Topic 1: MAINTANANCE: preventive and breakdown maintenance comparisons

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INTRODUCTION: MAINTENANCE is a department of a good hotel and is controlled by engineers. It looks after the CIVIL works, electrical, mechanical and computer works. This department has two distinct areas of responsibility. 1. 2. To provide the utility services required for proper operation of electricity, hot water, steam, airconditioning and other services. These services come under the heading of “heat, light and power”. Responsible for repairing and maintains the equipment, furniture and fixtures in the hotel which come under the heading of “repairs and maintenance”. Preventive Maintenance: In contrast to Routine maintenance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Preventive Maintenance is scheduled and recurs within a much longer time frame than most routine maintenance and requires individuals with more advanced skills and training. Activities in Preventive Maintenance are usually performed based on guidelines from equipment suppliers and the building engineer. Preventive Maintenance includes actions to prolong the life of a piece of equipment and to minimize the breakdown of equipment. It is directed at the equipment operating at or near its rated level. Use of good Preventive maintenance procedures in which both user and maintenance personnel is wellcoordinated, equipment down time can be minimized Costly repairs and Interruptions is planned maintenance and production schedules can be eliminated. It is a common tool for both USER and MAINTENANCE department to use in achieving maximum repair cost. OBJECTIVE of Preventive Maintenance: One of the main objectives of preventive maintenance is to find any condition that may cause machine failure before such a breakdown occurs. This makes it possible to plan and schedule maintenance work with the least amount of interruption. The basic PM program consists of:   Periodic inspection of machinery, utilities and buildings. The frequency of inspections is determined by experience or by the manufacturer’s recommendations until experiences is gained. Reporting of breakdown so that they can be analyzed and corrective maintenance action can be taken to assure they will not become repetitive. Breakdown Maintenance: Breakdown Maintenance is the restoration of a facility to a condition substantially equivalent to its original or designed capacity and efficiency by replacement of pats, overhaul or reprocessing of materials after deterioration. Breakdown Maintenance is the most expensive since in addition to the cost of repair, there is often a loss of business or production as a result. This type of maintenance results when a piece of equipment or a structure component completely fails. There is essentially no leeway in the scheduling of this maintenance. The equipment must be repaired immediately or the operation will be shut down.

Types of Maintenance Routine Maintenance: Routine maintenance activities are those which pertain to the upkeep of the property, a regular i.e. daily ‘or’ weekly basis and require relatively minimal training or skills. For example: sweeping carpets, washing floors, cleaning windows that are readily accessible, cutting grass, cleaning guestrooms, shovelling snow, and replacing burned out light bulbs.

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Scheduled Maintenance: refers to those activities which are initiated at the property based on a formal work order or a similar document which identifies a known problem or need. While preventive maintenance is initiated to delay the occurrence of a problem or to make a minor correction. Scheduled maintenance attempts to meet known needs in an orderly and timely manner consistent with overall needs and demands at the property. Emergency and Breakdown Maintenance:

Emergency maintenance is an expensive maintenance and generally requires a disruption of scheduled activity ‘or’ could cause guest discomfort, a deterioration in the quality of the work place, or a similar problem 1. 2. 3. Breakdown Maintenance is the most expensive since in addition to the cost of repair, there is often a loss of business or production as a result. This type of maintenance results when a piece of equipment or a structure component completely fails. There is essentially no leeway in the scheduling of this maintenance. The equipment must be repaired immediately or the operation will be shut down.

