0.018 Vs 0.

022

When there are two orthodontists in a room there will be at least a minimum of three opinions. There are two slots 0.018” VS 0.022”  each of their own pros and cons. This seminar will examine in a unbiased manner the advantages and disadvantages of each of these slots in various stages of PAE. An Edgewise Bracket Design
 Edward H. Angle – Edgewise arch mechanism.

 Angle’s concept of the “line of occlusion”.
 Metal bracket, rectangular slot-0.022 x 0.028”.  Rectangular wire of 0.022” x 0.028”.  Wire was inserted into the bracket in the narrowest or edgewise

position–hence the name EDGEWISE.

EDGEWISE BRACKET DESIGN Single Width Bracket

1

2 . Secondary arch wire bends – any bend for tooth guidance that are nor primary bends.TWIN BRACKET Junior Twin Standard Twin Intermediate Twin Extra Wide Posterior/ Wide Width Curved Base Twin Primary arch wire bend  intended for the most direct movement of teeth.

2 n d . PRIMARY BENDS OF THE ARCH WIRE. loops for increasing wire flexibility and loops for elastics.EDGEWISE  The first order bends  The second order bends  The third order bends THE ADVENT OF SWA  The straight wire appliance was based on keys to normal occlusion(1972)  Philosophy – an ideal bracket system. ANDREW’S six Advantages  Reduction in wire bending. wire bending and wire forming side effects and judgement errors in bendings. Tertiary wire bends – one placed for any reason other than guidance. – an ideal force system.Secondary bends are needed to compensate for slot-siting irregularities caused by bracket design and unreliable bracket-siting techniques. relied on modification in the arch wire in the form of first. 3 r d order bends to detail the teeth. Examples are omega loops for stops. Previously the orthodontist. 3 ..

Precision and finishing. Siamese Single Mini series Midi series Vertical slot Self ligating Disadvantages  Friction  Anchorage demands  Deceptive simplicity traps the unwary.WISE Primary Bends First Order Bends PEA In–Built Priscription In–Out/ Prominence 4 . Multiple bracket design. VARIOUS PRESCRIPTIONS AVAILABLE:  Roth  MBT  Alexander EDGE.          Use of sliding mechanics. Flexibility of biomechanics.

WISE Primary Bends PEA In – Built Prescription Tip/ Angulation 5 .Labio-lingual position previously placed into the arch wire bends are now programmed with the in – out depth of the bracket slots (or) within the bracket bases EDGE. .Pre-adjusted appliances build corrections directly into the brackets.

022” SLOT SIZE: SLOT HEIGHT & SLOT DEPTH HEIGHT: The SWA is available with slot heights of 0. 6 . EDGE. THE BIFURCATION OF SWA BASED ON SLOT DIMENSIONS 0.022” & 0.018”.018” and 0.WISE Primary Bends Third Order Bends PEA In–Built Priscription Torque/ Inclination Labio-lingual inclination (or) torque previously managed with auxiliary torquing appliances and arch wire adjustments are now provided with accuracy by pre-torqued bracket slot and bases.Preangualted slots in the brackets provide for precision mesiodistal angulation.

018” x 0.Narrow brackets.028” 0.  unimportant.-when they fill the slot in Sliding teeth along arch-wire is relatively later stages are more effective in large inter-bracket span. engagement.SLOT DEPTH: 0.  0.022” x 0.022” – Wider brackets.  Rectangular wires.  Slots should be deep enough to ensure full WIDTH Proffit  0.018” .025”  Rectangular wires in torque applications must be seated with their outer working edges fully engaged in the slot.  Larger slot provides clearance needed for sliding Single width Double width 7 .

