes to reach 97% hydrocarbons in the vapour atmosphere, 2,5 changes is 5872,64 m3 x 2,5 = 14681,6 m3. It is always stated in the charter party how clean the atmosphere has to be before loading and it depends on which cargo we have to load. Mass we can use for gassing up 12.4.5 Cargo Propylene Tank volume #1 P/S 2364,36 Volume liquid in tank #1 P/S 15,00 Mass of liquid in tank #1 P/S 8 420 Volume of vapour in tank #1 P/S 2349,36 Mass of vapour in tank #1 P/S 18 783 Total mass in tank #1 P/S 27 202 Mass of vapour in tank #1 P/S after gassing 4 618 up Usable mass in tank #1 P/S 22 584

m3 m3 kg m3 kg kg kg kg

We have 27202 kg available in tank #1 P/S, but when we are completed gassing up, we have 4618 kg vapour left, that means we have 22584 kg available for gassing up. Total volume to be gassed up is vessel’s total volume minus volume of tank #1 P/S multiplied with 2,5. That gives ⇒ 8237 m3 - 2349,36 m3 ⇒ 5872,64 m3 x 2,5 = 14682 m3. We have to find the vapour density equal to tank steel temperature 25oC, which is 1,724 kg/m3. Calculation of volume needed 12.4.6 Volume vapour at 25oC of available 13 101 m3 mass o C r for vapour with atmospheric pressure 25 at Total volume vapour 2,5 times tank 14 682 m3 volume Volume to be ordered 1 581 m3

1,724 kg/m3

In this example, we do not have enough liquid to reach 2,5 times for gassing up. There was 1581 m3 vapour short, so we have to order that 1581 m3 x 1,724 kg/m3 = 2726 kg. Calculation of mass vapour at a given temperature 12.4.7 Cargo Propylene Vessel’s total volume 8237 m3 Tank #1 P/S volume Volume to be gassed up Amount changes 2364,36 5872,64 2,5 m3 m3

Tank steel temperature Atmospheric pressure Vapour r at 25oC

25 1,015 1,724

o

C bar kg/m3

Total volume to gas up 5872,64 x 2,5 14 682 Mass of total volume to gas up 25 309 Available mass 22 584 Mass in kg to load to complete gassing 2 725 up

m3 kg kg kg

To hold the temperature of the vapour we use for gassing up, we have to use either the compressors or heaters. If we are able to increase the temperature on the vapour from 25oC to 60oC, we do not need to supply any extra from shore. Calculation of vapour at 60oC 12.4.8 Vapour r at 60oC Total volume to gas up 5872,64 x 2,5 Mass total volume to gas up Available mass Mass in kg difference 1,543 14 682 22 649 22 584 65 kg/m3 m3 kg kg kg

It is important that we continue to heat the tank we are taking the vapour from to hold a positive pressure.

12.5 12.4 ENCLOSES 12.5.1 12.4.1 Enclose 1

Table 21 0,500 - 0,510 Specific Gravity 60/60oF 0,500 0,501 0,502 0,503 0,504 0,505 0,506 0,507 0,508 0,509 0,510

API Gravity 60oF -

Density 15oC 0,5004 0,5014 0,5023 0,5033 0,5043 0,5053 0,5063 0,5073 0,5083 0,5093 0,5103

12.4.2 Enclose 2 Table 54C Observed Density 15 oC

temperature, 0,500 0,505 0,510 o C Factor for reduction of volume to 15 oC -43 -42,5 -42 -41,5 -41 -40,5 -40 -39,5 -39 -38,5 -38 -37,5 -37 1,153 1,152 1,15 1,149 1,148 1,147 1,146 1,145 1,143 1,142 1,141 1,14 1,139 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1,149 1,148 1,147 1,146 1,145 1,144 1,143 1,142 1,14 1,139 1,138 1,137 1,136 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 1,146 1,145 1,143 1,142 1,141 1,14 1,139 1,138 1,137 1,136 1,134 1,133 1,132

-36,5 -36 -35,5 -35 -34,5 -34 -33,5 -33 -32,5 -32 -31,5 -31 -30,5 -30 -29,5 -29 -28,5 -28 -27,5 -27 -26,5 -26 -25,5 -25 -24,5 -24 -23,5 -23 -22,5 -22 -21,5 -21 -20,5 -20 -19,5 -19 -18,5 -18 -17,5 -17 -16,5 -16 -15,5 -15

1,138 1,136 1,135 1,134 1,133 1,131 1,13 1,129 1,128 1,126 1,125 1,124 1,123 1,121 1,12 1,119 1,117 1,116 1,115 1,113 1,112 1,111 1,109 1,108 1,107 1,106 1,104 1,103 1,102 1,101 1,100 1,098 1,097 1,096 1,095 1,093 1,092 1,091 1,090 1,089 1,087 1,086 1,085 1,084

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3

1,135 1,133 1,132 1,131 1,13 1,128 1,127 1,126 1,125 1,123 1,122 1,121 1,12 1,118 1,117 1,116 1,115 1,113 1,112 1,111 1,11 1,108 1,107 1,106 1,105 1,103 1,102 1,101 1,1 1,098 1,097 1,096 1,094 1,093 1,092 1,091 1,09 1,088 1,087 1,086 1,085 1,084 1,082 1,081

4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1

1,131 1,13 1,129 1,128 1,127 1,125 1,124 1,123 1,122 1,12 1,119 1,118 1,117 1,115 1,114 1,113 1,112 1,11 1,109 1,108 1,107 1,105 1,104 1,103 1,102 1,101 1,099 1,098 1,097 1,096 1,095 1,094 1,093 1,092 1,09 1,089 1,088 1,087 1,086 1,084 1,083 1,082 1,081 1,08

-14,5 -14 -13,5 -13 -12,5 -12 -11,5 -11 -10,5 -10 -9,5 -9 -8,5 -8 -7,5 -7 -6,5 -6 -5,5 -5 -4,5 -4

1,082 1,081 1,080 1,079 1,077 1,076 1,075 1,074 1,072 1,071 1,070 1,068 1,067 1,066 1,065 1,063 1,062 1,061 1,059 1,058 1,057 1,055

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1,08 1,079 1,078 1,077 1,075 1,074 1,073 1,072 1,071 1,07 1,068 1,067 1,066 1,065 1,063 1,062 1,061 1,06 1,058 1,057 1,056 1,054

2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1,078 1,077 1,076 1,075 1,074 1,072 1,071 1,07 1,069 1,068 1,066 1,065 1,064 1,063 1,061 1,06 1,059 1,058 1,056 1,055 1,054 1,052

12.4.3 Enclose 3 Shrinkage factor for exercise Seagull Temp. Sh.fakt. Temp. Sh.fakt. 20 1 -21 0,99879 19 0,99997 -22 0,99876 18 0,99994 -23 0,99873 17 0,99991 -24 0,99870 16 0,99988 -25 0,99868 15 0,99985 -26 0,99865 14 0,99982 -27 0,99862 13 0,99979 -28 0,99859 12 0,99976 -29 0,99856 11 0,99974 -30 0,99853 10 0,99971 -31 0,99850 9 0,99968 -32 0,99847 8 0,99965 -33 0,99844 7 0,99962 -34 0,99841 6 0,99959 -35 0,99838 5 0,99956 -36 0,99835 4 0,99953 -37 0,99832 3 0,99950 -38 0,99829 2 0,99947 -39 0,99826 1 0,99944 -40 0,99823 0 0,99941 -41 0,99820 -1 0,99938 -42 0,99817 -2 0,99935 -43 0,99815 -3 0,99932 -44 0,99812 -4 0,99929 -45 0,99809 -5 0,99926 -46 0,99806 -6 0,99923 -47 0,99803 -7 0,99921 -48 0,99800 -8 0,99918 -49 0,99797 -9 0,99915 -50 0,99794 -10 0,99912 -51 0,99791 -11 0,99909 -52 0,99788 -12 0,99906 -53 0,99785 -13 0,99903 -54 0,99782 -14 0,99900 -55 0,99779 -15 0,99897 -56 0,99776 -16 0,99894 -57 0,99773 -17 0,99891 -58 0,99770 -18 0,99888 -59 0,99767 -19 0,99885 -60 0,99765 -20 0,99882 -61 0,99762 -21 0,99879 -62 0,99759 04 Temp. -62 -63 -64 -65 -66 -67 -68 -69 -70 -71 -72 -73 -74 -75 -76 -77 -78 -79 -80 -81 -82 -83 -84 -85 -86 -87 -88 -89 -90 -91 -92 -93 -94 -95 -96 -97 -98 -99 -100 -101 -102 -103

Sh.fakt. 0,99759 0,99756 0,99753 0,99750 0,99747 0,99744 0,99741 0,99738 0,99735 0,99732 0,99729 0,99726 0,99723 0,99720 0,99717 0,99714 0,99712 0,99709 0,99706 0,99703 0,99700 0,99697 0,99694 0,99691 0,99688 0,99685 0,99682 0,99679 0,99676 0,99673 0,99670 0,99667 0,99664 0,99661 0,99659 0,99656 0,99653 0,99650 0,99647 0,99644 0,99641 0,99638

001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0. Read Sounding in meter o C 6 7 8 9 10 -104 -103 -102 -101 -100 -99 -98 -97 -96 ± -48 -47 -46 -45 -44 -43 -42 -41 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.4.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.000 .002 -0.004 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.000 0.000 0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.003 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.004 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 11 -0.000 0.001 -0.12.000 0.002 -0.000 0.004 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.004 -0.001 -0.003 -0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.000 0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.004 -0.001 -0.004 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.003 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.000 0.000 0.004 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.4 Enclose 4 Correction for expansion of sounding tape tank #1 Temp.001 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 0.

