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A collection of hand amulets and gestures. This document will be expanded upon over time.
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Culture: Ptolemaic Medium: Obsidian Dates: 332-30 B.C. Period: Ptolemaic Source: Brooklyn Museum (Egyptian/Classical Era)
Illustration from the Bessey Book, on Magic, and the Super-Natural (what I so lovingly call the book of Superstitions). The caption reads: Amulets with a magical significance, composed of two fingers or of a hand with folded fingers. The symbol is found in the 'Mudras' of Chinese tradition, India, and even in the benediction gesture of Christ, now practiced by Catholic priests. The thumb, symbolizing the phallus, is inserted into the other fingers as a sign of the creative act.
The Mudra of reasoning, giving the 'Wisdom' gesture. This website has a fairly decent description of all the Mudra hand positions: http://www.himalayanart.org/search/set.cfm?setID=2306
.Buddha giving the 'Blessing' gesture.
When I was researching the origins of this gesture. My uncle (Montalto side) would often do this.Sculpture of Christ. so you are countering this with the gesture. coupled with grabbing his balls. circa 1572 sculptor Pilon. historically it was pointed at people who were thought to be witches or performing some type of witchcraft. The (Mano)Cornuto. There are other variations such as pointing the gesture directly at someone to suggest that they mean you harm. from Italy is a gesture typically with fingers facing down as a protective gesture. This further supports the .
Residenz Museum. so this was pretty common as a form of protection. Location. this gesture was a fertility and good luck charm designed to ward off evil. The precise origin of the gesture is unknown." . In some areas of the world. is often found offensive by Italians. He grew up in Naples. In the Bram Stoker's version. the gypsy woman hands him a crucifix. "Fig sign is a gesture made with the hand and fingers curled and the thumb thrust between the middle and index fingers. it was interpreted not as a ward against sickness. Illustration of the thumb-in-finger gesture mentioned above Mano Fico (or Figa). rarely. or. Fertility became associated with good fortune. that the idea of witches was a superstition in Italian culture. where carved images of hands in this gesture are used in good luck talismans. In the scene when Jonathan Harker gets off the carriage to meet the Count's coach.idea. Munich Germany. He goes on to explain that he finally got a local to tell him what it meant. the gesture is considered a good luck charm. the Cornuto (Italian Horn) was attached to the outside of the living space as a form of protection. but against witchcraft. in others (including France. I've been watching Bram Stoker's Dracula a lot lately (I just love the film) by Coppala and have been making mental notes of the differences in the original 1897 Stoker version. In ancient Greece. Greece. It was well documented by journalists and there was public outcry by the patients. I've been able to trace the origins as far back as the Neolithic era. but many historians speculate that it refers to female genitalia. she also points two fingers down and toward him. the middle and ring fingers. This usage has survived in Portugal and Brazil. Depending on how the patient was viewing the gesture. forming the fist so that the thumb partly pokes out. makes the sign of the cross and tells him 'Because the dead travel fast'. and the answer given was a 'ward against the evil eye'. I read an article about the President of Italy (Giovanni Leon) who visited a hospital and shook hands with patients of Cholera all the while making the sign behind his back with his free hand. and Turkey among others) it is considered an obscene gesture. The idea of this in use today. and it was often used to ward off bad fortune (or unknown forces which meant people harm).
Source: Armstrong. . Philadelphia: Quirk Books. Nancy & Melissa Wagner. (2003) Field Guide to Gestures: How to Identify and Interpret Virtually Every Gesture Known to Man.
. can be traced back as far as 800 BC. The hand as an amulet. The ring finger and pinky are bent down to reveal only the thumb. It's also similar to the Benediction gesture. index finger and middle finger.This is the Roman hand of Power.
Given from master to student. sometimes.supposedly key ingredients for the Philosopher's Stone. Understanding the symbols was a key to reaching Divine Power. A fish is also. It is covered with alchemical and allegorical symbols and icons that each carry their own meaning. Traditional symbols on the hand usually include a crown. .each of these representing a different form of knowledge. star.The Emblematic Hand of the Mysteries. Each symbol is a key to a higher truth. lantern. which are the alchemical symbols for mercury and sulphur . and key . then must learn the meanings of the symbols themselves. The hand as a whole symbolizes the invitation. or The Hand of the Master Mason) is an invitation to learn great secrets. used a a symbold for wisdom. (also known as The Hand of the Philosopher. the student must learn to open the hand to reveal the symbols. sun. Sometimes the hand is shown with a fish and burning sea on the palm.