Guest Room Maintenance: guest room maintenance has a special meaning in the lodging industry. As it is used in many operations, it refers to preventive maintenance. In other industry it has features more similar to scheduled maintenance and is an important activity. For the guest, the guestroom is one of the most visible elements of the lodging experience. The condition and proper operation of furniture, fixtures and equipment, the appearance of ceiling and walls (whether painted, plastered or wall papered), the condition of carpets and floor coverings and the cleanliness of the exteriors of windows are all included in the maintenance and repair of guest rooms. Hotels: preventive maintenance is the routine, recurring work which is required to keep a facility (plant, building, structure, item of equipment of any real property) in such a condition that it may be utilised at its original or designed capacity and efficiency. Contract/ contract maintenance (advantages and disadvantages): it is an agreement between two parties enforceable by law. Following are the advantages of contract maintenance. Reduction of hotel labour cost. Reduction of cost of supplies and equipment. Use of the latest technology and method. Saving in atmosphere type. Flexibility to meet energy and changes in need. There is no need to negotiate with labour union and associations. No need to recruit and train employees. Disadvantages are as follows: Managerial laziness results. Loss of control over employees (scarcely with respect to attitude, identity with the property). Loss of contract to the needs of the facility of the staff. There may be flight in total cost with property line contract and monitor.
Topic 1: MAINTANANCE-A: Roll of maintenance department, duties and responsibilities of maintenance department in

the hotel industry with its emphasis on its relation with other departments of the hotel. MAINTENANCE is a department of a good hotel and is controlled by engineers. It looks after the CIVIL works, electrical, mechanical and computer works. The Engineering & Maintenance Department provides on the day-today basis the utility services, electricity, hot water, steams, air-conditioning and other services and is responsible

for their maintenance of the equipment, furniture and fixtures in the hotel. The engineering department has an important role in satisfying the guest-demand and helping to maintain the profit level of the hotel. The cleaning, up-keep, repair, replacement, installation and maintenance of property and its furnishing, machinery and equipment are the joint responsibility of Engineering/Maintenance and the Housekeeping Department. This department has two distinct areas of responsibility. 1. 2. To provide the utility services required for proper operation of electricity, hot water, steam, airconditioning and other services. These services come under the heading of “heat, light and power”. Responsible for repairing and maintains the equipment, furniture and fixtures in the hotel which come under the heading of “repairs and maintenance”. The following are the major works which fall under the engineering and maintenance:  General maintenance and repair that include- structural maintenance, grounds and swimming pool care, maintenance and cleaning of tools and equipments used by the department, painting, upholstering and cabinet making.  Maintenance of heating, ventilating, refrigerating and air-conditioning systems, electrical systems, radio and television systems, communication system, motor appliances, electrical appliances, water supply, plumbing fixtures, sewage system.   Fire safety and protection, fire prevention, maintenance of fire equipment and establishment of fire protection procedures. Planning of maintenance: this should take into account capital planning so that improvement, renovations and expansions can be brought on line. The maintenance plan must concentrate on the following points: the aspect of the property requiring regular maintenance, standard maintenance, regulating of maintenance work, requirement of skilled workers and unskilled workers, availability of expertise within the operation, full-time/part-time help required, and provision for a contract with an outside agency.  Energy management: careful and prudent care of gas, electricity, and water is the simplest form of energy management. Selection of the most efficient and use of time clock must be made for proper energy management.  Waste management: safe storage and disposal of waste in the hotel varied according to the size of the hotel. The best method of storage and disposal of waste will depend upon the following factors: type of waste items (food scraps, plastic, used fat or oil, bottles, tins etc., the volume of waste in each area, the frequency and cost of local municipal services, the cost of private contractors, the space available for handling and storage of waste and several other factors (ref:JN-PHM-pg:557) Sound operating procedures and planned preventive maintenance programmes can achieve several benefits. A. Mechanical systems operate at design specifications. B. Optimum reliability of equipment C. Extended life of equipment D. Maximum return of capital investment E. F. Minimum operating costs Safety from hazards to personnel and property

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In order to achieve the stated objective, the role of management will include:  Establishing a policy regarding the quality of mechanical equipment materials and systems with respect to performance, economic life, operation service and repairs. The cost of maintenance and breakdowns can be reduced by designing production and mechanical and electrical facilities with these costs in mind.  Management should specify the need to minimize maintenance costs and whenever possible, plan facilities layout that will get probable repair points does not require either moving the equipment in question or hiring a specialist. Management must decide as the part of its policy:

     

Whether to adopt a preventive maintenance programme, a breakdown maintenance programme, or a combination of the above programmes. Whether to provide for maintenance in-house or through contract services or a combination thereof Whether to have an operating and maintenance manual prepared and if so, how comprehensive this manual is to be. Developing maintenance and operating programme and providing qualified and well-managed staff. Choice of organisation. Motivation motivation, and training of personnel, counselling, incentives, awards,      Provision of standby equipment Preventive or breakdown maintenance or both Repair versus replacement Replacement parts inventory Maintenance job assignment control

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Management Policy: depends on

medical facilities etc.   Formation of maintenance improvement group Contract maintenance or in house maintenance

Topic 1: MAINTANANCE-B: Organization chart of maintenance department, duties and responsibilities of maintenance department.

DIRECTOR OF ENGINEERRING

CHIEF ENGINEER

ADMINISTRATIVE WING

INVENTORY WING

SHIFT ENGINEER (SE)

SHIFT ENGINEER (SE)

SHIFT ENGINEER (SE)

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER MECHANICAL ENGINEER SUPERVISOR (S) ELECTRONIC SUPERVISOR (S)

CIVIL ENGINEER SUPERVISOR (S)

REFRIGERATION ENGINEER SUPERVISOR (S)

BOILER MECHANIC GENERAL MECHANIC

MASON

REFRIGERATION MECHANIC A/C MECHANIC

ELECTRICIAN

LIFT OPERATORS

PAINTER

CARPENTER
ASSISTANTS ASSISTANTS ASSISTANTS ASSISTANTS

PLUMBER

ASSISTANTS ASSISTANTS

ASSISTANTS

ASSISTANTS

ASSISTANTS

ASSISTANTS

ASSISTANTS

(ORGANISATION CHART FOR A LARGE HOTEL OF MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT)

GENERAL MANAGER

ENGINEERING & MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT ENGINEER

OTHER DEPARTMENTS

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ASSSITANT ENGINEERS FOREMAN

AIRCONDITIONING MECHANICS, DIESEL FITTERS, CARPENTERS, PUMP-ATTENDANTS, TECHNICIANS, PLUMBER, POLISHERS, PAINTERS, BOILERMEN, UPHOLSTERERS, LIFTMEN, HELPERS

(ORGANISATION CHART FOR A SMALL HOTEL OF MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT)

1.

CHIEF ENGINEER: or Director of Building Operation „or‟ Maintenance is concerned with the appearance and physical condition of the building and is responsible for the maintenance and running of all machinery in the operation: steam plants, heating, refrigeration, airconditioning and others. He has two principal functions To provide hotel with heat, electric power, air-conditioning, refrigeration, water etc., and To maintain the building and equipment in good condition

The chief engineer purchases all supplies necessary for the operation of his department and supervises his storeroom. The work of the engineering department is divided in to six main areas: electrical system, air-conditioning plant, plumbing, refrigeration, ventilation, repair and maintenance, & the elevator. In addition to this he is also in charge of the safety programs and of protecting the building against fire. This includes insuring that fire buckets, hoses and extinguishers are in right place and in working order.

The salaries paid to Chief Engineer, Asst. Engineer, Firemen, Refrigeration are included under the head “HEAT, LIGHT and POWER” and salaries of others are included under “REPAIRS and MAINTENANCE”.
The        responsibilities of Chief Engineer include the following: To give direction to different sections of the maintenance department To draw up and check daily work program of the staff To prepare orders for maintenance and suppliers To be responsible for such suppliers To do preparation of contractors with outside firms and invite tenders, examine offers, check the work and bills and to propose payment thereof To be in touch with general manager or head of the house-keeping department and to make recruitment, replacement and change of duties, training and promotion To organize training of his staff.