022” slot. units.022”in terms of wire selection arches for as anchor control.018 is too restrictive in wire size selection  He prefers 0.018” & 0. 0. mainly for in orthognathic the buccal torque stabilizing surgery& segments.B.022 slot brackets His preference is 0. based on the type of mechanics he uses. 8 .  M.T.Mini Uni .022”SLOT  ROTH   Available both in 0.Twin AUTHORS SUPPORTING THE USE OF 0.

keeping the forces light.016/0. The deep slot (0.  RICKETTS • • He used the edgewise bracket slot (0.018 x 0.018” slot with 0. The larger slot allows more freedom of movement for the starting wires. (Straight wire the next generation –AJO 1998)   Torquing play Play in the tipping plane 9 .These wires shows greater space closure with sliding  With the 0.030) permits two light arches to be employed at once (Base archwire for stabilization & the auxillary arch or section for rotation or movement).017/0. Later in treatment.022” slot with heavy rectangular wires was cumbersome for patients.018 slot the main working wire is normally 0.018” SLOTS  WICK ALEXANDER • • His concept was that 0. He used 0. Four types of play.025. the steel rectangular 0.019/0.030) to keep the bracket and wire sizes smaller.022 or mechanics. PLAY (OR) SLOP • • The clearance between the arch wire and bracket.017” wires lighter forces would result in less patient discomfort . deflection & binding during AUTHORS SUPPORTING THE USE OF 0.025 working wires of  have been found to perform well 0.

Rotational play increases  narrow bracket. then tipping play will be minimized. Vertical play Play in the vertical plane will result in incomplete bracket to bracket leveling. Play in tipping plane generally depends upon size of the archwire. decreases  wide brackets. Rotational play is minimized by using brackets with adequate rotational lower arm length and ligating with sufficient force to keep the arch wire seated in the bottom of the slot. torquing and vertical planes. Play can never be eliminated but can be minimized. without extensive reverse torquing bends in the arch wire. by “filling” the slot as much as possible. But if torquing play is minimized by increasing the arch wire size relative to slot size.4°play. 10 .  Vertical play Rotational play Torquing play – depends on size of rectangular wire relative to the size of the slot. in the tipping. Tipping play is less than torquing play. Rotational play Tendency of the tooth to rotate on its own axis. For every . regardless of the width of the bracket. Brackets with these excessive torques are incapable of delivering labial root torque during protraction movements.001” difference between arch wire & slot . size of slot and overall width of the slot. Most prescriptions have excessive lingual root torque in the maxillary anterior brackets that may deliver adequate lingual root torque for retraction movements using less than full-sized arch wires.

depends on the twist effect of a relatively small wire compared with the bulk of the tooth.025 steel wires have a slop about 12° in a 0.018 Wire IN – BUILT TORQUE Vs EXPRESSEDTORQUE  The area of torque application is small.022 slot.  As a result of the relative inefficiency of pre-adjusted brackets in delivering torque.0. molar& lower premolar brackets 11 .018” slot with 0. it was necessary to built in extra torque into the incisor.  .022” slot with 0.019/.018 Wire 0.

EFFECTIVE TORQUE ASPECTS INCORPORATED TO GET THE FULL EXPRESSION OF TORQUE • • FILL THE SLOT INCORPORATE TORQUE INTO THE WIRE THE THREE STAGES OF TREATMENT • • • ALIGNMENT & LEVELING RETRACTION & SPACE CLOSURE FINISHING ALIGNING &LEVELING 0. particularly those with a tight fit with in the bracket slot.Says that rectangular arch wires. 12 .018” SLOT Proffit prefers round wires for this stage .

rather than displacing the root apices.016 HANT • 19 x 25 HANT RETRACTION  Individual canine retraction.friction .014 SS • 0.016 NITI  0. The principle is that it is better to tip crowns to position during initial alignment.016 SS • 0. 13 .frictionless  Enmasse & Anterior retraction –friction. frictionless.014 NITI  0.0175 MULTISTRAND • 0.016 HANT  16x22 HANT 0. normally should be avoided.so that the position of root apex could be affected.022” SLOT • 0.015 MULTISTRAND • 0. because rectangular arch wire will create unnecessary and undesirable root movement during alignment.020 SS • 0.018 SS • 0.  0.

edge bracket.022” Slot • 18 x 25 SS • 19 x 25 SS 14 .022”.  MARCOTTE SPRING – 0.017 x 0.018” Slot • • 0.022” slots.LESS  PG SPRING – 16 X 22 SS wire .022”slots.018” /0. ENMASSE & ANTERIOR RETRACTION 0. FRICTION.  BURSTONE T-Loop–0.018” Slot • 16 x 22 SS • 17 X 23 SS 0.INDIVIDUAL CANINE RETRACTION • • Round wires are preferred than rectangular wires Decrease in the contact surface area – less friction FRICTION 0.018”/0.018” /0.016 Round SS 16 X 22 SS 0.016 SS wire – 0.0.018 Round SS 16 x 22 SS 17 x 25 SS Tip.022” Slot • • • • 0.025 TMA wire –0.