Reliquary Arm. housed in the NYC Metro Museum of Art. . or objects thought to have been touched by Saints. Circa 1230. relic bones. were housed in this vessel. and used by Priests as a 'Healing Hand' to bless the sick. location found Belgium.
is a sign of adoration. sweeping the hand in front of you from left to right.Kissing the index and middle fingers. .
. it's "Mano Ponderosa". I read that when the card is hung upside-down in Mexican culture. and later adopted by the Romans as a form of protection against all things 'evil'. It's also called the 'Helping Hand of God'. The Powerful Hand (of God). and prayer cards on altars. The two 'thumbs' and hand pointing down is reminiscent of the idea that the 'vulva' as a creative force can ward off any destruction. In use by Arabic and Hebrew cultures. I had to research this one further. I've seen it on 7-day candles.The Hamsa Hand. when Milagro (Little charms as Ex-voto) is in use the hand is pointed downward vs. up-ward. "Hamsa" meaning five to represent the digits. is often used in Hoodoo.
i came upon two unused labels for hoodoo curios manufactured by the Lucky Mon-Gol Company of Memphis. The fact that thepackage design includes a lucky swastika dates it to the era before World War Two. the Curio's number). rabbit foot. Since 7-11 is a lucky gambling combination and the black catis considered to bring luck to gamblers. the Helping Hand. at a junk store in Fiddletown. a combination of powdered incense containing several traditional hoodoo formulae. The images shown on the label for Curio Number XI are typical African-American good luck symbols of the 1930s: a black cat. moon. horseshoe. Tennessee. The precise . Seven is a common lucky number. California. andtwin hearts pierced by an arrow. it doubtless conveys a meaning related to the intended use of Curio Number XI. The label shown here is for Lucky Mon-Gol Curio Number XI. Be Together Powder. and coupled with 22 (twice 11. The ingredients indicate that the product was a form of scented incense powder designed to purify and then bring love to the user. and Love Me Powder. if you wish to peruse their website) "In 1996. four-leaf clover.I found this on that site 'Lucky Mojo' the description reads: (I kept all the hyper-links in tact. The lucky numbers 722 also appear among the lucky symbols. it may be that the 7-22 on the label of Curio Number X1 represented "double luck" for gamblers. swastika. namely Holy Oil.
" The "Lucky Hand" root. We haven't lost this 'magic' of the hand gesture. the Hussey Distribution Company of Atlanta." Modern factory-based hoodoo suppliers such as E.and still is -. for good luck and protection. roots.meaning could probably have been interpreted via a contemporary volume such as Aunt Sally's Policy Player's Dream Book. The Lucky Mon-Gol Company was not the only hoodoosupply company of the 1930s that numbered its "curios" rather than naming them. proudly flaunts the old-fashioned name "curio. is also used in Hoodoo. which gives lucky betting numbers for various dream images but can also be used backwards to supply images via number-code.a hoodoo mail-order catalogue code-word used to designate magical and spiritual anointing oils. conjure bags. but they still remove the taint of implied fraud by inserting the words "Alleged" and "Brand" somewhere in the title to make it seem as if the name were just a coincidence and had no relation to the item's reason for existence. 61 AllegedMoney Drawing Brand Incense. herbs. Consider: . Davis. also followed this practice. "Curio" was -. Georgia." which is in line with my policy of providing old-fashioned quality." which included "Curio #3 Highest Quality Alleged Inflammatory Confusion Brand Incense" and "Husco Curio No. and amulets. The term is intended as a disclaimer to forestall prosecution for mail fraud. My own Lucky Mojo Curio Co. and the Lama Temple are less likely to incorporate the word "curio" in product names. sachet powders. with its line of "Fine Curio Products. Indio.
The Salute. The Roman Salute (Saluto Romano) . One theory is that the salute originated with the Ancient Romans. who would shield their eyes from the sun. when they looked up at their superior giving instructions for battle or maneuvering. as a sign of respect.