The duty of a chief engineer mostly based on main management functions. The managerial functions are: I. PLANNING : thinking in advance II. ORGANIZING : organising different task in side the department to achieve the overall organisational goal. III. COORDINATING : coordinating among the tasks in a manner to accomplish the organised objectives IV. DIRECTING : leading and motivating where the top level management act as a leader and motivator for next to level. V. CONTROLLING : controlling means comparing between what is being accomplished and what was the target. Any deviation between the two plans can be modified. 2. COLD STORAGE MAN: he should have all technical skill and wide practical experience. He works under the guidance of a specialized engineer and his duties are installation, maintenance and repair of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. 3. PAINTER: the painter must have the technical skills of his trade and practical experience. His duties are to apply coats of paint, varnish, shellac and similar material to exterior and interior surfaces, trimmings and fixtures of the hotel building for protection and decoration. 4. UPHOLSTERER: technical skill and practical experience are the basic things required for an upholsterer. He stuffs furniture, makes mattresses, cushions and curtains. He is responsible for making and installing textiles or leather covers, upholstery and interior decorations. 5. CARPENTER and FURNITURE REPAIRERS: A carpenter must have technical skill in carpentry and sufficient practical experience. His main duties are to cut out shape, fit assemble wooden parts. He makes and repairs woodwork and wooden fixtures, doors, windows, staircases, panelling and simple furniture. He selects suitable wood and repairs wooden articles such as cabinets and other furniture. 6. ELECTRICAL FITTERS: technical skill and practical experience are pre-requisite for an electrical fitter. His duties are to fit, adjust, assemble and repair in workshop or place of use the various electrical machinery and apparatus needed in the hotel. 7. MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN: he requires same knowledge as the electric fitter. The job of Maintenance Electrician is to repair and maintain the electrical equipment of the establishment. Checking of the electrical wiring and equipments and to see that the wiring in equipments is in conformity with safety standards and regulations. 8. PLANT MAINTENANCE MECHANIC: he also requires the technical skill and practical knowledge for his job. He repairs and maintains machinery, plumbing, installation, and mechanical apparatus of the establishment. In addition he may also install simple electrical equipment and make repair of wooden structure and pant walls, floors and woodwork. 9. BOILERMAN: a boiler man must have the knowledge of the operation boilers and safety regulations. He must also have the license to practice this activity. He is responsible for the functioning of the boilers for heating hot water. He maintains the boiler equipment and installations and checks the fuel supply, record consumption and reports any mal-functioning of equipment. 10. MAINTENANCE HAND: a maintenance hand must have all-round knowledge of sanitary, plumbing, carpentry, painting, electricity, cabinet making and upholstery. He is also to be on all night duty to do emergency repairs. 11. GARAGE WATCHMEN: knowledge of the various types of cars and their service is very essential for a garage watchman. He is responsible for the hotel‟s garage and looks after the guest‟s car and official vehicles. He has to register car movements and services to guests such as washing cars and petrol or supplies. He has to write vouchers and send them to the administration.

12. DESK ATTENDANTS: in a hotel all maintenance requirements of the hotel are registered at the CONTROL DESK. The desk attendant informs the maintenance department giving the room number, nature of complaint and name of the supervisor or attendant who gave the complaint. The desk attendant forwards a maintenance slip to the engineering department. The engineering department then prepares a Work Order Slip and sends the concerned technicians directly to the floor. After this the signed Work Order is forwarded to the desk attendant who enters details into the maintenance register against the appropriate complaint earlier registered.

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DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT Protect the investment in the physical plant. Maintenance of the building. Minimise the maintenance cost. Maintenance of the guest room, furnishing and Contribute as appropriate ‘or’ necessary for overall fixture. guest satisfaction. Maintenance of equipment and repair. Contribute for the efficient operation of the other Budgeting and cost control. department. Security and safety maintenance. Minimize the energy cost of the facility. Contractual and regulatory compliance. Minimize the potential safety problem. Inventory control. Building and safety operation. Renovation addition and restoration. Training of employees. Special projects.

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