018”is adequate for • • One exception where 0.022”slot – 21 x 25 TMA / SS 0.022” Slot • 21 x 25 NiTi • 21 x 25 beta Ti • 21 x 25 M. White • 0.018” SLOT 15 . • In a 0.018”slot or 0.FINISHING 0.022 slot is preferred for surgical cases. but William proffit & Raymond P.022” is advantageous –when segmented arch mechanics are needed.022” slot can be used Rigidity of a 17 x 25 SS wire stabilization in a 0.-particularly in patients with severe periodontal breakdown.018” Slot • 17 x 25 NiTi • 17 x 25 SS • 17 x 25 beta Ti • 17 X 25 Ti Niobium 0.NiTi • 21 X 25 Ti Niobium SURGICAL ORTHODONTICS Normally it is said that 0.

Vol. the bracket 16 .  Larger wires are also useful  Large wires provide increased stiffness & facilitate to keep the teeth upright during space closure & retraction mechanics. 0. Epstein (AO.  Hence less frictional resistance or binding at the bracket wings. Robert P.  This outcome suggests that inexperienced clinicians will find the 0. 2002) Advantage  The capacity to fill the slot allows for a greater use of the prescription built into the bracket.Martin . Kusy & John Whitley (EJO 1999)  Smaller brackets requires that the clinician be as much as 25% more precise in the initial stage or else binding will occur.72. Vol. one can facilitate free sliding of the archwire through the slot.B.B. 2002) Advantages  Using undersized archwires. Disadvantage  Fewer choices of arch wire dimensions.  To accomplish that “best case” scenario. most easily within the strength & stiffness requirements of the appliance.022” SLOT Martin . Epstein (AO.022” slot more suitable for sliding mechanics.72.

2002)  In reality manufactures do not provide discrete slot sizes. 1999)  Bracket slot & arch-wire dimensions have caused unpredictable failures of formerly reliable mechanics. Robert P. & the bracket slot should be large. 2002)  Disadvantage may be encountered when filling the slot.72.  Angle’s generation necessitated 0.B.width & wire size should be small. Vol. Kusy (AJO. but rather a spectrum of slot sizes – 0.  Full sized rectangular wires becomes markedly reduced in springiness and range.  The SS wires.022”. which displaced gold.  This has resulted in lingual tipping of incisors & in general loss of incisor axial inclination control. 17 . Disadvantages Martin . Siatkowski. where he used gold wire. All might have turned okay if technology had not made a hair pin bend and come full circle to offer a titanium – molybedneum arch wire alloy with a stiffness close to that of gold. (JCO / Sep.-thereby severly limiting the ability to place effective torque & finishing bends.0178 to 0.018”. permitted the slot to shrink to 0.0237. Apr. VIEWS OF AUTHORS Raymond E. Epstein (AO.-especially those that depend on protracting posterior teeth.

CONCLUSION Sheldon Peck. I believe that it would have reached the ears of manufacturers too. whatever it is & make it metric. but this modification is worth every bit and effort.As a result of which the world according to its preference split into two United States-0.018”slot. Lets not once again follow that well worn path as was done for gold and S. it is not the slot dimension which in debate. miles ahead of the latecomers trying to jump on the bandwagon. (AO – 71. 18 . With reference to these views of the different authors.022” slot and Europe –0. Change never comes easy. Understanding biomechanics is the matter. 2001) Experience with earlier manufacturing advances in other fields shows that the company first to offer a progressive new standard.So let’s pick up one slot size. becomes the “king of the road”.S rather let’s walk the less trodden path that leads to higher grounds. who might have this “spark” of universal metric system in the pipe line. Resolution of the “slot – size” issue would simplify biomaterials & biomechanic’s instruction for graduate residents too.

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