Mussolini giving the Roman Salute .
Hitler adapts the salute to signify power .
. To early Christians. It was used by early Christians to protect themselves from witches and demons.Circa 1556. Salus . the 5 points represented the 5 senses granted by God.meaning 'Health'.
median nerve.in the christian "hand of power" which is actually the "blessing hand" gesture in Eastern Orthodox. As in "what's in this for me" and the answer with that gesture means "absolutely nothing". Children in Laos Cambodia. Considering the coordinates of the lines of energy in the hand. and respectively. zilch. . One thing that I found fascinating . giving the photographer hand gestures. the thumb between the other fingers means "nothing". with the ring finger sharing both. nada.Paganspace contributor Seachain Aroon (Day) writes: In Romania. signified the five wounds of the Christ (if you look also how it is positioned you can see it easily). I think this has a very important significance. Yes. it was the first protection sign of the Christians. It's not characteristic at all to Romania. The gesture of the Transylvanian woman in Stoker's Dracula is not characteristic to that area. The "wisdom sign" of the hindu has the same grouping. The "Salus" . the grouping o the fingers corresponds to the ulnar.
palm outwards and fingers together. .Abhayamudra (Mudra) A gesture of soothing or protection: the right arm is bent at the elbow. the hand raised to shoulder level.
with a caption that reads "This is all the protection I need". Hand gestures used in Hispanic culture. .The 'Middle Finger' and 'Peace Sign' have become universal hand-gestures and often used to communicate sentiment (varying degree). I've seen decals of the Middle Finger on trucks lately.
During WWII Winston Churchill popularized it as 'V' for victory.My fave scene in The Color Purple. His life turns to shit. and he later makes amends by paying to have Celie's children and her Sista brought to her from Africa. See: Youtube clip Iranian protests. Miss Ceilie sticks it to Mister. .
The story goes that the French would show off their bowman's fingers to the English as a sign of death. after his suspension. This is derived from the longbowmen in the English army in the year 1415. to show them their fingers were not only in tact. it's considered an offensive gesture. it's considered the 'two-finger salute' or the 'bowman's salute'. but that they rejected the sentiment and used it back at them like a double fuck you. and in turn used the fingers pointed downward. one of defiance. When the palm is facing outward. Barry Ferguson makes the gesture. the English won the battle.I read that in parts of the UK. When the fingers are facing down. in places like South Africa. To this day. against his 'International Duty' .suspension without pay after his drinking 'incident' after the defeat by the Netherlands. some English find the gesture offensive in either direction. Ireland and Australia it's a sign of offense. . New Zealand. palm inward. in use as an offensive gesture like "I'm gonna get you sucka!" during the Battle of Agincourt (Hundred Years War).
It wasn't used as a 'Peace' symbol until the late 1950's.Deputy Prime Minister. John Prescott throws the gesture at reporters heckling him in town (UK). "Live long. . often used in pop culture as a 'blessing'. and prosper" the sign of the Vulcan.
so not in use much by men. showing someone the palm is a curse gesture. Closed Moutza. "παρ'τα" (par'ta) or "όρσε" (órse). "take these" and "there you go". meaning "here". with finger tips slightly curled but pointed towards the intended is more polite "Na!" Which simple means 'There!' In Pakistan.pledging allegiance to the US Flag. respectively. The way we use it. "Malat Alaik!" is spoken. is generally "Talk to the Hand!" . In parts of the Persian gulf. showing both hands after clapping. Spoken words: "να" (na). Moutza.Bellamy Salute. There is another variation with two hands. It's considered a 'feminine' insulting gesture. is considered an insult. "Lanat!" is spoken meaning 'curse'. this gesture is in use by women. in Greece this is an insulting gesture. 1942 .
The hand must be over the heart. up or down. . In the Middle East. Zogist Salute. it is assumed that the thumb is pointed downward but it's unclear whether the Romans pointed it horizontally. meaning "with a turned thumb". Later adopted by the Royal Army of Albania. Zog I of Albania. A defeated gladiator was judged to be put to death.Pollice verso or verso pollice is a Latin phrase. this gesture is similar to the middle finger gesture [Fuck You]. Fun fact. used to judge gladiators.