045 8.042 8.05 -0.046 -0. tank 100% volume 1182.71 -0.021 -0.043 8.021 -0.84 8.022 -0.021 -0.045 -0.043 8.046 -0.09 9.41 -0.022 -0.51 -0.43 -0.022 -0.023 -0.045 -0.043 8.044 8.021 -0.023 -0.022 -0.043 8.96 8.044 8.046 -0.042 8.70 -0.87 8.044 8.045 -0.12.13 9.021 -0.022 -0.044 8.043 8.021 -0.044 8.042 8.021 -0.54 -0.021 -0.021 -0.043 8.022 -0.88 8.043 8.021 -0.021 -0.022 -0.043 8.01 9.10 -0.90 8.07 -0.045 -0.25 -0.95 8.5 1 -0.044 8.77 -0.046 -0.043 8.81 8.12 9.022 -0.35 -0.043 8.045 -0.09 -0.043 8.043 8.39 -0.043 8.023 -0.022 -0.36 -0.021 -0.045 -0.28 -0.043 8.61 -0.042 8.022 -0.02 9.022 -0.022 -0.045 -0.50 -0.043 8.021 -0.10 9.68 -0.043 8.57 -0.022 -0.044 8.022 -0.021 -0.021 -0.12 -0.043 8.021 -0.03 9.19 -0.27 -0.043 8.042 8.022 -0.022 -0.31 -0.043 8.043 8.045 -0.022 -0.56 -0.46 -0.16 -0.80 8.20 -0.021 -0.022 -0.045 -0.044 8.044 8.64 -0.85 8.022 -0.044 8.022 -0.08 9.32 -0.022 -0.021 -0.043 8.63 -0.022 -0.62 -0.76 -0.52 -0.045 -0.043 8.49 -0.021 -0.93 8.99 9.042 8.045 -0.045 -0.021 -0.023 -0.18 m3 Sounding and trim meter in Sounding Stern trim Sounding Stern trim 0.021 -0.022 -0.023 -0.022 -0.045 -0.043 8.65 -0.045 -0.69 -0.043 8.021 -0.021 -0.043 8.21 -0.022 -0.043 8.022 -0.022 -0.045 -0.23 -0.07 9.043 8.043 8.021 -0.022 -0.023 -0.021 -0.046 -0.37 -0.83 8.021 -0.022 -0.022 -0.022 -0.04 9.4.045 Sounding 8.046 -0.021 -0.78 8.79 8.044 8.047 -0.022 -0.021 -0.022 -0.5 1 8.022 -0.021 -0.55 -0.021 -0.33 -0.043 8.98 8.60 -0.021 -0.046 -0.021 -0.044 8.042 8.043 8.11 -0.021 -0.021 -0.022 -0.021 -0.73 -0.023 -0.05 9.043 8.04 -0.042 8.042 8.08 -0.045 -0.022 -0.042 8.045 -0.021 -0.022 -0.06 -0.023 -0.22 -0.59 -0.92 8.042 8.021 -0.14 Stern trim 0.022 -0.045 -0.75 -0.24 -0.022 -0.044 8.043 8.043 8.53 -0.66 -0.47 -0.043 8.022 -0.023 -0.043 8.047 .97 8.67 -0.045 -0.022 -0.15 -0.5 1 0.022 -0.043 8.86 8.023 -0.042 8.022 -0.42 -0.045 -0.18 -0.043 8.046 -0.022 -0.48 -0.00 9.022 -0.045 -0.046 -0.043 8.45 -0.021 -0.34 -0.13 -0.38 -0.022 -0.023 -0.94 8.045 -0.021 -0.043 8.043 8.26 -0.40 -0.023 -0.045 -0.021 -0.042 8.30 -0.17 -0.44 -0.043 8.11 9.023 -0.021 -0.043 8.042 8.021 -0.022 -0.022 -0.91 8.58 -0.046 -0.5 Enclose 5 Trim table tank #1.89 8.022 -0.045 -0.29 -0.023 -0.74 -0.021 -0.044 8.042 8.022 -0.72 -0.044 8.023 -0.06 9.14 -0.021 -0.022 -0.045 -0.021 -0.82 8.

05 1093.68 8. tank 100% volume 1182.92 8.14 8.14 1105.98 8.08 .23 8.63 8.17 1102.53 1148.75 1085.50 8.54 1143.34 8.91 8.82 1113.07 1108.14 1097.20 1077.01 9.39 8.95 1074.08 8.15 1104.16 8.21 8.79 8.78 8.21 1148.06 9.59 8.14 1065.82 1153.97 8.92 1111.41 8.14 1122.35 8.69 1084.09 9.48 8.52 8.46 8.41 1133.93 8.16 1099.33 1128.86 8.05 8.63 1083.85 1087.00 1144.30 8.60 8.05 1134.77 1092.33 8.16 1103.89 1149.13 8.86 1072.53 8.36 8.28 8.78 1139.40 1051.36 1079.74 8.94 1089.4.91 1063.51 8.87 8.11 8.77 1052.32 8.38 8.42 8.87 1112.00 9.79 1061.75 8.03 9.70 1115.46 1154.20 1129.94 1123.12 1076.76 8.36 1067.04 9.08 1094.10 1095.20 8.89 8.23 1134.99 9.54 1140.12 9.55 1059.12 1106.67 8.31 8.14 1127.83 1147.89 1151.43 1146.03 1064.12.72 8.64 8.06 8.33 1058.19 1152.57 8.10 1107.90 1088.05 9.43 8.61 8.94 8.57 1082.29 8.04 1122.54 1152.02 9.71 1145.70 8.44 1137.58 8.12 8.12 1096.17 1056.71 1125.04 1109.80 1142.95 8.18 m3 Sounding Volume Sounding Volume m m3 m m3 8.96 8.17 8.69 8.66 1070.50 1081.85 8.80 8.25 8.13 1146.05 1129.01 1138.55 8.30 1141.07 9.54 8.19 8.07 8.81 8.04 8.84 8.56 1117.23 1150.28 1078.65 1136.03 1075.62 8.83 1124.74 1131.27 8.90 1130.04 1055.15 1098.45 8.32 1120.56 1150.6 Enclose 6 Sounding table tank #1.59 1126.96 1110.37 8.47 Sounding Volume m m3 8.66 8.56 8.09 8.17 1101.13 9.46 1068.71 8.10 9.63 1116.44 8.11 9.10 8.88 8.18 8.25 1066.80 1086.67 1060.48 1118.22 8.26 8.76 1071.43 1080.40 1119.00 1109.76 1114.91 1054.23 1138.98 1091.01 8.06 1141.58 1132.23 1121.90 8.85 1135.82 8.24 8.65 8.17 1100.73 8.49 8.27 1144.47 8.56 1069.30 1057.15 8.08 9.83 8.

004 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.003 -0.000 0.000 0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 -0.001 -0.004 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.002 -0.003 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.000 0.000 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.000 0.003 -0.002 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.12.000 0.003 -0.001 -0. Read sounding in meter o C 6 7 8 9 10 -104 -103 -102 -101 -100 -99 -98 -97 -96 ± -48 -47 -46 -45 -44 -43 -42 -41 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.000 0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.004 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.4.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.003 -0.004 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.000 0.002 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.001 0.000 0.001 -0.003 -0.000 .000 / #3 11 -0.001 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 -0.001 -0.000 0.001 -0.001 -0.7 Enclose 7 Correction for expansion of sounding tape tank #2 Temp.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.000 0.001 -0.000 0.004 -0.003 -0.001 -0.004 -0.001 -0.

029 -0.87 8.029 -0.12 -0.028 -0.029 -0.058 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.058 -0.059 8.029 -0.058 -0.029 -0.029 -0.16 -0.059 8.5 1 -0.059 8.057 -0.028 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.02 9.029 -0.059 Sounding 8.028 -0.40 -0.059 8.029 -0.059 8.28 -0.94 8.77 Stern trim 0.51 8.058 -0.029 -0.028 -0.20 -0.25 -0.058 -0.59 8.67 8.029 -0.057 -0.57 8.058 -0.029 -0.059 8.09 -0.058 -0.029 -0.14 Stern trim 0.029 -0.029 -0.43 8.12.059 8.028 -0.73 8.059 8.029 -0.058 -0.97 8.029 -0.059 -0.05 9.028 -0.42 8.059 8.38 -0.059 -0.029 -0.029 -0.058 -0.84 8.058 -0.53 8.059 8.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.057 -0.99 9.52 8.058 .78 8.04 9.058 -0.058 -0.059 -0.029 -0.057 -0.057 -0.45 8.029 -0.19 -0.059 8.059 -0.059 8.058 -0.26 -0.029 -0.058 -0.059 -0.057 -0.028 -0.74 8.70 8.028 -0.85 8.39 -0.49 8.33 -0.029 -0.058 -0.058 -0.057 -0.059 -0.028 -0.059 8.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.69 8.029 -0.028 -0.058 -0.059 8.48 8.54 8.63 8.00 9.029 -0.029 -0.057 -0.059 8.5 1 -0.03 9.059 8.95 8.028 -0.029 -0.029 -0.059 8.029 -0.029 -0.46 8.057 -0.15 -0.029 -0.029 -0.68 8.029 -0.059 8.91 8.058 -0.31 -0.029 -0.058 -0.059 -0.29 -0.11 -0.028 -0.13 9.059 -0.12 9.029 -0.029 -0.058 -0.059 8.09 9.88 8.028 -0.058 -0.029 -0.029 -0.86 8.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.35 -0.058 -0.029 -0.059 -0.059 -0.17 -0.059 -0.059 -0.029 -0.029 -0.14 -0.60 8.18 -0.028 -0.059 -0.029 -0.059 -0.75 8.07 9.029 -0.06 -0.028 -0.23 -0.057 -0.10 -0.04 -0.029 -0.028 -0.059 -0.76 8.057 Sounding 8.22 -0.058 -0.10 9.24 -0.059 8.029 -0.057 -0.058 -0.01 9.028 -0.4.029 -0.059 8.13 -0.56 8.98 8.029 -0.029 -0.058 -0.057 -0.057 -0.80 8.82 8.028 -0.32 -0.058 -0.059 8.029 -0.18 m3 Sounding and trim in meter Sounding Stern trim 0.06 9.059 8.059 -0.64 8.029 -0.059 -0.41 8.37 -0.65 8.55 8.029 -0.58 8.059 8.72 8.029 -0.30 -0.11 9.50 8.028 -0.07 -0.057 -0.057 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.057 -0.029 -0.08 9.028 -0.029 -0.028 -0.21 -0.059 8.029 -0.059 8.058 -0.028 -0.96 8.029 -0. tank 100% volume 1468.058 -0.028 -0.36 -0.66 8.8 Enclose 8 Trim table tank #2 and #3.058 -0.029 -0.029 -0.029 -0.059 8.47 8.059 8.029 -0.058 -0.79 8.029 -0.059 8.059 8.059 -0.44 8.058 -0.029 -0.059 8.059 -0.059 8.058 -0.059 8.059 8.029 -0.059 -0.71 8.029 -0.05 -0.62 8.029 -0.81 8.34 -0.08 -0.029 -0.5 1 8.057 -0.89 8.90 8.93 8.61 8.058 -0.058 -0.059 8.059 8.059 -0.029 -0.92 8.83 8.27 -0.

08 1321.74 1426.18 1423.09 1423.35 1404.63 1320.70 1396.33 8.68 8.96 8.50 1366.62 8.60 8.97 1384.11 9.71 8.04 8.04 9.52 8.48 8.15 1345.71 1388.76 1382.01 9.31 8.64 1412.64 1413.21 8.75 8.64 1376.07 8.20 8.35 1421.70 1330.29 1342.35 1370.40 1311.43 8.66 8.51 1407.14 1406.95 8.59 1409.02 9.40 1325.08 9.89 1348.70 8.50 8.27 1315.88 1390.11 1379.90 8.41 8.97 1352.92 8.29 8.69 8.73 8.56 1408.51 8.76 8.74 8.22 1436.02 1400.29 1361.97 8.26 8.39 1375.61 1410.87 8.53 8.49 8.00 9.05 8.82 1397.57 1417.37 8.24 8.12.33 1357.14 1429.27 8.88 1373.60 1427.17 1385.60 1416.41 1405.26 1349.39 8.47 8.62 1371.58 8.07 1369.52 1418.20 1338.42 1420.00 1341.52 1322.95 1434.03 9.9 Enclose 9 Sounding table tank #2 and #3.31 1429.97 1334.79 1431.46 8.36 8.18 m3 Sounding m Volume m3 Sounding m Volume m3 Sounding m Volume m3 8.23 8.54 1387.39 1433.38 8.09 9.38 .42 8.59 1432.63 1411.15 8.81 1314.93 8.81 8.07 9.18 1433.47 1436.19 1392.27 1422.91 8.95 1437.64 8.98 1360.88 8.84 8.62 1415.86 1425.92 1399.08 8.32 8.18 8.46 1428.35 8.47 8.28 8.33 1380.57 8.54 8.22 8. tank 100% volume 1468.36 1386.79 8.21 1365.78 8.63 8.98 1424.67 8.38 1335.91 1364.00 1356.66 1355.05 9.25 8.77 1344.55 8.77 1362.10 9.72 1317.56 8.32 1353.59 1395.30 8.86 8.59 8.87 1378.12 8.85 8.14 8.17 8.67 1438.44 8.27 1328.61 8.19 8.84 1327.16 8.13 1331.64 1414.79 1368.60 8.35 1312.13 8.80 1337.72 1435.34 8.4.33 1393.80 8.13 9.06 9.72 8.96 1324.10 8.47 1419.62 1350.14 1374.66 1358.11 1401.04 1391.53 1346.82 8.20 1402.18 1318.99 9.89 8.98 8.55 1381.06 8.09 8.60 1340.55 1332.11 8.28 1403.83 8.94 8.97 1430.45 8.65 8.46 1394.12 9.

80 0.40 0.114 + 0.70 0.127 + 0.18 1182. C 3 Sounding read m 4 Float correction m 5 Correction for vapour m temperature 6 List correction m 7 Trim correction m o 8 Sounding at 20 C m o 9 Volume at 20 C m3 10 Shrink.18 1468.12.60 0.18 1 Volume of tank 100 % m3 o 2 Liquid temp.18 1468.45 0.110 Cargo calculation table LPG Seagull Port: Last: Tank no.10Enclose 10 Correction on the float Specific gravity (kg/dm3) 0. factor tank steel 11 Corrected liquid volume m3 12 Reduction factor from table 54C 13 Volume 15 oC m3 14 Density on liquid at 15oC Mt/m3 .50 0.00 1.10 Correction in meter + 0.18 1468.220 + 0.150 + 0.90 1.121 + 0. # ASTM Date: Skip: 1P 1S 2P 2S 3P 3S 1182.4.136 + 0.170 + 0.187 + 0.18 1468.

21 15 Mass of liquid in vacuum at 15oC 16 Uncorrected vapour volume 17 Shrinkage factor vapour phase 18 Corrected Vapour volume 19 Tank pressure 20 Atmosphere pressure 21 Molecular weight 22 Temperature on vapour 23 Density on vapour 24 Mass of vapour in vacuum 25 Total mass in vacuum Total weight in air ROB in air Mt Mt Mt Mt m3 m3 bar bar C kg/m3 Mt Mt o Total loaded in air .tab.

.

13- Cooling Processes and Calculation .

13 COOLING PROCESSES AND CALCULATIONS 13. Such a diagram contains infinitely much more information than a table can have. and gives. vapour condenses and liquid vaporises. the aggregate state. This will make it easier to find information in the diagram. pressure and temperature change continuously. In the Mollier diagram. you will find a large and unpractical table. possibility to make a “heat-technical picture” of the cooling process. In a cooling plant. To perform calculations of the cooling process. in addition. are therefore developed. has a vertical logarithmic scale for pressure (p) and a horizontal scale for enthalpy (h). Diagrams for simply cooling media where the cooling media’s enthalpy under the actual aggregate states. one will often think of the two different units for the different qualities. and how the different lines lie in the diagram. . the cooling media will constantly change its state. Log p-h diagram or called the Mollier diagram. In the cooling process. Before making use of the Mollier diagram one has to learn how the diagram is built. If one is to make enthalpy-tables for a cooling media in all possible states. Vapour is compressed and gets a higher pressure and temperature. one must know the enthalpy changes taking place. We will consistently make use of the SI-units and refer to these scales only.1 MOLLIER DIAGRAM – INTRODUCTION The Mollier diagram is an invaluable in helping to understand refrigeration calculations.

the liquid is always in its boiling point. An adiabatic state of proportion is an alteration without heat exchanging with the surroundings. The bent line that goes from the lower left corner and upwards the KP (the kinetic point) is called the liquid line. which corresponds to 0. liquid can not appear.1”. The values for enthalpy are therefore chosen from a random reference state. In the critical point. Halfway between the liquid line and the saturation line there will be equal parts of gas as liquid. One must take note of this.1 MPa. The area between the liquid and the saturation line specifies a mixture of boiling liquid and saturated gas. temperature and entropy. On this line. temperature and heat content change in an adiabatic state of proportion. The dashed line indicates the proportion of mixture between liquid and gas. The Mollier diagram also has lines that indicate density (or specific volume). The lines for entropy indicate how pressure. the “sack” is the most bearing curve. Along this line there is 90% liquid and 10% saturated gas. The line bends from KP and is almost vertically down the middle of the diagram. given as absolute pressure. the state will be saturated gas. the higher the pressure is. If nothing else is given.The pressure of the Mollier diagram is. In the sketch above. At the right of the saturation curve. In the Mollier diagram. To the left of the liquid line the liquid is super-cooled. the gas is super-heated. as in all heat technical tables. If this line is lengthways. The real compression progress in a compressor will of course deviate some from these lines because of loss in the compressor and heat exchange with the environment. . The distance between the liquid and the saturation line indicates how large the vaporisation is. This line is called the saturation curve. we have chosen to set the atmospheric pressure to equal 1 bar. In cooling technical calculations one is only interested in enthalpy changes and not the absolute enthalpy values. Notice that the vaporisation varies with the pressure and is lessened. one line is marked “0. if one wants to compare enthalpy values from the different tables or diagrams.

As the cargo in the loading tank always lies in its boiling point.3 MPa. To maintain necessary training in using the Mollier diagram. This pressure is equivalent 3 bar absolute (if we assume the atmospheric pressure to 1 bar) or 0. Find the physical state for the liquid in the loading tank. we will see in some examples how to obtain useful information from the diagram. . The temperature goes from the liquid line horizontal to the saturation line. The state of proportion here is the point of intersection between the liquid line and the pressure line of 0. Note which units to utilise for temperature. density and entropy. In the course enclosure.3 MPa. Any state of proportion can settle in the diagram if we can identify two actual crossing lines. Take note that there are often two scales for pressure and enthalpy. The diagram can be used several times. When you plot and draw in the diagram it is recommended to always utilise a soft pencil.1. We will only utilise SI-units in our calculations. thereby to bend vertically towards the enthalpy from the saturation line. the state of proportion must lie somewhere among the liquid line.The lines for density (kg/m3) or specific volume (m3/kg) indicate density with varying pressure and temperature. 13.1 Example 1 The ship is loaded with propane and the tank manometer pressure is 2 bar. The line for constant temperature is vertical from the top of the diagram down to the liquid line. This course provides a Mollier diagram for propane utilises the diagram in the following advice. tables for conversion between the most common units are enclosed. It is also known that the pressure in the tank and above the liquid is read off at 2 bar on the manometer.

This pressure is equivalent to 3 bar absolute (if we assume the atmospheric pressure to 1 bar) or 0. The state of proportion here will be the state of intersection between the saturation line and the pressure line of 0.2 Example 2 The ship is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read off on the manometer at 2 bar. at all times. Plot the state of proportion for the gas above the liquid in the cargo tank.13. As the gas above the liquid in the loading tank is. the state of proportion must lie somewhere on the saturation line.3 MPa.1. saturated.3 MPa. The pressure in the tank and above the liquid is read off to 2 bar on the manometer. .

13. Utilise the Mollier diagram to find how much heat one must supply the tank to evaporate (boil off) 1 kg propane. and check that the latent heat of evaporation is the same. The difference between the liquid enthalpy h1 and the saturated gas enthalpy h2 is the heat quantity that is needed to evaporate 1kg propane at 2 bar pressure. h2 . the state of proportions for the liquid and the gas in the loading tank is stated at a tank pressure of 2 bar. In example 1 and 2. Calculation of evaporation heat Gas Pressure (abs. Find this table in the course enclosure.Enthalpy for saturated liquid.) Enthalpy for saturated gas. h1 Latent heat of evaporation : = = = = Propane 3 880 490 390 bar kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg The latent heat of evaporation for propane can also be found in a heat thermal property table for propane. .1.3 Example 3 The ship is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read off on the manometer to 2 bar.

Plot the state of proportion for the gas on the compressor.1. .25 MPA (1. As the pressure in the gas in to the compressor is 1. and the suction temperature to –10 oC (14oF). the state of proportion must lie on a pressure line equal 0. The exact state of proportion is plotted where the temperature line of –10oC crosses the pressure line of 0. When the point is plotted. More mass involves larger cold capacity for the plant.13. the density of the gas into the compressor can be defined from the density lines that run sideways out to the right in the diagram. A cooling plant’s net cold capacity is expressed as: Qnett = m x Dh where m =the mass of gas that streams through the cooling plant per hour (kg/s) Dh = the difference between enthalpy on the gas that abandons the tank and enthalpy on the condensate that returns back to the tank (kJ/kg) Notice that the density of the gas increases at higher gas pressure and lower temperature.5 bar.2 bar + 1 bar) in the diagram.14 MPa.5 bar. Larger density gives more mass per hour that will flow through the plant. On a cargo compressor in operation the suction pressure is read off to 1.4 Example 4 The gas carrier is loaded with propane and the tank pressure is read of on the manometer of 2 bar.

The heat of the boiling is taken from the liquid itself and the surroundings and the liquid gets colder. the pressure of the liquid to the atmospheric pressure (1 bar) lowers. An enthalpy change during the process will not take place. before the valve was opened. The liquid lies on the liquid line in the diagram.73 Mpa (7. Notice that the new state of proportion (2) is inside the “sack” and that a precise share of the liquid has evaporated because of pressure reduction.5 Example 5 A gas cylinder is filled with floating propane. When the liquid is let out of the bottle.1.13. . and for the liquid in the opened container later. Temperature of the air and propane liquid and gas is 15 oC. Plot the state of proportion for the liquid in the bottle.3 bar). as a vertical line from the cross-point through the liquid line to the pressure line. The valve opens and floating propane flows over in an open container. The fast reduction of the pressure involves a powerful boiling of the liquid because of an “unbalance” between the liquid’s temperature and gas pressure of the liquid. The point (1) is defined either from the temperature line of 15oC (59oF) or equivalent pressure line 0. We can draw the process line (from point 1 to point 2) for any change to the liquid. We say that the gas over the liquid is saturated.

have large regulation opportunity.2 THE COOLING PLANTS COMPONENT A good processor should have a construction that secures from gas leakage. The lifting arrangement is normally performed hydraulically by oil taken from the pressure side of the oil pump. The working valves have work-over intervals from 2000 to 5000 hours.2. The clearance is as small as possible.1 An oil-lubricated piston has piston rings made of cast-iron. The lubricate oil pump is normally the gear type and normally placed in the extension of the crankshaft. The piston runs dry in the cylinder. there is minimal wear on compressors with this construction. Loss of energy. The capacity regulation by the suction valve plates is gradually lifted from the seats and only the gas is pumped in and out of the cylinder. oil lubricated screw compressors and oil free screw compressors. The oil lubricates the bearing. as follows: The sealing device between piston and cylinder liner is performed by piston rings with self-lubricated qualities. The principal for oil free piston compressors is that no parts. In time. shaft and the cylinder walls. But some of the oil is lead further out in the system in form of oil vapour. be applicable for the different media qualities. obtain least space and give as little noise and vibrations as possible. Piston rings of teflon material are often used in these compressors. Pistons 13. which are in contact with the gas. mud will extend from the oil settler. We separate between four types of compressors in the cooling plant: oil lubricated pistons. One supplies the crankcase with a coil for heating and cooling. An oil separator in the pressure pipeline separates most of the oil. This construction is less space demanding. On the Freon side. The working valves are usually a plate type valve and are placed inside the compressor. The state of the piston rings and the cylinder liner is conclusive for how much oil leads out of the compressor. Cleaning of this is therefore one of the assumptions to maintain the oil consumption and the pollution at a fair level. The lubricated piston compressors are normally built as V or W machines. Piston/cylinder is made by a small groove. but also less friendly working-wise. oil free pistons. This reduces the settler’s capacity. oil lubricated piston and screw compressors are used. which is due to friction in a normal . Both types of pistons and oil free screw compressors are used on the cargo side in the cooling plant. As the piston is in touch with the cylinder walls. The consequence is that one can not have too large demands for defilement of cargo on ships with such cargo compressors. The compressor case is sterling in cast-iron and the valves normally of aluminium. The casings are loose and cast-iron. It is therefore necessary to lubricate the cylinder walls. These construction problems are solved. are lubricated. A part of this oil will be lead out of the compressor. A labyrinth gland performs the sealing device between piston and cylinder walls.13.