It made the news when a high school year book included several students making this gesture. it should be included here.com/library/language/the-finger/ shocker/ .Source: Albanian History The Shocker. Followed with the verbal citation ‘two in the pink. See: http://www. one in the stink.’ While considered vulgar.rotten.
Japanese 'Batsu Gesture'. In places like India. it is used as a sign of respect and greetings. sign of respect and used to demonstrate adherence to Yoga here in the states.Añjali Mudrā. meaning sign of 'x' to gesture that something is .
wrong or unacceptable. It's fascinating to watch. . even if you don't know exactly what each gesture means .you can pretty much interpret the dance loosely.
Montjuic castle. . there a statue of a naked woman which honors the memory of Gaspar de Portolà the first California governor.
Hand of Glory .
and warding off evil. .Penis. Figa and Horseshoe are all symbols of good luck.
But traces remain--two people hooking index fingers as a sign of greeting or agreement is still common in some circles today.52.000 year old 'Maori Iceman' with tattoos believed to be some sort of protection amulets. has a nice article on crossing one's fingers as a sign of luck or making a wish. the custom was simplified. the two fingers forming a cross. It originally took two people. Over centuries. so that a person could wish on his own. a protection from consequences! "Charles Panati. . Panati says this superstition was popular among many early European cultures. by crossing his index and middle fingers to form an X. the other empathizes and supports. A comrade or well-wisher placing his index finger over the index finger of the person making the wish. in Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things. when the cross was a symbol of unity and benign spirits dwelt at the intersection point. Source: Smithsonian Ha ha. A wish made on a cross was a way of "anchoring" the wish at the intersection of the cross until the wish was fulfilled. The one person makes the wish. He traces it back to pre-Christian times.
the sign was made by two people. suggesting that the symbol's origin is Christian and was imported to Asian countries along with other Western ideas. Yet whilst the Sign of the Cross has evolved into a good luck symbol and retained its Christian meaning. karaoke (no. i. which is . and the first half of (ss) in Korean (Hangul). and ritualistic have a way of evolving with time to become informal. Fingers Crossed has lost any Christian connection. "Keep your fingers crossed. crossing the index and middle fingers is the sign for the number ten. We have no reliable evidence to support this. and it feels like . pray or wish for luck. ten.. Linking their fingers firmly would squeeze and energize the spirits into beneficial action. the crossing of fingers was a secret sign for Christians to recognise each other. " Source: Straight Dope "It's reasonable to assume that early Christians made the sign of the cross with their fingers. ten fingers.) The Roman numeral for ten (decem) is X. and then draw back his longbow string with those same fingers.com "And here's something else you can do with crossed fingers: The Aristotle Illusion Cross your fingers. however. yet erroneously. i. or perhaps this sign of the fish to identify themselves to one another Crossing the first two fingers is a good luck sign recognised around the world. this seems a confused version of its actual origin. secular. explained as two lines crossing to symbolise the four main directions. wait a minute. Я (ya) in Russian (Cyrillic).e. An archer would cross his first and second fingers. but one theory goes that during the various times when Christianity was illegal. Another theory suggests that the sign pre-dates Christianity.e. It derives from a depiction of a sewing needle with thread passing through the eye.. crossed fingers spell the alphabet letter X. food. then touch a small spherical object such as a dried pea. technology. fashion. meaning 'hands together'. However. In Europe. and ultimately to the stock phrase. and commonplace. (ra) in Japanese (hiragana). which happens to coincide with the Chinese and Japanese written character for ten." Source: seiyaku.). the sign spells the letter R in English. (The origin of this character is usually. "Customs once formal. In other alphabets. not so common in Buddhist and Muslim cultures.Panati comments. and was used as a substitute for the more complex character . This change of emphasis may have begun during the so-called 'Hundred Years War' between France and England (1337-1457). the first to make the wish and the second to support it. In China. when it was believed that benign spirits dwelt at the intersecting point of the cross. which in turn expressed the concept of completeness and by association all the fingers. religious. But what is interesting is that the crossed fingers spell the sign for X only in Swedish sign (Svenska Handalfabetet)." Thus. as in the Solar Cross. so it's no surprise that when deaf people communicate in sign language. friends crossing fingers evolved (Panati says "degenerated") to crossing one's own fingers." with no actual finger-crossing at all. It is.