2. Oil that departs from the oil remover is lead back to the crank room or to an exhaust tank. LPG gas is soluble in oil and should therefore first boil out in an exhaust tank. If sealing and oil is in bad shape. The compressor is also built as two and three stage compressors. the next to 2nd stage and the third as 3rd stage. That involves that they are supplied with a cross-head. one . Many of the synthetic oils are hygroscopic and will therefore accumulate dampness if they are exposed to damp air. is about the same as the leakage loss for a compressor with labyrinth gland. oil will also go up in to the cylinder liner and go with the vapour out of the compressor. no draft of oil. The individual stages here will have different cylinder diameters where the first is the largest and the others gradually smaller. by oil lubricated piston compressors. while synthetic oil is used for the rest of the cargo. This means that one cylinder is used as 1st stage.2 The oil will. One can lead ammonia back to the crank room because this is not soluble in the oil. Where is decided by what cargo we have. One recommends using a mineral oil for the butadiene. from the compressor in plants. and the working valves are placed outside the cylinders. Some gas will however leak down in the crankcase on the piston compressors and there mix with the oil. High pressure in the crankcase is an indication of inferior sealing. The first stage is also referring to as a low-pressure (LT) cylinder and the highest as high-pressure (HT) cylinder. The lubricant free piston compressors have. under normal situations. Oil free piston compressors are at all times built as double acting. Pollution of cargo and reduced compressor capacity are the consequences of this.compressor. at all times. be led out with the gas. Piston compressors and lubricate oil 13. This indicates that the viscosity of the oil is less. When changing oil types.

cylinder cover and crank house are cooled and heated by glycol. 13. Cylinder. Linde compressor 13.4 Sulzer Compressor Sulzer produces oil free piston compressors with labyrinth sealing for use as cargo compressors in the cooling plant. These are built as V or W machines with a number of revolutions of about 1200 rpm. washing the crank room with the “new” oil before refilling is recommended. They are generally performed with a hydraulic lifting of the suction valves. The cylinders are arranged in series and can be used as one to three stage compressors with the number of revolutions from 600 to 1000 rpm.must be sure not to mix the oil types. The piston is kept central in the cylinder by the help of steering on the topside of the piston. It is important to consider that the length of lifetime of the Teflon material depends upon at which working temperature the compressor is operating. Gas that flows through the labyrinth sealing is lead back to the suction side.2. The working valves are made of the ring flapper type. Labyrinth sealing and an arrangement of oil scraper rings fence the compound between cylinder and crank room. A packing seal and oil blocks the connection between cylinder and crank room.3 Linde is a type of oil free piston compressor with Teflon sealing rings that is used as a cargo compressor in the cooling plant.2. The capacity can be regulated to 50% and 100% and is performed with a hydraulic lifting of the suction valve . To be sure that all remnants of the “old” oil are removed. The working valves are plate type and are capacity regulated at 50% and 100%. The pistons are kept central in the cylinder by the help of a piston steering and oil lubricated drawback. Too high operating temperature will lead to higher wear and thereby higher leakage loss in the compressor.

. more than occurs with delivery volume. Cylinder.60 = 240 m3/h 240 m3/h gas flow through the compressor in this working situation. net capacity is: 400 m3/h x 0.2. the pressure ratio is: 6 / 1. If we compare the piston compressors. If the diagram above is actually for an oil free compressor with a read off suction pressure of 0. labyrinth sealing. The pressure ratio over the compressor or a cylinder in the compressor is the ratio between delivery pressure and suction pressure. crank room and piston rod steering is cooled and heated by glycol. The volume difference is lowest at low working pressure. A high delivery rate is thereby an important factor for the cooling plant capacity.5 Delivery rate A compressor delivery rate is the difference between the suction volume and the stroke volume. 13.flapper. Comparison between oil free piston compressors with labyrinth sealing and Teflon sealing indicates that the delivery volume is a bit larger for a compressor with Teflon sealing. However. the delivery rate to an oillubricated compressor will be clearly better than an oil free compressor. If the compressor has a gross capacity of 400 m 3/h.60. The placing of the working valves externally and oil free compressor makes the “damaging room” larger and is the cause for a different delivery rate.5 = 4 A pressure ratio of 4 gives a delivery rate of about 0. the power consumption rises at a higher delivery pressure percentage.5 bar and a delivery pressure of 5 bar.

or the rotors. are shaped with male and female profiles that mesh into on another. parallel placed in a compressor case.13. The difference is the same as for the piston compressors. . This type of compressor works by the displacement principal.6 Screw compressors The screw compressor is divided into two groups: oil lubricated and oil free. In the oil free screw compressors.2. The working parts of the compressor are two rotating screws. the parts that are in contact with the gas are not lubricated with oil. The screws.

3. but dependent from ploy for the employed gas and rate of cooling.The impetus is transferred to the male rotor. 4. 2. Gradually as the rotor twists additionally. the female rotor number of revolutions is: 4 / 6 x 3600 rpm = 2400 rpm The compressors working progress is. V2 is the volume of reticent gas after compression. One says that the compressor has a constant embedded volume proportion. The gas is now closed between the end casing. Four lobes on the male rotor mesh into 6 lobes on the female rotor. When the rotors turn. If the male rotor has a number of revolutions of 3600 rpm. 1. In the most common screw compressors on board. the volume is less and the gas compress against the outlet wall. the chamber gets longer and gas sucks into the compressor. as: . The most common combination is four and six lobes for the male and the female rotor. The chamber passes the inlet opening. The embedded volume proportion is determined from the proportion: V1 / V2 where V1 is the maximum induction volume per rotor per rotation. as follows: 1. 2. but before blow down to pressure side. The pressure proportion is not constant. 4. the confined gas will compress to a precise volume before blowing down to the pressure side. The lobe on the female rotor reveals the die orifice. An additional twist of the rotor uncovers the outlet wall and the gas is pressed out of the compressor. The connection between the volume proportion and the pressure proportion can therefore be expressed. 3.

cool and seal between rotors and cases Lubricate. To prevent oil from forcing into the compressor room.(V1 / V2)k = Designed compression proportion = Delivery pressure/suction pressure Practically. . cool and seal between the rotors Cool and lubricate the axial sealing Give hydraulic energy to the capacity regulation Cool the gas The screw compressors power consumption is unfavourable compared with the twostage piston compressor. Ample oil must therefore be supplied to the rotors. The compressor case is cooled and heated by glycol. The oil free screw compressors are used on board as cargo compressors. 5000 to 15000 rpm. Installation of a “superfeed” arrangement compensates some in this condition. the screw compressors with a built-in volume proportion will compress the gas needlessly too much or too little. the gear must be used. Bearings and gear lubricate by a self-pressure oil system. The axial strength recovers when placed on the outlet side. this means that when the drift parameters change. This means that if electric motors are used as. Too low compression increases back flow of gas and hence reduced efficiency. Oil lubricated screw compressors are used on board on the Freon side in cascade plants. A synchronising gear is used to keep the rotors from wearing one another. The oil has the following purpose: • • • • • • · · · · · · Lubricate the bearings Lubricate. The number of revolutions is kept relatively high. axial sealing is installed between the bearings and the gas area inside the compressor. to keep the leakage loss as low as possible. The female rotor is driven directly by the male rotor in this type of compressor.

The power consumption will also rise. The boil off in the inter-cooler is led back to the compressor (S). The plants cooling capacity will rise (∆Q). but less than the increased cooling capacity. .The condensate is super-cooled in a coil placed in a combined evaporator and intercooler.

no pulsating no sensitiveness for liquid in the gas flow high volumetric efficiency of the actual working area possibilities for infinitely variable capacity regulation low pressure pipe temperature for oil lubricated screw compressors . The advantages with screw compressors are: • • • • • • • • • · · · · · · · · · no suction or pressure valves few mobile parts lower cost at purchase.The capacity regulation on oil lubricated screw compressors takes place by help of a hydraulic operated drawback that opens a gate to the inlet side. The capacity if often infinitely variable between 10 % and 100 %. installation and maintenance little vibrations and simple foundation even gas flow.

7 Lubricating oil system The sketch below indicates a normal oil system for cooling plants with soil lubricated screw compressors. as well. . The oil-restoring device system is often used in these systems.2. It is not possible to drain off pure oil on the liquid side and a system is therefore installed as an oil-restoring device in these plants.13. The oil-rich freon liquid evaporates inside the pipes. A relatively warm freon liquid from the liquid collector meets it here. the oil particles are carried with it. Despite the fact that the oil separator is installed after the compressor. Because of the large velocity of the gas out of the heat exchanger. a larger share of oil is constantly in the freon consequently this leads to poor plant cooling capacity. Some of the cold and the oil-rich freon liquid is taken from the pressure side and delivered to the lower inlet of the heat exchanger.

.8 Thermostatic expansion valve Thermostatic expansion valves are used in the cooling plant to regulate the liquid injection in the heat exchangers. 13. The evaporation pressure and the overheating in the heat exchanger control the valve.2.An independent regulation valve provides that a suitable amount of freon is let into the heat exchanger when the liquid is taken from the pressure side. one must consider the operation terms and the capacity need for the plant. A constant overflow pipe provides that the level in the heat exchanger is constant. For the valve to function satisfactorily the valve must be installed as recommended by the supplier and the valve is dimensioned to the plant. In choosing a valve.

The simplified sketch of the plant indicates the main components in a cooling plant with possibility for motoring both with 1 stage and 2 stage direct operation. This is normal when the plant is also designed for 2 stage operation. liquid collector and regulation valves are utilised.3 ONE-STAGE DIRECT OPERATION Cooling plants with 1-stage direct operation are the simplest cooling plants with the least number of components. This is not in use in 1 stage operation and supply lines are therefore drawn as a broken dashed line.13. On the following log sheet. The cooling process itself is drawn in a sketch of a Mollier diagram for propylene. The description “1-stage” refers to the compression that occurs in only one step. With 1 stage direct operation cargo tank(s). condenser. liquid separator. there is also an intermediate cooler with coil. . compressor. “Direct operation” means that the cargo vapour is sucked from the cargo tank and compressed directly either against seawater or Freon in an cascade plant. Notice that the compressor has two or more cylinders with different diameters. which is used on board many semi-pressurised gas carrier. Propylene is chosen as cargo and cooling media. Following. an actual operation situation for this plat is registered. In this chapter we have chosen to use one-sage direct cooling for our examples.

this gives a tank pressure of 3 bars. The compressing process is traced into the diagram as the line from B to C. the gas over the liquid is regarded as saturated. the gas is heated between the tank and compressor.8 bars (2. Because of heat leakage. The compressor performs a job on the gas and the gas is supplied with energy. When gas sucks into the compressor. The gas is compressed parallel over both cylinders and delivered to the seawatercooled condenser.Air Power o Date: Time: C Amp. the condition of the gas (when it sucks into the compressor) can be plotted into the diagram. 1. The piston compressor sucks the gas from the tank via a liquid separator. 1.5 -5 80 23 27 Cargo The loading tank is filled with propylene. . temperature and enthalpy increases. In addition. Temp Tank 1. When liquid boils.suct 1.deliv. % load 21/3 12:00 28 180 100 Sea water Pressure Temp. The condition of the gas at this point is. Heat will be transferred to the tank and the cargo because of the difference in temperature between cargo and the surroundings.0 2. Pressure. in the Mollier diagram on the saturation line at an absolute pressure of 4 bar. the pressure in the gas will reduce some because of friction in the pipeline. In Out o o o bar bar bar C C C oC 3. The temperature of the liquid in the tank is – 12oC. If the compressor’s suction temperature is –5oC and read-off suction pressure is 2. The point is marked as A.deliv. The point is marked as B. The condition is in an overheated area where the temperature line of –5oC and the pressure line of 3.8 bars + 1 bars) crosses.suct.8 10.8 bars. therefore. The condition of the liquid in the tank is in the boiling point line at a pressure of 3 bars. both temperature and pressure will be changed.

The heat exchanger is normally designed so that the temperature difference between seawater and condensate is between 3oC and 8oC.5 bars to tank pressure of 3 bars. The temperature of the seawater into the condenser is read-off as 23oC. This routine is of great importance. The only useful method to reveal such a development is to log the drift parameter regularly. the read-off condensation pressure is 10. When the pressure over the condensate is reduced from condensation pressure of 10. In the heat technical table for propylene. uncondensed gas will blow through the . The temperature must be the same for the mixture. which continuously compresses new vapour. through the compression. The liquid cools and some of the gas evaporates. The gas into the condenser now has a temperature of 80oC. This renders a possibility of heat transmission from an originally colder to a warmer medium. The regulation valve’s job is to let the condensate back to the cargo tank in a constant and controlled process. which is within the normal area. A change in the temperature of seawater and gas over the condenser indicates something is wrong. Notice that there is no enthalpy change. A regulation valve between the liquid collector and the cargo tank regulates the level in the liquid collector. Temperature and pressure is what changes over the valve. If the liquid level and thereby the liquid lock disappears.5 bars. the liquid will boil energetically. Notice that the gas’s overheating at first is removed. one can see that this corresponds to a condensation temperature of 25o C. something that makes it difficult to intercept the signals.The heat is transferred from the gas to the seawater in the condenser. One should notice that such changes of the cooling plant mainly occur over time. and then the gas is saturated. A heat quantity is transferred to the seawater that is corresponding to the difference in enthalpy of the gas that sucks from the tank and the condensate enthalpy after the condenser. because the pressure is the same. If for example. Then the evaporation heat is removed and the gas condenses. the state is on the boiling point line. This heat is mainly taken from the liquid itself. The gas cools and condenses against the relative cold seawater under constant pressure. increased the temperature to a relative warmer state than the seawater. One can see the process line between point D and E in the Mollier diagram. the temperature increase of the seawater over the condenser is smaller and the condensation pressure higher. The process line in the Mollier diagram is traced from point C to D. the seawater side becomes dirty. When all gas is condensed in the condenser. The suction of the gas is now condensed and the condensate collected in a liquid collector. A mixture of liquid and gas with the same temperature as the liquid and the gas in the tank is what returns into the cargo tank. It is the temperature of the seawater that circulates through the condenser that determines the condensation pressure. The relative cold gas of about –12oC that was sucked out from the tank has. The pressure is maintained by the compressor. In our example. One can locate the shares of liquid and saturated gas in the Mollier diagram as point E. One can see that the gas’s enthalpy reduces in the process. Boiling requires heat. The valve should simultaneously keep the liquid locked to secure the compressor’s maintenance of the compression pressure. It is of great importance that the regulation valve has satisfactory activity.

12 m3 /kg) or 8. Qnet is: Qnet = m x (h2 . Needless throttling of valves on the suction side or tightened filters. Its construction and condition determine the capacity of the compressor. If the capability of the cooling plant is larger than the total heat leakage.33 kg/m3 x (240 kJ7kg . which flows through the plant. so the condenser refills this result in an inferior heat exchange of the condenser and a higher condensation pressure.h1) The capacity of the compressor (V) and the density (p) of the gas into the compressor determines the mass (m). gives a needless low pressure and thereby. h1.12 m3/kg. is determined by the condensation pressure. . Inferior isolation of suction pipe or tank gives a larger heat leakage. Lower density gives less mass through the compressor hence with reduced capability. This corresponds to a density of (l/0. Qnet = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 . If the seawater temperature and other operating conditions are unaltered. Notice that a higher condensation pressure removes this point to the right and will give less enthalpy difference than with a low condensation pressure. higher temperature and thereby lower density. If the compressor has a capability of 350 m3/h. a lower density. one can see that the condition for the temperature of the liquid in the tank and h2 determines the gas at the top of the tank. These factors are therefore less influential than the others are. The gas’s specific volume (v) is point B in the Mollier diagram to 0.-60 kJ/kg) = 243 kW Notice the factor. By studying the process of the Mollier diagram. thereby. the net cooling capacity of the plant. the temperature of the cargo will be lower over time.33 kg/m3. the process lines EAB are displaced parallel downward with the tank pressure against the process lines E1A1B1.condenser and reduce the capability of the plant. which expresses the cooling plant’s capability to influence and to control. the tank pressure sinks. Pressure drops determine the density of the gas into the compressor and temperature increases between tank and compressor.h2) = {(350 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 8. A lowest possible condensation pressure gives therefore the best capacity in addition to the best operating condition for the compressor. If the liquid level rises. the cooling capacity of the plant. The other enthalpy point. Good control and maintenance influence the capability of the cooling plant. When the temperature sinks. The enthalpy difference of the plant is determined by the cooling media and other outer conditions like the seawater temperature.

In addition. the heat leakage will. One must notice that the saturation line of the different material has different inclines.5 / 3. Therefore the influence of this change varies. as long as the condenser can transfer the necessary heat amount from the gas to the seawater. The condition for the gas after compression is removed from C to C1. of course. as follows: Pressure condition = Delivery pressure/suction pressure = 11. the pressure condition will rise and result in a constant decreasing delivery extent.8 = 6.8 = 3 According to the fall of the tank pressure. Previously. be largest at a low tank pressure. The mass through the compressor sinks because the density of the vapour is lower with a lower pressure. The influence of reduced delivery extent of the cooling capacity is often larger than the summary of the other factors. A reduction of the suction pressure with 2 bars and the same condensation pressure gives a pressure condition of: 11. If the condensation pressure is kept unaltered. . the process will be longer for the compression and the outlet temperature from the compressor will be higher.5 / 1. the point h2 is displacing gently against the left. this results in some lower enthalpy difference.4 This increased pressure condition gives an essential reduction in delivery extent and thereby cooling capacity. The pressure condition in our example is. The explanation of why the cooling capacity is at the lowest by low tank pressure is some complex.One can see that a lower tank pressure results in a lower cooling capacity. In addition to above-mentioned condition. This has in itself no direct influence on the capacity. we have seen how the piston compressor delivery extent depends on the pressure condition of the compressor.

we find that the heat leakage to the cargo tanks at presence air and seawater temperature is 36 kW.3 x 106 kJ We insert above-mentioned values of the heat balance and get: (234 kW x T) = (36 kW x T) + 39.3. The necessary heat amount removed from the cargo to cool the cargo is located in the Mollier diagram or in a heat technical table: Enthalpy for propylene at-12 oC = 61.1. the heat amount that must be abducted is: (1000 x 103) kg x 39. from –12o to –30o.3. The calculated cooling time here at unaltered heat leakage and cooling capacity is about 55 hours.5 kcal/kg = 257. .1 kcal/kg = 217.3 kJ/kg Here one must eliminate 39. Plot the state-point for the gas into the compressor. The suction pressure of a cargo compressor is read to 1.25 MPa.13.Enthalpy for propylene at -30 oC = 52.3 x 106 / 198)s = 198484 s T = (198484 / 3600) hrs.1 kJ/kg . the state-point must lie in a pressure line equal 0. Example 2 13.3 kJ/kg = 39.2 The vessel is loaded with propane and the cargo tank pressure is read to 2 bars.3 kJ from one kilo propylene to lower the heat temperature from -12 oC to -30 oC.1 Example 1 The cooling capacity of the vessel is at the moment 234 kW. As the pressure of the gas into the compressor is 1. The exact statepoint is plotted where the temperature line of –10oC crosses the pressure line of 0.3 x 106 kJ where T = cooling time in seconds T = (39. We want to find the time to cool down the cargo of 1000 MT propylene.5 bars and the suction temperature is –10oC (14oF). the cooling time will be a bit longer because the cooling capacity and the heat leakage is not constant in the period.5 bars + 1 bars) in the diagram.5 bars.1.8 kJ/kg =Enthalpy difference = 39. As we have 1000 MT propylene.25 MPa (1. In practice. At first we set an expression for the heat balance: Net heat abducted in the cooling plant = heat-leakage + heat abducted from the cargo In the vessel’s operation manual. = 55 hrs.

The heat from boiling is taken from the liquid itself and the surroundings and the liquid gets colder. Qnet = m x h Where m = the mass of gas flowing through the cooling plant per time (kg/s) h = the difference between enthalpy of the gas that leaves the tank and enthalpy on the condensate that is returned back to the tank (kJ/kg) Notice that the density of the gas increases at higher gas pressure and lower temperature. The liquid lies on the liquid line and the point (1) is determined either from the temperature line of 15o C (59oF) or corresponding pressure line of 0. the pressure lowers above the liquid to the atmosphere pressure (1 bars). The difference is that the plant now is altered to 2 stage operation with intermediate cooling. The gas above the liquid is regarded as saturated. This plant is the same as used in the one-stage lesson.When the point is plotted. Notice that the new state-point (2) lies inside the “sack” and that a precise share of the liquid has vaporised because of the pressure reduction. as a vertical line from the point of the liquid line to the atmosphere pressure line. The valve opens and liquid propane runs into an open container. At 2 stage operation.3. Notice how the volume flow now compares to 1stage operation and which valves that regulates this. 13. The temperature of the air and propane liquid and gas is 15oC.3 bars). No enthalpy change will take place during the process. More mass involves larger cold capacity for the plant.73 MPa (7. The quick reduction of the pressure involves powerful boiling in the liquid because of an “unbalance” between the liquid temperature and the gas pressure above the liquid. the density of the gas into the compressor is determined from the density lines aslant towards right in the diagram. 13.3 Example 3 A gas bottle is filled with liquid propane. stated pressure conditions will improve the capacity of the plant. Plot the statepoints for the liquid in the bottle before the valve was opened and for the liquid in the open container afterwards. One can trace the process line (from point 1 to point 2) for the alteration that occurs with the liquid. Larger density gives more mass per hour that flows through the plant.4 2-STAGE DIRECT OPERATION One can see how the cooling plant’s capacity was reduced at larger pressure conditions in the chapter concerning 1 stage direct operation. . When the liquid is discharged from the bottle.

suct 1.deliv 2.The compressor is the same. In Out o C oC 23 27 The compressor’s low pressure cylinder or 1st stage suck vapour from the cargo tank. Air Tank 1. The intermediate cooler is . The following table indicates a summary from the cooling plant’s log sheet in an actual stage situation.deliv o o o o o C bar bar bar bar C C C C 27 0.5 -25 50 -7 74 Sea water Temp.5 3.suct 1.deliv 2.5 10. There is also installed an intermediate pressure container with a coil for sub-cooling of the condensate in this plant.suct 2.deliv 1. The compressor is traced with different diameters of the cylinders. The vapour compresses in the compressor’s 1st stage and is delivered to the intermediate cooler (MT) with state C. The smallest cylinder is used in 2nd stage compression and is called the high-pressure cylinder. The largest cylinder is used as 1st stage in the compression and is called the low-pressure cylinder. The vapour leaves the tank with state A and are sucked into the compressor’s 1st stage with state B. but only one of the cylinders is used to suck from the tank.7 0. Most of the piston compressors that are used on the cargo-side have this construction. Cargo Pressure Temp.