This is an example of what is called "perceptual disjunction". All sorts of silly little things you do. I didn't realize it was universal. and it's so natural you don't even notice when you do it.though he's more polite about what it means.com/watch?v=g5KWvEOUYUI&feature=player_embedded.something that rarely happens . is when I'm scared. and set it against my chest. (My Aunt Kim is the most superstitious person I know) you grab your ear-lobe. When it's something of a superstitious nature. especially to Italian Americans.youtube.com/watch?v=LCqyb1yZ6UE&feature=player_embedded hand gestures (books) and Andrea de Jorio . http:// www. was typically made with the sign of the cross in my family.you are touching two peas. but there's a few I'm accustomed to making: When I am talking about someone I don't like. when I get going people laugh at me because I'm so animated.youtube.com/watch?v=vWqBGmN40DU&feature=player_embedded.com/watch?v=hpQJGlxh2W4&feature=player_embedded. and you should be paying attention and it's clear to them you are day dreaming. It's usually not until someone I know points it out. you will get this gesture. "What the hell was that?" or "Wait. http:/ /www. you take the tips of your fingers and comb them under your chin. http://www. I'll have to find the picture to match. It arises because your brain has failed to take into account that you have crossed your fingers. The gesture for 'Pay attention' I'm familiar with. when a relative is watching you from across the room. always told me it had something to do with the natural hand positions of the fetus in the womb. but I curve it down. Another.com/watch?v=M0n4Vw6twKo&feature=player_embedded. will make notes of certain hand gestures I make when I want to place emphasis. and especially when I'm agitated.is a 'knock on wood'.youtube. I've never seen it done with the prayer hands . I don't use it that way but I've seen it used by members of my family. This also works if you touch your nose. what does this mean?" Here's a youtube I found. I naturally make the movement with my hand.youtube. the chin gesture is included . Must be an Italy thing See links: http://www.your brain interprets it as two separate objects. http:/ /www. Because the pea (or nose) touches the outside of both fingers at the same time .youtube." Source: New Scientist SAY WHAT? Italians talk with their hands.not even by other Italian Americans. The gesture of the hand cornuto pointing down and bouncing it up and down . My grandmother. "Madonna Mia". What I find interesting about the 'I'm scared' gesture. is to take your left forearm and cross it over your right. Some of my more analytical friends.
In his book The Italians (1964). Since 1964. 2003 "Every few years. there are entire dictionaries hidden and not so hidden in every Neapolitan hand wave. ed. they never plug the competition. small-press book comes out about Neapolitan hand gestures. Even foreign language guide-books to Naples now generally contain a few pages of pictures and explanations of gestures. The book has been republished in Italian three times in recent years. knuckle turn. formal studies of sign languages and general body language have become part and parcel of the disciplines of linguistics. for example." "approval. Intra Moenia. All of the reprints are photographic copes of the original edition plus explanatory notes.1964. The volume also appeared recently (2000) in a scholarly and annotated English translation by Adam Kendon as Gesture in Naples and Gesture in Classical Antiquity (Indiana University Press)." "you must be crazy!" etc. The secondary title is in Italian: Ovvero l'arte gestuale a Napoli (Or the Art of the Gesture in Naples). after all. is betraying him. Yes. and finger waggle. only to t-shirts. a volume you will not find in your run-of-themill bookshop: La mimica degli antichi investigate nel gestire napoletano. so it is natural that de Jorio's book should have made a comeback. and he will be honor-bound to run you off the road and have his own good-old college try at taking your life. alas. you may think you are simply expressing your solidarity with the "Longhorn" football team from the University of Texas. is wrong. and 2002. Luigi Barzini mentions it and laments the fact that so little has been written about the language of gestures. of course. These gestures are a bit of local culture that charms the rest of the world. with emotion and message listed alphabetically—"scorn. Comme te l'aggia dicere? has replaced older volumes. it has. Indeed.Dec." (That. southern Italians talk with their hands. now out of print. Entire curricula are devoted to the semiotics of gestures. lip smack. Naples). It has 138 pages. do cite the granddaddy of all such books about Neapolitan gestures.