The vapour is led from 1st stage and down in the liquid of the MT cooler in our 2stage plant. Notice that the state-point is below the sub-cooled area. The process line is marked EF. A pressure of 3. The superheated gas is normally led down in the liquid where it is cooled by the relatively cold liquid. The state-point G is therefore determined from the temperature line corresponding to a pressure of 0. The small difference of temperature may be caused by heat leakage in the suction line or reading error. The pressure in the intermediate cooler determines the temperature of the liquid in it. After the coil in the MT cooler the condensate is released back to the cargo tank through the regulation valve. The compressor’s 2nd stage suck in saturated vapour from the top of the MT cooler and compresses this vapour and delivers it to the cargo condenser. A to low liquid level in the MT cooler results in a sub-cooling of the condensate and thereby reduces cooling capacity.45 MPa (3. The process line is marked FG. The process line is marked DE. The condensate is led via a coil in the MT cooler through the regulation valve and back to the cargo tank. The heat is transferred from the vapour to the seawater in the cargo condenser. Notice that there is a larger share of liquid now than at 1-stage operation. The state-point for the condensate that returns back to the tank is further to the left in the diagram. Many plants that also have the possibility for “flash cooling” where the vapour is lead into the top of the MT cooler and give operational advantages. the vapour condensate and is collected in the liquid collector. The vapour that is sucked inn to the 2nd stage has a temperature of –7oC in the log. An independent regulation valve regulates the liquid level in the MT cooler.5 bars for propylene corresponds to a temperature of –8oC.5 bars + 1 bars). . The heat supplied to the liquid in the MT cooler from the warm vapour from the 1st stage and the relatively warm condensate leads to a lot of liquid evaporation.partly filled with cargo liquid.

The cooling plants net cold capacity is calculated. 1.deliv. The result is increased differential pressure between 1st and 2nd stage and reduced delivery extent.5 -20 -22 54 80 -7 74 23 23 27 27 Cargo The compressors capacity at 1-stage operation and a pressure condition of 6 (11. At 2-stage operation and a pressure condition of 2. which is something that increases the result.deliv. When the temperature of the cargo is at –30oC. 2. But the mass of gas flowing through the plant is also altered when the plant is reorganised from 1-stage to 2-stage operation.17 kg/m3 Enthalpy of gas in a cargo tank: 230 kJ/kg Enthalpy of the condensate after condenser: -60 kJ/kg Qnett = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 .17 kg/m3 x (230 kJ7kg .-60 kJ/kg) .suct 1. A lower pressure condition gives a better delivery extent and thereby larger mass. The cooling capacity at 1-stage operation is calculated from the following values located in the Mollies diagram and technical table: Density on gas at -22oC and 0. In Out o o o o o bar bar bar bar C C C C C oC 1.h1) The enthalpy difference is larger at 2-stage operation and sub-cooling.h2) = {(275 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 4. by the expression: Qnet = m x (h2 .4 (4.5 10.suct. Subsequent to the cargo cooling.5/1.deliv. one decides to reorganise the operation to a 2-stage operation with intermediate cooling. Temp Tank 1. the cargo tank pressure is reduced.7 10.9 bar: 4.7/2). The following working parameters are registered before and after the re-adjustment: Sea water Pressure Temp. this is calculated to 240 m3/h.0 0. This has a negative guided influence so that the total increase of the cooling capacity is thereby reduced.3.1 1.1 1.1 Example 1 To better visualise the difference between 1-stage operation and 2-stage operation. With 2stage operation. vapour from the cargo tank is sucked with one cylinder only compared with 1-stage where all cylinders is used to suck in the vapour.suct 1. 2. as previously.9 3. we can look at an example where the vessel has loaded warm propylene and delivered the cargo fully cooled. 13.deliv.9) are calculated to 275 m3/h. 2. The plant is started with 1-stage operation because of a very high tank pressure.

1 bars. in the operating manual. It is determined to maintain the tank pressure of 4 bars during the loading. The loading tank’s safety valves have an opening pressure of 4.5 bars. as follows: At unchanged seawater temperature. . These parameters are simple practical expressions for the compressor’s constructional limitations. which influence the operation. if one only evaluates the cooling capacities. one can conclude that the cooling capacities are about equal for this plant at –30oC for propylene and a condensation pressure of 10. in the operating manuals.17 kg/m3 230 kJ/kg Enthalpy of the condensate after condenser: -140 kJ/kg Qnett = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 . If the condensation pressure is a constant 10. The decision of reorganising the plant to 2-stage operation at this moment looks correct. The differential pressure at 1-stage will rise at falling tank pressure. To maintain the tank pressure during the opening pressure for the valves. the loading time is determined by the capacity of the cooling plant. If it is specified.3. One must however notice that normally it refers.5 . The same gas tanker.4 When we are loading cargo that is warmer than compared with the safety valve’s set point. the plant must alter to 2-stage operation at a tank pressure of 2.= 92 kW The cooling capacity at 2-stage operation and intermediate cooling are calculated from the following values located in the Mollier diagram and technical table: Density of gas at -20oC and 1 bar: Enthalpy of gas in a cargo tank: 4.17 kg/m3 x (230 kJ7kg .5 bars.8) bar = 2.-140 kJ/kg) = 103 kW The two calculated cooling capacities in the example must be evaluated from the accuracy in our measures. Bad plant condition and poor plant operation reduces the cooling capacity and results in longer loading time.h2) = {(240 m3/h) / 3600 s} x 4.5 bars. that maximum delivery pressure at 1-stage is 12 bars and maximum differential pressure is 8 bars. From constructional limitations one can see that the cooling plant should be altered to 2-stage operation at –15oC and not at –30oC. which corresponds to a cargo temperature of –15oC. only to maximum delivery-pressure/maximum differential-pressure over the compressor and not pressure condition. With normal measure divergence. Limitation of maximum delivery pressure is thereby kept regardless of operations form.5 bar If the pressure drop of the suction line is constant at 0. 1-stage will have a differential pressure of 8 bars when the suction pressure p0 is: po = (10.6 bars. the condensation pressure is 10. Example 2 13. the cargo that is loaded must be cooled down. as in the example above is to load 4000 MT hot propylene of +15oC.5 bar. alteration from 1-stage to 2stage operation is determined.

5 bar and 0oC: Specific volume for propylene v/1. o o C C 5 0 81 77 Alt.5 bars for this re-condensation plant during the above-mentioned conditions.suct 1. we find specific volume and density for the gas into the compressors at the two suction pressures: Specific volume for propylene: v/2. .14 m3/kg = 7.0 Temp.22 m3/kg = 4. In the Mollier diagram.suct.4. as follows: {(7.deliv. Notice that the enthalpy difference is the same regardless of suction pressure.546) x 100 / 7. In the first alternative.143 .0 Pressure 1. The following operational parameters is registered before and after the alteration: Cargo Tank bar 4.5 bar and 5 oC: 0.546 kg/m3 0. 1.In the following log two different operational parameters are registered from the cargo cooling plant.deliv.5 bars to 1. bar bar 1. 1. The percentage difference in the cooling capacity thereby is expressed.h1) One can see that the difference in the cooling capacity will be proportional with the change in the mass flowing through the plant.143 kg/m3 As the cooling capacity expresses: Qnet = m x (h2 . In the second alternative.0 4.5 bars.5 bars.143}% = 36 % The cooling capacity is reduced by about 36% if the suction pressure is reduced from 2. 1 2 The two cooling processes are plotted into a Mollier’s diagram for propylene.0 8. the compressor’s suction valves are throttled to a suction pressure of 1.5 2. the suction valve is less throttled and the suction pressure is 2.5 8. This also means that loading time will increase with 36%.

h1) = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 .h2) = {3 x 400 m3/h / 3600} x 7.143 kg/m3 x (240 –80)kJ/kg = 762 kW . ∆h 76.5 kJ/kg Necessary heat that must be removed from the cargo (QL) is: = m x Dh QL = (4000 x 103)kg x 46.Enthalpy for propylene v/-5oC: = Necessary abducted heat.7 kcal/kg = 321. in the Mollier diagram: h2 = 240 kJ/kg h1 = -80 kJ/kg The cooling capacity for the entire re-condensation plant at a suction pressure of 2.5 bars and 0oC is: Qnetto = m x (h2 . The heat leakage to the cargo tanks (QTr) is stated in the vessel’s operational manuals to 144 kW and three identical cargo cooling units drive in the re-condensation plant. We assume that the cargo tanks with ROB.5 kJ/kg = 275. We locate how much heat has to be removed from each kilo propylene liquid to cool this down to +15oC to –5oC in the heat technical table: Enthalpy for propylene v/15oC: .To visualise this influence better. we calculate the loading time for the vessel.8 kcal/kg 65.0 kJ/kg = 46.5 kJ/kg = 186 x 106 kJ We find the enthalpy values of the gas out of the tank (h2) and the enthalpy of the mixture that is returned to the tank (h1). where the compressor’s capacity in each cooling unit is set to 400 m3/h. steal and isolation are cooled down to -5oC before commence loading.

546 kg/m3 x (240 –80)kJ/kg = 485 kW The loading time. at this operation situation is then: = QL / (Qnetto .QTr) T1 = 186 x 106 kJ = 300971 s = 83.6 hours The cooling capacity for the entire re-condensation plant at a suction pressure of 1. The other cooling circuit consists in a closed cooling process where the freon or another cooling medium condenses contra seawater. T2.5 bar and 5oC is: Qnetto = m x (h2 .h2) = {3 x 400 m3/h / 3600} x 4. The tank pressure during the loading period also has influence on the total loading time. at this operation situation is then: T2 = = = = QL / (Qnetto . On most cascade plants we have both a freon condenser and seawater cooled condensers in the cargo cooling plant.5 CASCADE PLANT A cascade plant onboard a gas tanker is a cooling plant composed by two coolant circuits working in serial with each other. Both circuits are complete cooling plants that are built in many different configurations. 13. The cargo side of the cascade plant is the same as in the 2-stage plant example. with exception for the condenser.144) kW 186 x 106 kJ 545455 s 152 hours / (762 .h1) = {V /3600 s} x r x (h1 . If a high tank pressure is kept close up to the safety valve’s opening pressure. Both 1-stage and 2-stage operations are used depending on the cargo that should be cooled and choice of components in the cooling systems.144) kW We can see that the influence of unnecessary throttling on the suction side of the compressor gives large deflection of the cooling capacity and thereby loading time.QTr) / (485 . The seawater-cooled condenser is now replaced with a freon-cooled condenser. less heat will be abducted from the loaded cargo and loading time will be shorter. This gives . One of the cooling circuits consist in a closed cooling process where the cargo directly condenses contra freon or other cooling media.The loading time T1.

The oil will reduce heat transfer in the heat exchangers and create operation interruptions. The following summary from a cooling plant’s log indicates an actual operation situation for this plant. 1.deliv.deliv.6 0.3 17. Ethylene cycle Pressure Temp. Large amounts of oil will follow the compression gas out of the compressor.suct 1.suct. Freon compressors are of oil-lubricated type. 2. the share of oil in the freon circuit will be too high. Tank 1.deliv. o o o o bar bar bar bar C C C C 0. 1.deliv.3 -42 70 -60 50 Freon cycle Pressure Temp.5 5.5 -36 60 Sea water Temp In Out o o C C 28 30 .flexibility and good operation economy. If this is not separated and returned to the oil receiver. 1. 2. 1. The cargo that is cooled is ethylene.suct.deliv.2 12. 1. The oil separator has two functions where it separates oil from the gas and at the same time is a system tank for the oil system.suct. o o bar bar C C 0. The freon side of this plant is a simple 1stage plant with screw compressor. 2.deliv.suct 1.

The cooling process of the cargo side is plotted into a Mollier diagram for ethylene and is. as follows: The cooling process on the freon side of the cascade plants is plotted equal. Notice that the condensation pressure for ethylene lies at 17. This . This gives a temperature difference of 10oC in the cargo condenser. (We assume that the freon side has the right filling). the cause is probably one or a combination of the following: • · • · • · reduced heat transmission caused by incrustation in the loading condenser reduced heat transmission caused by too large share of oil in the Freon liquid too high condenser pressure caused by unknown gas on the loading side Cascade plants are used both for LPG and ethylene. The pressure in the liquid separator again depends on the suction pressure of the freon compressor and determines the freon temperature. The plant exists both on atmosphere gas carrier LPG and for semi pressured gas carriers LPG/ ethylene. If the freon pump don’t deliver sufficient liquid to the cargo condenser. The pressure in the liquid separator is 0. The condensation pressure of the loading side depends on the temperature of the freon liquid circulating through the loading condenser. usually too high for this type of heat exchanger.3 bars. which corresponds to a temperature of –37oC.2 bars. which corresponds to a temperature of –27oC.

which pump freon through the cargo condenser. The compressors on the cargo side have to be oil free piston or screw compressors. Screw compressors can be built with one or two stages. with and without flash cooling. Plants with and without MT-containers. The configuration possibilities are many and the variation in plants from vessel to vessel is what one faces onboard. 2-stage compression with and without sub-cooling. The understanding of the cooling process and knowledge to your vessel’s “special” plant is a basic assumption for safe and economic operation of the plant. . where others use thermal expansion valves. There are many different configurations of cascade plants. with and without de-super-heaters. Freon compressors can be piston compressors or screw compressors. The freon side is frequently equipped with super-feed or intermediate pressure container with subcooling.plant is an example of a usual cascade plant that can also be used to re-condense ethylene. Normally screw compressors are used both on the loading side and on the freon side in the cooling plant onboard big atmosphere pressure gas carrier LPG. exist on the loading side. Some plants have freon pumps.

14- Insulation and Heat Transfer .

This is in practice solved by trying to catch the gas inside the smallest possible cavity. The worst heat conductors or best insulation materials are stationary gases. Most insulation material’s insulating qualities emerge from stationary gases.048 0. Lower thermal conductance figures render possible thinner insulation and thereby place saved. The thermal conductance figure will mainly increase at higher temperature because of larger convection.12 0. The insulation material’s’ main task is to reduce heat transmission from thermal conductance. convection and radiation. The best insulation material regarding thermal transmission is a composition of a firm material and a gas with the separately lowest thermal conductance figures. or by keeping the gas inside a net of thin fibres.60 From 0.1 INSULATION AND INSULATION MATERIAL There are three different methods in transporting heat: thermal conductance. Thermal conductivity Natural pure metals Iron Ice at -20 oC Natural liquids Wood Glass Polypropylene Sand Natural gases Stationary air Freon 22 From 8 to 400 80 2. it is the thermal conductance figure that is of interest when looking at the important qualities for an insulation material.14. because the total thermal transmission is higher if convection also arises.1 to 0. First of all. It is of most importance that the gases are kept as stationary as possible.024 0.4 From 0.3 1 0.012 W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K W/m K One can see that the best heat conductor or worst insulation materials are pure metals.35 From 0. which is transported through to surface of 1 meter thickness when the temperature difference is 1K. bad thermal conductance capability and thereby good insulation capability. The thermal conductance capability is expressed by a material’s thermal conductance number (thermal conductivity) and states the heat quantity measured by Watt. .10 to 0.008 to 0.

5 and for polyurethane it will be about 60. Thermal expansion and elasticity are two qualities of great importance for plastic insulation materials. special compressive-strengthen materials are used in these areas. Of the chemical qualities for insulation materials. for example. All insulation materials that are used onboard must be fire resistant. Where the material is exposed to strains the material’s compressive-strength is important. The damage extent will accelerate if such a process is continuously unchanged. increase and the water will freeze and destroy the insulation. To evade lasting compression or crumbling of the insulation material. because of the humidity. it will have a strong corroding effect on metals. and they are self-quenching. Changing temperature for tank shells and insulation can lead to periodical expansions and compressions. One must not underestimate the risk of fire in the plastic insulation and the consequences by such a fire. The insulation material’s lower temperature is of major importance. the proportional diffusion resistance for mineral wool will be about 1. for example cargo tanks on gas tankers. an expensive replacement is soon the result. Insulation materials made of plastic are added or built up in such a way that in case of fire. In the plastic insulation condensation can occur at a lower temperature and thereby increase the thermal inductance figure for the material. A special developed insulation with especially good elasticity is suitable for such areas. When insulating between a warm and cold side. in planning maintenance. The strain points will. black and poisonous smoke that is formed by such a fire has prevented escape from hold space and serious poisoned injures. Large demands are made both to material and for the insulation to be good and long performance. a cargo tank. Ignition of the insulation on the cargo tanks has occurred with fatal consequences. When the insulation material of glass or mineral wool got a high humidity. the cold side will be tight (tank shell) and the warm side will be surrounded by air with high humidity. As the thermal expansion co-efficiency for the insulation material can be 4 to 5 times larger than the steel. The thermal conductance figure will. An insulating problem area is around the loose tank cradle of cylinder cargo tanks. . fireextinguishing vapour are released. Fire can easily arise in such materials in connection with weld work. A plastic insulation material like polyurethane has good adhesion firmness to the steel priming and good elasticity and is thereby resistant to cracks. If the diffusion resistance for stationary air is set to 1. cracks may easily arise if the insulation material don’t have good elasticity. it is the corrosive qualities that often are underestimated. The insulation material will only burn as long as a foreign fire source is present. but one prefers that the material tolerate highest possible temperature considering fire. It is difficult over time to avoid this onboard. Because of a higher saturation pressure on the warm side in proportion to the cold side. The large amount of thick. All of the expansion and compression movement of longitudinal direction of the tank takes place here. for example. be large in the support points for an insulated pipeline. Even stainless steel pipes corrode in such an environment and if this is allowed to proceed. as well as. moist air will be forced through and will condense against the cold side.The upper temperature limit for the material’s relevance normally has no importance for an insulation material that should be used for cool insulation. The capability to resist humidity or diffusion resistance is an important quality that must be evaluated in choosing insulation material.

for example. Wallboard. This method is suitable for insulation non-exposed for mechanical wear and tear. The insulation material on gas ships may be divided into the following three different groups based on structure and material: Cellular plastic. Polyurethane-foam based on CO2 has a relatively long time of expansion. which is built up on a cellular structure. at all times. Expanded volcanic perlite. which are built up of raw plastic materials. but weak for mechanical wear and tear.1. some loading tank constructions. This method is expensive. Galvanised and stainless steel sheet that is fastened by pop cones and the joint seals with jointing compound. Most suitable for repair and sprinkling on insulation not exposed to rough weather.1 Polyurethane There are a number of insulation materials. built up in a cellular structure. Mixing isocynate and polyole. but gets easily fragile. Sprayed mastic with or without armouring. but week against mechanical war and tear and requires more maintenance on exposed places. Foam with about 90% closed cells and a very low thermal conductance number appear. A diffusion-tight damp-latch on the warm side is. If one adds some water. which is built up of a net with thin fibres. The most used is polyurethane. which because of the reaction-heat evaporates and “blows” up the material. but strong against mechanical wear and tear and necessary for “foaming”. The most commonly used materials and methods are: • • • • • Thin aluminium foil glued on the insulation. This method is more moderate. Glass-fibre armed polyester. imperative on a chill insulation. Regardless of which insulation material that is used. Most suitable for repair One or more layers with asphalt emulsion armoured with multiple layers of glass fibre fabric. carbon dioxide is formed. Isocyanate has a resemblance to thick oil and polyole has a resemblance to clear liquid. normally in the proportion 1:1 makes polyurethane.This indicates that insulation of polyurethane is about 40 times more resistant against moist air to leak through than an insulation of mineral wool. which is expanded plastic raw material. Moderate method. moist air will penetrate into the material and destroy it. Moderate method and easy to maintain. A chemical reaction that is exothermic is actuated when mixing the liquids. . • • • • 14.

1. Dow Chemicals in USA and Technical Isolation in Norway developed a new method of mounting insulation. the expansion is quicker. so that the connections are displaced in proportion to each other. and secure the density and strength and a water barrier is laid either with thin metal plates or mastic. Because of the freon material’s lower boiling point. also disposable spray equipment with smaller containers for iciyanat and polyol. 14.2 Polystyrene Polystyrene is produced in two stages.5 times more than aluminium and 5 times more than steel at -163oC. The half cups and the connections are glued. Heat from steam or electrical elements are used in this last expansion. It is important that the dimension of the cup fit to the outer diameter of the pipe so that air leak is avoided. freon is used as the blowing agent. The pre-expanded material is sent up into large silos for de-aeration. . Poles of “Styrofoam” of about 3 meters long are welded together and set continuously around the spherical tank.25 mm is laid on also. bend and valves. Disposal-spray equipment of this type or a simple modifying of the paint sprayer onboard. or frothing. it is recommended to check with the supplier about the composition and if water has to be used when mixing. There are also a number of machines for spraying on the market. It is recommended to lay two layers with half cups on larger pipes.The qualities of the polyurethane-foam can be improved by using different freon materials as a blowing agent. The room around the loading tank is filled with nitrogen with a dew point down to –40oC. The finished blocks are cut up into plates and pipe cups. After 2 to 4 day in the silo. An external aluminium foil of 0.3 Isolation of LNG ships with spherical tanks Cellular plastic is used as insulation material for Moss Rosenberg's spherical cargo tanks. from equator against the bottom and on top of the tank. The purpose is partly to protect the tanks from corrosion and to reduce the “pressure” of humidity against the insulation. is suitable for smaller repairs to the insulation. because the insulation materials contraction is 2. 14. when the mixture leave the spray. If applying polyurethane foam with a sprayer. At the first stage polystyrene is pre-expanded with vapour where blisters from 1 to 6 mm are formed. One can mix polyurethane foam for smaller repairs in a bucket before pouring into a mould. The polyurethane cups can easily be cut for matching the pipe bend. As there are different suppliers on the market. The thermal conductance capability for R11 is only half of CO2.1. Freon evaporates with speed in normal surrounding temperature and one obtains pre-expansion. the pre-expanded material is filled in forms for further expansion and compression of the grains. R11 was used earlier as a blowing agent. to shape blocks. Polyurethane is also available as half-cups for insulation of pipes.