—all accompanied by photographs or drawings. that is. Suppose. and will itself be replaced in a few years when someone else comes out with a new one. however. is Comme te l'aggia dicere? (Neapolitan dialect for "How can I explain this to you?"). you can get those. There are at least two fine reviews of the English translation that I know of. lumber about as if they're auditioning for Invasion of the Crippled Skiers). (Even if your reading extends. too: silk-screened front and back with Neapolitan hand gestures plus explanatory captions. and anthropology. you loosen your enraged grip on the steering wheel just enough to raise the index and little finger to that driver of the car that has just cut you off. by Andrea de Jorio (“The Mimicry of Ancient Peoples Investigated through Neapolitan Gestures”). communications. They all. Northern Italians. which. both of which praise the original as well as the erudite translation. of course. indeed. 1979. It is by Bruno Paura and Marina Sorge (1999. for example. but that benighted soul in the other car (who is totally ignorant of college sports in the US) will understand your gesture as a suggestion that his wife. which includes an 80-page . One such volume. It was published in 1832 and drifted into obscurity for many years. everyone knows that "Italians talk with their hands. by comparison. another locally published.) All this is helpful. other recent books similar to their own. the lovely woman next to him in the front seat and the mother of his children. If the authors of these books have bibliographies.
a journal published by Gallaudet University. he said.com/books?id=vNETAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcov. He wound up as curator of the Royal Bourbon Museum. was to show the continuity between the classical world and the modern one. one of the hubs of Magna Grecia. it appeared the Bryn Mawr Classical Review in 2003.google. His purpose in writing about gestures. Unlike today.essay/introduction. he said. The first review is "The Neapolitan Finger" by Joan Acocella. What would they know about hand gestures?" http://faculty. a brief sail from the mainland. De Jorio (1769-1851) was born on the tiny island of Procida. They are the same ones we use today. of course. and one of the centers of classical scholarship in Europe. It might even have been amusing to the Grand Tourists of the day and even have fit into the broad stereotyping of Neapolitans that travellers from Goethe to Mark Twain indulged in (after perhaps one whole carriage trip down the Riviera di Chiaia): the confusion. German scholars of the same period had swarmed through the southern Italian peninsula. such body language was not particularly interesting to scholars of the early 19th century. now the National Archaeological museum.com/books?id=GJYIAAAAQAAJ&oe=UTF-8 http://books. it appeared in the The New York Review of Books in the year 2000 and then in 2002 in Sign Language Studies. Yes. The other review is by Giovanna Ceserani of Princeton University. De Jorio became a canon at the Naples cathedral but was born to be a classical scholar and archaeologist.google.. http://books. It was also a time when the archaeological sites at Pompeii and Herculaneum were opening up.com/books?id=lw8tzmu9-GYC&printsec=frontcov. but if you thought northern Italians couldn't move..html Here's a PDF of the book: http://books. noise. color.ed. clatter. are not). Maybe the frantically gesticulating locals fit their preconceptions— frantic hand-gibberish or something like that (which the gestures. ancient Cumae and that treasure trove of Greco-Roman mythology known as the Flegrean Fields. Look at the hand gestures on these old vases. wait till you see German professors not move. the site of important archaeology in the study of ancient Rome.edu/~jmatthew/naples/newpage. direct from Naples. and the bizarre juxtaposition of pompous one-horse dukes and abject beggars..umuc.. De Jorio was no doubt proud to present his compendium as part of classical studies. .google.
they would cut the middle fingers off of captured archers so they couldn't shoot arrows.blogspot...com/2008_09_07_archive.html (Hail the Legions) But this one has it's origins in the middle ages. so in a battle they would use that gesture.. Identify themselves as still operational ....Check these out! http://ifitshipitshere. you see back in the day..
to their enemy. Protection amulet necklace.. . hand gesture. paganspace contributer: Windcaller Satanism goat.
com . www.the-poison-apple.SIN JONES design.
Helping Hands, Amulets
Healing Hand Power .
Hand of Compassion .
SIN JONES & Darkmatter .