The density is about 60 kg/m3. The amount of cementing agent varies and is determined by the material’s purpose of use. The melted mixture of stones is hurled out and chilled in long thin fibres. Rock wool and glass wool are two types of insulation material that are used.0025 mm diameter. Cementing agent based on plastic is added and hardened with hot air.14. The production method and user area is equal. Load time and time used to cool the cargo increase.4 Mineral wool Mineral wool is a collective term of different fibre rich insulation materials. Maintenance of insulation The cooling plant on a gas carrier is constructed and calculated for thermal leakage from cargo tanks and system when the ship is new. Increased thermal leakage involves removal of more heat from the cargo. increased thermal leakage will occur. With exception of mechanical wear and tear. The stones are melted in a temperature up to 1600oC and are dispatched over a wheel with very high rotation. Preserving the insulation is good economy. this means that white pipe insulation absorbs less heat than one with red or orange colour on the pipe insulation. One must also notice that pipe insulation faced with stainless steel plates radiates less . wear and tear and will in time be reduce if maintenance of the insulation is not kept. which by heating to about 1200oC evaporates and “blows” up the material.5 Expanded Perlite Perlite is made of a volcanic rock species with perlite structure. The plates are also delivered with larger density and firmness. If the insulation on cargo tanks and pipelines reduces. The best and cheapest way to preserve this is to be sure that the atmosphere around the loading tanks is dry. only about 0. Glass wool is produced like rock wool by hurling and chilled melted glass to very fine fibres. One can easily fill the whole room around a loading tank with perlite. Insulation is exposed for ageing. Simultaneously the individual corns loosen form each other. The main component is about 71% SiO2 and about 16% Al2O3.1. It is first of all used on atmosphere pressure gas carriers. It is important to consider the different material’s capability to absorb the heat of radiation when working with external insulation materials. In practice. the material “explodes” and forms sharp-edged corns with sizes from 0 to 3 mm with very large mechanical strength. A mixture of several types of stones is used to produce rock wool. there is nothing more destroying for the insulation then the humidity. A light water barrier absorbs less heat than dark.1. The only way to protect the insulation from humidity is to assure that the water barrier is intact. 14. One obtains a 10 to 20 times expansion with numerous closed airtight cells. Rock wool plates are elastic and a normal density of about 45 kg/m3. The raw material has some water content. Re-insulation of the insulation on cargo tanks is especially expensive. Regular control and systematic maintenance of this from day one will save large future expenses. Protection of water and humidity is of high importance and that’s why we purge hold spaces with dry inert/ nitrogen.

have necessary materials to repair wrecked insulation onboard. 2. 3. 5. Before adding new insulation in place. Note these areas with spray paint to easier locate the areas when these need repairing. Control external insulation regularly and repair wrecked water barrier plates immediately. 4. Control the cargo tank insulation regularly. minimum materials to repair damage on water barrier. Held the atmosphere in hold spaces dry by drying the atmosphere regularly.heat and thereby is warmer than a galvanised plate. Note the areas with spray painting in order to easily locate these when need of repairing. the stock onboard must be adjusted to the expected consumption the next month. The steel must be protected from corrosion before new insulation is put to place. corrosion and pitting must be controlled. if possible. Areas with ice or humidity indicate thermal loss. use dry inert gas or nitrogen. . Areas with ice or humidity indicate thermal loss. As some of the insulation materials have limited operating time. At all times. Five good advice for maintaining the cargo tank insulation: 1. The thermal conductance is thereby larger.

14.4 1.0 20.3 0.7 1 090 Polyurethane foam.024 1.3 on/20oC CO2 0.0 1.10 2.041 0.015 2.4 7 860 7 612 8 020 998 920 452 460 510 4 180 1 950 ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ .035 0.4 1.035 40.00 0.30 1 260 1 340 1 260 1 340 840 840 840 Flammable above 700oC flammable above 700oC Non flammable Selfquenching Selfquenching 50 70 2 2 1.0 10.012 4.6 The qualities of the insulation material compared with other materials Thermal Density Pressure Heat Fire Diffusion conductance firmness capacity qualities resistance W/m K kg/m3 kg/cm2 J/kg K Stationary air 1 000 1 0.023 0.0 32.0 50.1.0 840 Freon 22 0.2 Expanded perlite Iron Steel (12 Cr) Stainless steel (19 Cr/10Ni) Water of/ 20 o C Ice of/ -20 oC 80 25 17.035 0. R11 Polystyrene foam (Isophor) Carbamide foam Phenol foam (Bakelite) Glass wool plates Rock plates wool 0.0 45.035 0.0 25.56 2.033 0.

Qreturn to cargo tank The actual amount of heat transferred from the surroundings to a cargo tank or a system can be quantified in several methods.pipe + QTr.14.tank + QTr. it will have influence on the capacity of the vessel. The heat of compression.Compr = Qcond or as: Qtr.pipe is the total transferred heat to cargo in the pipes. steel and insulation.2 CALCULATION OF THERMAL TRANSFER The cooling plant on a gas carrier is dimensioned by calculated heat transfer to cargo tanks and systems when the ship is new The insulation is exposed for wear and tear and is on many gas carriers partly strong reduced. the heat balance is expressed as: QTr. surrounding temperature. When the insulation on cargo tanks gets inferior. QTr. Before taking a closer look at the condition around heat transfer on gas carrier. pipe and insulation around the pipes.Compr is the heat supplied to the gas in the compressor and the heat of condensation QCond is the heat transferred to the seawater in the loading condenser. Systematic maintenance will hold this capacity. The amount of heat transferred to cargo tanks and cargo pipes dependent on the insulation’s state. Transmission heat to cargo pipelines QTr. At first we will look on how this can be .tank = Qfrom cargo tank.tank is the total transferred heat to the cargo tanks with cargo. it is useful to form a picture of the heat balance. Qtr. heat radiation and movements. It is indicated easily by following illustration: Heat is transferred from the surroundings to the cargo and systems for cargo because of the temperature difference. When the cooling plant is driven to keep the temperature of the cargo constant. Its construction and choice of components give the cooling plant’s capacity. The transmission heat to the cargo tanks.

done onboard. Clarification of this is of importance when planning and priority of the insulation repair.2 and 4 has many “ice spots”. Several “ice spots” than before are also observed on suction lines and condensate lines on deck. It is obvious that the insulation on tank no. To find out how much heat that is transferred to the “bad” loading tanks in proportion to one of one of the “good”. but the cooling rate is more than halved at the same pressure in proportion to when the ship sailed in European waters. the bad cooling rate must be the result of the insulation has been worse during the years. but the question is which areas have most influence on the cooling capacity. The captain rapport that the ship capability to cool down ethylene is perceptible inferior.2. it is of importance to emphasise that when accomplish such measuring. but the influence has not been operational visual before the ship altered sailing area. one must evaluate the results from the accuracy of the instruments. . Control of the reel heat transfer can be executed onboard.3oC per day when the temperature of the cargo gets lower than minus 102oC. how to evaluate the result and what results the eventual effectuated effort will have. Cargo tank no. The heat transfer is thereby quantified and is comparable with what it was or should be. Most gas carriers are equipped with a graphic description of the calculated heat transfer to the cargo tanks.1 Example 1 A 12 year old smaller intermediate pressure gas carrier with 6 cargo tanks is loaded with ethylene and has just moved the sailing area from Europe to SEA. 14. The heat transfer has probably increased gradually through the years. The amount of heat transfer to the cargo tanks and pipelines must be concretised and compare with the repair costs before making the right decision. Further it is important that if comparing repeated actual measurements. the period of measure should be as long as possible. Inspection of the loading tanks indicate ice more than usual round all of the tank foundation and tank no. We will now take a look at different examples and what we can do. As the measuring instruments onboard has normally no more accuracy than + 10%. This is a theoretical calculated description that does not necessarily give the right image of the heat transfer. the tanks are shut for 24 hours. Before looking on a concrete example. The cooling rate is now at the lower edge of 0. the transferred heat from the surroundings can be measured. the measures has to be made at the best possible equal condition. As the cooling plants condition is verified good and the plant is verified optimum driven. 2. 2 and 4 plus the insulation on the lines on deck are mostly reduced. Repair of the insulation is necessary. The cooling plant is checked and driven at optimum. If a loaded cargo tank is closed and isolated from the cooling plant over a period of time. 3 and 4 are the same type and size. The older the ship is the larger probability that the calculated heat transfer DOES NOT coincide with reality.

3 .07. 3 and 4 to respectively 13.The measuring instruments that are utilised during the experiment is calibrated and the following sketch for heat transfer is utilised and filled in: Heat transfer for Cargo tank no. The enthalpy values exist in heat technical table and the heat transfer to the cargo in tank no.1 kW for each tank at the same surrounding temperature and seawater temperature is located.0)) / (24 x 60 x 60)] kW = 15. 2 is calculated to: [(mass cargo x enthalpy-change) / (time in seconds)] [(592. only the enthalpy change of the liquid is measured.27.2 Date/time 30.837 24 28 o 31.2 kW. the heat transfer is measured and calculated to the cargo in tank no.94 / 10:30 97.837 x 103 x (29. In the technical description of the ship the calculated heat transfer when the ship was built to 13.0 -102.2 165 29.07.0 % 592.3 As the weight of gas is relative much less than the liquid weight. A comparable table can be made and indicates as follows: Calculated transfer before: Cargo tank 13.1 80 27.9 kW and 22.94 / 10:30 Cargo tank filling ratio Mass cargo in MT Ambient temperature in oC Sea water temperature in C Average Hold space temperature in C Ship's movement Weather condition Average liquid temperature in oC Cargo tank pressure in mBar Enthalpy liquid in kJ/kg o 34 29 27 Calm sea Cloudy 23 Calm sea Cloudy -103.1 kW 2 Calculated transfer now: 15.8 kW Corresponding.8 kW Percentage change: 20 % .

for thereby to establish which one of them that has the . one must assume that the insulation here has the same condition as the suction lines. A comparable table indicates as follows: Density on gas v/1 bars and -60 oC Density on gas v/1 bar and -40 oC Percentage reduction in density 1. The increase of the relative heat loss through the insulation on loading tank no. 2 and 4 is now indicated. Judgement must at all times be adjusted and from the rapport from this ship. But it is difficult to compare these two directly. By comparing present operational parameters for the cooling plant with earlier registered operational data. Likewise is the reduction of cooling capacity because of increased heat transfer to the suction gas established.7699 kg/m3 1. the influence of bad insulation on the condensate lines will have maximum consequence. The size of the heat loss through condensate lines and liquid lines cannot be measured directly because there will at all times be and unknown and varying mixture of liquid and gas in the pipes. It is rather no doubt that the insulation on tank no. while the condensate lines are utilised during all of the cooling period. The vapour is essential now more over heated than earlier. The priority at en eventual re-insulation of cargo-tanks can thereby well substantiate. If this is the case. 4 is essential much more deteriorated than the remaining two tanks.9 kW 22. Present observed temperature increase is from –100oC to –40oC.6181 kg/m3 9% The reduction of the suction line's insulation involves a direct reduction of the cooling rate of about 10% in this temperature area. There is no doubt that both conditions have influence on the operational situation on the ship. The liquid lines are only utilised in a short period (during loading and discharging).Cargo tank 13. A compressor’s cold capacity is expressed as: Qnetto = m x Dh Higher temperature on the vapour into the compressor involves lower density and thereby reduced amount of vapour through the compressor per time. The influence of inferior insulation on the suction lines to the cooling plant will have direct influence on the cooling capacity.1 kW 4 13. the temperature increase on the vapour from the cargo tank to compressor has increased essential.2 kW 6% 70% The calculations confirm the observations and presumptions made before in connection with the inspection of the tank insulation. during almost the same condition. the vapour temperature rise from –100oC to –60oC from the cargo tank to compressor. Six years ago.1 kW 3 Cargo tank 13.

7 Temperature at inlet compressor -40 now. To make the data’s comparable the alteration in the heat transfer to the suction line is quantified.8 kW DF = ((3 x V) / 3600) x r2 x (h2 . DF 31. T1 Enthalpy. r2 1. V 680 o C o kJ/kg C kJ/kg kg/m3 m3/h Difference in heat transfer. h1 572. The alteration of the heat transfer to the suction line in proportion to earlier years is calculated to: Vapour Ethylene Temperature at inlet compressor -60 before. (One must here emphasise that the total heat transfer to the cargo tanks will be larger because the steel in the cargo tanks with insulation is supplied heat). T2 Enthalpy.6181 Number of compressors 3 Capacity per compressor.h1) One can see that about 30 kW more heat to the suction cables is supplied now compared to earlier year. . Simultaneously the measures indicate that the heat transfer to the cargo is about 15 kW more than earlier.strongest effect on the ship’s possibility to execute the transport commission. Heat transfer to the suction vapour in the suction pipe has a direct influence on the cooling plant's capacity. too high suction temperature will have a bad influence on the plant’s operational conditions by for example that the pressure pipe temperature may be too high.4 Density. The ship’s three loading compressors have stated a capacity of 680 m3/h at the same operational condition. h2 607. In addition.

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