Characteristic of the formula is the outstretched hand of speech as well as the contrapposto pose with the weight clearly shifted to one leg. The convention is regularly shown in individual figures like the famous Augustus of Primaporta or can be put into a narrative context as seen in the Aurelian panel.adlocutio: the adlocutio is one of the most widely represented formulas of Roman art. .
Augustus is shown barefoot. he is in military clothing. the commander of the army. his genius. carrying a consular baton and raising his right hand in a rhetorical "adlocutio" pose. as thoracatus — or commander-in-chief of the Roman army (literally.Imperial posturing. but this statue has many thinly-veiled references to the emperor's "divine nature". During his lifetime. including Mars. Augustus is shown in this role of "Imperator". god of . thorax-wearer) — meaning the statue should form part of a commemorative monument to his latest victories. but it may also imply that the statue is a posthumous copy set up by Livia of a statue from the city of Rome in which Augustus was not barefoot. which indicates that he is a hero and perhaps even a god. and also adds a civilian aspect to an otherwise military portrait. addressing the troops. made by both Augustus and by his adoptive father Caesar . alluding to diverse Roman deities. The small Cupid (son of Venus) at his feet (riding on a dolphin. The bas-reliefs on his armored "cuirass" have a complex allegorical and political agenda. which was acceptable in the Greek East but not yet in Rome itself. Venus's patron animal) is a reference to the claim that the Julian family were descended from the goddess Venus. Augustus did not wish to be depicted as a god (unlike the later emperors who embraced divinity).a way of claiming divine lineage without claiming the full divine status. Being barefoot was only previously allowed on images of the gods.
by Petruvian Man. By the 16th century. inspired by the work of Leonardo Davinci The gesture is thought to originate in the Victorian era. I picked this up. to greet. Καῖσαρ (Caesar). Augustus is known as Ὀκτάβιος (Octavius). and Augustus when referring to events after 27 BC. Shaking with the 'right' has been traditional. Because of the various names he bore. It died off by 20th century. he was adopted posthumously by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC via his last will and testament. to 'shake' hands can be traced back to 5th century BC. The gesture of 'Kissing the hand'. and here appears in the act of returning the standards captured from his legions). Octavian (or Octavianus) when referring to events between 44 and 27 BC. and between then and 27 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. at the top. There is no historical reference to the gesture prior to 18th century. and thus consequently he was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus. Αὔγουστος (Augustus). or Σεβαστός (Sebastos). the chariot of the Sun illuminates Augustus's deeds. Gaul. . it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 BC. and submission. and farewell. For instance. signified 'peace' by demonstrating the hand held no weapon.war. because of the 'Sinister' side of the 'left' hand. In 27 BC the Senate awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the revered one").had different connotations in various cultures. it was used to show respect. but more of a gesture of diplomacy. touching the hand . It signifies respect. In Greek sources. gratitude and agreement. This was not a submission. Parthia (that had humiliated Crassus. depending on context. as well as the personifications of the latest territories conquered by him: Hispania. Some believe the gesture. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire. which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. Historically. Germania.
There are several clubs. racing. was considered 'unclean' and to use it to shake would be offensive. and crowns of laurel were rewarded to champions of athletic. the title symbolized a stamp of authority over humanity—and in fact nature—that went beyond any constitutional definition of his status. and Middle Eastern cultures. above his door and have laurels drape his doorposts. rather than to give and to be used to 'wipe' when going to the bathroom. According to Roman religious beliefs. or mystery traditions which have secret handshakes to communicate ideas. or. The left hand for that reason. It was a title of religious rather than political authority. the Roman Peace. In January of 27 BC. Additionally. and dramatic contests. the Senate gave Octavian the new titles of Augustus and Princeps. you are mortal". Thus. laurel wreaths were important in several state ceremonies. The Emperor credited to the Pax Romana. "Remember.This can be traced back to Eastern philosophies. This crown was usually held above the head of a Roman general during a triumph. However. Augustus was granted the right to hang the corona civica. Augustus renounced flaunting insignia of power such as holding a scepter. from the Latin word Augere (meaning to increase). the "civic crown" made from oak. The 'left' hand was typically used to take. with the individual holding the crown charged to continually repeat "memento mori". to the triumphant general. placing them on Augustus' doorposts was tantamount to declaring his home the capital. can be translated as "the illustrious one". both the laurel and the oak were integral symbols of Roman religion and statecraft. Augustus. .
Italian proverb: "The left-hand. which is why we pass on the left vs. is the hand of the heart!" Contemporary Witchcraft ideal: Give with the right hand. Left-handed people were few and far. was left-handed but he orchestrated the righthanded hand-shake. Scholars speculate it was to leave his weapon-ready hand free. or to keep your opponent's weaponhand on lock down preventing him from drawing his sword. Parthian Princess. clementia. piety. while the left hand represents the carnal side of man. This custom was adapted when motor vehicles were invented. They created a stigma. or wearing the golden crown and purple toga of his predecessor Julius Caesar. It's no coincidence. Muslims/Arabic Nations: . clemency.wearing a diadem. and the right-handed salute (often called the 'fascist salute'). If he refused to symbolize his power by donning and bearing these items on his person." The cult of Divus Augustus continued until the state religion of the Empire was changed to Christianity in 391 by Theodosius I. Julius Cesar. pietas. on the left hand was directly connected to the heart. take with the left. iustitia—"valor. Part TWO . the Senate nonetheless awarded him with a golden shield displayed in the meeting hall of the Curia. Social order was predicated by placing nobles on the right-side of the King. Left-hand. Salute of the Arsacid and Sassanid Eras] In 300 BC doctors believed that the ring finger. as the right-hand was generally the weapon hand. Tantra: Right-handed represents the spiritual side. Walking on the left-hand side of strangers was custom. reading the Alphabet Right to Left. right (in spite of safety issues for passing on the right). bearing the inscription virtus. and capitalists on the left-side of the King.Left-handed The Right of Way [Persian Aryan Salute. and justice. Ancient Rome. that this is the chosen finger for both the engagement and wedding ring.between. by inventing the right-handed hand-shake. is responsible for many of the ideas we hold today about left-handedness (influenced by the Greeks).
People of New Guinea. using the left curses the cloth.paganspace. a mole or mark on the left-hand side of the body was considered the devil's mark. The penalty for using the left hand to weave is death.Will take great offense if you offer them your left. The Catholic Church declared that left-handedness meant that you served the Devil. Left. Morrocans. In Buddhism.when taking the 8 fold path to enlightenment. *Judaism also considers the left-hand to be unclean. in fear of the 'touch' poisoning their beverage. and try to pay with your left hand . are committing sorcery.net/forum/topics/lefthanded-the-right-of-way .hand. infants. If you try to buy fish or furs from an Eskimo. It was not uncommon for people to burn marks found on their bodies in fear of being accused of witchcraft. Eskimos believe that people who use their left hand. Inserting a good vs.giving the impression that women are inferior to men in their culture. and men to the right . in fear of poison and sorcery. the right hand is used to touch any body part above the navel. Pre historic body language was essential to survival. associated with Mediterranean customs for cleaning the body. and the right side is the right side . superstitions about throwing a spear with your left hand. the left path is considered the wrong side of life. Traditionally. In Ancient Egypt. To include. See also: Sinister Augury The Evil Eye Hand Gestures & Amulets Open discussion: http://www. evil axiom into their mythologies. During the witch trials. and the left for below the navel. which has since been lost. 'left' comes from sinister. and the movements of the human body. or killing prey are rooted in human experience. has been long associated with evil.he may not accept your payment and spit at you. In Latin. Studies post that this might stem from a from of xenophobia. consider left-handed people extensions of the devil himself. Taking the ring finger and using the ring to ward off 'evil' that may haunt the marriage. Maori Women (Polynesian) will weave cloth with their right hand. One can not reach Nirvana on the left path. Bedouins (Sunni Muslims) segregate women to the left. as it's customary to use the lefthand for using the toilet. Many pre-Christian African tribes associated left handedness with bad things. rooted in superstitions. and sinister behavior. the god SET is referred to as the 'Left Eye of the Sun' while Horus is referred to as the 'Right Eye of the Sun'. Many African tribes do not allow women to prepare food with their left hand. will not touch their left thumb to their beer glass. So.
SIN JONES August 2010 .
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